WorldWideScience

Sample records for candle filter safeguard

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADHESIVE CANDLE FILTER SAFEGUARD DEVICE; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal conversion. Two main types of systems employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles. In both systems, suspended particulates must be cleaned from the gas stream before it enters the turbine so as to prevent fouling and erosion of the turbine blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in use in several facilities. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the particulates on the surface. The three main configurations of the barrier filters are candle, cross-flow, and tube filters. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer on the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle and individual elements can fail, allowing particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Preventing all failure of individual ceramic filter elements is not possible at the present state of development of the technology. Therefore, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the particulates streaming through occasional broken filters from reaching the turbine. However, the SGD must allow for the free passage of gas when it is not activated. Upon breaking of a filter, the SGD must either mechanically close or quickly plug with filter dust to prevent additional dust from reaching the turbine. Production of a dependable rapidly closing autonomous mechanical

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A CANDLE FILTER FAILURE SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Bruck; E.E. Smeltzer; Z.N. Sanjana

    2002-06-06

    Development, testing and optimization of advanced metal and ceramic, barrier and fiber safeguard devices (SGDs) is described. Metal barrier devices are found prone to manufacturing defects and premature blinding. Fiber devices are found to be satisfactory if fine fibers are used. Durable alloys are identified for both oxidation and gasification conditions. Ceramic honeycomb SGDs were found to perform as excellent barrier devices. Optimization has shown such devices to be durable. Field testing of ceramic honeycomb SGDs from two different manufacturers is being pursued.

  3. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  4. Properties of Ceramic Candle Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems require ceramic candle filter elements which can withstand the mechanical, thermal, and chemical environment of hot gas cleanup applications. These systems demand filter elements to sustain the thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down conditions, and of unanticipated process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. The filter elements must also survive the mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. Objectives of the test program at Southern Research are as follows: (1) Provide material characterization to develop an understanding of the physical, mechanical, and thermal behavior of hot gas filter materials. (2) Develop a material property data base from which the behavior of materials in the hot gas cleanup environment may be predicted. (3) Perform testing and analysis of filter elements after exposure to actual operating conditions to determine the effects of the thermal and chemical environments in hot gas filtration on material properties. (4) Explore the glass-like nature of the matrix material

  5. ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Alvin

    2002-01-31

    Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic

  6. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of the advanced power systems, the filter components must sustain the thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down conditions, and of unanticipated process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive the various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, these elements must survive at operating temperatures of 1650{degrees}F for three years.

  7. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  8. A parametric study of filtration through a ceramic candle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Hajeri, M.H.; Aroussi, A.; Simmons, K.; Pickering, S.J.

    2005-01-15

    Ceramic candle filters have been developed for cleaning high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) gas streams. They meet environmental and economical considerations in combined cycle power plant, where gas turbine blades can be protected from the erosion resulting from the use of HTHP exhaust from the fluidized bed. Ceramic candle filters are the most promising hot gas filtration technology and have demonstrated high collection efficiencies at high-temperature high-pressure conditions. This paper reports a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of a candle filter in cross-flow arrangement. The aim is to increase understanding of the deposition process and the factors that affect the build-up of the filter cake. A parametric investigation is undertaken, with particular emphasis on the effects of the ratio of the approach cross-flow velocity to filter face velocity on the deposition pattern as a function of the particle size (1-300 {mu}m). Velocity fields and particle tracks are presented, in addition to the radius of convergence which is a parameter that characterizes the deposition process for each flow regime. Furthermore, a method has been developed for predicting filter cake growth using CFD and particle deposits distributed around the filter element surface uniformly for particle sizes below 50 {mu}m. The paper contains a potential flow solution for the flow around a single porous filter element in cross-flow. (Author)

  9. Three—Dimensional Flow Characteristics in One Ceramic Candle Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaewonSeo; KihyunKeum; 等

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the three-dimensional fluid flow in the vessel containing one ceramic candle filter.The three-dimensional governing equations are formulated in this study and the turbulent κ-ε model is adopted for the numerical computation.It is found that the viscous force is dominant in the porous region with compared to inertia force.Pressue decreases linearly when the flow passing through the porous medium.When the face velocity is 0.03 m/s,the pressure drop is about 350Pa.It has also been found that the fluid with the spiral motion to be sunk into the filter in the vessel.

  10. Fail Save Shut Off Valve for Filtering Systems Employing Candle Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  11. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF TEST FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang; Eric K. Johnson

    2003-07-14

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure pulse of gas to back flush the filter. After this cleaning process has been completed there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may then lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A Room Temperature Test Facility (RTTF) and a High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) were built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at room and selected high temperatures. The RTTF system was used to gain experience with the selected instrumentation and develop an operating procedure to be used later at elevated temperatures. The HTTF system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time. Coal ash sample obtained from the Power System Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, AL was used at the

  13. Pulse cleaning flow models and numerical computation of candle ceramic filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Analytical and numerical computed models are developed for reverse pulse cleaning system of candle ceramic filters. A standard turbulent model is demonstrated suitably to the designing computation of reverse pulse cleaning system from the experimental and onedimensional computational result. The computed results can be used to guide the designing of reverse pulse cleaning system, which is optimum Venturi geometry. From the computed results, the general conclusions and the designing methods are obtained.

  14. Image Analysis on Detachment Process of Dust Cake on Ceramic Candle Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 焦海青; 陈鸿海

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of high-speed video images, the detachment behavior of dust cake from the ceramic candle filter surface during pulse cleaning process is investigated. The influences of the dust cake loading,the reservoir pressure, and the filtration velocity on the cleaning effectiveness are analyzed. Experimental results show that there exists an optimum dust cake thickness for pulse-cleaning process. For thin dust cake, the patchy cleaning exists and the cleaning efficiency is low; if the dust cake is too thick, the pressure drop across the dust cake becomes higher and a higher reservoir pressure may be needed. At the same time there also exists an optimum reservoir pressure for a given filtration condition.

  15. 烛式PVPP过滤机的改进%Improvement of Candle-type PVPP Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚庆节

    2011-01-01

    Analyse the cause of the losses of the PVPP participate, the paper adopted low-speed, multi-layer propeller agitator instead of frame agitator, using new type distributor, depressing the pressure of the air which used in recovery process and so on. As a result, the losses of the PVPP particulate used in candle-type PVPP filter were depressed with better flit efficiency.%通过分析PVPP颗粒发生损耗的原因,采取低速多层螺旋搅拌桨替换框式搅拌桨、改进进料分配器、降低回收压空压力等方法,达到了降低烛式PVPP过滤机使用中PVPP颗粒损耗的目的,提高了过滤效益.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE PCFBC-EXPOSED AND ACCELERATED LIFE-TESTED CANDLE FILTERS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the hot gas filtration technology has been the focus of DOE/FETC and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation during the past twenty years. Systems development during this time has successfully lead to the generation and implementation of high temperature Siemens Westinghouse particulate filtration systems that are currently installed and are operational at Demonstration Plant sites, and which are ready for installation at commercial plant sites. Concurrently, materials development has advanced the use of commercially available oxide- and nonoxide-based monoliths, and has fostered the manufacture and use of second generation, oxide-based, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites and filament wound materials. This report summarizes the material characterization results for commercially available and second generation filter materials tested in Siemens Westinghouse's advanced, high temperature, particulate removal system at the Foster Wheeler, pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion, pilot-scale test facility in Karhula, Finland, and subsequent extended accelerated life testing of aged elements in Siemens Westinghouse pressurized fluidized-bed combustion simulator test facility in Pittsburgh, PA. The viability of operating candle filters successfully for over 1 year of service life has been shown in these efforts. Continued testing to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring three years of service operation on aged filter elements is recommended

  17. Study on the Cleaninq Method on Filter Element of Candle Filter%烛式过滤机过滤元件清洗方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来丽静; 王国良

    2012-01-01

    The chemical cleaning method on filter leaf of the candle filter was studied, single factor and orthogonal design were adopted to research the suitable formula. The result shows that the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution had the relatively satisfactory effect, the opimized formula is, concentration 50 g/L, cleaning temperature 60℃, cleaning time 2 h.%采用化学方法对烛式过滤机滤片的清洗进行研究,通过单因素和正交试验对清洗工艺进行优化,结果表明:NaOH清洗效果较好,其最佳工艺为NaoH浓度50g/L,清洗温度60℃,清洗时间2h。

  18. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.

    1993-04-05

    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  19. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  20. Image Analysis on Detachment Process of Dust Cake on Ceramic Candle Filter%陶瓷过滤管表面粉尘层清除过程的图像分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 焦海青; 陈鸿海

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of high-speed video images, the detachment behavior of dust cake from the ceramic candle filter surface during pulse cleaning process is investigated. The influences of the dust cake loading,the reservoir pressure, and the filtration velocity on the cleaning effectiveness are analyzed. Experimental results show that there exists an optimum dust cake thickness for pulse-cleaning process. For thin dust cake, the patchy cleaning exists and the cleaning efficiency is low; if the dust cake is too thick, the pressure drop across the dust cake becomes higher and a higher reservoir pressure may be needed. At the same time there also exists an optimum reservoir pressure for a given filtration condition.

  1. First Candle/SIDS Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Buy Form Our Store Blog About FIRST CANDLE PROGRAMS Pregnant and Empowered SPONSORED BY THE BOPPY ... that raise money for research and education. First Candle's Legacy Program can help you set up a ...

  2. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  3. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper

  4. Ear Candling: A Dangerous Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoosh Nahid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear candling is an alternative medicine practice alleged to enhance general health by putting an end of a hollow candle in the ear canal and lighting up the other end of it. It also is advertised for cerumen and debris (bacteria and fungi removal. Ear candling is claimed to create negative pressure for drawing cerumen from the ear and to benefit the ears in many ways. It is however not free of complications and is now banned. Here we would like to highlight potential complications to this.

  5. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  6. High-redshift standard candles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Anthea L.; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Vestergaard, M.; Watson, D.

    2014-01-01

    dark energy equation of state, $w(z)$, and assess the optimal redshift distribution a high-redshift standard-candle survey could take to constrain these models. The more general the form of the dark energy equation of state $w(z)$ being tested, the more useful high-redshift standard candles become. For......We investigate whether future measurements of high redshift standard candles (HzSCs) will be a powerful probe of dark energy, when compared to other types of planned dark energy measurements. Active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts have both been proposed as potential HzSC candidates. Due to...... a linear parameterization of $w(z)$, HzSCs give only small improvements over planned supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements; a wide redshift range with many low redshift points is optimal to constrain this linear model. However to constrain a general, and thus potentially more...

  7. Ear Candling: A Dangerous Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoosh Nahid

    2011-01-01

    Ear candling is claimed to create negative pressure for drawing cerumen from the ear and to benefit the ears in many ways. It is however not free of complications and is now banned. Here we would like to highlight potential complications to this.

  8. Lighting that One Little Candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which fifth graders made observations of candles. Discusses the progress of the lesson and the necessity of instructing students in what and how to watch and measure. Stresses that this can be easily accomplished inexpensively with imagination. (CW)

  9. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L;

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known...

  10. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  11. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  12. Candle power at Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the serious accident that occurred to the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama on March 22 1975, when a fire caused by an electrician searching for air leaks using a candle caused great damage to the reactor. The fire put several key safety systems out of action and caused problems in shutting down one of the plant's two reactors. The use of a candle for the purpose was regarded as a highly unofficial but time-honoured method. In this case the candle ignited polyurethane foam surrounding some electrical cables, and the fire spread back through the reactor walls. Some alarming features of the fire fighting effort are noted. The use of water finally quickly extinguished the fire. The unconventional means that had to be adopted to shut down the reactors are described. Implications of the accident for other plants are being considered and modifications are suggested. There were no adverse effects on public health and safety. (author)

  13. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are covered in this chapter: basis for international safeguards; basis for applying international safeguards in US facilities; application of international safeguards at the facility level; and example of application of international safeguards at a low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility including material balance area structure and key measurement points, inspection activities, auditing operator's measurement system, verifying nuclear material, containment and surveillance measures, and inspector's conclusions

  14. Six requirements for nuclear energy system and Candle reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear energy system should satisfy the six requirements for safety, wastes, A-bomb, resource, technical feasibility, and economy. CANDLE fast reactors, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction, satisfy these requirements as follows: 1) Simple and safe: Control rod withdrawal accident never happens during normal operation. The power profile and reactor characteristics such as power feedback coefficients do not change during burn-up. Transportation and storage of fresh replacing fuels are safe and simple. Therefore, the reactor operation and maintenance are simple and reliable, and the frequency of undesired events is considerably reduced. The effect and possibility of CDF accidents (considered the most severe accident) becomes very small. 2) Waste: The volume (or weight) of spent fuel is 1/10 of LWR per produced energy. The amount of minor actinides is considerably small. 3) Nuclear proliferation and safeguards: CANDLE requires neither enriched uranium nor plutonium as replacing fuel at the normal operation. 4) Efficient fuel use: Only natural and/or depleted uranium is used as replacing fuels, and 40% of charged fuel can be burned by fission. This is more than fifty times the fission efficiency of LWR. The depleted uranium produced by 40 years of LWR operation can operate CANDLE reactors for more than 2000 years. 5) Technical feasibility: Measures for high fast neutron fluence are discussed. A start-up scenario of the first core is also presented. 6) Economy: Fuel cycle cost and O and M cost are smaller than the conventional reactors. The capital cost is discussed. (authors)

  15. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  16. Low emittance upgrade for CANDLE project

    CERN Document Server

    Zanyan, G S

    2015-01-01

    To improve the performance of CANDLE synchrotron light source and stay competitive with recently proposed low emittance upgrade programs in the world we have developed new low emittance lattices for CANDLE booster and storage ring. These lattices have been designed taking into account the new developments in magnet fabrication technology and the multi-bend achromat concept. The main design considerations, the linear and non-linear beam dynamics aspects of the modified lattices are presented.

  17. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Baumgartner, Wayne H; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P Narayana; Briggs, Michael S; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Case, Gary L; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A; Kuulkers, Erik; Meegan, Charles A; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Skinner, Gerald K; Swartz, Doug; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008, a ~ 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the ~3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and INTEGRAL Joint European Monitor (JEM-X) and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM and INTEGRAL/IBIS. Observations from 100 to 500...

  18. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the start of the post-war era, international safeguards were considered essential to ensure that nuclear materials should not be diverted to unauthorised uses. In parallel, it was proposed to set up an international atomic energy agency within the United Nations through which international cooperation in nuclear matters would be channelled and controlled. Created in 1957, the IAEA was authorized to administer safeguards in connection with any assistance it provided as well as at the request of Member State and of any party to bilateral or multilateral arrangements in its ambit. Today, there are two international treaties requiring that its parties should accept Agency safeguards unilaterally, the Latin America Tlatelolco Treaty of 1967, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), operative since 1970, which requires in particular that non-nuclear weapon states should accept Agency safeguards on its peaceful nuclear activities. Thus while NPT covers peaceful nuclear activities indiscriminately in a country, the Agency's original safeguards system is applied according to specific agreements and to given facilities. A basic conflict has now emerged between commercial interests and the increasing wish that transfer of nuclear equipment and know-how should not result in proliferation of military nuclear capacity; however, serious efforts are currently in progress to ensure universal application of IAEA safeguards and to develop them in step with the uses of nuclear energy. (N.E.A.)

  19. Burns and injuries resulting from the use of gel candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickus, E J; Lionelli, G T; Parmele, J B; Lawrence, W T; Korentager, R A

    2001-01-01

    Scented gel candles are common decorative household items composed of gelled mineral oil, fragrances, and dye. Like traditional wax candles, they have an open flame. Because of defective design, there have been several burns and injuries caused by these products. Here we report our experience with a scald burn from a gel candle and describe 34 additional injuries attributed to gel candles previously unreported in the medical literature. PMID:11403248

  20. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen Elif; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels; Meegan, Charles A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008 a 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the 15-50 keV band with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the 3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The change in the pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a 3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, and IBIS from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in April 2007. As of August 2010, the current flux has declined below the 2007 minimum.

  1. WHEN A STANDARD CANDLE FLICKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2008 August, a ∼7% (70 mCrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the ∼15-50 keV band with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the Imager on-Board the INTEGRAL Satellite (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the ∼3-15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50-100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a ∼3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, and IBIS from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in 2007 April. As of 2010 August, the current flux has declined below the 2007 minimum.

  2. Chaotic dynamics of a candle oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary Elizabeth; Byrne, Greg; Fenton, Flavio

    The candle oscillator is a simple, fun experiment dating to the late nineteenth century. It consists of a candle with a rod that is transverse to its long axis, around which it is allowed to pivot. When both ends of the candle are lit, an oscillatory motion will initiate due to different mass loss as a function of the flame angle. Stable oscillations can develop due to damping when the system has friction between the rod and the base where the rod rests. However, when friction is minimized, it is possible for chaos to develop. In this talk we will show periodic orbits found in the system as well as calculated, maximal Lyapunov exponents. We show that the system can be described by three ordinary differential equations (one each for angle, angular velocity and mass loss) that can reproduce the experimental data and the transition from stable oscillations to chaotic dynamics as a function of damping.

  3. Christmas-candle Senna:An ornamental and pharmaceutical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas candle (Senna alata L.) is an underutilized legume. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates only 2 accessions of Christmas candle. Christmas candle plants were transplanted from about 21 day-old seedlings with further transplanting to larger pots containing potting soil as the plants grew larger. Ho...

  4. 75 FR 44224 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 3705-3706, 1-22-2010) and the application has been processed pursuant to... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and... application to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the candle and gift...

  5. 75 FR 3705 - Foreign-Trade Zone 201-Holyoke, MA; Application for Subzone; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 201--Holyoke, MA; Application for Subzone; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately and South Deerfield, MA An application has been submitted to the..., grantee of FTZ 201, requesting special-purpose subzone status for the candle and gift set...

  6. Development process of collecting and recycling of wasted graveyard candles

    OpenAIRE

    Košmrlj, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    Slovenia is one of the countries in which we use most graveyard candles. Every year we light 23 million candles and thus create 4.000 tons of waste. Until recently, we have dumped wasted candles in a municipal waste landfill along with other waste. The majority of the candles are made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is dangerous to the environment due to the release of chlorine and organic substances. The Decree of management with wasted graveyard candles entered into force in Slovenia on ...

  7. Safeguard sleuths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report of the conference of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association, which tries to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials to military uses is given. Some of the problems encountered by safeguards inspectors are mentioned, such as being able to follow the material through the maze of piping in a reprocessing plant, the linguistic difficulties if the inspector does not speak the operator's language, the difference between precision and accuracy and the necessity of human inspection, containment and surveillance systems. Unexplained outages at a reprocessing plant are always treated as suspicious, as are power failures which prevent normal surveillance. The UK practice of allocating civil fuel temporarily to military use at Harwell also makes safeguard policing more difficult. (UK)

  8. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  9. Neutron flux from a 14‐MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    OpenAIRE

    RENNHOFER Harald; PEDERSEN Bent; CROCHEMORE Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14‐MeV (D‐T) neutron generator and a...

  10. CANDLE syndrome: a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüfekçi, Özlem; Bengoa, ŞebnemYilmaz; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Ataseven, Eda Büke; İrken, Gülersu; Ören, Hale

    2015-05-01

    CANDLE syndrome (chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by early onset, recurrent fever, skin lesions, and multisystemic inflammatory manifestations. Most of the patients have been shown to have mutation in PSMB8 gene. Herein, we report a 2-year-old patient with young onset recurrent fever, atypical facies, widespread skin lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, joint contractures, hypertrglyceridemia, lipodystrophy, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Clinical features together with the skin biopsy findings were consistent with the CANDLE syndrome. The pathogenesis and treatment of this syndrome have not been fully understood. Increased awareness of this recently described syndrome may lead to recognition of new cases and better understanding of its pathogenesis which in turn may help for development of an effective treatment. PMID:25036278

  11. Stellar candles for the extragalactic distance scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    This volume reviews the current status with respect to both theory and observation of the extragalactic distance scale. A sufficient accuracy is required both for a precise determination of the cosmological parameters and also in order to achieve a better understanding of physical processes in extragalactic systems. The "standard candles", used to set up the extragalactic distance scale, reviewed in this book include cepheid variables, RR Lyrae variables, novae, Type Ia and Type II supernovae as well as globular clusters and planetary nebulae.

  12. CANDLE Syndrome: orodfacial manifestations and dental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T; Stephen, L; Scott, C; di Pasquale, T; Naser-Eldin, A; Chetty, M; Shaik, S; Lewandowski, L; Beighton, P

    2015-01-01

    A South African girl with CANDLE Syndrome is reported with emphasis on the orodental features and dental management. Clinical manifestations included short stature, wasting of the soft tissue of the arms and legs, erythematous skin eruptions and a prominent abdomen due to hepatosplenomegaly. Generalized microdontia, confirmed by tooth measurement and osteopenia of her jaws, confirmed by digitalized radiography, were previously undescribed syndromic components. Intellectual impairment posed problems during dental intervention. The carious dental lesions and poor oral hygiene were treated conservatively under local anaesthetic. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered an hour before all procedures.Due to the nature of her general condition, invasive dental procedures were minimal. Regular follow-ups were scheduled at six monthly intervals. During this period, her overall oral health status had improved markedly.The CANDLE syndrome is a rare condition with grave complications including immunosuppression and diabetes mellitus. As with many genetic disorders, the dental manifestations are often overshadowed by other more conspicuous and complex syndromic features. Recognition of both the clinical and oral changes that occur in the CANDLE syndrome facilitates accurate diagnosis and appropriate dental management of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:26711936

  13. Electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of functionalized candle flame carbon soot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Justin Raj; Byung Chul Kim; Bo-Bae Cho; Won-Je Cho; Sung-Jin Kim; Sang Yeup Park; Kook Hyun Yu

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of bare, washed and nitric acid functionalized candle flame carbon soots were reported. Crystallinity and the morphology of the candle soots were recorded using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The nitric acid functionalized candle soot showed an improved Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of 137.93 from 87.495 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$ of washed candle soot. The presence of various functional groups in candle soots and the development of oxygen functionalities in the functionalized candle soot were examined through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Raman spectra showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the D (diamond) and G (graphite) phase of carbon present in the candle soots. The electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test and impedance spectroscopy in 1MH2SO4 electrolyte. The functionalized candle soot electrode showed an enhanced specific capacitance value of 187 F g$^{−1}$ at 0.15 A g$^{−1}$ discharge current density, which is much higher than that of bare and washed candle soot electrodes.

  14. Safeguards -Safeguards system development support-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project mainly focused to technically support national safeguards inspection which is scheduled in the beginning of 1997. It includes non-destructive assay of nuclear fuels, analysis on inspection and environmental samples, remote monitoring of nuclear activities and its analysis, survey on remote sensing of satellite for safeguards application. Non-destructive assay of nuclear fuels dealt with development on verification of spent fuels with emphasis to fabrication of inspection tools with surveillance and gamma measurement on CANDU spent fuels. For sample analysis, study was carried out on process inspection sample analysis method. In addition to this, ultra low background laboratory was set up to execute environmental and swipe samples and sample treatment techniques including water, soil, plant, et al. were researched. Tritiums which were sampled around power plants were analysed. With cooperation of Satellite Technology Research Center of KAIST, use of civilian satellite imagery was surveyed. To train facility operators for safeguards, various technology on non-destructive assay was lectured to personnel of Korea Electric Power Corporation. And to enhance out capabilities, non-destructive assay training was done at Los Alamos National Lab. of U.S. through the agreement of MOST and DOE agreement, and information on DA technology was exchanged at Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. (author). 22 tabs., 52 figs., 53 refs

  15. EVOLUTION OF CREATION BUDDHIST LENT CANDLE OF WORK AWARDED IN UBON RATCHATHANIâS LENT CANDLE CONTESTS 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Sakchai Uttitho

    2012-01-01

    The tradition of Lent candle procession at the Buddhist Lent festival is the grand festival at the national level in Ubon Ratchathani province. From the merit-making tradition concerning Buddhism binding to the way of life of Isan people for the long time, this festival has developed to be a tourist festival at the national level. Later, there have been contests of candle making in continuity. Throughout the past time the contests have promoted creation of candle with different styles contest...

  16. CANDLE reactor: an option for simple, safe, high nuclear proliferation resistant , small waste and efficient fuel use reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovative nuclear energy systems have been investigated intensively for long period in COE-INES program and CRINES activities in Tokyo Institute of Technology. Five requirements; sustainability, safety, waste, nuclear-proliferation, and economy; are considered as inevitable requirements for nuclear energy. Characteristics of small LBE cooled CANDLE fast reactor developed in this Institute are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies clearly four requirements; safety, nonproliferation and safeguard, less wastes and sustainability. For the remaining requirement, economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown

  17. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on candles is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of candle making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  18. Neutron flux from a 14-MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14-MeV (D-T) neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator with a frequency in the range of 10 to 150 Hz, a sample may be interrogated first by fast neutrons and a few hundred micro-seconds later by a pure thermal neutron flux. The permanent detection systems incorporated in PUNITA include 3He neutrons detectors, HPGe gamma detectors, and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors.We have studied the effects of placing a tungsten liner around the neutron generator target. The 14-MeV neutrons induce (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions. In addition the mean neutron energy emitted from generator/tungsten assembly is reduced to about 1 MeV. Both of these effects increase the thermal neutron flux in the sample cavity. The paper describes the observed advantages of the tungsten liner with respect to increase in thermal flux, and better shielding capabilities of the nearby gamma and neutron detectors.

  19. Design study on small CANDLE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. Here important points are that the solid fuel is fixed at each position and that any movable burnup reactivity control mechanisms such as control rods are not required. This burnup strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors especially for high burnup reactors. The transportation and storage of replacing fuels become easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. In our previous works it is appeared that application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. The average burnup of the spent fuel is about 40% that is equivalent to 40% utilization of the natural uranium without the reprocessing and enrichment. This reactor can be realized for large reactor, since the neutron leakage becomes small and its neutron economy becomes improved. In the present paper we try to design small CANDLE reactor whose performance is similar to the large reactor by increasing its fuel volume ration of the core, since its performance is strongly required for local area usage. Small long life reactor is required for some local areas. Such a characteristic that only natural uranium is required after second core is also strong merit for this case. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is

  20. Numerical Analysis of Flow Field in Ceramic Filter During Pulse Cleaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 彭书; 谭立村

    2003-01-01

    In the commercial utilization of rigid ceramic filters, the performance of pulse cleaning has crucial effects on the long-term stable operation. In order to get a clear insight into the nature of this cleaning process and provide a solid basis for industrial applications, the flow in ceramic candle filter was investigated. The flow in the pulse-jetspace and inside the ceramic candle is regarded as two- dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow, and numerical simulation is carried out by computational fluid dynamics. The numerical predictions of flow field are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Effects of the candle diameter, the separation distance between the nozzle and the candle injector and the length of the candle on the flowfield have been numerically analyzed to provide the basis for the optimum design of the pulse cleaning system.

  1. Safeguards Implementation at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the safeguards implementation activities is to assure that there are no diversions of declared nuclear material and/or no undeclared activity. The purpose of safeguards implementation activities is the assistance facility operators to meet the safeguards criteria set forth by the Atomic Energy Safety Acts and Regulations. In addition, the nuclear material and technology control team has acted as a contact point for domestic and international safeguards inspection activities and for the relevant safeguards cooperation. Domestic inspections were successfully carried out at the KAERI nuclear facilities pursuant to the domestic laws and regulations in parallel with the IAEA safeguards inspections. It is expected that safeguards work will be increased due to the pyro-related facilities such as PRIDE, ACPF and DUPIC, for which the IAEA is making an effort to establish safeguards approach. KAERI will actively cope with the plan of the NSSC by changing its domestic inspection regulations on the accounting and control of nuclear materials

  2. Nuclear safeguards: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safeguards, both international and domestic, are discussed from the industrial viewpoint. Anti-criminal measures are considered in more detail. Areas of anti-criminal safeguards which need improvement are pointed out; they include communications, recovery force, and accounting

  3. Safeguards Implementation at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juang; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Byung-Doo; Kim, Hyun-Sook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The main objective of the safeguards implementation activities is to assure that there are no diversions of declared nuclear material and/or no undeclared activity. The purpose of safeguards implementation activities is the assistance facility operators to meet the safeguards criteria set forth by the Atomic Energy Safety Acts and Regulations. In addition, the nuclear material and technology control team has acted as a contact point for domestic and international safeguards inspection activities and for the relevant safeguards cooperation. Domestic inspections were successfully carried out at the KAERI nuclear facilities pursuant to the domestic laws and regulations in parallel with the IAEA safeguards inspections. It is expected that safeguards work will be increased due to the pyro-related facilities such as PRIDE, ACPF and DUPIC, for which the IAEA is making an effort to establish safeguards approach. KAERI will actively cope with the plan of the NSSC by changing its domestic inspection regulations on the accounting and control of nuclear materials.

  4. Beam Orbit Diagnostics and Control in CANDLE Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Amatuni, Gayane A; Mikaelyan, Raphael; Tsakanov, Vasili M; Vardanyan, Ashot

    2005-01-01

    Stability requirements for the CANDLE light source are the consequence of a small electron beam size and a tolerable photon beam parameters. In a real machine, the components of the storage ring have static and dynamic imperfections, which cause disturbance of the electron beam and consequently photon beams parameters. In the present paper the basic approaches to the beam diagnostics, control and correction issues for the CANDLE facility are given. The algorithms, electronics and processing hardware are described.

  5. Nuclear safeguards technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this handbook is to present to United States industrial organizations the Department of Energy's (DOE) Safeguards Technology Program. The roles and missions for safeguards in the U.S. government and application of the DOE technology program to industry safeguards planning are discussed. A guide to sources and products is included

  6. Nuclear safeguards technology handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to present to United States industrial organizations the Department of Energy's (DOE) Safeguards Technology Program. The roles and missions for safeguards in the U.S. government and application of the DOE technology program to industry safeguards planning are discussed. A guide to sources and products is included. (LK)

  7. Safeguards Implementation: Establishment of Indonesian Safeguards Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), U.S. National Laboratories support the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to ''collaborate with international partners to strengthen international safeguards at all stages of nuclear development.'' This engagement in safeguards implementation cooperation is the basis for the security and safeguards arrangement with the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia (BAPETEN) and includes strengthening of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC). There are many components in a robust SSAC. While INSEP carries on its program in a holistic approach, it is more effective and efficient to address individual components, rather than the entire system at one time, with the objective of strengthening the system as a whole. Nuclear material accountancy is one of these components. Nuclear material accountancy necessitates that a State periodically take an inventory of its material and record changes. To better perform these activities, BAPETEN requested assistance with establishing a safeguards laboratory where its staff could perform independent material characterization, maintain nondestructive assay equipment, and facilitate hands-on training of BAPETEN safeguards inspectors. In compliance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines and safety series documents, INSEP and BAPETEN opened the BAPETEN Safeguards Laboratory in February 2010 to provide these competencies. BAPETEN showcased these new capabilities in July 2010 at the IAEA-sponsored Regional Workshop on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Facilities where hands-on activities were held at BAPETEN's Headquarters in Jakarta using the equipment supplied by INSEP. Discussions have begun on the establishment of a security and safeguards laboratory at the BAPETEN Training Center located in Cisarua. This paper describes the many steps

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  9. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  10. Application of Candle burnup to small fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. An equilibrium state was obtained for a large fast reactor (core radius is 2 m and reflector thickness is 0.5 m) successfully by using a newly developed direct analysis code. However, it is difficult to apply this burnup strategy to small reactors, since its neutron leakage becomes large and neutron economy becomes worse. Fuel enrichment should be increased in order to sustain the criticality. However, higher enrichment of fresh fuel makes the CANDLE burnup difficult. We try to find some small reactor designs, which can realize the CANDLE burnup. We have successfully find a design, which is not the CANDLE burnup in the strict meaning, but satisfies qualitatively its characteristics mentioned at the top of this abstract. In the final paper, the general description of CANDLE burnup and some results on the obtained small fast reactor design are presented.(author)

  11. IAEA safeguards glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unambiguous definition and rationalization of many of the terms for the purpose of IAEA safeguards are given, with a view to improving the common understanding of such terms within the international community. The glossary focuses only on safeguards meanings in general, and IAEA meanings in particular, of the terms discussed. Terms belong to the following problems: nuclear and non-nuclear material, nuclear equipment, design of the safeguards approach, nuclear material accountancy, physical standards, sampling, measurements, statistical concepts and others

  12. Violence: Safeguarding Our Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This adaptation of the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA) booklet "Safeguarding Your Children" discusses cooperative efforts of communities, schools, and homes to protect children from violence. (SM)

  13. Safeguards resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting nuclear materials is a challenging problem for facility managers. To counter the broad spectrum of potential threats, facility managers rely on diverse safeguards measures, including elements of physical protection, material control and accountability, and human reliability programs. Deciding how to upgrade safeguards systems involves difficult tradeoffs between increased protection and the costs and operational impact of protection measures. Effective allocation of safeguards and security resources requires a prioritization of system upgrades based on a relative measure of upgrade benefits to upgrade costs. Analytical tools are needed to help safeguards managers measure the relative benefits and costs and allocate their limited resources to achieve balanced, cost-effective protection against the full spectrum of threats. This paper presents a conceptual approach and quantitative model that have been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid safeguards managers. The model is in the preliminary stages of implementation, and an effort is ongoing to make the approach and quantitative model available for general use. The model, which is designed to complement existing nuclear safeguards evaluation tools, incorporates a variety of factors and integrates information on the likelihood of potential threats, safeguards capabilities to defeat threats, and the relative consequences if safeguards fail. The model uses this information to provide an overall measure for comparing safeguards upgrade projects at a facility

  14. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  15. Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Chai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor is highly economical, safe and efficiently saves resources, thus extending large scale fission nuclear energy utilization for thousands of years, benefitting the whole of society. For many developing countries with a large population and high energy demands, such as China and India, middle (1000 MWth and large (2000 MWth CANDLE fast reactors are obviously more suitable than small reactors [2]. In this paper, the middle and large CANDLE reactors are investigated with U-Pu and combined ThU-UPu fuel cycles, aiming to utilize the abundant thorium resources and optimize the radial power distribution. To achieve these design purposes, the present designs were utilized, simply dividing the core into two fuel regions in the radial direction. The less active fuel, such as thorium or natural uranium, was loaded in the inner core region and the fuel with low-level enrichment, e.g. 2.0% enriched uranium, was loaded in the outer core region. By this simple core configuration and fuel setting, rather than using a complicated method, we can obtain the desired middle and large CANDLE fast cores with reasonable core geometry and thermal hydraulic parameters that perform safely and economically; as is to be expected from CANDLE. To assist in understanding the CANDLE reactor’s attributes, analysis and discussion of the calculation results achieved are provided.

  16. Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

    2008-06-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

  17. IAEA safeguard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intents of IAEA safeguards, analysing into the IAEA statutes, are presented. The different types of safeguard agreements; the measurements of accounting, containment and caution used by the operator and; the information to be provided and the verification to be developed by IAEA are described. (M.C.K.)

  18. Spain accepts safeguards controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain became the 26th country to accept safeguards controls by the Agency in December. An agreement was signed in Vienna, transferring to IAEA the administration of safeguards against diversion of materials and installations to military purposes provided for under a nuclear co-operation agreement concluded between Spain and USA in 1957

  19. The safeguards options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq's obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state

  20. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  1. Demonstrating Sound Wave Propagation with Candle Flame and Loudspeaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Nettles, Corey; Bonilla, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    The motion of a candle flame in front of a loudspeaker has been suggested as a productive demonstration of the longitudinal wave nature of sound. The demonstration has been used also as a research tool to investigate students' understanding about sound. The underpinning of both applications is the expectation of a horizontal, back-and-forth…

  2. Gamma-ray burst supernovae as standardizable candles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Z., E-mail: zewcano@gmail.com [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-10-20

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) marks the violent end of a massive star. GRBs are rare in the universe, and their progenitor stars are thought to possess unique physical properties such as low metal content and rapid rotation, while the supernovae (SNe) that are associated with GRBs are expected to be highly aspherical. To date, it has been unclear whether GRB-SNe could be used as standardizable candles, with contrasting conclusions found by different teams. In this paper, I present evidence that GRB-SNe have the potential to be used as standardizable candles and show that a statistically significant relation exists between the brightness and width of their decomposed light curves relative to a template SN. Every single nearby spectroscopically identified GRB-SN for which the rest frame and host contributions have been accurately determined follows this relation. Additionally, it is shown that not only GRB-SNe, but perhaps all SNe whose explosions are powered by a central engine may eventually be used as a standardizable candle. Finally, I suggest that the use of GRB-SNe as standardizable candles likely arises from a combination of the viewing angle and similar explosion geometry in each event, the latter of which is influenced by the explosion mechanism of GRB-SNe.

  3. I Wish We Could Be Together: The Candle Ceremony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Caroline V.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that young children need to express joys and sadness; discusses candle ceremony designed for discussions of grief. Suggests teachers inform parents of the ceremony and solicit their help in preparing children, resolve not to try to solve all problems that may be discussed, inform children the moments are private, and plan for difficult…

  4. Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    Home fires are a threat after a natural disaster and fire trucks may have trouble getting to your home. If the power is out, use flashlights or other battery-powered lights if possible, instead of candles.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 8/20/2008.

  5. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum wax candles from China (70 FR 56890, September 29, 2005). The Commission is now conducting a third... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request... from China (51 FR 30686). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  6. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38121) and determined on October 4, 2010 that it would conduct an expedited review (75 FR 63200, October 14, 2010). The... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  7. Novel technologies for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Novel Technologies Project is providing access to a wider range of methods and instruments, as well as establishing a systematic mechanism to analyse gaps in the inspectorate's technical support capabilities. The project also targets emerging and future inspectorate needs in the areas of verification and the detection of undeclared nuclear activities, materials, and facilities, providing an effective pathway to technologies in support of safeguards implementation. The identification of safeguards-useful nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) indicators and signatures (I and S) is a fundamental sub-task within the Project. It interfaces with other IAEA efforts currently underway to develop future safeguards approaches through undertaking an in-depth review of NFC processes. Primarily, the sub-task aims to identify unique and safeguards-useful 'indicators', which identify the presence of a particular process, and 'signatures', which emanate from that process when it is in operation. The matching of safeguards needs to detection tool capabilities facilitates the identification of gaps where no current method or instrument exists. The Project has already identified several promising technologies based on atmospheric gas sampling and analysis, laser spectrometry and optically stimulated luminescence. Instruments based on these technologies are presently being developed through support programme tasks with Member States. This paper discusses the IAEA's project, Novel Technologies for the Detection of Undeclared Nuclear Activities, Materials and Facilities and its goal to develop improved methods and instruments. The paper also describes the method that has been devised within the Project to identify safeguards-useful NFC I and S and to determine how the sub-task interfaces with other IAEA efforts to establish emerging safeguards approaches. As with all safeguards-targeted research and development (R and D), the IAEA depends

  8. The international safeguards profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has established a staff of safeguards professionals who are responsible for carrying out on-site inspections to determine compliance with international safeguards agreements. By IAEA Statute, the paramount consideration in recruiting IAEA staff is to secure employees of the highest standards of efficiency, technical competence, and integrity. An analysis of the distribution of professionals in the IAEA Department of Safeguards has revealed some interesting observations regarding the distribution of grade levels, age, time in service, gender, and geographical origin. Following several earlier studies performed by contractors for ACDA, U.S. efforts have been undertaken to attract and better prepare candidates for working at the IAEA

  9. Safeguards in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The first IAEA routine safeguards inspection of the ASTRA reactor at the Austrian research centre at Seibersdorf near Vienna, was carried out on 2 March 1966. ASTRA is an adapted swimming pool tank type research reactor using 90 per cent enriched uranium fuel, and having a maximum capacity of about 5 MRU). It was supplied from the ISA under a bilateral agreement, in respect of which safeguarding responsibility has been transferred to the Agency. The inspection was made by O. Lendvai of Hungary and B. Sharpe of the United Kingdom. There are in Austria three research reactors under Agency safeguards, the others being respectively in Vienna and Graz. (author)

  10. Part 7. Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes fissile nuclear material safeguards technology, both current and developmental, and discusses the possible application of this technology to FBR systems. The proliferation risks associated with both subnational and national-level diversion are addressed

  11. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  12. Strengthening regional safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  13. Licensee safeguards contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is amending its regulations to require that licensees authorized to operate a nuclear reactor (other than certain research and test reactors), and those authorized to possess strategic quantities of plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium-235 develop and implement acceptable plans for responding to threats, thefts, and industrial sabotage of licensed nuclear materials and facilities. The plans will provide a structured, orderly, and timely response to safeguards contingencies and will be an important segment of NRC's contingency planning programs. Licensee safeguards contingency plans will result in organizing licensee's safeguards resources in such a way that, in the unlikely event of a safeguards contingency, the responding participants will be identified, their several responsibilities specified, and their responses coordinated

  14. Technology development for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project are to establish the safeguards technology of the nuclear proliferation resistance to the facilities which handle with high radioactivity nuclear materials like the spent fuel, to provide the foundation of the technical independency for the establishment of the effective management of domestic spent fuels, and to construct the base of the early introduction of the key technology relating to the back-end nuclear fuel cycle through the development of the safeguards technology of the DFDF of the nuclear non-proliferation. The essential safeguards technologies of the facility such as the measurement and account of nuclear materials and the C/S technology were carried out in this stage (2002-2004). The principal results of this research are the development of error reduction technology of the NDA equipment and a new NDA system for the holdup measurement of process materials, the development of the intelligent surveillance system based on the COM, the evaluation of the safeguardability of the Pyroprocessing facility which is the core process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the derivation of the research and development items which are necessary to satisfy the safeguards criteria of IAEA, and the presentation of the direction of the technology development relating to the future safeguards of Korea. This project is the representative research project in the field of the Korea's safeguards. The safeguards technology and equipment developed while accomplishing this project can be applied to other nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as DFDF and will be contributed to increase the international confidence in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle facility of Korea and its nuclear transparency

  15. Safeguards and physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'

  16. IAEA safeguards information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic concepts, structure, and operation of the Agency Safeguards Information System is discussed with respect to its role in accomplishing the overall objectives of safeguards. The basis and purposes of the Agency's information system, the structure and flow of information within the Agency's system, the relationship of the components is the Agency system, the requirements of Member States in respect of their reporting to the Agency, and the relationship of accounting data vis-a-vis facility and inspection data are described

  17. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  18. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  19. Overcoming Safeguards Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the 2010 IAEA International Safeguards Symposium was how best, from a technical perspective, to prepare for future verification challenges during this time of change. By bringing together the leading experts in the field from across the world, this symposium provided an opportunity for stakeholders to explore possible solutions in support of the IAEA's nuclear verification mission, and to identify areas where the different stakeholders in the safeguards business can help address these challenges

  20. International safeguards data authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software

  1. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  2. Safeguards information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for the management of information at the IAEA and its Department of Safeguards are rapidly changing. Historically, the Department of Safeguards has had the requirement to process large volumes of conventional safeguards information. An information management system is currently in place that adequately handles the IAEA's conventional safeguards data needs. In the post-Iraq environment, however, there is a growing need to expand the IAEA information management capability to include unconventional forms of information. These data include environmental sampling results, photographs, video film, lists of machine tools, and open-source materials such as unclassified publications. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has responded to this information management need by implementing the safeguards information management system (SIMS) initiative. SIMS was created by the DOE to anticipate and respond to IAEA information management needs through a multilaboratory initiative that will utilize an integrated approach to develop and deploy technology in a timely and cost effective manner. The DOE will use the SIMS initiative to co-ordinate US information management activities that support the IAEA Department of Safeguards. (author). 1 ref., 2 figs

  3. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  4. Safeguards Culture: lesson learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the discovery of Iraq's clandestine nuclear program in 1991, the international community developed new tools for evaluating and demonstrating states' nuclear intentions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) developed a more holistic approach toward international safeguards verification to garner more complete information about states' nuclear activities. This approach manifested itself in State Level Evaluations, using information from a variety of sources, including the implementation of integrated safeguards in Member States, to reach a broader conclusion. Those wishing to exhibit strong nonproliferation postures to a more critical international community took steps to demonstrate their nonproliferation 'bona fides'. As these Member States signed and brought into force the Additional Protocol, submitted United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 reports and strengthened their export control laws, the international community began to consider the emergence of so-called safeguards cultures. Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been under appreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured.

  5. EVOLUTION OF CREATION BUDDHIST LENT CANDLE OF WORK AWARDED IN UBON RATCHATHANI’S LENT CANDLE CONTESTS 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakchai Uttitho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of Lent candle procession at the Buddhist Lent festival is the grand festival at the national level in Ubon Ratchathani province. From the merit-making tradition concerning Buddhism binding to the way of life of Isan people for the long time, this festival has developed to be a tourist festival at the national level. Later, there have been contests of candle making in continuity. Throughout the past time the contests have promoted creation of candle with different styles contests and stories which are valuable for studying and dissemination in the future. The purposes of this research were to examine the background of the Buddhist Lent candle trees, elements of contests and evaluation of candle trees awarded on Lent candle contests in Ubon Ratchathani province from 2003-2007. The research area covered Ubon Ratchathani provinces where Buddhist Lent candle were created for contests which were the most famous in Thailand. The research procedure used the qualitative research methodology. Data were collected from related literature and field studies using survey, observations, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 35 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. The results reviewed that candle trees had been made for neatness contests since 1927. In 1977 the tradition of Lent candle procession week was held to be a grand annual festival of the province. Candle trees were contested in 3 types. Later two elements of contest consisted of large-sized candle tree and small-sized candle tree. Concepts of candle tree creation were from the criteria determined by Ubon Ratchathani province. The criteria were different from year to year. The stories to created as candle trees were about Buddhism local culture and identities of Ubon Ratchathani. The same criteria were use for decision making in every type by considering from candle tree base and all elements, The evaluation of candle trees

  6. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolei; Zheng, Xiaogang; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under assumption of spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprising 118 galactic-scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Supernovae Ia served asstandard candles. Unlike in the most of previous statistical studies involving strong lensing systems, we relaxed the assumption of singular isothermal sphere (SIS) in favor of its generalization: the power-law mass density profile. Therefore, along with cosmological model parameters we fitted the power law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift (thus allowing for mass density profile evolution). It turned out that the best fitted $\\gamma$ parameters are in agreement with each other irrespective of the cosmological model considered. This demonstrates that gal...

  7. Long Gamma-Ray Bursts as standard candles

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzati, D; Ghisellini, G; Nava, L; Firmani, C; Morsony, B; Begelman, M C; Morsony, Brian

    2006-01-01

    As soon as it was realized that long GRBs lie at cosmological distances, attempts have been made to use them as cosmological probes. Besides their use as lighthouses, a task that presents mainly the technological challenge of a rapid deep high resolution follow-up, researchers attempted to find the Holy Grail: a way to create a standard candle from GRB observables. We discuss here the attempts and the discovery of the Ghirlanda correlation, to date the best method to standardize the GRB candle. Together with discussing the promises of this method, we will underline the open issues, the required calibrations and how to understand them and keep them under control. Even though GRB cosmology is a field in its infancy, ongoing work and studies will clarify soon if and how GRBs will be able to keep up to the promises.

  8. Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming Chai; Yong Zhang; Mingyu Yan

    2012-01-01

    CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor is highly economical, safe and efficiently saves resources, thus extending large scal...

  9. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiao-Gang; Li, Song; Biesiada, Marek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under the assumption of the spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprised of 118 galactic scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Type Ia supernovae served as standard candles. Unlike most previous statistical studies involving strong lensing systems, we relaxed the assumption of a singular isothermal sphere (SIS) in favor of its generalization: the power-law mass density profile. Therefore, along with cosmological model parameters, we fitted the power law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift (thus allowing for mass density profile evolution). It turned out that the best fitted γ parameters are in agreement with each other, irrespective of the cosmological model considered. This demonstrates that galactic strong lensing systems may provide a complementary probe to test the properties of dark energy. The fits for cosmological model parameters which we obtained are in agreement with alternative studies performed by other researchers. Because standard rulers and standard candles have different parameter degeneracies, a combination of standard rulers and standard candles gives much more restrictive results for cosmological parameters. Finally, we attempted an analysis based on model selection using information theoretic criteria (AIC and BIC). Our results support the claim that the cosmological constant model is still best and there is no (at least statistical) reason to prefer any other more complex model.

  10. From Candles to Light: The Impact of Rural Electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Arraiz, Irani; Calero, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of access to electricity via solar-powered home systems (SHSs) in rural communities in Peru. Applying propensity score matching at the community as well as at the household level, the authors find that households with SHSs spend less on traditional sources of energy---candles and batteries for flashlights---and that the subsequent savings are commensurate to the fee for SHS use. People in households with SHSs spend more time awake, and women in particular change ...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  12. Light a CANDLE. An innovative burnup strategy of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDLE is a new burnup strategy for nuclear reactors, which stands for Constant Axial Shape of Neutron Flux, Nuclide Densities and Power Shape During Life of Energy Production. When this candle-like burnup strategy is adopted, although the fuel is fixed in a reactor core, the burning region moves, at a speed proportionate to the power output, along the direction of the core axis without changing the spatial distribution of the number density of the nuclides, neutron flux, and power density. Excess reactivity is not necessary for burnup and the shape of the power distribution and core characteristics do not change with the progress of burnup. It is not necessary to use control rods for the control of the burnup. This booklet described the concept of the CANDLE burnup strategy with basic explanations of excess neutrons and its specific application to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and a fast reactor with excellent neutron economy. Supplementary issues concerning the initial core and high burnup were also referred. (T. Tanaka)

  13. At What Distance Can the Human Eye Detect a Candle Flame?

    CERN Document Server

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Using CCD observations of a candle flame situated at a distance of 338 m and calibrated with observations of Vega, we show that a candle flame situated at ~2.6 km (1.6 miles) is comparable in brightness to a 6th magnitude star with the spectral energy distribution of Vega. The human eye cannot detect a candle flame at 10 miles or further, as some statements on the web suggest.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Flow Field in Ceramic Filter During Pulse Cleaning%陶瓷过滤器脉冲反吹系统的流场的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 彭书; 谭立村

    2003-01-01

    In the commercial utilization of rigid ceramic filters, the performance of pulse cleaning has crucial effects on the long-term stable operation. In order to get a clear insight into the nature of this cleaning process and provide a solid basis for industrial applications, the flow in ceramic candle filter was investigated. The flow in the pulse-jet space and inside the ceramic candle is regarded as two- dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow, and numerical simulation is carried out by computational fluid dynamics. The numerical predictions of flow field are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Effects of the candle diameter, the separation distance between the nozzle and the candle injector and the length of the candle on the flowfield have been numerically analyzed to provide the basis for the optimum design of the pulse cleaning system.

  15. Safeguards - Old and new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every 'non-nuclear-weapon' State that joins the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons must conclude an agreement with IAEA for the application of safeguards on all nuclear material used in all peaceful nuclear activities in order to prevent diversion to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosives. In 1970 and 1971, a special Safeguards Committee of the IAEA spent nine months drawing up the guidelines for these agreements. Nearly fifty countries representing every shade of opinion and stage of nuclear development took part in the Committee's work. It reached virtual unanimity on the one hundred sixteen model articles of the recommended guidelines. A single exception related to the method of financing safeguards costs. There was a difference of view about the legal interpretation of the IAEA Statute on this point; this will have a limited effect in practice however. Seldom if ever have so many countries, representing such a wide range of opinion, been able to reach agreement on a matter of such political, technical and legal complexity. The IAEA has been applying safeguards since 1960, but mostly to individual isolated plants or shipments of nuclear material - in circumstances very different, therefore, from those foreseen under the NPT. The following article is a personal appreciation by a member of the IAEA Secretariat of the differences between the old and the new 'NPT' System of safeguards

  16. Reporting of safeguards events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 9, 1987, the Commission published in the Federal Register a final rule revising the reporting requirements for safeguards events. Safeguards events include actual or attempted theft of special nuclear material (SNM); actual or attempted acts or events which interrupt normal operations at power reactors due to unauthorized use of or tampering with machinery, components, or controls; certain threats made against facilities possessing SNM; and safeguards system failures impacting the effectiveness of the system. The revised rule was effective October 8, 1987. On September 14, 1987, the NRC held a workshop in Bethesda, MD, to answer affected licensees' questions on the final rule. This report documents questions discussed at the September 14 meeting, reflects a completed staff review of the answers, and supersedes previous oral comment on the topics covered

  17. Building safeguards infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the clean and safe growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports these three areas should be robust. The focus of this paper will be on the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards, and the integration of safeguards infrastructure with other elements critical to ensuring nuclear energy security

  18. Safeguards and Physics Measurements: Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's department of Safeguards and Physics Measurements provides a wide variety of internal and external services including dosimetry, calibration, instrumentation, whole body counting, safeguards and non-destructive analysis. Main developments in these areas in 1999 are described

  19. The evolution of IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This, second in a new series of booklets dealing with IAEA safeguards is intended for persons professionally interested in the subject as government officials responsible for non-proliferation or management of nuclear facilities, and practitioners of safeguards - the international and national officials charged with implementing IAEA safeguards. It is also aimed at the broader public concerned with the spread of nuclear weapons and interested in nuclear arms control and disarmament. It presents the situation as IAEA safeguards make 'quantum jump' into new phase characterized by the IAEA as the 'Strengthened Safeguards System'. It includes the historical overview of the International safeguards from 1945-1998; the aims and limitations of IAEA Safeguards; a chapter on how safeguards work in practice; as well as new challenges and opportunities

  20. Safeguards management inspection procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, M.J.; Dunn, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this inspection module is to independently assess the contributions of licensee management to overall safeguards systems performance. The inspector accomplishes this objective by comparing the licensee's safeguards management to both the 10 CFR, parts 70 and 73, requirements and to generally accepted management practices. The vehicle by which this comparison is to be made consists of assessment questions and key issues which point the inspector to areas of primary concern to the NRC and which raise additional issues for the purpose of exposing management ineffectiveness. Further insight into management effectiveness is obtained through those assessment questions specifically directed toward the licensee's safeguards system performance. If the quality of the safeguards is poor, then the inspector should strongly suspect that management's role is ineffective and should attempt to determine management's influence (or lack thereof) on the underlying safeguards deficiencies. (The converse is not necessarily true, however.) The assessment questions in essence provide an opportunity for the inspector to identify, to single out, and to probe further, questionable management practices. Specific issues, circumstances, and concerns which point to questionable or inappropriate practices should be explicitly identified and referenced against the CFR and the assessment questions. The inspection report should also explain why the inspector feels certain management practices are poor, counter to the CFR, and/or point to ineffecive management. Concurrent with documenting the inspection results, the inspector should provide recommendations for alleviating observed management practices that are detrimental to effective safeguards. The recommendations could include: specific changes in the practices of the licensee, followup procedures on the part of NRC, and proposed license changes.

  1. Safeguards management inspection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this inspection module is to independently assess the contributions of licensee management to overall safeguards systems performance. The inspector accomplishes this objective by comparing the licensee's safeguards management to both the 10 CFR, parts 70 and 73, requirements and to generally accepted management practices. The vehicle by which this comparison is to be made consists of assessment questions and key issues which point the inspector to areas of primary concern to the NRC and which raise additional issues for the purpose of exposing management ineffectiveness. Further insight into management effectiveness is obtained through those assessment questions specifically directed toward the licensee's safeguards system performance. If the quality of the safeguards is poor, then the inspector should strongly suspect that management's role is ineffective and should attempt to determine management's influence (or lack thereof) on the underlying safeguards deficiencies. (The converse is not necessarily true, however.) The assessment questions in essence provide an opportunity for the inspector to identify, to single out, and to probe further, questionable management practices. Specific issues, circumstances, and concerns which point to questionable or inappropriate practices should be explicitly identified and referenced against the CFR and the assessment questions. The inspection report should also explain why the inspector feels certain management practices are poor, counter to the CFR, and/or point to ineffecive management. Concurrent with documenting the inspection results, the inspector should provide recommendations for alleviating observed management practices that are detrimental to effective safeguards. The recommendations could include: specific changes in the practices of the licensee, followup procedures on the part of NRC, and proposed license changes

  2. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  3. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  4. Nuclear safeguards technology 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the results of the sixth in a series of international symposia on nuclear material safeguards. Development efforts related to safeguards for reprocessing plants constituted over twenty per cent of the programme. Other papers present results of over four years of field testing of near real time material accountancy at a plant in Japan, and results for a lesser period of time at a plant in Scotland. Papers reporting work on destructive and non-destructive measurement procedures or equipment constituted another thirty per cent of the programme, more if measurements in reprocessing and poster presentations are included. In honour of the tenth anniversary of the founding of the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, two sessions were devoted to a review of destructive analytical measurement procedures. Some subjects received only minor attention during the Symposium. The statistical theory of random sampling, safeguards for uranium enrichment plants, material accountancy systems and several other topics appear only incidentally in the programme, but primarily because there are few remaining problems, not because there is little remaining interest

  5. Safeguards system analysis, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system analysis on the implementing safeguards system based on the traditional materials accountancy was done. This report describes about verification methods applied to operator's measurement data, MUF evaluation method, theories on the decision of PIT frequency and designing of inspection plan. (author)

  6. The evolution of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's safeguards system has demonstrated a flexibility capable of responding to the verification demands of its Member States. It is capable of safeguarding nuclear materials, facilities, equipment and non-nuclear material. The Agency is in the process of strengthening safeguards in its verification of declared activities. Since the early 1990's the Board of Governors took up the issue of strengthening measures such as inspections at undeclared locations, the early provision of design information, a system of universal reporting on nuclear material and certain nuclear-related equipment and non-nuclear material. Following the Agency's 'Programme 93+2', a major step forward was the adoption by the Board of Governors of the Additional Protocol in May 1997. This included important strengthened safeguards measures based on greater access to information and locations. A number of member states have already indicated their willingness to participate in this system by signing the Additional Protocol and this is now in the early stages of implementation for a few states. (author)

  7. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  8. IAEA safeguards technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part F of the Safeguards Technical Manual is being issued in three volumes. Volume 1 was published in 1977 and revised slightly in 1979. Volume 1 discusses basic probability concepts, statistical inference, models and measurement errors, estimation of measurement variances, and calibration. These topics of general interest in a number of application areas, are presented with examples drawn from nuclear materials safeguards. The final two chapters in Volume 1 deal with problem areas unique to safeguards: calculating the variance of MUF and of D respectively. Volume 2 continues where Volume 1 left off with a presentation of topics of specific interest to Agency safeguards. These topics include inspection planning from a design and effectiveness evaluation viewpoint, on-facility site inspection activities, variables data analysis as applied to inspection data, preparation of inspection reports with respect to statistical aspects of the inspection, and the distribution of inspection samples to more than one analytical laboratory. Volume 3 covers generally the same material as Volumes 1 and 2 but with much greater unity and cohesiveness. Further, the cook-book style of the previous two volumes has been replaced by one that makes use of equations and formulas as opposed to computational steps, and that also provides the bases for the statistical procedures discussed. Hopefully, this will help minimize the frequency of misapplications of the techniques

  9. Enhanced safeguards training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition to a strengthened safeguards system engendered new skill demands for the International Atomic Energy Agency Inspectorate and information requirements for State Systems of Accountancy and Control (SSAC). In response to these demands, the Section for Safeguards Training (TTR) developed courses to ensure that inspectors have the capability to better detect undeclared nuclear activities in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements, to better detect the misuse of declared nuclear facilities and installations, and to more efficiently and effectively manage the inspection process that allows such detection. The resulting extended training curriculum for inspectors and the activities undertaken to convey relevant information to SSAC's personnel placed even a greater emphasis on a modernisation of the techniques used to impart knowledge and skills to the trainees and on the implementation of a systematic approach to training methodology. This methodology reflects a logical progression from the identification of the new competencies required under the strengthened safeguards regime to the development and implementation of training to achieve these competencies, and to the subsequent evaluation of how effective the training has been. This paper addresses the resulting expanded training curriculum and enhanced training approach implemented by TTR. (author)

  10. Nuclear safeguards technology 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the results of the sixth in a series of international symposia on nuclear material safeguards. Development efforts related to safeguards for reprocessing plants constituted over twenty per cent of the programme. Other papers present results of over four years of field testing of near real time material accountancy at a plant in Japan and results for a lesser period of time at a plant in Scotland. Papers reporting work on destructive and non-destructive measurement procedures or equipment constituted another thirty per cent of the programme, more if measurements in reprocessing and poster presentations are included. In honour of the tenth anniversary of the founding of the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, two sessions were devoted to a review of destructive analytical measurement procedures. Some subjects received only minor attention during the Symposium. The statistical theory of random sampling, safeguards for uranium enrichment plants, material accountancy systems and several other topics appear only incidentally in the programme, but primarily because there are few remaining problems, not because there is little remaining interest

  11. Scientific Observation and the Learning Cycle: Burning the Candle at Both Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kevin; Bluhm, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a twist on the basic "Science 101" investigation of having students observe a birthday candle before, during, and after burning. It engages students in exploring the attributes of a candle, introduces them to the concepts of empirical observation and investigation, and involves them in developing and conducting a burning…

  12. Beam dynamics of CANDLE storage ring low alpha operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, A.; Amatuni, G.; Sahakyan, V.; Tsakanov, V.; Zanyan, G.

    2015-10-01

    The generation of the coherent THz radiation and short pulse synchrotron radiation in dedicated electron storage rings requires the study of non-standard magnetic lattices which provide low momentum compaction factor (alpha) of the ring. In the present paper two low alpha operation lattices based on modification of the original beam optics and implementation of inverse bend magnets are studied for CANDLE storage ring. For considered cases an analysis of transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics is given and the feasibility of lattices is discussed.

  13. Beam dynamics of CANDLE storage ring low alpha operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of the coherent THz radiation and short pulse synchrotron radiation in dedicated electron storage rings requires the study of non-standard magnetic lattices which provide low momentum compaction factor (alpha) of the ring. In the present paper two low alpha operation lattices based on modification of the original beam optics and implementation of inverse bend magnets are studied for CANDLE storage ring. For considered cases an analysis of transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics is given and the feasibility of lattices is discussed

  14. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic candle soot coating and its wettability under condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Huang, Juan; Peng, Chaoyi; Wang, Menglei; Wang, Xian; Bin, Jiping; Xing, Suli; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Xiao, Ximei; Fu, Xin; Gong, Huifang; Zhao, Dejian; Chen, Hong

    2016-02-01

    A facile method was developed to prepare a superhydrophobic candle soot coating by burning candle and simple deposition on a low-density polyethylene substrate. The water contact angle and sliding angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic candle soot coating were, respectively, 160 ± 2° and 1° under common condition. ESEM images showed that the superhydrophobic candle soot coating was comprised of many nanoparticles with the size range of about 30-50 nm. After condensation for 30 min, the average contact angle of the condensed water droplets was 150° ± 2°, showing excellent superhydrophobicity under condensation. The mechanism of the candle soot coating remaining superhydrophobicity under condensation was analyzed. This work is helpful for the design and preparation of superhydrophobic surface which can remain superhydrophobicity in future.

  15. Intrinsic scatter of the luminosity relation, redshift distribution of the standard candles, and the constraining capability

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Standard candles are one of the most important tools to study the universe. In this paper, the constraints of standards candles on the cosmological parameters are estimated for different cases. The dependence of the constraints on the intrinsic scatter of the luminosity relation and the redshift distribution of the standard candles is specifically investigated. The results, especially for the constraints on the components of the universe, clearly show that constraints from standard candles at different redshifts have different degeneracy orientations, thus standard candles with a wide redshift distribution can self break the degeneracy and improve the constraints significantly. As a result of this, even with the current level of tightness of known luminosity relations, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can give comparable tightness of constraint with type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on the components of the universe as long as the redshifts of the GRBs are diversifying enough. However, for a substantial constraint on the da...

  16. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  17. Observations on the CANDLE burn-up in various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have looked at all geometrical conditions under which an auto catalytically propagating burnup wave (CANDLE burn-up) is possible. Thereby, the Sine Gordon equation finds a new place in the burn-up theory of nuclear fission reactors. For a practical reactor design the axially burning 'spaghetti' reactor and the azimuthally burning 'pancake' reactor, respectively, seem to be the most promising geometries for a practical reactor design. Radial and spherical burn-waves in cylindrical and spherical geometry, respectively, are principally impossible. Also, the possible applicability of such fission burn-waves on the OKLO-phenomenon and the GEOREACTOR in the center of Earth, postulated by Herndon, is discussed. A fast CANDLE-reactor can work with only depleted uranium. Therefore, uranium mining and uranium-enrichment are not necessary anymore. Furthermore, it is also possible to dispense with reprocessing because the uranium utilization factor is as high as about 40%. Thus, this completely new reactor type can open a new era of reactor technology

  18. IAEA Safeguards: Status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has just celebrated its 25th anniversary, and the first safeguards inspections were performed twenty years ago. Counting only since 1978, some 5100 inspections had been performed up to mid-1982, using a staff which now includes about 130 inspectors. Despite these impressive figures, and the fact that the IAEA has never detected any apparent diversion of nuclear materials, there are increasing public allegations that safeguards lack effectiveness. After briefly reviewing the nature of IAEA safeguards agreements, the paper examines the political and technical objectives of safeguards together with some of the criticisms which have been voiced. Allocation of limited safeguards resources is examined in terms of the sometimes conflicting allocation criteria which are contained in various safeguards documents. The paper argues that the credibility and deterrent effect of IAEA safeguards should not be underestimated. It should be of greater concern that a few States are known to be operating or constructing non-safeguarded nuclear facilities capable of producing weapons-grade nuclear materials. Thus the risk of safeguards would appear to be greatest at exactly the point where safeguards end. (author)

  19. Networking of safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the design of a safeguards system that can be incorporated into a plant during the final phase of its construction to permit the acquisition and transmission of data during plant operation in the absence of an inspector. The system is an example of a networked data system of weighing, identity, and NDA information. It collects all of its non-surveillance data produced by safeguards equipment in a fuel fabrication plant. The data collection and transfer tasks are carried out by two software packages: NEGUS, a redundant data acquisition system designed to record neutron coincidence data, high-resolution gamma spectra, and sensor data for the NDA information and associated barcode identity information, and BRANCH, which deals with weighing and associated identity information. These processes collect data from local electronics using an ethernet network and provide information to the main review program

  20. International safeguards problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To recognize the limitations of safeguards as a barrier to nuclear proliferation is not to deny their essential role in the effort to contain that problem. Without a safeguards system, international nuclear commerce and development would not, indeed could not, be what they are today. The problems evoked in the discussion of the spread of sensitive nuclear technology underscore the importance of ensuring that activities do not outpace our ability to control them. To sustain a global nuclear economy requires a readiness to live within the constraints that such an economy requires. Enhanced safeguards and strengthened national commitments to facilitate their application are key elements of those constraints. So also may be a prepardness by many nations to forego explicitly national control over all facets of the nuclear fuel cycle while still sharing fully and equally in the benefits of the peaceful atom. The challenge of the coming years will be to craft mechanisms and institutions enabling the continued growth of peaceful nuclear activity without further impairing international security. The constraints that such an outcome entails are not limited to nations lacking sophisticated nuclear technology; they apply to the most advanced nuclear nations as well--partly through adherence to the safeguards system that these countries call upon others to adopt, and partly through greater willingness to entertain solutions that may involve greater international involvement in, and control over, their own peaceful nuclear productive activities. With time, the relative incompatibility of nuclear energy with full national sovereignty, and the far-sighted wisdom of the Baruch Plan, are becoming increasingly clear. 1 table, 10 references

  1. Reassessment of safeguards parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

  2. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  3. The Canadian safeguards support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  4. Defining and Measuring Safeguards Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the shift toward State Level Evaluations and information driven safeguards, this paper offers a refined definition of safeguards culture and a set of metrics for measuring the extent to which a safeguards culture exists in a state. Where the IAEA is able to use the definition and metrics to come to a positive conclusion about the country, it may help reduce the burden on the Agency and the state.

  5. Innovative Energy Planning and Nuclear Option Using CANDLE Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reactor burn-up strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move upward (or downward) along its core axis. This burn-up strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burn-up is theoretically zero for ideal equilibrium condition, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed during life of operation. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors. The infinite-medium neutron multiplication factor of replacing fuel is less than unity. Therefore, the transportation and storage of replacing fuels becomes easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. Small long life fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up concept has investigated with depleted uranium as a replacing fuel. Both core diameter and height are chosen to be 2.0 m, and the thermal power is 200 MW. Lead-bismuth is used as a coolant, and nitride (enriched N-15) fuel are employed. The velocity of burning region along burn-up is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40 percent. It is about ten times of light water reactor burn-up. The spent fuel volume becomes one-tenth of light water reactor spent fuel. If a light water reactor with a certain power output has been operated for 40 years, the CANDLE reactor can be operated for 2000 years with the same power output and with only depleted uranium left after fuel production for the light water reactor. The system does not need any reprocessing or enrichment. Therefore, the reactor operation becomes very safe, the waste

  6. Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an overview of the Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SVAP was designed as an automated method of analyzing the safeguard systems at nuclear facilities for vulnerabilities relating to the theft or diversion of nuclear materials. SVAP addresses one class of safeguard threat: theft or diversion of nuclear materials by nonviolent insiders, acting individually or in collusion. SVAP is a user-oriented tool which uses an interactive input medium for preprocessing the large amounts of safeguards data. Its output includes concise summary data as well as detailed vulnerability information

  7. Development of a safeguards database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Introduction to Database. An effort has been made to computerize the information regarding safeguards inspections conducted at our facilities, the IAEA inspectors designated for Pakistan, material inventory at our safeguarded facilities and our safeguards agreements with the Agency. The information on these components such as searching of inspectors of a particular nationality ever designated to Pakistan, the material inventory of a certain kind of nuclear material present at any of the safeguarded facility, or the information on the type of safeguards agreement covering any facility can be easily traced using the database that provides flexible search options. The Relational Database Management System ACCESS has been used for the development of the database. All the information is managed from a single database file. Within the file, the Safeguards data is divided into separate tables, one for each type of information. Relationships are defined between the tables to bring the data from multiple tables together in a query, form, or report. Various forms have been created to edit/add data indirectly to the tables. To find and retrieve the data that is frequently required, including data from multiple tables, various queries have been made. Reports have been created using these queries, to present data in a certain format. In order to create application to navigate around the Safeguards Database, the Switchboard Manager has been used that automatically creates switchboard Forms that helps to navigate around the database. The switchboard Form has buttons that can be clicked to open various forms and reports or open other switchboards that can further open additional forms and reports. The Safeguards Database also employs various macros and event procedures to automate common tasks. In order to secure the Safeguards database, the simplest method that is to set a password for opening the Database has been used. 2. Components of Safeguards Database (DB). There are

  8. Study of CANDLE tunes dependence on fringing fields of quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martirosyan, Y.L. E-mail: martirosyan@asls.candle.am

    2004-04-01

    The main features of electron beams in third generation light sources are small emittance and long lifetime. Consequently, very accurate beam dynamics consideration is required that corresponds to real magnetic field distribution around the ring. The fringe fields are the unavoidable part of any real magnet design and sometimes may have essential influence on beam dynamics because they appear in all orders of particle motion, including the linear one. A simple approach to calculation of fringing field effects on beam dynamics in storage rings based on direct integration method using MATLAB ODE23 solver is presented in this paper. The numerical results of quadrupole magnet fringe field induced tune shift and chromaticity change in CANDLE (Design Report, Yerevan, Armenia, 2002) light source are given in comparison with the linear matrix calculations in rectangular magnetic field approximation.

  9. Study of CANDLE tunes dependence on fringing fields of quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of electron beams in third generation light sources are small emittance and long lifetime. Consequently, very accurate beam dynamics consideration is required that corresponds to real magnetic field distribution around the ring. The fringe fields are the unavoidable part of any real magnet design and sometimes may have essential influence on beam dynamics because they appear in all orders of particle motion, including the linear one. A simple approach to calculation of fringing field effects on beam dynamics in storage rings based on direct integration method using MATLAB ODE23 solver is presented in this paper. The numerical results of quadrupole magnet fringe field induced tune shift and chromaticity change in CANDLE (Design Report, Yerevan, Armenia, 2002) light source are given in comparison with the linear matrix calculations in rectangular magnetic field approximation

  10. Standard candle central exclusive processes at the Tevatron and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G; Stirling, W J

    2010-01-01

    Central exclusive production (CEP) processes in high-energy proton -- (anti)proton collisions offer a very promising framework within which to study both novel aspects of QCD and new physics signals. Among the many interesting processes that can be studied in this way, those involving the production of heavy (c,b) quarkonia and gamma gamma states have sufficiently well understood theoretical properties and sufficiently large cross sections that they can serve as `standard candle' processes with which we can benchmark predictions for new physics CEP at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Motivated by the broad agreement with theoretical predictions of recent CEP measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron, we perform a detailed quantitative study of heavy quarkonia (chi and eta) and gamma gamma production at the Tevatron, RHIC and LHC, paying particular attention to the various uncertainties in the calculations. Our results confirm the rich phenomenology that these production processes offer at present and future high-e...

  11. Who safeguards mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sara

    2014-11-01

    While routine screening for group B streptococcus is not recommended in the UK, women are sometimes coincidentally found to be carrying these bacteria during investigations of symptoms in pregnancy. If such women decide to decline intravenous antibiotics for themselves in labour, they can seek support from midwives in appropriate roles. But once the woman's baby is born, the situation changes somewhat, as the legal context changes and the issue of safeguarding may be raised. This article considers the issues that arise in such scenarios and raises questions about who is there to support women who experience pressure to consent to their healthy newborn baby having prophylactic intravenous antibiotics. PMID:25582006

  12. Neutron techniques in Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential part of Safeguards is the ability to quantitatively and nondestructively assay those materials with special neutron-interactive properties involved in nuclear industrial or military technology. Neutron techniques have furnished most of the important ways of assaying such materials, which is no surprise since the neutronic properties are what characterizes them. The techniques employed rely on a wide selection of the many methods of neutron generation, detection, and data analysis that have been developed for neutron physics and nuclear science in general

  13. Safeguards can not operate alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are around 20 new states which are planning to use nuclear energy in the near future. Globally there are several nuclear power plants under construction and they will be bigger than ever. Also new type of nuclear facility, final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel, will be constructed and in operation in Finland and Sweden in ca. 10 years time. It is evident that the nuclear world is changing much and quickly. After the Additional Protocol, safeguards are no longer only about accounting and control of nuclear materials, but also about verifying that there are no undeclared nuclear materials and activities in the state. It is not possible or effective anymore to implement safeguards without taking into account of the nuclear safety and security. The safeguards should not be isolated. The synergy between safeguards, security and safety exist, when implementing nationally that there are no undeclared nuclear materials or activities. In safeguards we could not do our duties effectively if we ignore some of those other S's. Safeguards by Design process does not work properly if only international safeguards and security requirements has been taken into account, it urges all 3S to be taken care at the same time. Safeguards should operate also with other synergetic regimes and organisations like CTBTO, Fissile Material Cut-off, disarmament, export control, border control,... The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  14. The Importance of Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2013-12-20

    This is a paper we plan to submit to the Nonproliferation Review for publication. The paper provides an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture and gauges its value to the safeguards community. Accompanying the paper are three additional documents that contain the figures and tables cited in the paper. NPR guidelines state these figures and tables are to be submitted in separate documents.

  15. IAEA safeguards glossary. 2001 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA safeguards have evolved since their inception in the late 1960s. In 1980 the IAEA published the first IAEA Safeguards Glossary (IAEA/SG/INF/l) with the aim of facilitating understanding of the specialized safeguards terminology within the international community. In 1987 the IAEA published a revised edition of the Glossary (IAEA/SG/INF/l (Rev.l)) which took into account developments in the safeguards area as well as comments received since the first edition appeared. Since 1987, IAEA safeguards have become more effective and efficient, mainly through the series of strengthening measures approved by the IAEA Board of Governors during 1992-1997, the Board's approval, in 1997, of the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards (issued as INFCIRC/540 (Corrected)), and the work, begun in 1999, directed towards the development and implementation of integrated safeguards. The IAEA Safeguards Glossary 2001 Edition reflects these developments. Each of the 13 sections of the Glossary addresses a specific subject related to IAEA safeguards. To facilitate understanding. definitions and, where applicable, explanations have been given for each of the terms listed. The terms defined and explained intentionally have not been arranged in alphabetical order, but their sequence within each section corresponds to the internal relationships of the subject treated. The terms are numbered consecutively within each section and an index referring to these numbers has been provided for ease of reference. The terms used have been translated into the official languages of the IAEA, as well as into German and Japanese. The IAEA Safeguards Glossary 2001 Edition has no legal status and is not intended to serve as a basis for adjudicating on problems of definition such as might arise during the negotiation or in the interpretation of safeguards agreements or additional protocols. The IAEA

  16. The changing nature of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Statute of the IAEA permits the implementation of safeguards tailored to differing security demands of States parties to non-proliferation and nuclear arms control treaties. The agreements concluded in response to these demands foresee the continuous development of safeguards verification. The safeguards system was first implemented in the 1960s to provide exporters of specified nuclear material, technology and facilities assurances that these were used for peaceful purposes only. With the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the NPT). the overall objective of IAEA safeguards took a major step forward as non-nuclear weapon State parties undertook to accept comprehensive safeguards on all nuclear material within their territory, under their jurisdiction or control, for the purpose of verifying that such material is used only for peaceful purposes. The system of comprehensive safeguards, following the structural content of the NPT Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/153(Corr.)), has developed continuously with the accumulation of experience and the introduction of new technology and methods. This system, based on material accountancy, has proved reliable in providing assurances about the peaceful use of declared nuclear material and declared facilities (i.e. that States' declarations are correct). However, while the scope of the NPT agreement is not limited to declared material and facilities (the Agency has the basic right and obligation to apply safeguards to all nuclear material and activities of a State). the safeguards system developed through the early 1990s had limited capability to deal with the completeness of States' nuclear material declarations. The discoveries in Iraq of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in the early 1990s emphasized the increasing importance of assurances regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material

  17. IAEA safeguards glossary. 2001 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA safeguards have evolved since their inception in the late 1960s. In 1980 the IAEA published the first IAEA Safeguards Glossary (IAEA/SG/INF/l) with the aim of facilitating understanding of the specialized safeguards terminology within the international community. In 1987 the IAEA published a revised edition of the Glossary (IAEA/SG/INF/l (Rev.l)) which took into account developments in the safeguards area as well as comments received since the first edition appeared. Since 1987, IAEA safeguards have become more effective and efficient, mainly through the series of strengthening measures approved by the IAEA Board of Governors during 1992-1997, the Board's approval, in 1997, of the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards (issued as INFCIRC/540 (Corrected)), and the work, begun in 1999, directed towards the development and implementation of integrated safeguards. The IAEA Safeguards Glossary 2001 Edition reflects these developments. Each of the 13 sections of the Glossary addresses a specific subject related to IAEA safeguards. To facilitate understanding. definitions and, where applicable, explanations have been given for each of the terms listed. The terms defined and explained intentionally have not been arranged in alphabetical order, but their sequence within each section corresponds to the internal relationships of the subject treated. The terms are numbered consecutively within each section and an index referring to these numbers has been provided for ease of reference. The terms used have been translated into the official languages of the IAEA, as well as into German and Japanese. The IAEA Safeguards Glossary 2001 Edition has no legal status and is not intended to serve as a basis for adjudicating on problems of definition such as might arise during the negotiation or in the interpretation of safeguards agreements or additional protocols. The IAEA

  18. Mechanical behavior of ceramic composite hot-gas filters after exposure to severe environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysher, D.J.; Weaver, B.L.; Smith, R.G. [Ceramic Technology Center, St. Paul, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    A novel type of hot-gas filter based on a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic matrix has been developed, as reported at previous Fossil Energy Materials Conferences, through research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the 3M Company. Simulated testing has been done at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. This filter technology has been extended to full size, 60 mm OD by 1.5 meter long candle filters and a commercially viable process for producing the filters has been developed filters are undergoing testing and demonstration use throughout the world for applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Demonstration tests of this ceramic composite filter along with other filters are in progress at the Tidd PFBC plant Mechanical tests were performed on the 3 M brand Ceramic Composite Candle Filter after exposure to various corrosive environments in order to assess its ability to function as a hot gas filter in coal-fired applications. Due to the different construction of ceramic composite filters and the thin composite wall versus the typical thick-walled monolithic filter, standard mechanical property tests had to be refined or modified to accurately determine the filters properties. These tests and filter property results will be described Longitudinal tensile and diametral O-ring compression tests were performed on as-produced candle filters as well as on filters which had been exposed to various environments. The exposures were for 1000 hrs at 850{degrees}C in wet air, in wet air containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and in wet air containing NaCl. In addition, a filter which bad been coated with ash (Old Grimethorpe) was exposed to wet air at 850{degrees}C for 1000 hours.

  19. IAEA safeguards approaches and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA safeguards provide a technical means of verifying that political obligations undertaken by States party to international agreements relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are being honored. The Agency assures the international community that States party to Safeguards Agreements are complying with their undertaking not to use facilities and divert nuclear materials from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices. The task of IAEA safeguards can be summed up as to detect diversion of nuclear materials committed to peaceful uses of nuclear energy, or the misuse of equipment or facilities subject to certain safeguards agreements, and to deter such diversion or misuse through the risk of early detection. This lecture concentrates on the factors the Agency takes into account in designing and implementing safeguards approaches at facilities. (author)

  20. Development of Coloured Flame Candle%彩色火焰蜡烛的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂萍; 邓爱民; 陈维奇

    2001-01-01

    The candle with coloured flame is developed.The effect of main combustible ingredient,amount of flame-colouring ingredient and the treatment of candle wick on the generation of coloured flame is discussed.%研制了彩色火焰蜡烛.讨论了主燃剂的种类、发色剂的用量及烛芯的处理对彩焰效果的影响.

  1. Technology Development of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, H. Y.; Ko, W. I. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The objective of this project is to perform R and D on the essential technologies in nuclear material measurement and surveillance and verification system, and to improve the state of being transparent on the nuclear material management of DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) through the evaluation of safeguard ability on non-proliferation fuel cycle and nuclear proliferation resistance. Nuclear material position scan system for the reduction of measurement error was developed for the spatial distribution search of spent fuel in DUPIC facility. Web-based realtime remote monitoring system was designed and constructed for satisfying the IAEA's performance criteria of continuous monitoring, and also developed a software for the function of remote control and message. And diversion paths in a proliferation resistant pyroprocess for SFR were analyzed and its protecting system against the diversion paths were suggested for enhancing proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycle. These results could be used for planning the further R and D items in the area of safeguards. Those R and D results mentioned above would be helpful for increasing Korean nuclear transparency in the future.

  2. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  3. Lifecycle Management of Safeguards Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, traditional procurement procedures for safeguards equipment have experienced major setbacks that have led to costly and time-consuming re-design and re-evaluation periods, as well as delays in the delivery and deployment of urgently needed equipment. A common element of all encountered problems is the rapid development of technical components. The accelerated pace of 69 safeguards systems development, when coupled with the absence of a disciplined lifecycle approach to design and development, leads to early technical obsolescence as well as the inability to support a safeguards system over its operational lifecycle. This condition is further aggravated by safeguards equipment suppliers who wrestle with economies of scale associated with a unique safeguards market that generally does not provide sufficient margins to stay in business. As a result, international agencies charged with safeguards responsibilities find it difficult to secure the supply of identical safeguards equipment over periods of ten or more years. However, all these problems are merely symptoms of the lack of an integrated lifecycle management approach with early involvement of all parties: vendors and their suppliers, national laboratories and contracted developers, national support programs, and international agencies with nonproliferation responsibilities. The following paper will describe the unique constellation of players within the safeguards community, and why this constellation is a cause of most of the problems inherent in traditional procurement procedures. Further, it will offer a comprehensive lifecycle management approach that will ensure the availability of identical safeguards equipment over its required lifespan (ten to fifteen years). It should be noted that an integrated lifecycle management approach will be difficult to implement and will require a fundamental re-orientation of efforts in: need identification, system design and development, funding, and

  4. Information analysis and international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, K. W. (Kory W.); Tape, J. W. (James W.)

    2004-01-01

    After the first Gulf War, it was recognized that one of the key weaknesses of the international safeguards system was that there was no systematic attempt by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to analyze all available information about States nuclear programs to determine whether these programs were consistent with nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA, as part of its effort to redesign the international safeguards system, is looking closely at the issue of information review and evaluation. The application of information analysis (IA) techniques to the international nuclear safeguards system has the potential to revolutionize the form and practice of safeguards. Assessing the possibilities of IA for the IAEA, and in particular those embodied in concepts of information-driven safeguards, requires an understanding of IA, the limits on its effectiveness and the requirements placed on such analyses in a variety of safeguards contexts. The Australian Safeguards and Nonproliferation Office (ASNO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) agreed in July 2002 to undertake a joint study of 'information-driven safeguards' under a long-standing cooperative arrangement. It was decided that a broad range of ideas should be considered, and that the study would not be intended to be and would not be an elaboration of either US or Australian governmental positions. This paper reports some findings of Phase 1 of this collaborative effort and offers some initial thinking on the part of the authors on the outstanding issues to be addressed in Phase 2. An effort to explore through case studies alternative strategies for utilizing IA by the IAEA that provide the same or increased confidence in safeguards conclusions while allowing safeguards resource allocation to be determined not only by the types and quantities of nuclear material and facilities in a State but also by other objective factors.

  5. Information analysis and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the first Gulf War, it was recognized that one of the key weaknesses of the international safeguards system was that there was no systematic attempt by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to analyze all available information about States nuclear programs to determine whether these programs were consistent with nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA, as part of its effort to redesign the international safeguards system, is looking closely at the issue of information review and evaluation. The application of information analysis (IA) techniques to the international nuclear safeguards system has the potential to revolutionize the form and practice of safeguards. Assessing the possibilities of IA for the IAEA, and in particular those embodied in concepts of information-driven safeguards, requires an understanding of IA, the limits on its effectiveness and the requirements placed on such analyses in a variety of safeguards contexts. The Australian Safeguards and Nonproliferation Office (ASNO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) agreed in July 2002 to undertake a joint study of 'information-driven safeguards' under a long-standing cooperative arrangement. It was decided that a broad range of ideas should be considered, and that the study would not be intended to be and would not be an elaboration of either US or Australian governmental positions. This paper reports some findings of Phase 1 of this collaborative effort and offers some initial thinking on the part of the authors on the outstanding issues to be addressed in Phase 2. An effort to explore through case studies alternative strategies for utilizing IA by the IAEA that provide the same or increased confidence in safeguards conclusions while allowing safeguards resource allocation to be determined not only by the types and quantities of nuclear material and facilities in a State but also by other objective factors.

  6. An experimental design for the investigation of water repellent property of candle soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Bichitra Nanda; Kandasubramanian, Balasubramanian, E-mail: meetkbs@gmail.com

    2014-11-14

    The mechanistic aspect of candle soot particles under controlled atmosphere has been reported. The soot particles were characterized using Fourier transformation Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Hydrophobicity of the candle soot particles was confirmed from the presence of C–H group which enhances water repellency and can be used as filler material for fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings. The layered soot particle on the glass slide exhibits maximum water contact angle of 168°. Roughness of soot particle and various hydrophobic groups involved for obtaining superhydrophobicity were exposed. The Raman spectrum of soot particles revealed the presence of disorder graphene which was confirmed from appearance of D1 band. The agglomeration of candle soot particles has been discussed by measuring fractal dimension (D{sub f}) of the particles. The in-depth investigation for bringing the mechanism of formation of soot particle inside the flame reveals the inception of the first particles, growth of soot particles, particle coalescence, agglomeration and oxidation. Here, we have found that the mechanism of particle formation in candle flame involves various steps, in which the sintering as well as coalescence/collision process plays a major role. - Highlights: • Mechanistic aspect for hydrophobicity of candle soot is demonstrated. • Hydrophobicity of soot particles at different exposure time is described. • Agglomeration of soot particles related to fractal dimension is reported. • Mechanism of formation of soot particles in the candle flame is also described.

  7. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer. PMID:24582651

  8. An experimental design for the investigation of water repellent property of candle soot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanistic aspect of candle soot particles under controlled atmosphere has been reported. The soot particles were characterized using Fourier transformation Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Hydrophobicity of the candle soot particles was confirmed from the presence of C–H group which enhances water repellency and can be used as filler material for fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings. The layered soot particle on the glass slide exhibits maximum water contact angle of 168°. Roughness of soot particle and various hydrophobic groups involved for obtaining superhydrophobicity were exposed. The Raman spectrum of soot particles revealed the presence of disorder graphene which was confirmed from appearance of D1 band. The agglomeration of candle soot particles has been discussed by measuring fractal dimension (Df) of the particles. The in-depth investigation for bringing the mechanism of formation of soot particle inside the flame reveals the inception of the first particles, growth of soot particles, particle coalescence, agglomeration and oxidation. Here, we have found that the mechanism of particle formation in candle flame involves various steps, in which the sintering as well as coalescence/collision process plays a major role. - Highlights: • Mechanistic aspect for hydrophobicity of candle soot is demonstrated. • Hydrophobicity of soot particles at different exposure time is described. • Agglomeration of soot particles related to fractal dimension is reported. • Mechanism of formation of soot particles in the candle flame is also described

  9. Safeguards in Norway-Experiences with Integrated Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norway was among the first countries to have a nuclear research reactor in operation. JEEP 1, a joint project between the Netherlands and Norway, went into operation in 1951. In the early years of nuclear power there were no safeguards bureau. However, Norway had in the late 1950's signed an agreement with USA concerning peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The agreement secured USA that the nuclear facilities in Norway were not used for military purposes, and provided Norway with uranium and other vital equipment for the reactors. IAEA safeguards was implemented in Norway 1 March 1972. Norway is not part of EURATOM, thus only the bilateral safeguards agreement with the IAEA is enforced. For Norway the Additional Protocol came into force in 2000, while Integrated Safeguards was implemented in 2002. As one of the first countries to have Integrated Safeguards implemented, Norway has a broad experience in this field. This paper will present the nuclear facilities in Norway and discuss the experiences with Integrated Safeguards and compare it to traditional safeguards

  10. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented

  11. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  12. Testing of ceramic filter materials at the PCFB test facility; Keraamisten suodinmateriaalien testaus PCFB-koelaitoksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P.; Tiensuu, J. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula, Finland since 1986. In 1989, a 10 MW PCFB test facility was constructed. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1994 for obtaining data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main objective of the project Y53 was to evaluate advanced candle filter materials for the Hot Gas Clean-up Unit (HGCU) to be used in a commercial PCFB Demonstration Project. To achieve this goal, the selected candle materials were exposed to actual high temperature, high pressure coal combustion flue gases for a period of 1000-1500 h during the PCFB test runs. The test runs were carried out in three test segments in Foster Wheeler`s PCFB test facility at the Karhula R and D Center. An extensive inspection and sampling program was carried out after the second test segment. Selected sample candles were analyzed by the filter supplier and the preliminary results were encouraging. The material strength had decreased only within expected range. Slight elongation of the silicon carbide candles was observed, but at this phase the elongation can not be addressed to creep, unlike in the candles tested in 1993-94. The third and last test segment was completed successfully in October 1996. The filter system was inspected and several sample candles were selected for material characterization. The results will be available in February - March 1997. (orig.)

  13. Some developments in safeguards techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental principles of safeguards and the research and development of safeguards techniques are described. Safeguard accountancy based upon the partition of the fuel cycle into suitable material balance areas will be further improved. Implementation of international safeguards in the European fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities is described. The effectiveness of a material accounting system depends on the quality of the quantitative data. The allocation of the tasks in the framework of an integrated safeguards is concerned with R and D work only and has no bearing on the allocation of the implementation costs. Bulk measurements, sampling and destructive or non-destructive analysis of samples are described for the determination of batch data. Testing of the safeguards techniques as a keystone in relation to plant instrumentation programmes are still being developed throughout the world. In addition to accountancy and control, it also includes an effective physical security program. The system of international safeguards that prevailed in the sixties has been re-modelled to comply with the new requirements of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and with the growth of nuclear energy

  14. Openness, transparency, and enhanced safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much confusion exists regarding the use of the terms openness and transparency in the context of improved International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards pursuant to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). While the two are often used interchangeably, they are quite different aspects of the overall NPT safeguards approach. To clarify the terms, Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) describes transparency as a glass house with an interior that can be viewed from a distance, and openness is a brick house that one can enter. While this analogy is helpful, it is not entirely satisfactory. Transparency is not a synonym for openness; it is a function or a result of openness. There can be no transparency without openness first, thus the issue of improved openness should be a prime consideration in ongoing international efforts to strengthen the current NPT safeguards system. The safeguards system administered by the IAEA pursuant to the NPT works because the treaty's signatories have a common commitment to nuclear nonproliferation and have agreed to common guidelines to verify compliance with this commitment. Nevertheless, a need to improve existing safeguards was expressed at the 1990 NPT Review Conference. This perceived weakness in the NPT safeguards system may be rooted in the lack of a common definition among Member States as to what constitutes openness. In this context, the issue of openness could have ramification not only for the effectiveness of the international community's nuclear nonproliferation efforts but also for the activities of the IAEA in terms of the resources required for the effective administration of the current NPT safeguards system. Some adjustment of the IAEA's NPT safeguards activities should occur in the form of a redirection of current efforts, an augmentation of current resources, or both

  15. Hexapartite Safeguards Project - a retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP) was created in November 1980 as an international forum consisting of the technology holders of gas-centrifuge enrichment and the international safeguards inspectorates in order to develop a strategy for applying effective and efficient safeguards to a commercial centrifuge enrichment plant without compromising the sensitive information related to centrifuge enrichment technology. The participants were Australia, Japan, the so-called 'Troika' states, i.e. the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the United States, EURATOM and the IAEA. They met for some two years, producing in February 1983 a final report with the agreed strategy of the 'LFUA' (Limited Frequency Unannounced Access) Model. Its basic feature is to allow the safeguards inspectors to have a routine access to cascade halls only with a short notice and with an agreed average frequency. This model has been serving as the basis for enrichment plant safeguards in HSP countries with necessary modifications and adaptations reflecting the specific features of individual plants. However, more than two decades have passed since the conclusion of HSP and it has become necessary to develop new safeguards approaches to reflect the recent developments in enrichment and safeguards technology, in particular the advent of large scale facilities. SAGSI (Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation) recently reviewed and approved the Agency's proposed approach. In this paper, the author, having served as the Secretariat of HSP in charge of drafting its final report, outlines the outcome of HSP in historical perspective, especially the issues becoming distinctive in the course of HSP deliberations, how they were addressed in the LFUA model, and the significance of HSP in the context of international safeguards, as well as its limitations due to prevailing legal interpretations at that time. (author)

  16. The next generation safeguards initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGSI or the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is designed to revitalize the U.S. safeguards technical base, as well as invest in human resources, and to mobilize our primary asset - the U.S. National Laboratories - as well as industry and academia to restore capabilities. While NGSI is a U.S. effort it is intended to serve as a catalyst for a much broader commitment to international safeguards in partnership with the IAEA and other countries. Initiatives over the last years include such as the Proliferation Security Initiative, UN Security Council Resolution 1540, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and initiatives of the G-8 and NSG to discourage the spread of enrichment and reprocessing. NGSI augments this agenda by providing a means to strengthen the technical and political underpinnings of IAEA safeguards. Priorities and envisioned activities under NGSI are the following. (1) Cooperation with IAEA and others to promote universal adoption of safeguards agreements and the Additional Protocol including greater information sharing between member states and the IAEA, investigation of weaponization and procurement activities, and options to strengthen the state-level approach to safeguards. (2) NGSI anticipates the deployment of new types of reactors and fuel cycle facilities, as well as the need to use limited safeguards resources effectively and efficiently, especially in plants that pose the largest burden specifically complex, bulk-handling facilities. (3) NGSI will encourage a generational improvement in current safeguards technologies including improvement of precision and speed of nuclear measurements, performance of real-time process monitoring and surveillance in unattended mode, enabling in-field, pre-screening and analysis of nuclear and environmental samples, and collection, integration, analysis and archiving safeguards-relevant information from all available sources.(4) NGSI will address human capital management. Training and

  17. IAEA safeguards: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the IAEA safeguards regime is described. New challenges and opportunities are discussed in connection with the discovery in Iraq of a clandestine nuclear weapons development programme, the difficulties experienced in the implementation of the safeguards agreement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the conclusion of a comprehensive safeguards agreement with Argentina, Brazil and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, recent developments in South Africa, the emergence of newly independent States that made up the former USSR. 2 figs

  18. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  19. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, also included are events reported involving byproduct material which is exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  20. Near-Infrared Hubble Diagrams and The Effectiveness of Using Type Ia Supernovae as Standard Candles In The Near-Infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Samuel D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Marion, G. H.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2009-12-01

    We use a combination of near-infrared and optical data to study the diversity in intrinsic brightness of Type Ia supernovae and to learn how better to correct for the systematic errors involved in using them as standard candles. Our sample includes light curves of 29 nearby Type Ia SNe from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) at Las Campanas observatory in Chile, which observes in both optical (uBVgri) and near-IR (YJHK) filters, and other well observed nearby Type Ia SNe having light curves with both optical and near-IR data published in the literature. We also use more than forty near-IR spectra from the Marion/IRTF data set plus eleven near-IR spectra of SN 1999ee from Hamuy et al. (2002). The combined set of near-IR spectra consists of many different SNe and covers the epoch range from -13 days to +76 days with respect to V-band maximum. We are working on deriving a set of near-IR, K-corrected, and extinction-corrected YJHK light curve templates and new methods for fitting future YJHK light curve data. From observations of 20 Type Ia supernovae obtained by the CSP collaboration, along with previously published results, I will present near-IR Hubble diagrams and derived absolute magnitudes at maximum brightness for the objects that have well observed near-IR light curves. Type Ia supernovae appear to be standard candles in the near-IR to ±0.15 mag or better and there is much less extinction by dust in the near-IR compared to the optical. A better understanding of the Standard Candle nature of SNe will enable us to improve their usefulness as precise distance indicators and enter deeper into the era of precision cosmology.

  1. Unbiased constraints on the clumpiness of universe from standard candles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengxiang; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We perform unbiased tests for the clumpiness of universe by confronting the Zel'dovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder luminosity distance which describes the effect of local inhomogeneities on the propagation of light with the observational one estimated from measurements of standard candles, i.e., type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Methodologically, we first determine the light-curve fitting parameters which account for distance estimation in SNe Ia observations and luminosity/energy relations which are responsible for distance estimation of GRBs in the global fit to reconstruct the Hubble diagrams in the context of a clumpy universe. Subsequently, these Hubble diagrams allow us to achieve unbiased constraints on the matter density parameter $\\Omega_m$ as well as clumpiness parameter $\\eta$ which quantifies the fraction of homogeneously distributed matter within a given light cone. At 1$\\sigma$ confidence level, the constraints are $\\Omega_m=0.34\\pm0.02$ and $\\eta=1.00^{+0.00}_{-0.02}$ from the ...

  2. Applications of ''candle'' burn-up strategy to several reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new burn-up strategy CANDLE is proposed, and the calculation procedure for its equilibrium state is presented. Using this strategy, the power shape does not change as time passes, and the excess reactivity and reactivity coefficient are constant during burn-up. No control mechanism for the burn-up reactivity is required, and power control is very easy. The reactor lifetime can be prolonged by elongating the core height. This burn-up strategy can be applied to several kinds of reactors whose maximum neutron multiplication factor changes from less than unity to more than unity, and then to less than unity. In the present paper it is applied to some fast reactors, thus requiring some fissile material such as plutonium for the nuclear ignition region of the core, but only natural uranium is required for the other region of the initial reactor and for succeeding reactors. The drift speed of the burning region for this reactor is about 4 cm/year, which is a preferable value for designing a long-life reactor. The average burn-up of the spent fuel is about 40%; that is, equivalent to 40% utilisation of the natural uranium without the reprocessing and enrichment. (author)

  3. $\\gamma$-ray bursts towards a standard candle luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Atteia, J L

    1997-01-01

    It is usual, in gamma-ray burst (GRB) studies, to compare the average properties of bright and faint GRBs, with the assumption that these brightness classes reflect distance classes. However, when brightness is intented to reflect the distance to the sources, it is important to use a quantity with a small intrinsic dispersion. We propose here a new method to compare the intrinsic dispersion of various measures of the GRB luminosity. We apply this method to GRBs in the BATSE Catalog and find that the best distance indicator in this catalog is the fluence measured below 100 keV. In general, we study the influence of the time and energy windows on the luminosity dispersion of GRBs. While we see little influence of the time window, we show that the energy window has a fundamental importance and that GRBs are much closer to standard candles below 100 keV than above. We suggest that a beaming of the emission above 100 keV could explain this behaviour.

  4. Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains contributed papers from various authors on the following subjects: Safeguards systems and implementation, Measurement techniques: general, Measurement techniques: destructive analysis, Measurement techniques: non-destructive assay, Containment and surveillance, Spent fuel strategies, Material accounting and data evaluation

  5. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first phase of R and D program conducted from 1997 to 1999, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. For the nuclear material measurement system, the performance test was finished and received IAEA approval, and now is being used in DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility(DFDF) for nuclear material accounting and control. Other systems being developed in this study were already installed in DFDF and being under performance test. Those systems developed in this study will make a contribution not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author)

  6. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I.; Song, D. Y. [and others

    2000-03-01

    During the first phase of R and D program conducted from 1997 to 1999, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. For the nuclear material measurement system, the performance test was finished and received IAEA approval, and now is being used in DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility(DFDF) for nuclear material accounting and control. Other systems being developed in this study were already installed in DFDF and being under performance test. Those systems developed in this study will make a contribution not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author)

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  8. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  9. Reactor safeguards against insider sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual safeguards system is structured to show how both reactor operations and physical protection resources could be integrated to prevent release of radioactive material caused by insider sabotage. Operational recovery capabilities are addressed from the viewpoint of both detection of and response to disabled components. Physical protection capabilities for preventing insider sabotage through the application of work rules are analyzed. Recommendations for further development of safeguards system structures, operational recovery, and sabotage prevention are suggested

  10. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  11. Reactor safeguards against insider sabotage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, H.A.

    1982-03-01

    A conceptual safeguards system is structured to show how both reactor operations and physical protection resources could be integrated to prevent release of radioactive material caused by insider sabotage. Operational recovery capabilities are addressed from the viewpoint of both detection of and response to disabled components. Physical protection capabilities for preventing insider sabotage through the application of work rules are analyzed. Recommendations for further development of safeguards system structures, operational recovery, and sabotage prevention are suggested.

  12. Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant: Moving from safeguards project to safeguards operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), which is currently in the process of active commissioning, is scheduled to begin commercial operation in the fall of 2007. The planned operating throughput of the plant is 800t of uranium in irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuel per year. This corresponds to approximately 8 tons of plutonium per year. The plant is designed to separate the LWR fuel and produce mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) powder for future processing to reactor fuel, uranium oxide and vitrified waste. RRP has been an active IAEA task since the early 1990s and is currently transitioning from a safeguards project to a safeguarded facility. The development and implementation of safeguards at RRP represents one of the largest safeguards endeavors not only in terms of nuclear material under safeguards but also in terms of costs for equipment development, procurement and installation, and human resource requirements. The IAEA has been conducting routine inspections at RRP since the first spent fuel assemblies were received by the facility in 1998. However, when the first LWR assemblies were introduced into the process in March of 2006 the IAEA implemented a regime of continuous inspections during operations. This inspector presence ensures that adequate safeguards are applied to the material, provides support the installation, testing and validation of safeguards equipment, and facilitates development/modification of the procedures necessary for day-to-day operations. The startup of the Rokkasho facility has been a stepwise process. Each time the nuclear material reaches a new stage in the process we are confronted with new challenges. Currently the plutonium and uranium separation and purification systems are being tested and most of the nuclear material remains in solution. The next phase will be to test the MOX production processes and associated safeguards equipment. This task of implementing safeguards and installing, adjusting and

  13. Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant: Moving from safeguards project to safeguards operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), which is currently in the process of active commissioning, is scheduled to begin commercial operation in the fall of 2007. The planned operating throughput of the plant is 800t U/y in irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This corresponds to approximately 8t Pu/y. The plant is designed to separate the LWR fuel and produce plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) powder for future processing to reactor fuel, uranium oxide and vitrified waste. The RRP has been an active IAEA task since the early 1990s and is currently transitioning from a safeguards project to a safeguarded facility. The development and implementation of safeguards at the RRP represents one of the largest safeguards endeavours not only in terms of nuclear material under safeguards but also in terms of costs for equipment development, procurement, installation and human resource requirements. The IAEA has been conducting routine inspections at the RRP since the first spent fuel assemblies were received by the facility in 1998. However, when the first LWR assemblies were introduced into the process in March 2006 the IAEA implemented a regime of continuous inspections during operations. This inspector presence ensures that adequate safeguards are applied to the material, provides support for the installation, testing and validation of safeguards equipment, and facilitates development/modification of the procedures necessary for day-to-day operations. The start-up of the RRP facility has been a stepwise process. Each time the nuclear material reaches a new stage in the process the IAEA is confronted with new challenges. Currently, the plutonium and uranium separation and purification systems are being tested and most of the nuclear material remains in solution. The next phase will be to test the MOX production processes and associated safeguards equipment. This tasks of implementing safeguards and installing, adjusting and evaluating the safeguards equipment and

  14. DOE/ABACC safeguards cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) signed a safeguards cooperation agreement. The agreement provides for cooperation in the areas of nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards applications. ABACC is an international safeguards organization responsible for verifying the commitments of a 1991 bilateral agreement between Argentina and Brazil in which both countries agreed to submit all nuclear material in all nuclear activities to a Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). DOE provides critical assistance (including equipment and training) through the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to countries and international organizations to enhance their capabilities to control and verify nuclear material inventories. Specific activities initiated under the safeguards agreement include: (1) active US participation in ABACC's safeguards training courses, (2) joint development of specialized measurement training workshops, (3) characterization of laboratory standards, and (4) development and application of an extensive analytical laboratory comparison program. The results realized from these initial activities have been mutually beneficial in regard to strengthening the application of international safeguards in Argentina and Brazil

  15. Safeguards information challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the background and broader vision in which the various presentations and posters on information related matters, prepared by staff of the Department of Safeguards, find their place, exploring solutions to the challenges faced. At a time when the IAEA is expected to be a reference for the assessment of nuclear proliferation issues, it faces major challenges with regard to the information needed to provide the international community with independent, impartial, timely and soundly based conclusions regarding the non-diversion of declared nuclear material and the absence of undeclared nuclear material or activities in States. The drawing of such conclusions assumes that all relevant information is accessible and has been put in the relevant context. Unfortunately, because of legal constraints under which it operates, or because of limitations on resources available for collecting existing but difficult to reach facts, or simply because of the overwhelming aspect of the information needed to properly evaluate proliferation issues, the IAEA needs to enhance the way it collects, processes, analyses, evaluates and disseminates safeguards relevant information. The search for better, broader and deeper information through dedicated collection means is an ongoing effort aimed at filling the gaps that constrain the development of the coherent picture that analysts need to be comfortable with the results of complex analyses. Implementation of well-selected information collection tools is sine qua non for effective IAEA verification capabilities. Beyond collection, the establishment of a proper information architecture and documented business processes is a prerequisite for ensuring that the available information is accessible to those with a need to know. At the same time, information must be sufficiently protected by appropriate security measures, particularly when hacking has become an intellectual sport and institutional security

  16. Potential of CANDLE reactor on sustainable development and strengthened proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDLE reactor generates energy by using only natural or depleted uranium as make up fuel and achieves about 40% burn up without fuel recycling (Sekimoto, H., Ryu, K., Yoshimura, Y., 2001. CANDLE: the new burnup strategy. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 139 (3), 306-317). These distinctive characteristics eliminate the necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing processes that are recognized as essentially inevitable parts in the conventional nuclear energy concept. This paper describes that the potential performance of CANDLE reactor to meet a projected energy demand growth of the world with stabilizing carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere and simultaneously minimize the risk of nuclear material proliferation. A type of CANDLE reactor with moderate initial fissile inventory is feasible to be deployed with prompt enough introduction pace to satisfy the worldwide energy growth and limit the carbon dioxide concentration to about 550 ppm in the next century. Ultimately high proliferation resistance performance as a fission energy system is found for the CANDLE system due to the elimination of most vulnerable processes in the conventional fuel cycle. (author)

  17. Implementation of the CNEN's safeguards laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Safeguards Agreements between Brazil and others countries has been concluded with the participation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA), and involve the Physical Protection and Control of Nuclear Material activities, which set up the National Safeguards System. The Safeguards Laboratory was constructed to the implementation and maintenance of this National Safeguards System, under responsability of CNEN's Safeguards Division, in order to carry out measurements of nuclear materials under safeguards. Technical requirements applied to the construction, setting up and operation of the laboratory are showed. The first results refer to the implementation of safeguards methods and techniques, as well as its participation within international scientific and technical co-operation programs in the safeguards area, through of them we wait its credencement by the AIEA as Regional Safeguards Laboratory for every countries of the Latin America. (Author)

  18. International nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History can be a very dull subject if it relates to events which have long since lost their relevance. The factors which led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), however, are as important and relevant today as they were when the Agency was first created. Without understanding these factors it is impossible to realise how important the Agency is in the present world or to understand some of the controversies surrounding its future. Central to these controversies is the question of how best to promote the international transfer of nuclear technology without contributing further to the problem of proliferating nuclear explosives or explosive capabilities. One effective means is to subject nuclear materials (see accompanying article in box), which forms the basic link between the manufacture of nuclear explosives and nuclear power generation, to international safeguards. This was realized very early in the development of nuclear power and was given greater emphasis following the deployment of the first two atomic bombs towards the end of World War II. (author)

  19. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  20. 75 FR 70713 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 39494 (July 9, 2010). On July 16, 2010... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). On the basis of a timely notice...

  1. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  2. Safeguards implementation in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Today's trend toward tightening regulations and increasingly stringent safeguards underscores the necessity for safeguards criteria to be incorporated at an early stage in the design of future fuel cycle facilities. IAEA and national safeguards systems are discussed. The U.S. Safeguards R and D program is described in some detail: reference facility (Barnwell) safeguards system design, dynamic materials accounting systems (DYMAC), etc. The safeguards problem of the conversion process (Pu nitrate to PuO/sub 2/) is considered. Recent developments and trends in measurement technology are reviewed. 79 references, 6 figures. (DLC)

  3. Safeguards in Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusion: (1) The integrated safeguards approach (ISA) was applied to Monju in November 2009 after it was confirmed that fuel assemblies were able to be monitored in every fuel handling route using the safeguards equipments installed in Monju. (2) A series of design, development and improvement related to safeguards in Monju, which were started in about 1985 (on the Monju construction stage), was finished by the shift to the ISA. (3) The safeguards method in Monju is expected to be a future FBR safeguards model. (4) In future, the reliability of safeguards equipments will be confirmed by accumulating the handling achievements of the spent fuel assemblies etc

  4. Safeguarding the MELOX fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of Melox, high material throughput and inventory, high level of automation, difficult to access material made it necessary to develop a new Safeguards scheme. In addition there was a need to optimize inspector and operator manpower needs. The definition and the application of the CIV Safeguards Scheme take maximum benefit from the use of highly integrated computer systems, independent unattended measurements systems and branching and logging of operator's equipment. This Scheme allows to achieve the Safeguards goals and to optimize the use of resources. From the viewpoint of Euratom, the capital investment is expected to be reimbursed by savings on manpower costs in 4 to 5 years of operations. The operator expects a reduction of the costs associated with the inevitable intrusion of the Euratom inspectors into the plant operations. This Scheme is the result of the consultations between the French authorities, the Euratom Safeguards Directorate and the Melox staff, in an outstanding spirit of collaboration. The Scheme has been successfully implemented for almost one year thus demonstrating that large MOX fabrication facilities are safeguardable. (J.P.N.)

  5. IAEA safeguards at research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency applies safeguards to almost 150 facilities classified as research reactors. From a safeguards point of view, these facilities present a spectrum of features that must be addressed both from the nuclear material and from the operational viewpoints. The nuclear fuel used by these reactors varies from high enriched uranium (NEU), up to 93 U-235, to natural uranium and the thermal power output from over 100 megawatt to less than ten watts. Research reactors are also used for a wide variety of purposes, including materials testing, radiosotope production, training and nuclear physics studies. The effort spent by the Agency in safeguarding these reactors is dependant upon the thermal power of the reactor and on the quantity and type of nuclear material present. On some research reactors, the Agency devotes more inspection effort than on a large power reactor. On others, very little effort is reguired. Safeguards that are applied are done so according to Agency State agreements and consist of a combiination of nuclear material accounting and containment and surveillance. In this paper, the safeguards activities performed by the State and by the Agency will be reviewed for a large (≤50MWt) and for a small (≥ 1 MWt) reactor according to the most common type agreement. (author)

  6. Future issues in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of large bulk-handling facilities into the internationally safeguarded, commercial nuclear fuel cycle, increased concerns for radiation exposure, and the constant level of resources available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are driving new and innovative approaches to international safeguards. Inspector resources have traditionally been allocated on a facility-type basis. Approaches such as randomization of inspections either within a facility or across facilities in a State or the application of a fuel-cycle approach within a State are being considered as means of conserving resources. Large bulk-handling facilities require frequent material balance closures to meet IAEA timeliness goals. Approaches such as near-real-time accounting, running book inventories, and adjusted running book inventories are considered as means to meet these goals. The automated facilities require that safeguards measures also be automated, leading to more reliance on operator-supplied equipment that must be authenticated by the inspectorate. New Non-Proliferation Treaty signatory States with advanced nuclear programs will further drain IAEA resources. Finally, the role of special inspections in IAEA safeguards may be expanded. This paper discusses these issues in terms of increasing safeguards effectiveness and the possible impact on operators. 14 refs

  7. International safeguards data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data base management system ''ISADAM'' (i.e. International Safeguards Data Management System) described in this report is intended to facilitate the safeguards authority in making efficient and effective use of accounting reports. ISADAM has been developed using the ADABAS data base management system and is implemented on the JRC-Ispra computer. The evaluation of safeguards declarations focuses on three main objectives: - the requirement of syntactical consistency with the legal conventions of data recording for safeguards accountancy; - the requirement of accounting evidence that there is no material unaccounted for (MUF); - the requirement of semantic consistency with the technological characteristics of the plant and the processing plans of the operator. Section 2 describes in more detail the facilities which ISADAM makes available to a safeguards inspector. Section 3 describes how the MUF variance computation is derived from models of measurement error propagation. Many features of the ISADAM system are automatically provided by ADABAS. The exceptions to this are the utility software designed to: - screen plant declarations before loading into the data base, - prepare variance summary files designed to support real-time computation of MUF and variance of MUF, - provide analyses in response to user requests in interactive or batch mode. Section 4 describes the structure and functions of this software which have been developed by JRC-Ispra

  8. Safeguards and Physics Measurements: Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes various activities that contribute to the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear materials. In particular, up-to-date expertise in the field of safeguards is maintained and consultancy, guidance and scientific and technical support is provided to the Belgian authorities and the nuclear industry. In addition, the programme intends to improve non-destructive methods for the qualification and the quantification of nuclear materials. Major achievements in these areas in 1999 are reported

  9. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, pre-1990 alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  10. IAEA Safeguards glossary 1987 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the IAEA published a safeguards glossary (IAEA/SG/INF/1) with the aim of facilitating the understanding and standardizing the meaning of the rather specialized safeguards terminology within the international community. The revised Glossary presented here takes into account the latest developments as well as comments received since the first version appeared. The terms defined in the Glossary intentionally have not been arranged in alphabetical order, but their sequence corresponds to the internal relation of the subjects treated. The terms are numbered consecutively and an index referring to these numbers has been provided for ease of reference. Translations of the terms into French, Russian, Spanish, German and Japanese have been added. The Glossary has no legal status and is not intended to serve as a basis for adjudicating on problems of definition such as might arise during the negotiation or in the interpretation of safeguards agreements

  11. Implementing Safeguards-by-Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; Phillip Casey Durst; John Hockert; James Morgan

    2010-02-01

    Executive Summary Excerpt Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) is an approach to the design and construction of nuclear facilities whereby safeguards are designed-in from the very beginning. It is a systematic and structured approach for fully integrating international and national safeguards (MC&A), physical security, and other proliferation barriers into the design and construction process for nuclear facilities. SBD is primarily a project management or project coordination challenge, and this report focuses on that aspect of SBD. The present report continues the work begun in 2008 and focuses specifically on the design process, or project management and coordination - the planning, definition, organization, coordination, scheduling and interaction of activities of the safeguards experts and stakeholders as they participate in the design and construction of a nuclear facility. It delineates the steps in a nuclear facility design and construction project, in order to provide the project context within which the safeguards design activities take place, describes the involvement of safeguards experts in the design process, the nature of their analyses, interactions and decisions, as well as describing the documents created and how they are used. Designing and constructing a nuclear facility is an extremely complex undertaking. The stakeholders in an actual project are many – owner, operator, State regulators, nuclear facility primary contractor, subcontractors (e.g. instrument suppliers), architect engineers, project management team, safeguards, safety and security experts, in addition to the IAEA and its team. The purpose of the present report is to provide a common basis for discussions amongst stakeholders to collaboratively develop a SBD approach that will be both practically useful and mutually beneficial. The principal conclusions from the present study are: • In the short term, the successful implementation of SBD is principally a project management problem.

  12. Implementing Safeguards-by-Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excerpt Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) is an approach to the design and construction of nuclear facilities whereby safeguards are designed-in from the very beginning. It is a systematic and structured approach for fully integrating international and national safeguards (MC and A), physical security, and other proliferation barriers into the design and construction process for nuclear facilities. SBD is primarily a project management or project coordination challenge, and this report focuses on that aspect of SBD. The present report continues the work begun in 2008 and focuses specifically on the design process, or project management and coordination - the planning, definition, organization, coordination, scheduling and interaction of activities of the safeguards experts and stakeholders as they participate in the design and construction of a nuclear facility. It delineates the steps in a nuclear facility design and construction project, in order to provide the project context within which the safeguards design activities take place, describes the involvement of safeguards experts in the design process, the nature of their analyses, interactions and decisions, as well as describing the documents created and how they are used. Designing and constructing a nuclear facility is an extremely complex undertaking. The stakeholders in an actual project are many - owner, operator, State regulators, nuclear facility primary contractor, subcontractors (e.g. instrument suppliers), architect engineers, project management team, safeguards, safety and security experts, in addition to the IAEA and its team. The purpose of the present report is to provide a common basis for discussions amongst stakeholders to collaboratively develop a SBD approach that will be both practically useful and mutually beneficial. The principal conclusions from the present study are: (1) In the short term, the successful implementation of SBD is principally a project management problem. (2) Life-cycle cost

  13. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  14. IAEA symposium on international safeguards. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important subjects treated in 188 papers presented by the participants from member state and IAEA Safeguards Inspectors at the Symposium were as follows: implementation of IAEA safeguards; national support programs to the IAEA safeguards; experiences in application of safeguard monitoring devices; improved methods for verification of plutonium; highly enriched uranium; surveillance of spent fuel storage facilities, reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication plants; excess weapon grade plutonium and other fissile materials

  15. Safeguards agreements - Their legal and conceptual basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Agency safeguards requires treaty arrangements (Safeguards Agreements) between the State or States concerned and the Agency. The authority for the Agency to conclude such agreements and to implement them is provided for in the Agency's Statute. On the basis of the statutory provisions safeguards principles and procedures have been elaborated. These have been laid down in: The Agency's Safeguards System 1965, extended in 1966 and 1968; and the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements with NNWS pursuant to NPT. The verification of the undertaking by the State concerned not to use items subject to safeguards for purposes contrary to the terms of the agreement is ensured through the application of various safeguards measures. Containment and surveillance measures are expected to play an increasingly important role. One of the specific features of NPT Safeguards Agreements is the establishment of national systems of accounting and control of nuclear material. The majority of the agreements concluded under the non-NPT safeguards agreements implement obligations undertaken under co-operation agreements between States for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These agreements naturally reflect approaches adopted by the parties, in particular regarding the circumstances under which safeguards should be applied. Thus, the concepts used in the non-NPT safeguards agreements and the Safeguards System document, which is incorporated in these agreements by reference, are in continuous evolution. The Agency's Safeguards System document (INFCIRC/66/Rev.2) continues to be supplemented in practical application and through explicit decision by the Board. The non-NPT safeguards agreements contain, besides technical safeguards provisions from this document, and further provision for notification, inventories and financial matters, legal and political provisions such as sanctions in the case of non-compliance, and privileges and immunities. The paper discusses the

  16. Process: (international) safeguards interface at the Portsmouth GCEP from the safeguards technology developer's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a major portion of a safeguards system for possible use by IAEA at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is described from the viewpoint of the safeguards technology developer. The process-safeguards interface is reviewed, including safeguards, process, and operational constraints on the safeguards system. The conflicting requirements of the IAEA and the plant operator are minimized through the use of advanced technology that allows safeguards data to be acquired, analyzed, and reported in an automated, unattended mode. The proposed safeguards system will reduce the impact of the inspections on both the operator and the IAEA

  17. Tour of safeguards equipment van

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing use is being made of nondestructive assay instruments for identification and measurements of nuclear materials. Important advantages of NDA are: timeliness, portability, and ease of use. Recent development in computer systems and NDA allow for the integration of sample planning, control of NDA, and data analysis into one transportable system. This session acquainted the course participants with the use of mobile NDA safeguards measurement systems. This session considered the practical problems and the type of results that can be expected from field use of NDA instruments. An existing mobile safeguards system was used to demonstrate some of the differences between field and laboratory conditions

  18. Thesis on safeguards gains doctorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most complete analyses yet to be made outside the Agency of its Safeguards system for preventing diversion of materials to military purposes has gained for its author a Doctorate of Philosophy. The subject was chosen as a thesis by Miss Gabrielle Martino, daughter of His Excellency Mr. Enrico Martino, Italian Ambassador to Austria and Resident Representative to IAEA. Miss Martino has been studying in the Faculty of Political Science at Rome University. Her thesis, which runs to 110 pages, traces the history of safeguards and the stages in evolution to the system adopted by the General Conference at its 1965 Session held in Tokyo. (author)

  19. The psychology of nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    it is argued that it is unreasonable to expect the Non-Proliferation Treaty to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials from peaceful purposes to nuclear weapons, which it was designed to do. However it is considered that although prevention cannot be guaranteed it is possible to deter such diversions. The question of publicity is examined since any safeguards system is judged exclusively on what is seen to be their failures and safeguard authorities will be tempted to conceal any diversion. (U.K.)

  20. International safeguards and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a critical review of the effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards against potential acts of nuclear terrorism. The author argues that IAEA safeguards should be made applicable to deterring diversions of nuclear materials from civil to weapons purposes by subnational groups as well as by nations. Both technical and institutional factors are considered, and suggestions for organizational restructuring and further technical development are made. Awareness of the necessity for effective preventive measures is emphasized, and possible directions for further effort are suggested

  1. Safeguards information challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Overall, the aim of this paper is to provide the background and the broader vision in which the various information related presentations and posters proposed by the Department find their place, exploring solutions to the challenges faced. At a time when the Agency is expected to be a reference for the assessment of nuclear proliferation threats, providing the international community with independent, impartial, timely and credible conclusions that no declared nuclear material is diverted to non-peaceful purposes and that no undeclared nuclear material or activities exist in States, it has to address major challenges with regard to information. Drawing credible conclusions assumes that all relevant information is accessible and put into relevant context. Because of the legal constraints under which it operates, the limitation of resources for collecting existing but difficult to reach details and simply because of the overwhelming quantity of the information needed to properly evaluate proliferation issues, the Agency has to continually improve the way it collects, processes and internally disseminates safeguards relevant information. Developing a coherent picture of a State's nuclear capability is a complex process based on many experts' assessments and fusion of information. The search for better, broader and deeper information through dedicated collection processes is an ongoing effort aimed at filling the gaps of such pictures. Implementing well selected information collection tools is a sine qua non to render effective the Agency's detection capabilities. Beyond collection, another prerequisite to ensuring that the available information is accessible to those who need to know is the establishment of a proper information system architecture and an efficient set of standard business processes. At the same time, that information must be sufficiently protected by appropriate security measures, particularly at a time when private hacking has become a

  2. The International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of international safeguards has been established to provide assurance that nuclear materials in civilian use are not diverted from their peaceful purpose. The safeguards system is administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency/Department of Safeguards and devolves from treaties and other international agreements. Inspectors from the Agency verify reports from States about nuclear facilities by audits, observation, and measurements. (author)

  3. Safeguards planning in a plant design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards efforts for the partitioning fuel cycle are considered. Included in the discussion are the organization of the safeguards study, the development of safeguards criteria, the expression of these criteria as requirements for facility design, and some preliminary details of the implementation of these requirements in facility and process layout

  4. Safeguards planning in a plant design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safeguards efforts for the partitioning fuel cycle are considered. Included in the discussion are the organization of the safeguards study, the development of safeguards criteria, the expression of these criteria as requirements for facility design, and some preliminary details of the implementation of these requirements in facility and process layout. (LK)

  5. Burning a Candle in a Vessel, a Simple Experiment with a Long History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The experiment in which a candle is burned inside an inverted vessel partially immersed in water has a history of more than 2,200 years, but even nowadays it is common that students and teachers relate the change in volume of the enclosed air to its oxygen content. Contrary to what many people think, Lavoisier concluded that any change in volume…

  6. ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 micrometers (PM10) were captured ...

  7. Hansa Candle viib küünlad Moskvasse / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. märts lk. 4. AS Hansa Candle paneb Viljandi tootmishoone liinid üles Moskva lähistele, et oma toodanguga jõuda Venemaa turule. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad. Vt. samas: Küünlatehas otsib parafiinist odavamat tooret

  8. The Candle Scheme for Creating an on-line Computer Science Program - Experiences and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki SUTINEN

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning programs have rapidly increased during the past few decades. In fall 2000 the University of Joensuu started to offer distance Computer Science (CS studies to the high school students in surrounding rural areas of Joensuu. In this program high school students study the first year's university level CS studies over the web simultaneously with their regular high school studies. We describe the creation process of our virtual curriculum which is based the so-called Candle scheme. The Candle scheme search the most essential principles needed in on-line course design, supporting a student locally in her authentic learning needs via electronic tools in a light way. With the Candle scheme we have successfully focused in our design process on the most essential parts of the virtual study process. Our experiences of the Candle scheme in the creation process of the on-line CS program during years 2000-2002 indicate that the scheme is the functional one and expandable to other contexts as well.

  9. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  10. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  11. The future for safeguards technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper presents some elements of an emerging vision of a new and updated potential role for safeguard instrumentation in the overall process of deterring the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The paper focusses on installed, transportable and portable measurement systems and in-situ techniques for maintaining continuity of knowledge. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  12. Nuclear safeguards and nuclear shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issues involved in the California nuclear initiative (Proposition 15) are described. Some of the characteristics of the anti-nuclear lobby are outlined. Some do's and don'ts for the nuclear group are listed. The nuclear shutdown effort was concentrated on the safeguards and high-level waste disposal issues

  13. Safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It deserves re-emphasizing that the first and most important obstacle to the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a matter of political judgement and determination. Safeguards cannot prevent a violation of obligations... any more than bank or company audits can prevent a misappropriation of funds. All they can do is expose infringements or arouse suspicions - in effect, sound the alarm. By submitting the whole of their nuclear energy sector to impartial international inspection, States can inspire great confidence on the part of the rest of the world in the exclusively peaceful nature of their programmes. Safeguards are today an essential precondition for imports of nuclear power technology, uranium fuel, and many different kinds of material for the nuclear energy sector. Without IAEA safeguards, the existing market in this sector would be unworkable. Potentially, the most important aspect of the acceptance of IAEA safeguards by nuclear-weapon States is that it shows their readiness to submit important installations within their territory to impartial inspection

  14. Instrument development for safeguards measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New safeguards requirements, such as those resulting from industrial reprocessing activities, makes the faster and more accurate determination of the uranium enrichment and/or the isotopic composition of plutonium essential in measuring the fissile mass. In response to these needs, Canberra has developed several improved safeguards systems in the last few years. In this paper, we will present an overview of our newest safeguards systems and the improvements they contain. The portable systems include the U-Pu InSpector, the IMCA and the JSR-14 systems. All combine automatic control of acquisition electronics and rapid analysis with an integrated software package for ease of use. The U-Pu InSpector incorporates the MGA code used by the IAEA and Euratom for plutonium analysis. The IMCA complies with IAEA PMCN and PMCG procedures for uranium analysis. With the JSR-14, we are currently developing the procedures to provide compliance with the IAEA neutron counting procedures. In addition to portable safeguards systems, Canberra has designed and installed many installed systems such as the WDAS and PSMC systems at PNC Tokai in Japan, and the large unattended neutron/gamma systems at Cogema La Hague and the Melox reprocessing facility in France. (author)

  15. Nuclear safeguards and physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present lecture two topics are covered: 1) the steps or the infrastructure which the operators of a nuclear facility have to foresee for the implementation of safeguards according to the NPT. 2) General features of a national physical protection system for nuclear materials in use, storage and transport. (orig./RW)

  16. Process Monitoring for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process Monitoring has long been used to evaluate industrial processes and operating conditions in nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. In nuclear applications there is a recognized need to demonstrate the safeguards benefits from using advanced process monitoring on spent fuel reprocessing technologies and associated facilities, as a complement to nuclear materials accounting. This can be accomplished by: defining credible diversion pathway scenarios as a sample problem; using advanced sensor and data analysis techniques to illustrate detection capabilities; and formulating 'event detection' methodologies as a means to quantify performance of the safeguards system. Over the past 30 years there have been rapid advances and improvement in the technology associated with monitoring and control of industrial processes. In the context of bulk handling facilities that process nuclear materials, modern technology can provide more timely information on the location and movement of nuclear material to help develop more effective safeguards. For international safeguards, inspection means verification of material balance data as reported by the operator through the State to the international inspectorate agency. This verification recognizes that the State may be in collusion with the operator to hide clandestine activities, potentially during abnormal process conditions with falsification of data to mask the removal. Records provided may show material is accounted for even though a removal occurred. Process monitoring can offer additional fidelity during a wide variety of operating conditions to help verify the declaration or identify possible diversions. The challenge is how to use modern technology for process monitoring and control in a proprietary operating environment subject to safeguards inspectorate or other regulatory oversight. Under the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, a range of potential safeguards applications

  17. UKAEA Safeguards R and D Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth report of work being carried out in the UK on Safeguards R and D in support of the IAEA. The tasks included in the current UK Safeguards R and D Programme cover a wide diversity of aspects in the Safeguards field, with the work on them being conducted at several locations within the UK. It is convenient to classify the tasks as follows: reprocessing and centrifuge enrichment plant safeguards, general application of safeguards (tasks concerned with the development of instruments and techniques for general application), service programmes (tasks which are of service to the IAEA, eg calibration, training courses) and exploratory and short term tasks. (U.K.)

  18. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available

  19. Inspection technologies -Development of national safeguards technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    17 facility regulations prepared by nuclear facilities according to the Ministerial Notices were evaluated. Safeguards inspection activities under Safeguards are described. Safeguards inspection equipments and operation manuals to be used for national inspection are also described. Safeguards report are produced and submitted to MOST by using the computerized nuclear material accounting system at state level. National inspection support system are developed to produce the on-site information for domestic inspection. Planning and establishment of policy for nuclear control of nuclear materials, international cooperation for nuclear control, CTBT, strengthening of international safeguards system, and the supply of PWRs to North Korea are also described. (author). 43 tabs., 39 figs

  20. A five-year performance review of field-scale, slow-release permanganate candles with recommendations for second-generation improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Mark; Kambhu, Ann; Reece, James; Comfort, Steve; Brunner, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, we identified a TCE plume at an abandoned landfill that was located in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate cylinders (oxidant candles) that had diameters of either 5.1 or 7.6 cm and were 91.4 cm long. In 2010, we compared two methods of candle installation by inserting equal masses of the oxidant candles (7.6-cm vs 5.1-cm dia). The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted with direct-push rods while the 7.6-cm candles were housed in screens and lowered into 10 permanent wells. Since installation, the 7.6-cm oxidant candles have been refurbished approximately once per year by gently scraping off surface oxides. In 2012, we reported initial results; in this paper, we provide a 5-yr performance review since installation. Temporal sampling shows oxidant candles placed in wells have steadily reduced migrating TCE concentrations. Moreover, these candles still maintain an inner core of oxidant that has yet to contribute to the dissolution front and should provide several more years of service. Oxidant candles inserted by direct-push have stopped reducing TCE concentrations because a MnO2 scale developed on the outside of the candles. To counteract oxide scaling, we fabricated a second generation of oxidant candles that contain sodium hexametaphosphate. Laboratory experiments (batch and flow-through) show that these second-generation permanganate candles have better release characteristics and are less prone to oxide scaling. This improvement should reduce the need to perform maintenance on candles placed in wells and provide greater longevity for candles inserted by direct-push. PMID:26901481

  1. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing

  2. Visualizing Safeguards: Software for Conceptualizing and Communicating Safeguards Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-12

    The nuclear programs of states are complex and varied, comprising a wide range of fuel cycles and facilities. Also varied are the types and terms of states’ safeguards agreements with the IAEA, each placing different limits on the inspectorate’s access to these facilities. Such nuances make it difficult to draw policy significance from the ground-level nuclear activities of states, or to attribute ground-level outcomes to the implementation of specific policies or initiatives. While acquiring a firm understanding of these relationships is critical to evaluating and formulating effective policy, doing so requires collecting and synthesizing large bodies of information. Maintaining a comprehensive working knowledge of the facilities comprising even a single state’s nuclear program poses a challenge, yet marrying this information with relevant safeguards and verification information is more challenging still. To facilitate this task, Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a means of capturing the development, operation, and safeguards history of all the facilities comprising a state’s nuclear program in a single graphic. The resulting visualization offers a useful reference tool to policymakers and analysts alike, providing a chronology of states’ nuclear development and an easily digestible history of verification activities across their fuel cycles.

  3. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  4. Safeguards issues in spent fuel consolidation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.L.; Moran, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the nuclear power industry, the fuel assembly is the basic unit for nuclear material accountancy. The safeguards procedures for the spent fuel assemblies, therefore, are based on an item accountancy approach. When fuel consolidation occurs in at-reactor'' or away-from-reactor'' facilities, the fuel assemblies are disassembled and cease to be the basic unit containing nuclear material. Safeguards can no longer be based on item accountancy of fuel assemblies. The spent fuel pins containing plutonium are accessible, and the possibilities for diversion of spent fuel for clandestine reprocessing to recover the plutonium are increased. Thus, identifying the potential safeguards concerns created by operation of these facilities is necessary. Potential safeguards techniques to address these concerns also must be identified so facility designs may include the equipment and systems required to provide an acceptable level of assurance that the international safeguards objectives can be met when these facilities come on-line. The objectives of this report are (1) to identify the safeguards issues associated with operation of spent fuel consolidation facilities, (2) to provide a preliminary assessment of the assessment of the safeguards vulnerabilities introduced, and (3) to identify potential safeguards approaches that could meet international safeguards requirements. The safeguards aspects of spent fuel consolidation are addressed in several recent reports and papers. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A guide to mineral safeguarding in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, F.M.; Cowley, J.; Hobden, K.; Bee, E.; Hannis, S.

    2007-10-15

    A key aspect of sustainable development is the conservation and safeguarding of non-renewable resources, such as minerals, for future generations. The UK is endowed with a wide range of indigenous minerals but these natural resources are finite. With increased pressure on land-use in the UK, there is a need to ensure that these natural resources are not needlessly sterilised by other development, leaving insufficient supplies for future generations. Safeguarding will also help ensure that the planning system retains the flexibility to identify sites which have the least impact on the environment. Safeguarding is the term that encompasses the process necessary to ensure that outcome. Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and minerals, published in November 2006, aims to prevent unnecessary sterilisation of mineral resources by providing national policy for mineral safeguarding. The 'Guide to mineral safeguarding' is designed to complement this policy which introduces an obligation on all Mineral Planning Authorities to define Mineral Safeguarding Areas. Defining Mineral Safeguarding Areas carries no presumption that the resources will be worked. The guide provides guidance on how current mineral safeguarding policy can be complied with and puts forward a relatively simple step-by-step methodology for delineating Mineral Safeguarding Areas, together with examples of policies through which they would have effect. When linked to appropriate local planing policies, Mineral Safeguarding Areas should ensure that mineral resources are adequately and effectively considered in making land-use planning decisions. 3 annexes.

  6. ABACC: A regional safeguards agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was created as a common system of accounting and control. It is based on Bilateral Agreement between the two countries and the agreement with the IAEA. After a few years of experience it might be concluded that a regional system may contribute in many ways to enhance the safeguards system. The most relevant are: to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards by sending as professionals who are experts in the process involved in installations that are to be inspected; to have much more information on nuclear activities in each of the two countries than available to the IAEA; and to maintain formal and informal channels of communication

  7. Safeguards instrumentation: past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments are essential for accounting, for surveillance and for protection of nuclear materials. The development and application of such instrumentation is reviewed, with special attention to international safeguards applications. Active and passive nondestructive assay techniques are some 25 years of age. The important advances have been in learning how to use them effectively for specific applications, accompanied by major advances in radiation detectors, electronics, and, more recently, in mini-computers. The progress in seals has been disappointingly slow. Surveillance cameras have been widely used for many applications other than safeguards. The revolution in TV technology will have important implications. More sophisticated containment/surveillance equipment is being developed but has yet to be exploited. On the basis of this history, some expectations for instrumentation in the near future are presented

  8. Safeguards Indexing Method for the Regulatory Assessment of Safeguards Culture at Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) has just introduced a safeguards indexing method for evaluation the safeguards culture at Hungarian nuclear facilities. The main goal of this indexing method is to provide a useful tool for the regulatory body to evaluate the safeguards culture at nuclear facilities. The evaluated parameters are e.g. educational requirement for safeguards staff, quality of safeguards reporting for IAEA and EC, results of safeguards inspections etc. Input of the method is for the one hand the outcome of the comprehensive domestic safeguards verification system consisting of regular comprehensive SSAC verifications of the facilities. The main goals of the comprehensive verification system are: (1) to assess the facilities safeguards system compliance with the relevant national legislation and recommendations, (2) to assess the activities of the facility aimed at maintaining and further developing its safeguards system and (3) to revise validity of data and information previously provided by the facility subject to safeguards licensing procedures. On the other hand the annual report of the nuclear facilities also supports the safeguards indexing method, which is a good indicator of the present and future effectiveness of the facility level safeguards system and the level of safeguards culture.

  9. Safeguards from the operators viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its inception as a nuclear materials processing facility, nuclear materials accounting has been an integral part of process operations at Los Alamos. Accountability practices have been improved from largely destructive assay in 1950 to resolve inventory differences to heavy reliance on NDA today. Much of the NDA development at the plutonium processing facility has been made possible by a close physical and working relationship with the safeguards research and development personnel

  10. Environment and Safeguards Compliance Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2006-01-01

    This Environment and Safeguards Compliance Policy was approved by the IDB's Board of Executive Directors on January 19, 2006. It supersedes the Bank's previous environment policy, which dated to 1979, and reinforces the environmental mandates of the Eighth Capital Replenishment. The new Policy strengthens the Bank's commitment with environmental sustainability in the region. This Policy consists of a set of directives that will guide the Bank's work towards environmental sustainability throug...

  11. Designing Data Protection Safeguards Ethically

    OpenAIRE

    Ugo Pagallo

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, lawmakers and scholars have worked on the idea of embedding data protection safeguards in information and communication technology (ICT) with the aim to access and control personal data in compliance with current regulatory frameworks. This effort has been strengthened by the capacities of computers to draw upon the tools of artificial intelligence (AI) and operations research. However, work on AI and the law entails crucial ethical issues concerning both values and modal...

  12. Safeguards against Takeover after Volkswagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the significance of the European Court's decision on the effects of the rules on the free movement of capital on the takeover safeguards in Volkswagen AG for restrictions on the right to vote, ownership ceilings, division into A and B share classes, increased majority require...... requirements etc. in listed companies, and the implications which the decision has for the state's participation in private companies....

  13. Safeguards uses of confirmatory measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the role of shipper and receiver measurements in safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) transferred from one facility to another, with emphasis on the case where the receiver requires an analytical accounting measurement of the transferred SNM and does not need the material for process purposes at the time of receipt. Seven possible diversion periods are considered, ranging from the interval between the shipper's final accounting measurement on the material and the time it is placed in the shipper's vault, through the actual transport of the material between facilities, to the time the material is removed from the receiver's vault and placed in the process. The detection power of various combinations of six possible shipper/receiver measurements for these diversion opportunities is then evaluated; the measurements considered include the shipper's and receiver's accounting measurements, the latter at two possible times, and various nondestructive assay (NDA) confirmatory measurements. It is concluded that all safeguards measurement objectives can be met by a combination of a shipper's accounting measurement at the time the material is removed from the process, an appropriate shipper's NDA confirmatory measurement either immediately after canning or immediately before shipping, an equivalent receiver's NDA confirmatory measurement immediately after the material is received, and a receiver's accounting measurement when the material is placed in the process. Furthermore, it is found that a receiver's analytical accounting measurement immediately after receipt when the material is not yet required for process has dubious safeguards value

  14. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUPIC safeguards R and D in the second phase has focused on the development of nuclear material measurement system and its operation and verification, the development of nuclear material control and accounting system, and the development of remote and unmanned containment/surveillance system. Of them, the nuclear material measurement system was authenticated from IAEA and officially used for IAEA and domestic safeguards activities in DFDF. It was also verified that the system could be used for quality control of DUPIC process. It is recognised that the diagnostic software using neural network and remote and unmanned containment/surveillance system developed here could be key technologies to go into remote and near-real time monitoring system. The result of this project will eventually contribute to similar nuclear fuel cycles like MOX and pyroprocessing facility as well as the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards. In addition, it will be helpful to enhance international confidence build-up in the peaceful use of spent fuel material

  15. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines. PMID:15212014

  16. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  17. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled 'A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards,' the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a 'safeguards culture' among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  18. Measures for increasing IAEA safeguards effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards depends not only on the quality of IAEA inspection and independent verification of declared nuclear material and facility use, but also on the perception of and reaction to IAEA safeguards by the nations who make up the international community. Because perceptions and reactions often involve nontechnical as well as technical factors, it has proven difficult to describe IAEA safeguards effectiveness in quantitative technical terms. This study uses a flow diagram to examine how IAEA inspections and the resulting verification statements lead to the main political objectives of IAEA safeguards, assurance and deterrence. Based on this approach, a figure of merit called the IAEA safeguards effectiveness ratio is defined, and measures for increasing IAEA safeguards effectiveness are identified and discussed

  19. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  20. The Candle and the Mirror: One Author's Journey as an Outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Chronicles the author's journey as an outsider who authored a book for children about the harvest traditions of the Tohono O'odham people. Describes how her concern about the lack of literature to serve as a mirror and a candle to reflect and illuminate the lives of Tohono O'odham children led her on a journey that was both painful and affirming.…

  1. You, your facility and IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the seven year period since the ratification of the Safeguards Agreement between the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the involved U.S. agencies and the IAEA have worked together to assure the effective implementation of international safeguards. There has been a continual effort to develop programs and procedures to improve performance and efficiency for the benefit of selected facilities and the IAEA. This paper discusses the implementation and economic impact of safeguards inspections on the IAEA and selected facilities and the ongoing effort to enhance performance and efficiency without compromising the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards

  2. Experiences and prospects of safeguards in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) initiated nuclear safeguards activities in 1960. In 1965, PNC developed a nuclear material accounting system for the handling of plutonium. A participant in IAEA inspections since 1968, PNC enacted the nuclear safeguards provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1977. By that time, the methods and equipment used in the IAEA inspections were similar to those used today. New Safeguards Concepts for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Material, which Japan and the USA will sign shortly, clearly states that information on relevant safeguard features shall be supplied to the IAEA on a voluntary basis, starting from the early design stages of the facility. The information will permit the IAEA to identify the key techniques and measures needed to implement the relevant safeguard provisions agreed to between Japan and the USA. In compliance with the Safeguards Concepts, work is proceeding on the relevant safeguard provisions for the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility and MONJU. PNC's nuclear safeguards experience should prove useful in developing the safeguard provisions for new R and D programs and facilities. (author)

  3. International acceptability of advanced safeguarding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are active development programs now under way to significantly enhance the effectiveness of international safeguarding. Advanced safeguarding techniques now under development include new material accounting methods utilizing nondestructive assay techniques, more reliable surveillance instrumentation, tamper-resistant and tamper-indicating seals, new means of utilizing continuous human inspection, and systems that incorporate both passive and active use-denial technologies. Before these new safeguarding techniques are utilized, however, they must be acceptable to the international community. This will unquestionably result in a compromise between what is technically feasible and what is politically acceptable. This report highlights many of the elements common to advanced safeguarding techniques that impact directly upon international acceptability. The concept of acceptability is viewed from the perspective of three different groups: (1) those States seeking upgraded safeguards, (2) those States having safeguards imposed upon them, and (3) the International Atomic Energy Agency. In general, a more conducive climate exists today for the acceptance of advanced safeguarding techniques than at any period in the past; but the differences between advanced safeguards and those safeguards being employed today are so large that considerable opposition to their implementation can be expected

  4. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  5. IAEA safeguards: Staying ahead of the game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What are nuclear safeguards and why are they important? Answers are provided in the booklet, describing and explaining the fundamentals of the IAEA safeguards system and its role as a key element of international security, and addressing the system's implementation, costs, requirements, resources and historical development, with an emphasis on trends and strengthening measures over the past 10-15 years. Topics discussed include the safeguards State evaluation process and and the key requirements of the safeguards system including information sources (open source information, commercial satellite imagery and nuclear trade related information) and the state of the art equipment, techniques and technology (unattended and remote monitoring equipment, environmental sampling, etc.)

  6. Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes: (1) various activities to assure nuclear materials accountancy; (2) contributes to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards measures in Belgium and to assist the IAEA through the Belgian Support Programme; (3) renders services to internal and external customers in the field of safeguards; (4) improves passive neutron coincidence counting techniques for waste assay and safeguards verification measurements by R and D on correlation algorithms implemented via software or dedicated hardware; (5) improves gamma assay techniques for waste assay by implementing advanced scanning techniques and different correlation algorithms; and (6) develops numerical calibration techniques. Major achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  7. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  8. Histologic and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S; Ramot, Yuval; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-07-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous, and often annular cutaneous eruption. Although the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 patients with CANDLE syndrome by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathological and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder and further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  9. Status and future prospect of 48Ca double beta decay search in CANDLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ajimura, S.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Kakubata, H.; Khai, B. T.; Kishimoto, T.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Masuda, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Morishita, K.; Nakatani, N.; Nomachi, M.; Noshiro, S.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Osumi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tesuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Umehara, S.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-05-01

    The observation of neutrino-less double beta decay (0vßß) would be the most practical way to prove the Majorana nature of the neutrino and lepton number violation. CANDLES studies 48Ca double beta decay using CaF2 scintillator. The main advantage of 48Ca is that it has the highest Q-value (4.27 MeV) among all the isotope candidates for 0vßß. The CANDLES III detector is currently operating with 300kg CaF2 crystals in the Kamioka underground observatory, Japan. In 2014, a detector cooling system and a magnetic cancellation coil was installed with the aim to increase light emission of CaF2 scintillator and photo-electron collection efficiency of the photo-multipliers. After this upgrade, light yield was increased to 1000 p.e./MeV which is 1.6 times larger than before. According to data analysis and simulation, main background source in CANDLES is turned out to be high energy external gamma-ray originating neutron capture on the surrounding materials, so called (n,γ). Upgrading the detector by installing neutron and gamma-ray shield can reduce the remaining main backgrounds by two order magnitude. In this report, we discuss the detail of (n,γ) and background reduction by additional shielding.

  10. SARP-2: Safeguards accounting and reports program, revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code, SARP (safeguards accounting and reports program), which will generate and maintain at-facility safeguards accounting records, and generate IAEA safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user, revision is described. 4 refs, 1 fig

  11. Verification and the safeguards legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of inspection or monitoring systems throughout the world over the last decades have been structured drawing upon the IAEA experience of setting up and operating its safeguards system. The first global verification system was born with the creation of the IAEA safeguards system, about 35 years ago. With the conclusion of the NPT in 1968, inspections were to be performed under safeguards agreements, concluded directly between the IAEA and non-nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty. The IAEA developed the safeguards system within the limitations reflected in the Blue Book (INFCIRC 153), such as limitations of routine access by the inspectors to 'strategic points', including 'key measurement points', and the focusing of verification on declared nuclear material in declared installations. The system, based as it was on nuclear material accountancy. It was expected to detect a diversion of nuclear material with a high probability and within a given time and therefore determine also that there had been no diversion of nuclear material from peaceful purposes. The most vital element of any verification system is the inspector. Technology can assist but cannot replace the inspector in the field. Their experience, knowledge, intuition and initiative are invaluable factors contributing to the success of any inspection regime. The IAEA inspectors are however not part of an international police force that will intervene to prevent a violation taking place. To be credible they should be technically qualified with substantial experience in industry or in research and development before they are recruited. An extensive training program has to make sure that the inspectors retain their professional capabilities and that it provides them with new skills. Over the years, the inspectors and through them the safeguards verification system gained experience in: organization and management of large teams; examination of records and evaluation of material balances

  12. The IAEA's safeguards system. Ready for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication reviews the IAEA's safeguards system, answering the following questions: What is being done to halt the further spread of nuclear weapons? Why are IAEA Safeguards important? What assurances do safeguards seek to provide? How are safeguards agreements implemented? What specific challenges have there been for IAEA verification? Can the IAEA prevent the diversion of declared Material? How has the safeguards system been strengthened? How much do safeguards cost? What is the future of IAEA verification?

  13. The IAEA's safeguards systems. Ready for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication reviews the IAEA's safeguards system, answering the following questions: What is being done to halt the further spread of nuclear weapons? Why are IAEA Safeguards important? what assurances do safeguards seek to provide? How are safeguards agreements implemented? What specific challenges have there been for IAEA verification? Can the IAEA prevent the diversion of declared Material? How has the safeguards system been strengthened? How much do safeguards cost? What is the future of IAEA verification? (author)

  14. The development of a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN): hope for a new standard candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, G.; Chung, S.; Gonzales, E. V.; Gorjian, V.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Of the galaxies in our universe, only a small percentage currently have Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These galaxies tend to be further out in the universe and older, and are different from inactive galaxies in that they emit high amounts of energy from their central black holes. These AGN can be classified as either Seyferts or quasars, depending on the amount of energy emitted from the center (less or more). We are studying the correlation between the ratio of dust emission and accretion disk emission to luminosities of AGN in order to determine if there is a relationship strong enough to act as a predictive model for distance within the universe. This relationship can be used as a standard candle if luminosity is found to determine distances in space. We have created a color-magnitude diagram depicting this relationship between luminosity and wavelengths, similar to the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The more luminous the AGN, the more dust surface area over which to emit energy, which results in a greater near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This differs from previous research because we use NIR to differentiate accretion from dust emission. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), we analyzed over one thousand Type 1 Seyferts and quasars. We studied data at different wavelengths in order to show the relationship between color (the ratio of one wavelength to another) and luminosity. It was found that plotting filters i-K (the visible and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum) against the magnitude absolute K (luminosity) showed a strong correlation. Furthermore, the redshift range between 0.14 and 0.15 was the most promising, with an R2 of 0.66.

  15. IAEA Safeguards: possible future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the fundamental elements of safeguards under comprehensive safeguards agreements as the provision by States to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of a set of core parameters related to the production and utilization of nuclear material and the provision by States of access to the IAEA to locations that are essential for it to carry out its responsibilities. The paper describes the way in which, over time, the extent of the information shared and the access granted has changed. It is noted that, initially, the IAEA system focused primarily on nuclear material declared by the State, but that this focus proved to be inadequate to meet in the fullest degree the requirements of the NPT and its requirement that safeguards be applied to all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities. Examples are given that describe several adaptations that were made to the safeguards system in order to ensure that the IAEA could provide assurance to its Member States of the absence of undeclared nuclear activities at a facility or in a State and that all of a State's nuclear activities are subject to the appropriate safeguards measures. The paper points out that these changes began in the late 1970's but that the new and dramatic changes resulted from the discovery in Iraq of a large clandestine nuclear weapon program in the early 1990's. The paper then outlines how the IAEA could, in the future, meet its objectives better and/or more efficiently by taking advantage of additional information about the operation of facilities as well as new technologies to both provide and to analyze this information. Two areas that seem particularly relevant to explore are described. One is providing the IAEA with operating information available from automated and/or highly instrumented plant operations. This would be particularly relevant in instances where one of the important goals of the IAEA was ensuring the absence of undeclared operations at a declared

  16. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  17. Network technology for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new flexible technology is now available to design sensor and control networks based on a protocol embedded in an intelligent communications integrated circuit. The flexibility allows a system designer and/or a technical installer to make appropriate tradeoffs between simplicity, functionality, and cost in the design of network nodes and their installation. This is especially important in designing the installation scenario for the safeguards network. The network technology permits several choices of installations with the same basic mode hardware. This paper is a discussion of this technology

  18. Fuzzy resource optimization for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authorization, enforcement, and verification -- three key functions of safeguards systems -- form the basis of a hierarchical description of the system risk. When formulated in terms of linguistic rather than numeric attributes, the risk can be computed through an algorithm based on the notion of fuzzy sets. Similarly, this formulation allows one to analyze the optimal resource allocation by maximizing the overall detection probability, regarded as a linguistic variable. After summarizing the necessary elements of the fuzzy sets theory, we outline the basic algorithm. This is followed by a sample computation of the fuzzy optimization. 10 refs., 1 tab

  19. 34 CFR 104.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.36 Procedural safeguards. A recipient that operates a... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedural safeguards. 104.36 Section 104.36 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. TASTEX: Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1978 to 1981 the Governments of France, Japan and the United States of America cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the TASTEX (Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise) programme. The aim of this programme was to improve the technology for the application of international safeguards at reprocessing facilities, and the results are presented in the present report

  1. Safeguards implications of laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe and emphasise the safeguards and relevant features of atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), and to consider the issues that must be addressed before a safeguards approach at a commercial AVLIS or MLIS facility can be implemented. (Author)

  2. Structure for the decomposition of safeguards responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major mission of safeguards is to protect against the use of nuclear materials by adversaries to harm society. A hierarchical structure of safeguards responsibilities and activities to assist in this mission is defined. The structure begins with the definition of international or multi-national safeguards and continues through domestic, regional, and facility safeguards. The facility safeguards is decomposed into physical protection and material control responsibilities. In addition, in-transit safeguards systems are considered. An approach to the definition of performance measures for a set of Generic Adversary Action Sequence Segments (GAASS) is illustrated. These GAASS's begin outside facility boundaries and terminate at some adversary objective which could lead to eventual safeguards risks and societal harm. Societal harm is primarily the result of an adversary who is successful in the theft of special nuclear material or in the sabotage of vital systems which results in the release of material in situ. With the facility safeguards system, GAASS's are defined in terms of authorized and unauthorized adversary access to materials and components, acquisition of material, unauthorized removal of material, and the compromise of vital components. Each GAASS defines a set of ''paths'' (ordered set of physical protection components) and each component provides one or more physical protection ''functions'' (detection, assessment, communication, delay, neutralization). Functional performance is then developed based upon component design features, the environmental factors, and the adversary attributes. An example of this decomposition is presented

  3. IMPLEMENTING THE SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; McGinnis, Brent [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Morgan, Jim [Innovative Solutions; Bjornard, Trond [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bean, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Durst, Phillip [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Hockert, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); DeMuth, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lockwood, Dunbar [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA

    2010-01-01

    The Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) approach incorporates safeguards into the design and construction of nuclear facilities at the very beginning of the design process. It is a systematic and structured approach for fully integrating international and national safeguards for material control and accountability (MC&A), physical protection, and other proliferation barriers into the design and construction process for nuclear facilities. Implementing SBD is primarily a project management or project coordination challenge. This paper focuses specifically on the design process; the planning, definition, organization, coordination, scheduling and interaction of the safeguards experts and stakeholders as they participate in the design and construction of a nuclear facility. It delineates the steps in a nuclear facility design and construction project in order to provide the project context within which the safeguards design activities take place, describes the involvement of the safeguards experts in the design process, the nature of their analyses, interactions and decisions, and describes the documents created and how they are used. This report highlights the project context of safeguards activities, and identifies the safeguards community (nuclear facility operator, designer/builder, state regulator, SSAC and IAEA) must accomplish in order to implement SBD within the project.

  4. Open source research and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper will assess the utility of open source research for enhancing the collection and analysis of information related to nuclear safeguards. The International Centre for Security Analysis (ICSA) at King's College London adopts a cross-disciplinary approach for open source research relevant to nuclear safeguards by combining expertise in science and technology, political science, information technology and multiple languages including Arabic, Farsi, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Russian and Turkish. The paper will examine the following sets of issues related to open source research in the field of nuclear safeguards: - the various 'types' of open sources that are applicable to enhancing the analysis of nuclear safeguards issues (primary, secondary, technical and 'grey literature'); - the 'utility' of open source research in terms of enhancing the analysis of nuclear safeguards issues (contextual awareness, tip-off, response to unexpected contingencies); - the potential 'problems' associated with researching open sources related to nuclear safeguards issues (inaccuracy, bias, irrelevance, disinformation); - the 'challenges' involved in conducting open source research on nuclear safeguards issues (information overload, open versus closed societies. The paper will also highlight the challenges posed by open source analysis). The utility, problems and challenges associated with open source research in the field of nuclear safeguards will be illustrated with various thematic, regional and country-based examples. (author)

  5. Integrated safeguards and facility design and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of safeguards functions to deter or detect unauthorized actions by an insider requires the careful communication and management of safeguards-relevant information on a timely basis. The traditional separation of safeguards functions into physical protection, materials control, and materials accounting often inhibits important information flows. Redefining the major safeguards functions as authorization, enforcement, and verification, and careful attention to management of information from acquisition to organization, to analysis, to decision making can result in effective safeguards integration. The careful inclusion of these ideas in facility designs and operations will lead to cost-effective safeguards systems. The safeguards authorization function defines, for example, personnel access requirements, processing activities, and materials movements/locations that are permitted to accomplish the mission of the facility. Minimizing the number of authorized personnel, limiting the processing flexibility, and maintaining up-to-date flow sheets will facilitate the detection of unauthorized activities. Enforcement of the authorized activities can be achieved in part through the use of barriers, access control systems, process sensors, and health and safety information. Consideration of safeguards requirements during facility design can improve the enforcement function. Verification includes the familiar materials accounting activities as well as auditing and testing of the other functions

  6. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated approach to facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation has been developed. This automated process, called Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), consists of a collection of a continuous stream of operational modules for facility characterization, the selection of critical paths, and the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness along these paths. The technique has been implemented on an interactive computer time-sharing system and makes use of computer graphics for the processing and presentation of information. Using this technique, a comprehensive evaluation of a safeguards system can be provided by systematically varying the parameters that characterize the physical protection components of a facility to reflect the perceived adversary attributes and strategy, environmental conditions, and site operational conditions. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  7. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems

  8. Video image processing for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of nuclear safeguards has received increasing amounts of public attention since the events of the Iraq-UN conflict over Kuwait, the dismantlement of the former Soviet Union, and more recently, the North Korean resistance to nuclear facility inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The role of nuclear safeguards in these and other events relating to the world's nuclear material inventory is to assure safekeeping of these materials and to verify the inventory and use of nuclear materials as reported by states that have signed the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty throughout the world. Nuclear safeguards are measures prescribed by domestic and international regulatory bodies such as DOE, NRC, IAEA, and EURATOM and implemented by the nuclear facility or the regulatory body. These measures include destructive and non destructive analysis of product materials/process by-products for materials control and accountancy purposes, physical protection for domestic safeguards, and containment and surveillance for international safeguards

  9. Safeguards and retrievability from waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danker, W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes issues discussed at a session from the PLutonium Stabilization and Immobilization Workshop related to safeguards and retrievability from waste forms. Throughout the discussion, the group probed the goals of disposition efforts, particularly an understanding of the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard{close_quotes}, since the disposition material form derives from these goals. The group felt strongly that not only the disposition goals but safeguards to meet these goals could affect the material form. Accordingly, the Department was encouraged to explore and apply safeguards as early in the implementation process as possible. It was emphasized that this was particularly true for any planned use of existing facilities. It is much easier to build safeguards approaches into the development of new facilities, than to backfit existing facilities. Accordingly, special safeguards challenges are likely to be encountered, given the cost and schedule advantages offered by use of existing facilities.

  10. Civil Applications of Safeguards Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The events of September 11 have cast a new light on the perceived security of the world's nuclear facilities. Although concerns have persisted that governments might want to divert nuclear material from civil use to secret weapons programs - recent developments in North Korea validate such concerns - the terrorist attacks on US soil have inspired new fears for nuclear sites of insider threats that, if acted upon, could result in either outright sabotage of the facility or diversion of materials, potentially for future terrorist activities. Further, these concerns have increased the importance of preventing material stolen from nuclear facilities in countries with relatively weak security measures from being trafficked illicitly to and used against prime terrorist targets (industrialized countries of Europe and North America). Without international agreements and standards to guide their efforts, the international nonproliferation community now faces these newly emerged challenges of how to protect nuclear materials from insider threats and how to block diverted materials from reaching terrorist hands. The following paper will explore opportunities for agreed-upon and proven integrated safeguards equipment to be used both to counter the insider threat at nuclear facilities by automatically supervising oversight authorities, and to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by observing personnel and procedures at civil installations. To conclude, the paper will look to future civil applications of safeguards equipment as support for international counter-terrorism and security efforts

  11. Nuclear safeguards and export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)

  12. Using LIBS Method in Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopic technique which is capable to detect almost all the elements from the periodic table in different sample types (solid, liquid or gas). Other advantage of the technique is that a LIBS analysis is much faster than a conventional laboratory technique. Beside the easy usability and fastness of the system the main advantages of the technique is that portable systems are also available. Using a so-called ''backpack'' version in-field analysis can be carried out. Therefore, LIBS is a more and more popular technique also e.g., in the nuclear analytics due to its several advantages. It is also tested for Safeguards purposes as a novel technology. In this work development and test of a portable LIBS system is discussed in detail. Detector system with higher resolution and specific software for evaluation of uranium isotope composition has been developed. Different kind of uranium fuel pellets with various enrichments was analyzed as test samples. Concerning the test measurements the developed LIBS instrument was found well-applicable for analysis of Safeguards samples and determination of higher enrichment of uranium in-field. The method is rapid and simple enough for short in-field sample analysis. (author)

  13. NRC safeguards - An evolving policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) related to the safeguarding of nuclear material derive from a number of legislative enactments which include the Energy Reorganization Act, The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and The Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Anti-Terrorism Act. The development of NRC material control and accounting requirements over the years has resulted in a number of refinements in system capabilities. A recent rule amendment will provide for more timely analysis of accounting data to enhance anomaly detection and resolution and thus provide for earlier detection of possible theft or diversion. This, along with present initiatives in physical protection program areas, combine to provide increase assurance in capabilities to adequately protect special nuclear materials. Among the physical protection measures now under consideration are revised requirements for security force training and the establishment of a formal requirement for tactical response exercises to evaluate security system effectiveness. In the international arena, full cooperation with the IAEA continues to be regarded as an important function. A recommendation in this area is to reconvene an international committee to review IAEA programs for physical protection (INFCIRC 225). NRC activities in support of these goals include the establishment of improving safeguards capabilities, requiring the reduction of enrichments used in nonpower reactor, the reduction of inventories of highly enriched uranium to levels actually needed for nonpower reactor operations, the maintenance of comparable levels of protection for weapons usable materials under Department of Energy and NRC programs, and continued support of IAEA initiatives and objectives

  14. Safeguards Strategy in Physical Protection System for Nuclear Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safeguards strategy is directed at efforts of eliminating theft of nuclear materials and sabotage of nuclear installation. For achieving the above objective, it is necessary to set up safeguards strategy in physical protection of nuclear materials and installation. The safeguards strategy starts from anticipated security condition, list of thefts, planning referred to as safeguards planning. Safeguards planning are implemented in safeguards implementation, followed up then by evaluation. Results of evaluation are equipped with results of safeguards survey already developed. Safeguards' planning is made from these results and serve as guidelines for next safeguards implementation and is repeated to form a safeguard cycle. One safeguard cycle is made on a periodical basis, at least annually. (author)

  15. Deriving, Communicating and Applying Safeguards Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safeguards are arrangements for verifying that states are in compliance with international agreements or undertakings relating to the peaceful use of nuclear materials. The IAEA has operated a system of comprehensive safeguards agreements with non-nuclearweapon states parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) for over forty years. This system has evolved over time in recognition that a progressively broader approach to verification is required to substantiate the IAEA's conclusions. Current policy debates on the further evolution of safeguards implementation primarily relate to the development of the IAEA's 'state level concept' for safeguards, and the resolution of compliance or performance issues in several countries. Safeguards experts acknowledge that the identification and clarification of principles for determining safeguards priorities and for deriving safeguards conclusions will be a crucial step in strengthening the non-proliferation regime. This paper recommends the development of a procedure by which the IAEA Secretariat would issue standardized notices to the Board of Governors in situations where anomalies in safeguards implementation remain unresolved for a prescribed period of time. These 'Automatic Notices' are designed to assist the Secretariat with the structured communication of technical information about state compliance. The procedure would enhance the transparency of the operation of the IAEA, the credibility of the verification assurance, and the timeliness of identification of potential non-compliance. It also provides states, whether acting through the Agency's Board of Governors or otherwise, with opportunities to craft effective solutions to potential proliferation crises. Furthermore, the existence and number of these 'Automatic Notices' would provide one transparent and objective basis for differentiating between states in future allocation of safeguards

  16. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: 2010 and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengthening the international safeguards system is a key element of the U.S. non-proliferation policy agenda as evidenced by President Obama's call for more 'resources and authority to strengthen international inspections' in his April 2009 Prague speech. Through programs such as the recently-launched Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the long standing U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, the United States is working to implement this vision. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration launched NGSI in 2008 to develop the policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and international safeguards infrastructure necessary to strengthen and sustain the international safeguards system as it evolves to meet new challenges. Following a successful 2009, NGSI has made significant progress toward these goals in 2010. NGSI has recently completed a number of policy studies on advanced safeguards concepts and sponsored several workshops, including a second international meeting on Harmonization of International Safeguards Infrastructure Development in Vienna. The program is also continuing multi-year projects to investigate advanced non-destructive assay techniques, enhance recruitment and training efforts, and strengthen international cooperation on safeguards. In December 2010, NGSI will host the Third Annual International Meeting on International Safeguards in Washington, DC, which will draw together key stakeholders from government, the nuclear industry, and the IAEA to further develop and promote a common understanding of Safeguards by Design principles and goals, and to identify opportunities for practical application of the concept. This paper presents a review of NGSI program activities in 2010 and previews plans for upcoming activities. (author)

  17. THE CANDLE FLAMES IN MICROGRAVIT%微重力环境中的蜡烛火焰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文锋; 张孝谦; 韦明罡; 华泳; 孔文俊

    2000-01-01

    对蜡烛火焰动态特征的分析表明,从正常重力状态过渡到微重力状态,火焰的空气动力学特征比质量和能量的传输特征的变化快。通过一台差分干涉仪首次测量得到了微重力环境中蜡烛火焰的温度。结果表明,微重力蜡烛火焰的温度小于正常重力蜡烛火焰的温度。微重力蜡烛火焰之所以呈蓝色是因为其温度小于烟黑生成的阈值温度1300 K。但当环境氧浓度足够高时,火焰温度大于烟黑生成的阈值温度,火焰中明显有烟黑生成,颜色为亮黄色。%The analysis of transient process of candle flame from normal gravity to microgravity shows that the variation of the aerodynamic feature is much faster than that of transport feature. The candle flame temperature was measured by the use of an interferometer in microgravity. The results show that candle flame temperature in microgravity is indeed lower than that in normal gravity.It is the reason for the candle flame is dim blue that the candle flame temperature is lower than 1300 K, the threshold temperature of soot formation.If The candle flame temperature in microgravity at 21%O2/79%N2 concentration is lower than the threshold temperature of soot formation of 1300K. That is the reason why the candle flame is dim blue at microgravity. However, if the ambient oxygen concentration is high enough, the candle flame temperature will be higher than the threshold temperature, so that soot will produce, and the color of candle flame will be bright yellow all the time even in microgravity.

  18. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dockter, B.A.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; O`Keefe, C.A. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Minerals Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Large-scale hot-gas testing over the past several years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that have been difficult, if not impossible to remove. At times, the cake can bridge between candle filters, leading to high filter failure rates. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature contribute to difficulty in removing the cake. It is speculated that chemical as well as physical effects are playing a role in leading the ash to bond to the filter or to itself. The Energy and Environmental research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota is working with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a consortium of companies in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform the research necessary to determine the factors that cause hot-gas cleanup filters to be blinded by ash or to develop deposits that can bridge the filters and cause them to fail. The objectives of this overall project are threefold: first, to determine the mechanisms by which difficult-to-clean ash is formed; second, to develop a method to determine the rate of blinding/bridging based on fuel and sorbent properties and operating conditions; finally, to provide suggestions fro ways to prevent filter blinding by the troublesome ash. The projects consists of four tasks: field sampling and archive sample analyses, laboratory-scale testing, bench-scale testing, and model and database development testing. This paper present preliminary data from Task 2 on determining the tensile strengths of coal ash particles at elevated temperatures and simulated combustor gas conditions.

  19. The spread of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force on 5 March 1970 by the ratification of 40 non-nuclear-weapon States and that of three nuclear weapon States - the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR. Since then it has been signed by 98 States, and now 73 States have ratified it. For more than a year the Safeguards Committee (1970), a Committee established by the Board and open to all member States of the Agency, discussed the Structure and Content of Agreements to be concluded between the Agency and States Party to the Treaty in order to fulfill their obligations under it. Today, of the 73 States that have ratified the NPT, agreements have already been concluded with 25 States, and negotiations are underway with 31 other States including the five non-nuclear-weapon States Members of the European Community (Euratom). At its June session, the Board of Governors of the IAEA approved the text of a co-operation agreement between the Agency and the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL), which was established to ensure compliance with the obligations contracted by States Party to the Tlatelolco Treaty. It will be remembered that that Treaty was signed in Tlatelolco in 1967 by 22 Latin American countries. Since then 19 States have ratified it, and the additional protocols have been signed and ratified by two of the nuclear powers - the UK and the USA. As Dr. Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, has remarked, 'the Treaty of Tlatelolco could be regarded as the first multilateral treaty in the field of nuclear disarmament which provides for the application of an institutionalized and international control system, and as such it represented a decisive step forward in the recognition and acceptance of international safeguards'. Both the NPT and the Tlatelolco Treaty call upon the IAEA to perform one of its main statutory functions: that is, to apply safeguards at the request of the parties to a multilateral

  20. Safeguards for spent fuels: Verification problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of large quantities of spent nuclear fuels world-wide is a serious problem for international safeguards. A number of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) member states, including the US, consider spent fuel to be a material form for which safeguards cannot be terminated, even after permanent disposal in a geologic repository. Because safeguards requirements for spent fuels are different from those of conventional bulk-handling and item-accounting facilities, there is room for innovation to design a unique safeguards regime for spent fuels that satisfies the goals of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty at a reasonable cost to both the facility and the IAEA. Various strategies being pursued for long-term management of spent fuels are examined with a realistic example to illustrate the problems of verifying safeguards under the present regime. Verification of a safeguards regime for spent fuels requires a mix of standard safeguards approaches, such as quantitative verification and use of seals, with other measures that are unique to spent fuels. 17 refs

  1. Development and implementation of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique institution of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards has been commented on at length by both technicians and politicians. IAEA safeguards have variously been extolled as a great international break-through and model for other arms control verification regimes and alternatively as a not very credible arrangement with many weaknesses and contradictions and which cannot, essentially by definition, do the job it's supposed to do. The 1981 bombing by Israel of the safeguarded Iraqi research reactor at Tuwaitha is used by both extremes to support their positions. As a physicist who has been working in this area, among others, for several years it seems to me that neither side is giving the reality of IAEA safeguards a fair deal. The bottom line on safeguards is to ensure that nuclear material, especially plutonium or highly enriched uranium (>20% U-236 but usually 93% U-235) under safeguards, is not used to make nuclear explosives or to further other military purposes. In the first instance they are pretty good and do represent a major concession by sovereign states; but the structure of the safeguards regime was designed in another era. The system has its flaws technically, but it is also a political system which, because of its dual nature can and does do a very useful and important job for the international community

  2. Safeguarding and Protecting the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International safeguards as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are a vital cornerstone of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime - they protect against the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle becoming the undetected vehicle for nuclear weapons proliferation by States. Likewise, domestic safeguards and nuclear security are essential to combating theft, sabotage, and nuclear terrorism by non-State actors. While current approaches to safeguarding and protecting the nuclear fuel cycle have been very successful, there is significant, active interest to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards and security, particularly in light of the anticipated growth of nuclear energy and the increase in the global threat environment. This article will address two recent developments called Safeguards-by-Design and Security-by-Design, which are receiving increasing broad international attention and support. Expected benefits include facilities that are inherently more economical to effectively safeguard and protect. However, the technical measures of safeguards and security alone are not enough - they must continue to be broadly supported by dynamic and adaptive nonproliferation and security regimes. To this end, at the level of the global fuel cycle architecture, 'nonproliferation and security by design' remains a worthy objective that is also the subject of very active, international focus.

  3. Velocity characteristic and stability of wave solutions for a candle reactor with thermal feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study CANDLE, the stationary nuclear fission wave, its velocity and stability. • Presented model of a U-Pu fuelled reactor includes β-decays and thermal feedback. • At specified values of reactor parameters, two waves of different velocities exist. • The lower velocity solution is unstable; no real waves of such velocities exist. • The revealed effects are important at heat power densities of practical interest. - Abstract: We study the stationary nuclear fission wave (NFW) in the CANDLE fission wave reactor analytically and numerically. The focus of this work is to elucidate in a universally applicable way the variation of wave velocity and power with respect to parameters of reactor composition and design. We also study the stability of such waves solving the time-dependent problem numerically. A one-dimensional model of an infinite cylindrical reactor with U-Pu fuel and non burnable absorber is used, including a qualitative model of thermal feedback. A new analytical approach is proposed to determine the velocity of the stationary wave. We show that there are three main mechanisms which determine the wave velocity, and thus, the power and the amplitude of the neutron flux distribution. The thermal feedback mechanism and the mechanism related to the kinetics of 239Np contribute to wave velocity formation in a similar way. These mechanisms compete together with the effect of slow β-decay of 241Pu. The latter dominates at lower velocities, leading to instability of the stationary wave solutions and to the existence of a minimal possible velocity of real stationary waves. Negative thermal feedback decreases wave velocity and lowers the upper margin of possible absorber densities. Under realistic conditions, both nuclear density mechanisms and thermal feedback may be important for wave velocity formation in CANDLE reactors with uranium fuel

  4. Safeguards uses of confirmatory measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the role of shipper and receiver measurements in safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) transferred from one facility to another, with emphasis on the case where the receiver requires an analytical accounting measurement of the transferred SNM and does not need the material for process purposes at the time of receipt. Seven possible diversion periods are considered, ranging from the interval between the shipper's final accounting measurement on the material and the time it is placed in the shipper's vault, through the actual transport of the material between facilities, to the time the material is removed from the receiver's vault and placed in the process. The detection power of various combinations of six possible shipper/receiver measurements for these diversion opportunities is then evaluated; the measurements considered include the shipper's and receiver's accounting measurements, the latter at two possible times, and various nondestructive assay (NDA) confirmatory measurements

  5. Safeguards information treatment in NMCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) has treated all information of the accounting reports, obligation control reports and plans of import/export or domestic receipt/shipment, etc. submitted by the facilities according to the domestic laws, and prepared the reports to provide the IAEA subject to the safeguards agreement and to provide the partner countries subject to the relevant bilateral agreements. The accounting reports are processed during two weeks in the latter half of month and dispatched to the IAEA by the 30th of the month. On the other hand, the obligation control reports are processed during two weeks in the first half of the next month. The other reports are processed on case's by case's basis and submitted to the IAEA or the partner countries at need. The data processing system consists of the quality check, database update, reporting and conversational inquiry sub-systems with the database management system (ADABAS) which keeps key indexes and summary database. (author)

  6. Multimedia systems for safeguards training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Research Center as part of its support program to Euratom safeguards, is developing a line of unattended systems for fresh fuel assemblies in fabrication plants (low enrichment and mixed oxide). These systems combine neutron coincidence counting in the form of a neutron collar and a vision system for identification of the fuel assembly. The system is unattended, i.e. it is integrated into the production flow of the facility, and there is no inspector presence during verification measurement. The facility operator loads the assembly into the unattended measurement station which then automatically starts its predefined measurement cycle without the intervention of the facility operator. The station positions the collar according to a programming strategy for each assembly type and loads/unloads its own AmLi source for active and passive measurements. This paper is a discussion of the training requirements for such a system and the development of multimedia training aids to meet these requirements

  7. Safeguards information handling and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at the handling and treatment of nuclear safeguard relevant information by using the linguistic assessment approach. This is based on a hierarchical analysis of States' nuclear activities in a multi-layer structure of the evaluation model. Special emphasis is given to the synthesis and evaluation analysis of the Physical Model indicator information. Accordingly, we focus on the aggregation process with consideration of the different kinds of qualitative criteria. Especially we consider the symbolic approach that acts by the direct computation on linguistic values instead of the approximation approach by using the associated membership function. In this framework, several kinds of ordinal linguistic aggregation operators are presented and analyzed. The application of these linguistic aggregation operators to the combination of the Physical Model indicator information is provided. The study is undertaken in the framework of the Belgian Support Programme to the IAEA (task BEL C 01323). (author)

  8. Remote monitoring for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote monitoring is not a new technology, and its application to safeguards relevant activities has been examined for a number of years. On behalf of the US Department of Energy and international partners, remote monitoring systems have been emplaced in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world. The experience gained from these field trials of remote monitoring systems has shown the viability of the concept of using integrated monitoring systems. Although a wide variety of sensors has been used in the remote monitoring field trials conducted to date, the possible range of instrumentation that might be used has scarcely been touched. As the technology becomes widespread, large amounts of data will become available to inspectors responsible for safeguards activities at the sites. Effective use of remote monitoring will require processing, archiving, presenting, and assessing of these data. To provide reasonable efficiency in the application of this technology, data processing should be done in a careful and organized manner. The problem will be not an issue of poring over scant records but of surviving under a deluge of information made possible by modern technology. Fortunately, modern technology, which created the problem of the data glut, is available to come to the assistance of those inundated by data. Apart from the technological problems, one of the most important aspects of remote monitoring is the potential constraint related to the transmission of data out of a facility or beyond national borders. Remote monitoring across national borders can be seriously considered only in the context of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime

  9. Uncertainty Quantification for Safeguards Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the scientific method requires all calculated and measured results to be accompanied by a description that meets user needs and provides an adequate statement of the confidence one can have in the results. The scientific art of generating quantitative uncertainty statements is closely related to the mathematical disciplines of applied statistics, sensitivity analysis, optimization, and inversion, but in the field of non-destructive assay, also often draws heavily on expert judgment based on experience. We call this process uncertainty quantification, (UQ). Philosophical approaches to UQ along with the formal tools available for UQ have advanced considerably over recent years and these advances, we feel, may be useful to include in the analysis of data gathered from safeguards instruments. This paper sets out what we hope to achieve during a three year US DOE NNSA research project recently launched to address the potential of advanced UQ to improve safeguards conclusions. By way of illustration we discuss measurement of uranium enrichment by the enrichment meter principle (also known as the infinite thickness technique), that relies on gamma counts near the 186 keV peak directly from 235U. This method has strong foundations in fundamental physics and so we have a basis for the choice of response model — although in some implementations, peak area extraction may result in a bias when applied over a wide dynamic range. It also allows us to describe a common but usually neglected aspect of applying a calibration curve, namely the error structure in the predictors. We illustrate this using a combination of measured data and simulation. (author)

  10. Safeguards and nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards activities performed under INFCIRC/153 type of agreements are often characterized as traditional safeguards. This approach contains three elements: nuclear material accountancy; containment and surveillance measures; and on-site inspections. The nuclear material accountancy establishes the quantity of nuclear material present and changes in that over a period of time. Containment and surveillance measures take advantage of physical boundaries like walls, containers, cameras and seals to restrict, control or monitor the movement of or access to nuclear material. On-site inspection verifies the credibility of the first two verification elements. When we consider accounting of nuclear material we must have in our mind a Material Balance Area (MBA) separated by a physical boundary. There should be a close accounting period and also a nuclear material to account for. If there is some beginning inventory (BPI) in the MBA, it might receipt some material say R from other source. Then after processing some end product say S has been transferred to other MBA. During the process some part of the material can not be used further so it has to be discarded after measurement. Let it be MD. At the end of period some part of the material is still left over in the MBA, call it EPI. Since the nuclear materials are of high monitory and strategic value. The objective of their accounting and control is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities - to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and to deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection

  11. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare

    OpenAIRE

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ~ 10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The "Ahead" satelli...

  12. Cosmokinetics: a joint analysis of standard candles, rulers and cosmic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe by using the kinematic approach. In this context, we parameterize the deceleration parameter, q(z), in a model independent way. Assuming three simple parameterizations we reconstruct q(z). We do the joint analysis with combination of latest cosmological data consisting of standard candles (Supernovae Union2 sample), standard ruler (CMB/BAO), cosmic clocks (age of passively evolving galaxies) and Hubble (H(z)) data. Our results support the accelerated expansion of the Universe

  13. Characterization of Carbon Deposits Formed During Plasma Pyrolysis of Xinjiang Candle Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guilin; Meng, Yuedong; Shu, Xingsheng; Fang, Shidong

    2009-08-01

    Carbon deposits were formed on the reactor wall during plasma pyrolysis of the Xinjiang candle coal in our V-style plasma pyrolysis pilot-plant. The carbon deposits were studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. It was found that carbon deposits located at different parts in the reactor exhibited different microscopic patterns. The formation mechanism of the carbon deposits was deduced. The downward increase in the graphitization degree of the carbon deposits was found and interpreted.

  14. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities - Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  15. Safeguards: The past present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-destructive assay techniques developed at Los Alamos have become a primary means for verification by the IAEA and most important for domestic safeguards. We must challenge our assumptions, e.g., that inventory differences are a valid measure of safeguards performance, that more money is the solution, and the threats are much exaggerated. A human reliability program will be initiated. Material control, accounting, and physical protection need further integration. A serious effort involving scholarships, internships, etc. is needed to attract and motivate young people. Increased emphasis will be placed on designing safeguards into new systems such as laser isotope separation. Finally, continuing generous support for the IAEA is most important

  16. Goals of measurement systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency are based on technical performance goals and criteria that have been developed, but not officially adopted by the Agency. The goals derive in part from the external consequences that safeguards are intended to prevent and in some cases on internal considerations of feasibility. To the extent that these goals may not be attainable, as may be the case with large-throughput bulk reprocessing plants, the Agency is placed in a difficult position. In this paper safeguards goals and criteria and their underlying rationales are critically examined. Suggestions for a more rational and workable structure of performance goals are offered

  17. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  18. International seminar on safeguards information reporting and processing. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the safeguards of information technology, its current developments and status of safeguards in Member States are described concerning especially the role of domestic safeguards in cooperation with IAEA Safeguards. A Number of reports is dealing with declarations provided to the IAEA pursuant to Protocols Additional to Safeguard agreements. The Information Section of the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology Division is responsible for the data entry, loading and quality control od State supplied declarations. A software system is used to process information which should be readily accessible and usable in implementation of the strengthened safeguards system. Experiences in combating illegal trafficking of nuclear materials in a number of countries are included

  19. Improvement of the safeguards approach at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) has been operated since 1992 with implementing the safeguards-based on the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP) concept. In order to improve confidence on safeguards at REP, Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO), IAEA and JNFL have established the task force meeting to discuss the safeguards improvement plans including concepts of integrated safeguards approach at REP. This paper presents accountancy method, outline of current inspection activities, group seals on tails cylinders, UF6 tracking system based on optical surveillance cameras under trial use as part of improvement plan, and integrated safeguards approach under study with issue to be solved. (author)

  20. The safeguards revolution: Contributions and perspectives of the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is no exaggeration to describe the ongoing changes to the IAEA safeguards system as revolutionary. In the past decade safeguards have moved from a relatively routine system, operating in a seemingly benign environment, to a system undergoing radical change, having to reinvent itself to respond to major challenges. Yet the process of revolution has a long way to go. The conceptual framework for the new safeguards has been developed, but this framework has to be consolidated through new implementation practices. In this sense the revolution needs to be ongoing. There is much more to be done if the safeguards system is to be successful in meeting the challenges. When the traditional safeguards system was introduced, in the early 1970s following the conclusion of the NPT, the objectives of the safeguards system were seen as being very different to today. At that time it was thought that proliferation would require diversion of safeguarded nuclear material, and misuse of safeguarded nuclear facilities. It was considered beyond the capability of most States to establish a wholly clandestine nuclear fuel cycle, independent of safeguarded nuclear material and facilities. So, it was thought, countering proliferation was a matter of applying suitably rigorous safeguards procedures to declared material and facilities. During the 1970s and 1980s the traditional safeguards system developed in conditions of apparent stability, where the main challenge was seen as resource allocation, how to manage a steadily growing workload with a relatively static budget. During this period the traditional safeguards system developed with an emphasis on nuclear materials accountancy, and on verifying the correctness of declared nuclear material inventories. The organisational culture developed around the use of quantitative and relatively mechanistic procedures. This culture was reinforced through a particular policy perspective, specifically, that avoiding discrimination

  1. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  2. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  3. Study on an Integrated Sintered Metal Screen Moving Granular Bed Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋沪; 王洋

    2004-01-01

    A new gas clean-up process called "integrated sintered metal screen moving granular bed" (ISMSMGB) for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressured fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) was developed on the basis of a sintered metal candle filter and a cross-flow moving granular bed filter. This is a combination of the surface and deep bed filtering processes. A set of facilities was established and a series of cold model tests were carried out. The dust removal efficiency and the pressure drop of the filter were measured and analyzed. The results show that this process features the advantages of the moving bed for high capacity as well as high inlet dust load and the surface filter for high efficiency. Meanwhile, the granules moving downward cleans the cake on the screen surface, so that the system is operated at steady state.

  4. Symposium on International Safeguards: Preparing for Future Verification Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the symposium is to foster dialogue and information exchange involving Member States, the nuclear industry and members of the broader nuclear non-proliferation community to prepare for future verification challenges. Topics addressed during the 2010 symposium include the following: - Supporting the global nuclear non-proliferation regime: Building support for strengthening international safeguards; Enhancing confidence in compliance with safeguards obligations; Legal authority as a means to enhance effectiveness and efficiency; Verification roles in support of arms control and disarmament. - Building collaboration and partnerships with other international forums: Other verification and non-proliferation regimes; Synergies between safety, security and safeguards regimes. - Improving cooperation between IAEA and States for safeguards implementation: Strengthening State systems for meeting safeguards obligations; Enhancing safeguards effectiveness and efficiency through greater cooperation; Lessons learned: recommendations for enhancing integrated safeguards implementation. - Addressing safeguards challenges in an increasingly interconnected world: Non-State actors and covert trade networks; Globalization of nuclear information and technology. - Preparing for the global nuclear expansion and increasing safeguards workload: Furthering implementation of the State-level concept and integrated safeguards; Information-driven safeguards; Remote data-driven safeguards inspections; Safeguards in States without comprehensive safeguards agreements. - Safeguarding advanced nuclear facilities and innovative fuel cycles: Proliferation resistance; Safeguards by design; Safeguards approaches for advanced facilities. - Advanced technologies and methodologies: For verifying nuclear material and activities; For detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities; For information collection, analysis and integration. - Enhancing the development and use of safeguards

  5. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poe, Sarah [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  6. Safeguards research at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LLL safeguards research program includes inspection methods, facility assessment methodologies, value-impact analysis, vulnerability analysis of accounting systems, compliance with regulations, process monitoring, etc. Each of those projects is described as are their goals and progress

  7. Potential nuclear safeguards applications for neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear safeguards inspection instruments use neutron sources to interrogate the fissile material (commonly 235U and 239Pu) to be measured. The neutron sources currently used in these instruments are isotopics such as Californium-252, Americium-Lithium, etc. It is becoming increasingly more difficult to transport isotopic sources from one measurement location to another. This represents a significant problem for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards inspectors because they must take their safeguards instruments with them to each nuclear installation to make an independent measurement. Purpose of this paper is to review the possibility of replacing isotopic neutron sources now used in IAEA safeguards instruments with electric neutron sources such as deuterium-tritium (D-T, 14-MeV neutrons) or deuterium-deuterium (D-D, 2-MeV neutrons). The potential for neutron generators to interrogate spent-light water reactor fuel assemblies in storage pools is also reviewed

  8. Advanced safeguards for the nuclear renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy provides not only the benefit of carbon-neutral electricity, but also the potential for proliferation concern as well. Nuclear safeguards implemented at the state level (domestic) and at the international level by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are essential for ensuring that nuclear materials are not misused and are thereby a critical component of the increased usage of nuclear energy. In the same way that the 1950's Atoms for Peace initiative provided the foundation for a robust research and development program in nuclear safeguards, the expansion of nuclear energy that is underway today provides the impetus to enter a new era of technical development in the safeguards community. In this paper, we will review the history of nuclear safeguards research and development as well future directions.

  9. The safeguards active response inventory system (SARIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS) is a computerized accountability system developed for nuclear materials control that incorporates elements of process monitoring, criticality safety, physical inventory and safeguards. It takes data from the process operations, stores it in an on-line database and translates the information into the formats needed by the various users. It traces the material through the process from feed to product; including recycle, waste and scraps streams. It models the process as the material changes form to ensure that artificial losses are not created. It automatically generates input to Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), performs checks to prevent the possibility of a criticality accident, prepares an audit trail for Safeguards, prints labels for nuclear material containers, and produces DOE/NRC 741 forms. SARIS has been installed at three laboratories across the country

  10. A historical review of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning from the 'Three Nations Agreed Declaration' of November 1945 (US, UK, Canada) up to the ratification of the NPT and the acceptance of the IAEA safeguards and control by the member states. (HP)

  11. The international safeguards system and physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes and explains facts and aspects of the IAEA safeguards performed within the framework of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and shows perspectives to be discussed by the NPT Review Conferences in 1990 and 1995. The technical background of potential misuse of nuclear materials for military purposes is explained in connection with the physical protection regime of the international safeguards, referring to recent developments for improvement of technical measures for material containment and surveillance. Most attention is given to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and their surveillance by the IAEA safeguards, including such new technologies and applications as controlled nuclear fusion, laser techniques for uranium enrichment, and particle accelerators. The report's concluding analyses of the current situation show potentials for improvement and desirable or necessary consequences to be drawn for the international safeguards system, also taking into account recent discussions on the parliamentary level. (orig./HP)

  12. Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R.; Bruggeman, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes: (1) various activities to assure nuclear materials accountancy; (2) contributes to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards measures in Belgium and to assist the IAEA through the Belgian Support Programme; (3) renders services to internal and external customers in the field of safeguards; (4) improves passive neutron coincidence counting techniques for waste assay and safeguards verification measurements by R and D on correlation algorithms implemented via software or dedicated hardware; (5) improves gamma assay techniques for waste assay by implementing advanced scanning techniques and different correlation algorithms; and (6) develops numerical calibration techniques. Major achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  13. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T Bjornard; B. Castle

    2009-02-01

    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization’s purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations’ approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  14. Information analysis in the strengthened safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information Analysis is the heart of Strengthened Safeguards. The strengthened safeguards system is to detect the diversion of declared nuclear material and the presence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in a State with Comprehensive Safeguards agreements in force. In other words, under Strengthened Safeguards the Department of Safeguards must verify both the correctness and the completeness of State declarations concerning their nuclear inventories, facilities and activities. The changing political framework of the early 1990's, including such watershed events as the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the information unearthed about the Iraqi weapon program, the declaration by South Africa of its past program, the resistance of the DPRK to verifying the completeness of its declarations, and the indefinite extension of the NPT, caused the IAEA Member States to demand stronger Safeguards and to accept the correspondingly more intrusive inspections and more complete declarations requirements. Two tracks were followed to strengthen safeguards under the 93 +2 Programme: additional measures were proposed under the existing authority of comprehensive safeguards agreements and still other measures were proposed which required the additional authority captured in a model Additional protocol (INFCIRC/540). Both types of additional measures required the Department to collect and process more information. Both types required new methods for integrating and evaluating this information. The new measures adopted under existing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements included: voluntary reporting by States of the export of specified nuclear-related equipment and non-nuclear materials; collection and processing of environmental samples collected during inspections; remote monitoring of facilities and the use of unannounced inspections; acquisition of information from other Agency Departments; collection of publicly available, nuclear-related textual information from

  15. The safeguards system of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards system of the IAEA intended to guard against diversion of nuclear materials for military uses, comprising the identification of sealed fuel assemblies, the automated inspection of the fuels by tv and photographic cameras and by other means, the near-real-time materials accounting based on material balance and periodical reports is briefly reviewed. Experiences of some national safeguard systems (those in the GDR, Canada, Japan) and of two international organizations (TASTEX, EURATOM) are also summarized. (V.N.)

  16. The Department of Safeguards Quality Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Department of Safeguards quality management system (QMS) provides the framework for all activities that support the Agency's commitment to providing soundly-based safeguards conclusions regarding the peaceful use of nuclear material. The focus of the QMS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards implementation through defined, documented processes, routine oversight and continual improvement initiatives. In accordance with QMS principles, the high-level business processes representing the Department's activities are defined in procedures, guidelines and policies that are maintained in the Safeguards Document Manager. These processes form the basis for Department operations for drawing safeguards conclusions regarding State's compliance with their safeguards obligations. Oversight is provided through internal quality audits. These audits are targeted at processes selected by Senior Management with a focus on procedure compliance as well as customer expectations. Best practices and areas for improvement are assessed through continual improvement. Noncompliance and conditions that are adverse to quality are identified and analyzed in the Condition Report System. Root cause analysis and the implementation actions to eliminate the cause reduce the chance of condition recurrence. Through continual process improvement, processes are measured and analyzed to reduce process and administration waste. The improved processes improve efficiency while providing the desired results. Within the scope of the QMS, these tools support the performance of Departmental processes so that Safeguards products achieve the intended purpose. This paper describes how the various elements of the Department's QMS support safeguards implementation. (author)

  17. IAEA safeguards instrumentation: Development, implementation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive development efforts over the last 5 years have produced a number of new instruments to help the IAEA meet its safeguards obligations. Implementation of these new instruments is proceeding at a necessarily slower pace. To optimize the performance and reliability of the instrumentation systems when used in safeguards applications, increasing attention is needed to be spent on performance monitoring and control of the instruments. (author)

  18. Measurement trends for future safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safeguards for future commercial-scale nuclear facilities may employ three materials control and accounting concepts: classical accounting, dynamic materials balancing, and independent verification of inventories and materials balances. Typical measurement needs associated with the implementation of these concepts at high-throughput facilities are discussed. Promising measurement methods for meeting these needs are described and recent experience is cited. General directions and considerations for meeting advanced safeguards systems needs through measurement technology development over the next decade are presented

  19. Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widiawati, Nina, E-mail: nina-widiawati28@yahoo.com; Su’ud, Zaki, E-mail: szaki@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from −0.6695443 % at BOC to −0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

  20. A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare Observed by SDO and STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, T.; Liu, R.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.; Zhuang, B.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate an M1.4 flare occurring on 2011 January 28 near the northwest solar limb. The flare loop system exhibits a double candle-flame configuration in SDO/AIA's hot passbands, sharing a much larger cusp-shaped structure. The results of DEM analysis show that each candle flame has a similar temperature distribution as the famous Tsuneta flare. STEREO-A provides us a view from directly above the flare, and in SECCHI/EUVI 195 Å the post-flare loops are observed to propagate eastward. We performed a 3D reconstruction of the pos-flare loops with AIA and EUVI data. With the aid of the squashing factor Q based on a potential extrapolation of the photospheric field, we recognized that the footpoints of the post-flare loops were slipping along high-Q lines on the photosphere, and the reconstructed loops share similarity with the filed lines that are traced starting from the high-Q lines. The heights of the loops increase as they slip horizontally eastward, giving the loop-top a velocity of about 10 km/s. An extremely large EUV late phase in Fe XVI 33.5 nm observed by SDO/EVE is suggested to be related to the slipping magnetic reconnection occurring in the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) whose photosheric footprints are featured by the high-Q lines.

  1. Development of a new 48Ca enrichment method and the CANDLES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-01

    CANDLES is a project to study double beta decay of 48Ca. CANDLES could become the most competitive experiment if we could have an efficient method to enrich 48Ca. We developed a new method for enrichment of large amount of calcium isotopes. The method is called Multi-Channel Counter-Current Electrophoresis (MCCCE) which can be found elsewhre. Essential point is the increase of the power density in the migration path. In MCCCE, ions migrate in multi-channels on a boron nitride (BN) plate by which substantial increase of the power density was achieved. We made a tiny prototype instrument with a 10 mm thick BN plate and obtained 3 for an enrichment factor for the ratio of abundance of 48Ca to 43Ca over that of natural abundance. It corresponds to 6 for the enrichment factor of 48Ca to 40Ca. Recently we obtained 10 for the enrichment factor by using 20 mm BN plate. This remarkably large enrichment factor demonstrates that the MCCCE is a realistic and promising method for the enrichment of large amount of ions. This method can be applied to many other elements and compounds. I will describe MCCCE and its effect on the study of double beta decay and other fields.

  2. Do All Candle-Flame-Shaped Flares Have the Same Temperature Distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming

    2015-08-01

    We performed a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of candle-flame-shaped flares observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The DEM profile of flaring plasmas generally exhibits a double peak distribution in temperature, with a cold component around log T≈6.2 and a hot component around log T≈7.0. Attributing the cold component mainly to the coronal background, we propose a mean temperature weighted by the hot DEM component as a better representation of flaring plasma than the conventionally defined mean temperature, which is weighted by the whole DEM profile. Based on this corrected mean temperature, the majority of the flares studied, including a confined flare with a double candle-flame shape sharing the same cusp-shaped structure, resemble the famous Tsuneta flare in temperature distribution, i.e., the cusp-shaped structure has systematically higher temperatures than the rounded flare arcade underneath. However, the M7.7 flare on 19 July 2012 poses a very intriguing violation of this paradigm: the temperature decreases with altitude from the tip of the cusp toward the top of the arcade; the hottest region is slightly above the X-ray loop-top source that is co-spatial with the emission-measure-enhanced region at the top of the arcade. This signifies that a different heating mechanism from the slow-mode shocks attached to the reconnection site operates in the cusp region during the flare decay phase.

  3. Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiawati, Nina; Su'ud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from -0.6695443 % at BOC to -0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

  4. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heavens, Alan; Verde, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the existence of standard clocks, standard candles and standard rulers, we determine the length of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion history of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, in a relatively model-independent way. In this process we assume as little as possible, requiring only the cosmological principle, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of these standard objects; the rest is determined by the data. The data we use are a compilation of recent BAO data, Type \\OneA supernov\\ae\\ and ages of early-type galaxies. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a largely model-independent length of $101.9 \\pm 1.9 h^{-1}$ Mpc. We also find that the standard candle has a brightness consistent with determinations from supernov\\ae\\ alone, and that the inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided i...

  5. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  6. FUTURE SAFEGUARDS EFFECTIVENESS: CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. W. BUDLONG-SYLVESTER; J. F. PILAT

    2000-09-01

    With new safeguards measures (under old and new authority) now available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), there will be fundamental changes in the manner IAEA safeguards are implemented, raising questions about their effectiveness in meeting expanded Agency safeguards objectives. In order to characterize the capability of various safeguards approaches in meeting their objectives, it will be necessary to fully understand what is involved in the new safeguards equation. Both old and new measures will be required to construct a comprehensive picture of a State's nuclear activities and capabilities, and they both have strengths and weaknesses. There are (for political and cost reasons) likely to be tradeoffs between the two types of measures. Significant differences among measures with respect to the probability of their detecting an anomaly, along with other characteristics, need be considered in this context. Given the important role of both types of measures in future approaches, their inherent differences with regard to their capabilities and limitations, and their potential impact on the credibility of safeguards, it will be essential to consider these measures systematically, independently, and in combination in any effectiveness evaluation. This paper will consider concepts and issues in addressing this need.

  7. Middle term prospects for Japan's safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has responded to IAEA requirements on reinforced safeguard regulations. The IAEA additional protocol entered in force in Japan on December 1999. Japan submitted a preliminary information report to IAEA on June 2000 after joint works with the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) of Japan. The first annual report was submitted to IAEA on May 2001. Another activity for the additional protocol is complementary accesses. The total 36 accesses to facilities have been done from November 2000 to September 2001. Procedures of access to managements are under discussion. MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has been constructing the Rokkasho Safeguards On-Site Laboratory from 1997, and the Rokkasho Safeguards Center from 2000. The Design Information Verification (DIV) is now ongoing. Much more personal resources will be needed for future inspections. Therefore, the budget for safeguards is increasing in contrast to the flat base budget for the total atomic energy. As for future activity, a MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuels) fuel processing plant is one of the issues for discussion. The construction of the MOX processing plant is supposed to begin on around 2004. The conclusion of additional protocol will be given by IAEA until end of 2002. Shift to integrated safeguards are under discussions by MEXT, NMCC and utilities of Japan parallel with IAEA. Key issues of discussion are cost saving for safeguards, development of personal resources for inspectors and the role of NMCC. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. International and regional safeguards inspector training guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent international developments have prompted a need to strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation regime, the supporting international safeguards system, and related new inspection requirements. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in carrying out its responsibilities for international safeguards, and in coordination with other U.S. agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), initiated a study to identify training programs, techniques, and technologies that might enhance implementation of international nuclear safeguards inspections. As a result, an analysis of training needs was conducted and a set of guidelines was developed to assist in meeting future international safeguards inspection requirements. The objectives of the analysis and guidelines were to (1) to identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for international safeguards inspections with emphasis of new requirements; (2) identify training needs and resources available; and (3) sharpen the sense and understanding of the inspector's role. This paper summarizes the findings of this study and discusses potential applications of new training technologies to safeguards inspectors' needs

  9. Integrating virtual reality applications in nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual reality (VR) tools have already been developed and deployed in the nuclear industry, including in nuclear power plant construction, project management, equipment and system design, and training. Recognized as powerful tools for, inter alia, integration of data, simulation of activities, design of facilities, validation of concepts and mission planning, their application in nuclear safeguards is still very limited. However, VR tools may eventually offer transformative potential for evolving the future safeguards system to be more fully information-driven. The paper focuses especially on applications in the area of training that have been underway in the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It also outlines future applications envisioned for safeguards information and knowledge management, and information-analytic collaboration. The paper identifies some technical and programmatic pre-requisites for realizing the integrative potential of VR technologies. If developed with an orientation to integrating applications through compatible platforms, software, and models, virtual reality tools offer the long-term potential of becoming a real 'game changer,' enabling a qualitative leap in the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear safeguards. The IAEA invites Member States, industry, and academia to make proposals as to how such integrating potential in the use of virtual reality technology for nuclear safeguards could be realized. (author)

  10. Safeguards and Tamuz: setting the record straight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementing nuclear material safeguards naturally gives rise to political, technical, and economic problems. The Agency had foreseen such problems - even serious ones such as detected diversion or false alarm. Fortunately neither has occurred. But our fantasy did not move us to expect an event like the Israeli attack on Iraq's Tamuz research reactor on 7 June 1981. This attack focused the attention of the mass media on the effectiveness of the Agency's safeguards. However, the media do not understand the technicalities of nuclear materials safeguards. As this event had not only technical, but highly political ramifications, the media's technical ignorance made it difficult for them to present a balanced picture. As a result, the general public has become concerned and the credibility of safeguards, one of its main pillars, has been questioned. The purpose of this article is to set the record straight. Because many details concerning the Tamuz facility have already been published, we can in this case go beyond the very tight rules for protecting safeguards information. At the same time this case may be considered as one example of planning and implementation of safeguards in practice

  11. Safeguards culture on 3S interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But when proliferation of nuclear weapon does happen due to violation of safeguards, the impact would be no smaller compare to the others. Therefore, it should be treated as important as the others. In fact, safeguards culture wasn't issued first time in this paper. However, the past safeguards culture only meant the conception based upon specific purpose. But it should be generalized to extend the target and scope enough to cover any possible misbehavior. The aforementioned NMAC will be a quite meaningful research subject not just for strengthening safeguards culture, but also for the security and safeguards interface. Recognizing the importance of this, the , IAEA has developed a set of technical criteria based on the IAEA implementing guide entitled Use of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control for Nuclear Security Purposes at Facilities(in publication) and a methodology to assess the use of a facility's NMAC system for nuclear security. IAEA has established an expert team to continuously evaluate and apply NMAC systems going forward. In the process of such efforts, the ROK should work to select and apply appropriate features so as to build a more improved safeguards culture and to determine the best practice

  12. Safeguards culture on 3S interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yon Hong; Lee, Na Young; Han, Jae-Jun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    But when proliferation of nuclear weapon does happen due to violation of safeguards, the impact would be no smaller compare to the others. Therefore, it should be treated as important as the others. In fact, safeguards culture wasn't issued first time in this paper. However, the past safeguards culture only meant the conception based upon specific purpose. But it should be generalized to extend the target and scope enough to cover any possible misbehavior. The aforementioned NMAC will be a quite meaningful research subject not just for strengthening safeguards culture, but also for the security and safeguards interface. Recognizing the importance of this, the , IAEA has developed a set of technical criteria based on the IAEA implementing guide entitled Use of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control for Nuclear Security Purposes at Facilities(in publication) and a methodology to assess the use of a facility's NMAC system for nuclear security. IAEA has established an expert team to continuously evaluate and apply NMAC systems going forward. In the process of such efforts, the ROK should work to select and apply appropriate features so as to build a more improved safeguards culture and to determine the best practice.

  13. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  14. Development of national safeguards inspection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is considered that the safeguards trend in the IAEA and international nonproliferation regime is being accelerated toward strengthened safeguards system. In order to effectively respond to the stream as a whole, government has to have a firm policy-intention on nuclear non-proliferation, and supporting stance as to the stream should be taken consistently. Also, technological development satisfying the non-proliferation requirement would be pursued for the establishment of transparency and the enhancement of international confidence. At present, Korea stands at take-off stage in terms of safeguards. Therefore, necessary measures such as arrangement of legal framework, staffing and training of inspection man-power, and purchase of inspection equipment should be taken at the same time for earlier settlement of national safeguards system. In this connection, international cooperation with the share of the inspection results and equipment between the IAEA and TCNC is demanded. In the long term, the development of inspection technology as well as the research of sophisticated technology will have to be pursued. Emphasis should be placed on the regional safeguards system as well. In addition, it is necessary to ensure internationally that nuclear technological development to be planned is development of safeguards technology. (author). 20 tabs., 24 figs., 45 refs

  15. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Richard; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-06-24

    U.S. efforts to promote the international expansion of nuclear energy through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will result in a dramatic expansion of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the United States. New demonstration facilities, such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC) will use advanced nuclear and chemical process technologies that must incorporate increased proliferation resistance to enhance nuclear safeguards. The ASA-100 Project, “Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities,” commissioned by the NA-243 Office of NNSA, has been tasked with reviewing and developing advanced safeguards approaches for these demonstration facilities. Because one goal of GNEP is developing and sharing proliferation-resistant nuclear technology and services with partner nations, the safeguards approaches considered are consistent with international safeguards as currently implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This first report reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new fuel reprocessing processes to be deployed at the AFCF and CFTC facilities. Similar analyses addressing the ABR and transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication lines at AFCF and CFTC will be presented in subsequent reports.

  16. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper,S.; Rosenthal, M.; Fishbone, L.; Occhiogrosso, D.; Carroll, C.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Rankhauser, J.

    2008-10-22

    In 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a yearlong review of the challenges facing the international safeguards system today and over the next 25 years. The study found that without new investment in international safeguards, the U.S. safeguards technology base, and our ability to support International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, will continue to erode and soon may be at risk. To reverse this trend, the then U.S. Secretary of Energy, Samuel Bodman, announced at the 2007 IAEA General Conference that the Department of Energy (DOE) would launch the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). He stated 'IAEA safeguards must be robust and capable of addressing proliferation threats. Full confidence in IAEA safeguards is essential for nuclear power to grow safely and securely. To this end, the U.S. Department of Energy will seek to ensure that modern technology, the best scientific expertise, and adequate resources are available to keep pace with expanding IAEA responsibilities.' To meet this goal, the NGSI objectives include the recruitment of international safeguards experts to work at the U.S. national laboratories and to serve at the IAEA's headquarters. Part of the latter effort will involve enhancing our existing efforts to place well-qualified Americans in a sufficient number of key safeguards positions within the IAEA's Department of Safeguards. Accordingly, the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards (ERIS) on October 22 and 23, 2008. The ISPO used a workshop format developed earlier with Sonalysts, Inc., that was followed at the U.S. Support Program's (USSP's) technology road-mapping sessions. ISPO invited participants from the U.S. DOE, the IAEA, the U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and

  17. Safeguards Implementation Practices Guide on Establishing and Maintaining State Safeguards Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA implements safeguards pursuant to agreements concluded with States. It is in the interests of both States and the IAEA to cooperate to facilitate the practical implementation of safeguards. Such cooperation is explicitly required under all types of safeguards agreements. Effective cooperation depends upon States and the IAEA sharing a common understanding of their respective rights and obligations. To address this, in 2012 the IAEA published Services Series 21, Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols, which aimed at enhancing understanding of the safeguards obligations of both States and the IAEA and at improving their cooperation in safeguards implementation. States may establish different processes and procedures at the national level, and set up different systems as required to meet their safeguards obligations. Indeed, a variety of approaches are to be expected, owing to such differences as the size and complexity of States’ nuclear programmes and their regulatory framework. The purpose of this Safeguards Implementation Practices (SIP) Guide is to share the experiences and good practices as well as the lessons learned by both States and the IAEA, acquired over the many decades of safeguards implementation. The information contained in the SIP Guides is provided for explanatory purposes and use of the Guides is not mandatory. The descriptions in the SIP Guides have no legal status and are not intended to add to, subtract from, amend or derogate from, in any way, the rights and obligations of the IAEA and the States set forth in The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (issued as INFCIRC/153 (Corrected)) and Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards (issued as INFCIRC/540 (Corrected)). This

  18. Strengthened safeguards: Present and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The safeguards system is experiencing what has been seen as a revolution and, in doing so, it is confronting a series of challenges. These can be grouped into three areas. Drawing and maintaining safeguards conclusions - The process by which the safeguards conclusions are derived is based upon the analysis, evaluation and review of all the information available to the Agency. This process is on- going, but the State Evaluation Reports are compiled and reviewed periodically. For States with an additional protocol in force, the absence of indicators of the presence of undeclared nuclear material or activities provides the basis for the safeguards conclusion. Future challenges center on States' expectations of, and reactions to, the results of the evaluation and review process. Designing and implementing integrated safeguards - The conceptual framework of integrated safeguards is being actively pursued. Basic principles have been defined and integrated safeguards approaches have been developed for various types of facilities. Work is also progressing on the design of integrated safeguards approaches for specific States. Complementary access is being successfully implemented, and procedures for the use of unannounced inspections are being developed with the prospect of cost- effectiveness gains. Costs neutrality vs. quality and credibility - The Department faces serious staff and financial challenges. It has succeeded so far in 'doing more' and 'doing better' within a zero-real growth budget, but the scope for further significant efficiency gains is exhausted. There is no capacity to absorb new or unexpected tasks. Difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified and experienced staff exacerbate the problems and add to costs. The Director General of the IAEA has referred to the need for new initiatives to bridge the budgetary gap; a possible measure is proposed. The tasks of meeting the challenges and demands of strengthened safeguards have been added to

  19. Designing Data Protection Safeguards Ethically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pagallo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1990s, lawmakers and scholars have worked on the idea of embedding data protection safeguards in information and communication technology (ICT with the aim to access and control personal data in compliance with current regulatory frameworks. This effort has been strengthened by the capacities of computers to draw upon the tools of artificial intelligence (AI and operations research. However, work on AI and the law entails crucial ethical issues concerning both values and modalities of design. On one hand, design choices might result in conflicts of values and, vice versa, values may affect design features. On the other hand, the modalities of design cannot only limit the impact of harm-generating behavior but also prevent such behavior from occurring via self-enforcement technologies. In order to address some of the most relevant issues of data protection today, the paper suggests we adopt a stricter, yet more effective version of “privacy by design.” The goal should be to reinforce people’s pre-existing autonomy, rather than having to build it from scratch.

  20. Safeguards Envelope: The First Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf; Jean Ragusa; Robert Bean

    2008-03-01

    The possibility exists for real time accountancy and assay of nuclear materials as they move through a reprocessing facility. This project aims to establish working parameters and local figures of merit to identify possible diversion in real time with minimal operational impact. Factors such as pH, NOX gas concentration, flow speeds and radiation fields are rarely taken into account in safeguards methodologies and will be included to increase the confidence of location and assay of nuclear materials. An adaptable, real data model is being created of the contactors of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility and will be analyzed using the appropriate modeling codes. This model will then be subjected to three, diversion scenarios and a figure of merit methodology will be utilized to create the operational parameters under which these diversion scenarios would be detected. This analysis for figure of merit methodology will include statistical fluctuations, operator error, and a rudimentary analysis of transient conditions. The long term goal of the project includes expansion universally over the plant, methods of detection without requiring access to proprietary information, and an evaluation of the requirements for future figure of merit methodologies.

  1. The Review of Quality System on IAEA Safeguards to Improve the Quality of National Safeguards Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea is the 6th largest producer of nuclear power in the world and also has many extensive nuclear research programs. As a result, Korea is also the 3rd most frequent inspected country by the IAEA. Nuclear nonproliferation has been a supreme concern in Korea; and the government has fully understood the importance of nuclear safeguards inspection. KOREA established a state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC), immediately after the safeguards agreement with the IAEA on 14 November 1975. The Nuclear Control Team from MEST (government) has the primary responsibility to oversee safeguards and KINAC has been entrusted to perform this duty under the delegated authority by the Atomic Energy Act. Safeguards Activities from KINAC have been conducted over the last 20 years. Yet Quality System concerning national safeguards inspection has not been taken into consideration. In order to have an effective and efficient national safeguards inspection program, it is time to seriously consider Quality System. In this paper, the quality assurance with regulatory bodies which was recommended by IAEA, the quality management system in IAEA safeguards department, and other countries cases were reviewed and analyzed. From this initial step, an attempt was made to design a more efficiently and effectively quality system for conducting national safeguards inspection

  2. Promoting Safeguards Best Practice through the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing international focus on effective regulatory oversight of nuclear energy across the three pillars of nuclear safety, security and safeguards. Regarding nuclear safeguards, States in the Asia-Pacific region recognize the importance of cooperation and sharing of experiences to ensure that this is implemented to high international standards. For this reason the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was formed in 2009 - an informal network of departments, agencies and regulatory authorities with safeguards responsibilities from some 15 countries across the Asia-Pacific region. The objective of APSN it to bring States in the region together to develop practical measures for enhancing effective safeguards implementation, through workshops, sharing experiences and other safeguards projects. APSN works closely with the IAEA to achieve these objectives. This paper will outline the role and objectives of APSN and provide examples of how APSN work together to enhance safeguards effectiveness and raise awareness. The paper will also explore how this model of a broad community of States working together on safeguards could enhance implementation and awareness in other regions of the world. (author)

  3. First Report of Veronica Rust by Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae in Minnesota on Veronica spicata Royal Candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, Veronica spicata Royal Candles plants showing foliar symptoms typical of a rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial nursery. A dark brown discoloration was apparent on the upper surface of the leaf with lighter brown pu...

  4. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifah, Maryam; Miura, Ryosuke; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, H.

    2015-09-01

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don't need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  5. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifah, Maryam, E-mail: maryam.afifah210692@gmail.com; Su’ud, Zaki [Nuclear Research Group, FMIPA, Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Miura, Ryosuke; Takaki, Naoyuki [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Sekimoto, H. [Emerritus Prof. of Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don’t need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  6. 76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Republic of China Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR 49475 (August 13, 2010) (``Preliminary Results''). \\2\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 30686 (August 28... Determinations, 74 FR 42230 (August 21, 2009). In that notice, interested parties were presented two options...

  7. 75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Order: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 30686 (August 28, 1996) (``Order... the Scope of the Antidumping Duty Order and the Impact on Scope Determinations, 74 FR 42230 (August 21... People's Republic of China; Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 50 FR 39743 (September 30,...

  8. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... a reasonably foreseeable future. See Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination, 75 FR 80843... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 39494 (July 9, 2010). As a result of its review, the... FR 70713 (November 18, 2010). On December 17, 2010, the ITC determined, pursuant to section...

  9. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don’t need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis

  10. Migration of safeguards instrumentation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Development of new safeguards instrumentation for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is spurred by a number of factors: Technical issues include issues such as the emergence of new technologies and the inevitable obsolescence of system components. Policy-related issues include changes in safeguards policies, new approaches to the safeguarding of excess material, and the introduction of new types of facilities to be safeguarded. To cope with these issues, development projects are required that migrate between current safeguards systems and state-of-the-art technology. These projects usually involve IAEA staff as well as Member States and their support programs, the private sector, and research and development institutions. One such development project currently underway is the migration between the IAEA's DCM-14 based surveillance system to the Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS). The challenges and opportunities of the NGSS project include those factors that prompted the migration, the development of user requirements, the selection of appropriate development partners and funding resources, and issues in the development itself. This paper will outline the challenges, issues, opportunities, and synergies that relate to safeguards instrumentation migration, using the NGSS project as an example. The problems necessitating new development will be outlined, as will the management of these problems from project initiation until new instrumentation is available for replacement. The generation of user requirements will be explained in detail. Focus will be given to how to best manage this process in order to produce requirements that will be useful both during the development project and after the migration is completed. The challenges and opportunities in the selection and procurement process will then be highlighted, followed by the structure of the actual development project. Finally, some general comments and recommendations on how a

  11. Secure data communication for safeguards implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secure, reliable and cost-effective communication is necessary for effective IAEA safeguards implementation. The transmission of safeguards data from nuclear facilities to IAEA headquarters and regional offices (referred to as remote monitoring) initially demonstrated the need for secure, cost-effective data communication that satisfies the confidentiality requirements of Member States and provides data authenticity that allows the IAEA to draw soundly based, independent safeguards conclusions. The implementation of integrated safeguards further demonstrates the need for information obtained in the course of an inspection, complementary access or design information verification, to be analyzed and corroborated with other information available at IAEA headquarters or regional offices while the inspector is still on-site. This requires the capability to connect the inspector, anywhere in the field, to the IAEA data network with secure voice, video, or data transfer capabilities. Such a data network would allow inspectors to 'push' information to headquarters, thereby providing IAEA managers with the ability to make evaluation in near real time, as well as the ability to 'pull' information from IAEA databases for evaluations in the field. In order to expand the IAEA's present capabilities in the area of secure data communication, in 2005 the Safeguards Division of Technical Support (SGTS) initiated cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA) on satellite communications. This cooperation included testing an ESA provided satellite terminal at IAEA headquarters and at a nuclear facility. Two feasibility studies were carried out to address end-to-end communication services based on existing orbital and ground-based infrastructures. The goal was to determine how the deployment of advanced satellite communication and services could meet future IAEA safeguards needs. The paper presents the results of these studies, including a summary of costs, benefits and possible

  12. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  13. The state-level approach: moving beyond integrated safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a State-Level Approach (SLA) for international safeguards planning, implementation, and evaluation was contained in the Conceptual Framework for Integrated Safeguards (IS) agreed in 2002. This paper describes briefly the key elements of the SLA, including State-level factors and high-level safeguards objectives, and considers different cases in which application of the SLA methodology could address safeguards for 'suspect' States, 'good' States, and Nuclear Weapons States hosting fuel cycle centers. The continued use and further development of the SLA to customize safeguards for each State, including for States already under IS, is seen as central to effective and efficient safeguards for an expanding nuclear world.

  14. Experience and current state on safeguards in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the experience on implementing the nuclear material safeguards in Peru, as signant of an INFCIRC 153 type Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. A retrospective view is made since the beginning of safeguards until the current date. The nuclear material under safeguards is mainly nuclear fuel with Low Enriched Uranium used in two research reactors but also other basic materials, as thorium and depleted uranium for non-nuclear use, are included in the control system applied by IPEN, as commissioned as State System for safeguards. The participation in the IAEA program 93+2 is also mentioned. The safeguard measures currently applied are shown and future trends are explained. (author)

  15. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards October 22 and 23, 2008. The workshop was sponsored by DOE/NA-243 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Placing well-qualified Americans in sufficient number and in key safeguards positions within the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Department of Safeguards is an important U.S. non-proliferation objective. The goal of the NGSI Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards was to improve U.S. efforts to recruit U.S. citizens for IAEA positions in the Department of Safeguards. The participants considered the specific challenges of recruiting professional staff, safeguards inspectors, and managers. BNL's International Safeguards Project Office invited participants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the IAEA, U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who are either experts in international safeguards or who understand the challenges of recruiting for technical positions. A final report for the workshop will be finalized and distributed in early 2009. The main finding of the workshop was the need for an integrated recruitment plan to take into account pools of potential candidates, various government and private agency stakeholders, the needs of the IAEA, and the NGSI human capital development plan. There were numerous findings related to and recommendations for maximizing the placement of U.S. experts in IAEA Safeguards positions. The workshop participants offered many ideas for increasing the pool of candidates and increasing the placement rate. This paper will provide details on these findings and recommendations

  16. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper,S.E.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Occhogrosso, D.M.; Lockwood, D.; Carroll, C.J.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Fankhauser, J.

    2009-07-12

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards October 22 and 23, 2008. The workshop was sponsored by DOE/NA-243 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Placing well-qualified Americans in sufficient number and in key safeguards positions within the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) Department of Safeguards is an important U.S. non-proliferation objective. The goal of the NGSI Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards was to improve U.S. efforts to recruit U.S. citizens for IAEA positions in the Department of Safeguards. The participants considered the specific challenges of recruiting professional staff, safeguards inspectors, and managers. BNL’s International Safeguards Project Office invited participants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the IAEA, U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who are either experts in international safeguards or who understand the challenges of recruiting for technical positions. A final report for the workshop will be finalized and distributed in early 2009. The main finding of the workshop was the need for an integrated recruitment plan to take into account pools of potential candidates, various government and private agency stakeholders, the needs of the IAEA, and the NGSI human capital development plan. There were numerous findings related to and recommendations for maximizing the placement of U.S. experts in IAEA Safeguards positions. The workshop participants offered many ideas for increasing the pool of candidates and increasing the placement rate. This paper will provide details on these findings and recommendations

  17. Safeguards symposium. Overviews of the 2001 IAEA symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Safeguards Symposia are held at four-year intervals; this was the ninth such Symposium. Activities of the Agency's Department of Safeguards are sufficiently coherent that it is practical to gather representatives of the international non-proliferation community to examine the current situation and prospects for the future. They are carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). Safeguards implementation continues every day, with new requirements arising from developments in peaceful applications of nuclear energy and new safeguards practices arising from technology innovation. Four years ago, the Safeguards Symposium came at a time when the IAEA system was being strengthened by adoption of the Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC /540/(Corr.)), but no Additional Protocols had been signed. Over the past four years, the full extent of the 'Strengthened Safeguards System' began to take shape. Although the rate at which the Protocols are being signed and further has served to force compromises in the quality of the safeguards system, and to demand working expectations beyond prudent limits. The Symposium programme was developed with three basic threads proceeding in parallel: policy and major political considerations; safeguards technology development and experience; and experience in the implementation of IAEA safeguards, including activities carried out by States and those carried out by IAEA inspectors. In addition, for the first time, separate sessions were organized on physical protection and illicit trafficking, and on future Agency verification roles in relation to nuclear disarmament. Also, for the first time, commercial manufacturers of related equipment were invited to exhibit their products. In all, 179 papers were accepted and presented at the Symposium: 119 oral presentations were given and 60 were presented as posters. Within days of the

  18. Signal estimation and change detection in tank data for nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom, E-mail: tburr@lanl.go [Statistical Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Suzuki, Mitsutoshi [Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Howell, John [Engineering Department, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Longo, Claire E.; Hamada, Michael S. [Statistical Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Process monitoring (PM) is increasingly important in nuclear safeguards as a complement to mass-balance based nuclear materials accounting (NMA). Typically, PM involves more frequent but lower quality measurements than NMA. While NMA estimates special nuclear material (SNM) mass balances and uncertainties, PM often tracks SNM attributes qualitatively or in the case of solution monitoring (SM) tracks bulk mass and volume. Automatic event marking is used in several nuclear safeguards PM systems. The aims are to locate the start and stop times and signal changes associated with key events. This paper describes results using both real and simulated SM data to quantify the errors associated with imperfect marking of start and stop times of tank events such as receipts and shipments. In the context of safeguards, one can look both forward and backward in modest time intervals to recognize events. Event marking methods evaluated include differencing, multi-scale principal component analysis using wavelets, and piecewise linear regression (PLR). All methods are evaluated on both raw and smoothed data, and several smoothing options are compared, including standard filters, hybrid filters, and local kernel smoothing. The main finding for real and simulated examples considered is that a two-step strategy is most effective. First, any reasonably effective initial smoother is used to provide a good initial guess at change point locations. Second, PLR is applied, looking for one change point at a time. In contrast, PLR that allows for multiple change points simultaneously has worse performance.

  19. Safeguards information handling and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many states are currently discussing the new additional protocol (INFCIRC/540). This expanded framework is expected to establish the additional confirmation that there are no undeclared activities and facilities in that state. The information collected by the IAEA mainly comes from three different sources: information either provided by the state, collected by the IAEA, and from open sources. This information can be uncertain, incomplete, imprecise, not fully reliable, contradictory, etc. Hence, there is a need for a mathematical framework that provides a basis for handling and treatment of multidimensional information of varying quality. We use a linguistic assessment based on fuzzy set theory, as a flexible and realistic approach. The concept of a linguistic variable serves the purpose of providing a means of approximated characterization of information that may be imprecise, too complex or ill-defined, for which the traditional quantitative approach does not give an adequate answer. In the application of this linguistic assessment approach, a problem arises on how to aggregate linguistic information. Two different approaches can be followed: (1) approximation approach using the associated membership function; (2) symbolic approach acting by the direct computation on labels, where the use of membership function and the linguistic approximation is unnecessary, which makes computation simple and quick. To manipulate the linguistic information in this context, we work with aggregation operators for combining the linguistic non-weighted and weighted values by direct computation on labels, like the Min-type and Max-type weighted aggregation operators as well as the median aggregation operator. A case study on the application of these aggregation operators to the fusion of safeguards relevant information is given. The IAEA Physical Model of the nuclear fuel cycle can be taken as a systematic and comprehensive indicator system. It identifies and describes indicators of

  20. Systems analysis for evaluation of safeguards effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an integrated safeguards system analysis tool (LISSAT), which is a framework for performing systems analysis of safeguards effectiveness for all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The method has been applied to assess safeguards effectiveness for a conversion facility, an enrichment facility and for various types of nuclear reactors. LISSAT has the potential for evaluating safeguards for future proliferation resistant designs, and evaluating current safeguards tools/methods/on-the-shelf tools to assess safeguards strategies beyond Hexapartite. The key components of LISSAT include digraph/fault tree analysis, statistical analysis and time-domain simulation. The digraph fault tree methodology presents a well-structured systematic approach for generation and analysis of the diversion paths and is more comprehensive and systematic than traditional safeguards analysis methods. The digraph analysis is an effective method to organize and structure the possible diversion activities in a diversion scenario together with the safeguards measures and activities relevant to the diversion scenario. The fault tree analysis incorporates possible failure modes of the safeguards measures and develops a fault tree for the safeguard system in this situation. Output of the digraph-fault tree analysis provides an identification of the safeguards elements of most importance that has the potential for reducing the probability of diversion of nuclear material. Additional outputs include the ranking of the various diversion scenarios. Statistical analysis provides the basic event probabilities for the fault tree and addresses the probabilities that a short notice random inspections plan will encounter time-clustered physical diversion activities, the probabilities that inspection sampling and measurement plans will detect concealment schemes that use large or medium misdeclarations on some material items, deliberate bias in

  1. Safeguards-by-design: 3S integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and construction of a nuclear energy system, particularly the first of its kind - or the first for a given host state - is an immensely complex undertaking. Additionally safeguards, security, and safety each have significant requirements that must be properly addressed by the facility and system design effort. However, the requirements are often in apparent conflict. A simple example would be the safety requirement for emergency egress doors contrasted against the physical security requirement to limit and control access points. This conflict is significant, even as it is often understated. The potential for conflict is increased when different parties are responsible for each component, as in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performing safeguards while the host state provides for safety and security. Early and complete identification of requirements is critical to design success. This allows consideration of intrinsic design features that can satisfy all parties. The majority of the cost to design and build a facility is committed by the end of the conceptual design. As the design progresses, the cost to change the facility via retrofits is increasingly, even prohibitively, expensive, both in money and time. Conflicts among the safeguards, security, and safety design requirements must be resolved early to allow optimal design solutions, and to avoid costly backfits. The Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) project currently underway in the United States is developing a design process that will fully integrate safeguards (to include state and international safeguards, and proliferation barriers) and security into the facility design process, with close coordination with safety. The SBD process includes key features such as early safeguards and security input to the facility requirements documents, a systems approach to nonproliferation and security considerations within the design effort, and agreed upon timelines for communicating with the IAEA. The

  2. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of 'non-traditional' operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes

  3. Instrumentation for international safeguards. Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site inspection supported by instrumentation has become the primary verification mode for international safeguards. The custom designed instrumentation for measurement, monitoring, sealing and containment has become the essential tools to support inspectors. At present, 76 instruments or instrumental systems are authorized for inspection use by IAEA. The global summary of IAEA safeguard statistics for 1992 is shown. Also field instrumentation use is shown. The Agency is in the transitional mode for optical surveillance from films to CCTV units. One-time use seals are predominantly employed, but the use of in-situ verifiable seals is increasing. It is noted that instrumentation has become an essential tool for safeguard effectiveness. Instrumentation is generally 'dumb' in the sense that it provides inspectors with specific information that must be interpreted and integrated with other data before drawing safeguard conclusion. The positive features of in-situ instrumentation are shown. A prime example of in-situ instruments is core discharge monitor. Also high count rate gamma spectrometry system and improved Cerenkov viewing device are described. As the equipment carried by inspectors to facilities, miniature CdTe detector probe is shown. Safeguard instrumentation needs for future and the instrumentation activities presently underway are described. (K.I.)

  4. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  5. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  6. IAEA safeguards and technical support programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) has since 1978 provided technology and technical assistance to the IAEA to support its nuclear safeguards activities. The present level of support, $6.9 million per year, equals 10% of the Department of Safeguards annual budget. During the next decade, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will face new technical challenges in carrying out its verification activities. To help the IAEA acquire the technology and other technical support that it will require in the 1990s, POTAS expects to continue its assistance, both in the areas established in the past and in additional areas dictated by newly identified IAEA safeguards requirements. This paper looks at the political and policy context within which the Department of Safeguards, and hence POTAS, operates, and how that context is expected to evolve over the next decade. The roles and functions of POTAS will be identified and discussed in terms of their historical evolution. Lastly, the paper will consider how POTAS is expected to change during the 1990s, both to maintain effectiveness in existing roles and functions, and to meet the challenge of the changing policy context

  7. Safeguards at Rokkasho Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), Uranium Enrichment Plant and MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant (J-MOX) are stated. On the RRP, the fundamental idea, application of safeguards for five materials balance areas, design information examination and design information verification, solution monitoring (SM), plutonium inventory measurement system (PIMS), measurement system of nuclear materials in waste and on site laboratory (OSL) are described. On the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP), safeguards at two material balance areas, abstract of inspection, and introduction of server digital image surveillance system (SDIS) and laser item identification system (L2IS) are stated. J-MOX consists of nine sectors, which use each optimum safeguard. containment and surveillance (C/S) and nondestructive assay (NDA) of RRP, camera-radiation detector (CRD), chronological record of safeguards, outline of SM, concept of PIMS, concept of inspection collection data system, on-site laboratory, and arrangement of sever digital image surveillance system (SDIS) and L2IS are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. Information analysis in the strengthened safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The changing political framework of the early 1990s revealed the limitations of traditional Safeguards and led the Member States to strengthen Safeguards. This was done under a two- pronged approach: while Programme 93+2 developed the model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540), which would require an expanded declaration, complementary access, and broader environmental sampling, the Safeguards measures in force under the existing comprehensive Safeguards Agreements were strengthened through voluntary reporting, environmental sampling, and enhanced information analysis. The purpose of both of these initiatives was to broaden the mission of the IAEA to include the detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The effect was to increase dramatically the amount of information available to the Agency and the challenge was to develop a method and infrastructure to evaluate all this information. Since 1992 the Agency has developed a state evaluation process for collecting, organizing, and analyzing new types of information (open source information, the results of environmental sampling, commercial satellite imagery) and integrating this information with the familiar state declared and verification information traditionally collected and evaluated by the Agency. This address will describe the components and challenges of information analysis under strengthened Safeguards, the heart of the state evaluation process. (author)

  9. The development of safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, research and development on geological repositories for High Level Waste (HLW) focuses on the short- and long-term safety aspects of the repository. If the repository will also be used for the disposal of spent fuel, safeguards aspects have to be taken into account. Safety and safeguards requirements may be contradictory; the safety of a geological repository is based on the non-intrusion of the geological containment, while safeguards require regular inspections of position and amount of the spent fuel. Examples to reconcile these contradictory requirements are the use of information required for the safety assessment of the geological repository for safeguards purposes and the adaptation of the safeguards approach to use non-intrusive inspection techniques. The principles of an inspection approach for a geological repository are now generally accepted within the IAEA. The practical applicability of the envisaged inspection techniques is still subject to investigation. It is specifically important for the Belgian situation that an inspection technique can be used in clay, the geological medium in which Belgium intends to dispose its HLW and spent fuel. The work reported in this chapter is the result of an international cooperation in the framework of the IAEA, in which SCK-CEN participates

  10. The international scope of IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of safeguards agreements under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and with States not Party to that Treaty, the Agency's safeguards coverage today is very extensive. According to the best information officially available to the Agency, there are only five States in the world besides the nuclear-weapon States that have significant nuclear activities which are not subject to Agency safeguards, namely Egypt, India, Israel, South Africa and Spain. Nevertheless, any State that is not a Party to the NPT or the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty) is free, in the absence of treaty obligations, to build or otherwise acquire unsafeguarded nuclear plant. Furthermore, there are significant differences between the NPT safeguards agreements and those with States not Party to the NPT, not only with regard to scope (NPT agreements cover all peaceful nuclear activities in the State, which in practice means all nuclear activities, while non-NPT agreements so far only cover particular plants or supply agreements) but also in technical and legal approach (NPT agreements reflect important advances in safeguards concepts indicated in the Treaty itself). (author)

  11. Numerical Study of the Effects of the Face Velocity on Ceramic Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seo,Taewon

    1998-01-01

    Time-averaged explicit Navier-Stokes equations with the modified Darcy's law for the three-dimensional cylindrical flow field were formulated to the problem.Numerical investigation of the effects of the face velocity on ceramic candle filter was executed in three-dimensional turbulent flow field.It is found that the flow in the vessel is pushed toward the filter region by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the filter due to the viscosity and inertial resistance.It is also found that the pressure drop is directly proportional to the flow rate and the slope of the pressure drop will be mitigated when the thickness of the filter cake(δ)is larger than 10mm.

  12. Smart structures for application in ceramic barrier filter technology. Final report, August 1991--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, S.J.; Lippert, T.E

    1994-12-01

    High temperature optical fiber sensors were developed to measure the in-service stressing that occurs in ceramic barrier filter systems. The optical fiber sensors were based on improvements to the sensor design developed under the DOE/METC Smart Structures for Fossil Energy Applications contract no. DE-AC21-89MC25159. In-house application testing of these sensors on both candle and cross-flow filters were performed in the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center High-Temperature, High-Pressure Filter Test Facility and the results analyzed. This report summarizes the sensor developments, methods to apply the sensors to the filters for in-situ testing, and the test results from the four in-house tests that were performed.

  13. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Diaz-Gómez, Jaime; Castellanos-Rozo, Jose; Usaquen-Perilla, Olga Lucía

    2016-07-01

    Despite technological advances water supply quality and poor access to safe water remain a major problem in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment has been shown to be a viable option to produce safe drinking water quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF). The evaluation was made using spiked water having the required concentrations of turbidity, Escherichia coli and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results show that all systems have high removal efficiencies for turbidity (98-99%), and E. coli 4-5 Log Reduction Value (LRV). The poorest efficiency was for TDS (9-18%). The MF and the CCF displayed no significant difference in efficiencies for these parameters. The PCF had less significant differences for turbidity removal than the other systems. The average filtration rate for all systems decreased during the operation time. The CPF showed the major potential to be used in rural communities mainly for its low operational level and maintenance requirements as well as its local craftsmanship. It was observed that the efficiency of the systems is highly sensitive to cleaning and maintenance activities and therefore, the system sustainability will depend considerably on the training and education of the potential users. PMID:27105031

  14. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally-determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally-determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With only three parameters per solvent, this `CANDLE' model simultaneously reproduce...

  15. Candle soot-based super-amphiphobic coatings resist protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmüser, Lars; Encinas, Noemi; Paven, Maxime; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Super nonfouling surfaces resist protein adhesion and have a broad field of possible applications in implant technology, drug delivery, blood compatible materials, biosensors, and marine coatings. A promising route toward nonfouling surfaces involves liquid repelling architectures. The authors here show that soot-templated super-amphiphobic (SAP) surfaces prepared from fluorinated candle soot structures are super nonfouling. When exposed to bovine serum albumin or blood serum, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis showed that less than 2 ng/cm(2) of protein was adsorbed onto the SAP surfaces. Since a broad variety of substrate shapes can be coated by soot-templated SAP surfaces, those are a promising route toward biocompatible materials design. PMID:27460261

  16. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monado, Fiber [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia and Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Su' ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Ariani, Menik [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [CRINES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okoyama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  17. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin–electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  18. The Hubble relation for nonstandard candles and the origin of the redshift of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosian, V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the magnitude-log (redshift) relation for brightest quasars can have a slope different from the value expected for standard candles. The value of this slope depends on the luminosity function and its evolution. Therefore the difference of this slope from the expected value cannot be used as evidence against the cosmological origin of the redshift of the quasars. It is shown that the observed variation of the luminosity of the brightest objects with redshift is consistent with the cosmological hypothesis and that it agrees with (and perhaps could be used to complement) the luminosity function obtained from V/Vm analysis. It is also shown that the nonzero slope of the magnitude-log (redshift) relation rules out the local quasar hypothesis, where it is assumed that the sources are nearby (less than 500 Mpc), that the bulk of their redshift is intrinsic, and that there is no dependence on distance of the intrinsic properties of the sources.

  19. 多管陶瓷对过滤器内耦合效应数值模拟%Numerical Investigation of Coupling Effect in Multipipe Ceramic Filter Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞; 姬忠礼; 吴小林; CHOI Joo-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The Reynolds stress transport model and the Eulerian two-fluid model provided by the FLUENT code were applied to evaluate the gas-particle two-phase flow in the ceramic filter vessel.The ceramic filter vessel contains six candle filters.which are arranged in the form of equilateral hexagon.The variation of the areal density of the filter cake during the filtration and the back.pulse process were analyzed.The coupling effect between filters.gas and solid,filtration and pulse cleaning process were investigated,respectively.The numerical results show a good approach to predict the particle distribution in the vessel and the particle deposition on the filter element.This study provides the base for the intensive study on the analysis of the gas-particle flow in the filter vessel.

  20. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT

  1. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidoni, S. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/CUA, Code 674, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Yoshimura, K. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Plowman, J. E., E-mail: silvina.e.guidoni@nasa.gov [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  2. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI's ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI's long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  3. U.S. safeguards history and the evolution of safeguards research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing the U.S. safeguards history and the evolution of safeguards research and development, five significant eras are identified. The period ending January 1, 1947, may be called the first era. Safeguards as known today did not exist and the classic military approach of security protection applied. The second era covers the period from 1947 to 1954 (when the Atomic Energy Act was completely rewritten to accommodate the then foreseen Civil uses Program and international cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy), and the first steps were taken by the Atomic Energy Commission to establish material accounting records for all source and fissionable materials on inventory. The third era covers the period 1954 through 1968, which focused on nuclear safeguards in its domestic activities and made major policy changes in its approach to material control and accountability. The fourth era, 1968 to 1972 saw a quantum jump in the recognition and need for a significant safeguards research and development program, answered by the formation of a safeguards technical support organization at Brookhaven National Laboratory and a safeguards Laboratory at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for the development and application of non-destructive assay technology. The fifth era had its beginning in 1972 with the burgeoning of international terrorism. The corresponding need for a strong physical protection research and development support program was responded to by the Sandia National Laboratory

  4. Norm in the matter of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA), through its norm, establishes requirements in the matter of safeguards that allow him to control the fulfillment of the objectives established at national level and the international commitments that the Argentine Republic has assumed in the scope of Nuclear Non-proliferation. The measures of fortification of the safeguards proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), will imply new obligations for the country and consequently it will require the update of the effective norm in the matter. The objective of this work is to describe the reach of the update of the norm in the matter of safeguards and their relation with some procedures of application in the scope of the radiological protection and the nuclear security

  5. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

  6. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility

  7. Conceptual design of integrated safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is currently involved in the conceptual design of safeguards for generic facilities in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle (spent-fuel reprocessing, plutonium nitrate-to-oxide conversion, mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, plutonium scrap recovery, and waste handling). These studies are first steps aimed at eventually providing detailed designs of integrated safeguards systems to guide safeguards-related facility construction and/or modification. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the conceptual design process in terms of its definition, a systematic procedure for its implementation, some of the tools required, and an example of the results of a conceptual design. The value of conceptual design and its relationship to other facets of the complete facility design process are also discussed

  8. International safeguards for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes the nonproliferation effectiveness and political and economic acceptability of prospective improvements in international safeguard techniques for LWR spent fuel storage. Although the applicability of item accounting considerably eases the safeguarding of stored spent fuel, the problem of verification is potentially serious. A number of simple gamma and neutron nondestructive assay techniques were found to offer considerable improvements, of a qualitative rather than quantitative nature, in verification-related data and information, and possess the major advantage of intruding very little on facility operations. A number of improved seals and monitors appear feasible as well, but improvements in the timeliness of detection will not occur unless the frequency of inspection is increased or a remote monitoring capability is established. Limitations on IAEA Safeguards resources and on the integration of results from material accounting and containment and surveillance remain problems

  9. 5 CFR 293.107 - Special safeguards for automated records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Basic Policies on Maintenance of Personnel Records § 293.107 Special safeguards... security safeguards for data about individuals in automated records, including input and output...

  10. 20 years of the implementation of the safeguards agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru has signed an INFIRC/153 type safeguards agreement with the IAEA in 1979. The paper describes the nuclear material under control and outlines the organization and the activities related to the implementation of the safeguards agreements

  11. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  12. Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is aimed at enhancing States’ understanding of the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, and at improving the cooperation between States and the IAEA in safeguards implementation. It is principally intended for State or regional safeguards regulatory authorities and facility operators, and is a reference document that is supported by detailed guidance and examples in safeguards implementation practices presented in other publications in the series. (This version is the 2016 update.)

  13. Domestic safeguards: annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report includes an assessment of the effectiveness and adequacy of safeguards at facilities and activities licensed by the Commission. The report details NRC's criteria for judging the adequacy of safeguards at fuel cycle facilities; the report also summarizes actions required by NRC at any fuel facility whose safeguards systems are judged to provide less than high assurance protection against our design threat. The report also contains a discussion of NRC's criteria for safeguards adequacy at nuclear reactors and for transportation activities

  14. Strengthening safeguards through regional cooperation - The Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of slides presents the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN). The objective of APSN is to promote safeguards best practice in the region. This will be achieved through enhanced cooperation in areas such as training, professional development and the sharing of experiences. APSN also provides a forum for safeguards professionals to exchange views and to share experience on matters of mutual interest. The APSN web-site will become fully operational to include relevant and up-to-date information on available training, educational and professional development opportunities. (A.C.)

  15. Future safeguards equipment needs and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of more than 30 years of accumulated field experience, the IAEA has established a wide and sound range of equipment and techniques for use in safeguards implementation activities. As a consequence of a rapidly changing technology marketplace, and with the introduction of the strengthened safeguards system, the Agency must now adapt itself to new challenges so that it can continue to use appropriate and sustainable equipment in a cost effective and efficient manner. Four of the major challenges facing the Agency in the future are as follows: Having the capability to maintain a sound equipment management infrastructure in a fast developing technical environment (equipment sustainability); Having the capability to upgrade existing techniques and methods for strengthened and integrated safeguards; Ensuring the capability for implementing safeguards at new facilities; Improving the capability to detect undeclared nuclear material and nuclear facilities. All equipment authorized for inspection use undergoes extensive testing to ensure their suitability, usability and reliability. Taking into account the high cost of equipment development and implementation, and a substantial inventory of existing safeguards equipment, the Department of Safeguards needs the efficient adaptation of its equipment inventory in order to function effectively within budget constraints and to satisfy new requirements stemming from additional protocol activities. Achieving cost-effectiveness in an environment of rapidly evolving technology requires strong and technically competent in-house resources that take the Department's constraints and requirements as a first priority and are able to focus on equipment sustainability and adaptability. The advantage of such an approach is that it establishes greater independence of safeguards equipment development from national and corporate interests, and achieves greater effectiveness in the use of equipment funds. To ensure the

  16. Safeguards Techniques and Equipment: 2011 Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to give a full and balanced description of the safeguards techniques and equipment used for nuclear material accountancy, containment and surveillance measures, environmental sampling and data security. Specific features are included in installed equipment systems in order to ensure authenticity and confidentiality of information. A completely new section on new and novel technologies has been added to describe the most recent and promising future safeguards tools to detect declared and undeclared nuclear material and activities. As new verification measures continue to be developed the material in this book will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued.

  17. Analytical measurements for safeguarding large reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification analysis of samples taken at large reprocessing plants can be performed off site after shipment of the samples to a specialized laboratory of, more advantageously in terms of cost and timeliness, on site. The latter may be achieved either by using permanently installed equipment which is operated by an inspector or in fully equipped on-site laboratory. Analytical techniques suitable for determining uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions as well as the respective element concentrations, are applied. Experience with a number of these techniques has shown that effective analytical support in safeguarding large reprocessing plants can be provided to the safeguards authorities

  18. Workshop on facility safeguards system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical inventory of nuclear material within a LWR facility is established by counting assemblies and identifying serial numbers of fuel subassemblies. Seals and surveillance cameras are used to maintain continuity of safeguards knowledge during time intervals between inspections. The main features of the IAEA safeguards approach at LWRs are the following: auditing of facility records and comparison with reports submitted to the Agency, periodic closing of material balance by the operator (usually annually) by taking physical inventory, independent verification of nuclear material by the Agency, usually by item counting and serial number identification and application of containment and surveillance measures to maintain knowledge of nuclear material

  19. Insider safeguards effectiveness model (ISEM). User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive presentation of the ISEM computer program is provided. ISEM was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a fixed-site facility safeguards system in coping with the theft, sabotage, or dispersal of radiological material by a single person who has authorized access to the facility. This insider may be aided by a group of insiders who covertly degrade sensor systems. Each ISEM run evaluates safeguards system performance for a particular scenario specified by the user. The dispatching of guards following alarms and their interaction with the insider are explicitly treated by the model

  20. Ultra-violet wavelength shift for undoped CaF2 scintillation detector by two phase of liquid scintillator system in CANDLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDLES is a project to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 48Ca with CaF2 scintillators. An effective 4π active shield is achieved by placing the CaF2 crystals in a liquid scintillator. Energy resolution is improved by converting the ultra-violet light of the CaF2 scintillator into the visible region with a wavelength shifter dissolved in the liquid scintillator. The newly developed technique, 'two phase system of liquid scintillator', is presented. It will be used to exploit the unique features of the CANDLES system. Experiments to determine liquid scintillator composition will be described. Performance of CANDLES will be demonstrated with prototype detectors. Obtained results indicate that the proposed two phase technique is effective for CANDLES system which will utilize several tons of CaF2 scintillators.

  1. 10 CFR 71.11 - Protection of Safeguards Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Safeguards Information. 71.11 Section 71.11... General Provisions § 71.11 Protection of Safeguards Information. Each licensee, certificate holder, or... public health and safety or the common defense and security, shall protect Safeguards Information...

  2. Waste isolation safeguards and security system. Volume 2. Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to define the rationale and scope of the Waste Isolation System (WIS) safeguards system, to establish a set of proposed basic safeguards criteria, and to identify the areas requiring development of specific criteria and technology. The report also presents a proposed program schedule and provides an extensive bibliography, in volumes two and three of applicable reference safeguards documents

  3. Waste isolation safeguards and security system. Volume 3. Bibliography supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to define the rationale and scope of the Waste Isolation System (WIS) safeguards system, to establish a set of proposed basic safeguards criteria, and to identify the areas requiring development of specific criteria and technology. The report also presents a proposed program schecule and provides an extensive bibliography in volumes two and three of applicable reference safeguards documents

  4. Safeguards instruments for Large-Scale Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Case, R.S.; Sonnier, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Between 1987 and 1992 a multi-national forum known as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) met to assist the IAEA in development of effective and efficient safeguards for large-scale reprocessing plants. The US provided considerable input for safeguards approaches and instrumentation. This paper reviews and updates instrumentation of importance in measuring plutonium and uranium in these facilities.

  5. 16 CFR 314.3 - Standards for safeguarding customer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for safeguarding customer... OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.3 Standards for safeguarding customer information. (a) Information security program. You shall develop, implement, and maintain...

  6. Safeguards technology research and development at CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is a multi-disciplinary institute under the leadership of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The Laboratory of Technical Research for Nuclear Safeguards was established at CIAE in 1991 to develop safeguards technology and to provide technical assistance to competent authorities for nuclear material management and control, which became one of the key laboratories approved by CNNC in 1993. The main research works for safeguards at CIAE include: nuclear material control and accounting, facilities license review and assessment, domestic inspection, NDA and DA analysis, physical protection and technical training. Research and development of equipment and technique for safeguards has been continuing at CIAE. A variety of NDA equipment that has different resolution and analysis capability has been developed. Method of NDA measurement has been investigated for nuclear material with different characteristics. Mathematics method such as Monte Carlo simulation is applied in NDA. Advanced destructive analysis (DA) instrument is installed at laboratory of CIAE, such as TIMS, ICP-MS and electronic chemistry analyzing system. The high accuracy results of element analysis and isotopic analysis for nuclear material can be obtained. It is possible to measure the types and quantities of nuclear material in a given area by means of NDA and DA. Physical protection system has also been developed. It consists of access control and management, various alarm (including perimeter alarm, intrusion alarms, fire alarms), video and audio monitors, intercommunication set and central console. The system can meet technical requirement for safeguards of first rank. Nuclear material accounting is an important aspect of safeguards research at CIAE. The computer software related to material accounting has been developed. It is the important task for scientists at CIAE to design and review nuclear accounting systems in various facilities. For

  7. Finnish nuclear verification (FINUVE) in support of IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Finland has two IAEA support programmes funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Those are the Finnish support programme for safeguards, FINSP, and the Finnish support programme for the IAEA Iraq Action Team. Both programmes are coordinated by STUK and several universities and research institutions participate in them. Within both programmes Environmental Sampling (ES) and Wide Area Environmental Sampling (WAES) technologies are developed. Both these techniques require chemical and radiochemical measurements. In order to utilize the whole Finnish experience in this field, the three institutions, STUK, VTT and HYRL, have signed a contract for cooperation within safeguards related analysis. The FINUVE contract states that these three institutes form a consortium to perform development work and if needed, participate in routine safeguards analytical work. The wide variety of analytical services is available on a commercial basis. The FINUVE organisation is very simple: it has a coordination group, which consists of a chairman from STUK and one participant from each organisation. These participants represent the analytical groups in each organisation. FINUVE, with STUK as the signatory, is a certified member of the IAEA Network of Analytical Laboratories, NWAL. FINUVE participated in an NWAL inter comparison for the analysis of bulk concentrations of fission products, uranium and plutonium isotopes in swipe samples. The results were quite good when compared with the expected values. In 2000 a new support programme task on particle analysis was started with the name Development of New Methods for Environmental Sample Analysis. Until now the major effort of FINUVE has been on the development of WAES methods. Since 1994 we have analysed environmental samples from field trials organised by the Agency. We have also done several theoretical studies on WAES technologies, in some cases by participating in the work of international working groups. In 1998 FINUVE

  8. The potential use of domestic safeguards interior monitors in International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important future element of International Safeguards instrumentation is expected to be the merging of containment/surveillance and nondestructive assay equipment with domestic physical protection equipment into integrated systems, coupled with remote monitoring. Instrumentation would include interior monitoring and assessment and entry/exit monitoring. Of particular importance is the application of interior monitors in spaces of declared inactivity; for example, in nuclear material storage locations that are entered infrequently. The use of modern interior monitors in International Safeguards offers potential for improving effectiveness and efficiency. Within the context of increased cooperation, one can readily envision increased interaction between International Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards, including increased joint use of State System of Accounting and Control data

  9. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  10. Application and research status of vegetable oil in candle%植物油在蜡烛中的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪丹; 毕艳兰; 张虹; 陈丽丽; 肖宇峰; 徐学兵

    2014-01-01

    植物油作为一种可替代石蜡的绿色环保、可再生的新兴蜡材,其在环境保护及维护人体健康方面具有重要意义。概述了植物油在蜡烛中应用的优势及存在的问题,以油脂结晶相关理论为基础论述了影响植物油基蜡烛外观品质的因素及改善方法,对比了植物油基与石蜡型蜡烛的燃烧性能,并展望了植物油在蜡烛行业中的应用前景。%As a renewable replacement for paraffin, vegetable oil plays an important role in environmental protection and human health. The advantages and disadvantages of application of vegetable oil in candle were summarized. Based on the related theory of oil crystallization, the major impact factors of appear-ance of vegetable oil-based candle and the methods to improve candle quality were discussed, the com-bustion properties of vegetable oil-based candle and paraffin-based candle were compared, and the ap-plication of vegetable oil in candle was prospected.

  11. Antineutrino reactor safeguards - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrinos have been proposed as a means of reactor safeguards for more than 30 years and there has been impressive experimental progress in neutrino detection. In this paper we conduct, for the first time, a case study of the application of antineutrino safeguards to a real-world scenario - the North Korean nuclear crisis in 1994. We derive detection limits to a partial or full core discharge in 1989 based on actual IAEA safeguards access and find that two independent methods would have yielded positive evidence for a second core with very high confidence. To generalize our results, we provide detailed estimates for the sensitivity to the plutonium content of various types of reactors, including most types of plutonium production reactors, based on detailed reactor simulations. A key finding of this study is that a wide class of reactors with a thermal power of less than 0.1-1 GWth can be safeguarded achieving IAEA goals for quantitative sensitivity and timeliness with detectors right outside the reactor ...

  12. Nuclear safeguards - a system in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Classical' safeguards have a strong emphasis on nuclear materials accountancy, and are primarily concerned with verifying nuclear activities as declared by the State - what has been termed the correctness of States' declarations. Following the Gulf War, failure to adequately address the possibility of undeclared nuclear activities - the issue of the completeness of States' declarations - has been recognised as a major shortcoming in the classical safeguards system, and major changes are in progress to strengthen the IAEA's capabilities in this regard. Agreement has been reached on a Model Protocol substantially extending the IAEA's authority, and there has been good progress in developing the new approaches and technologies required to ensure this authority is used effectively. IAEA safeguards are undergoing a major transition, towards greater emphasis on information collection and analysis, diversity of verification methods, incorporation of more qualitative judgments, and improved efficiency. These changes present major challenges to the IAEA and to the international community, but the end result will be a more effective safeguards system

  13. 45 CFR 84.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 84.36 Procedural safeguards. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program or activity shall establish and implement, with respect to actions regarding...

  14. 45 CFR 605.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.36 Procedural safeguards. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program shall establish and implement, with respect to actions... the Education of the Handicapped Act is one means of meeting this requirement....

  15. Effective use of information under IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Safeguards, applied for more than 25 years, consists of a complex control system based on nuclear material accountancy. The technical objective is to provide for 'the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devises or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection' (para. 28, INFCIRC 153). Each Non-Nuclear Weapon State party to the NPT undertakes to accept full-scope IAEA Safeguards to all nuclear material within the State's territory or under it's jurisdiction or control. The current Safeguards system is focused on declared facilities and activities. It involves the independent verifications of the States' declarations. The IAEA's effort to Strengthen International Safeguards include measures to increase the information provided by States on their nuclear programmes, broader access to 'other information' and measures related to increased physical access to sites and to the effectiveness of that access. The general approach is to compare a State's declared nuclear activities with supplementary information available to the IAEA, and to find any apparent inconsistencies. This paper presents an overview of the sources of information available to the Agency and its use with the overall goal of detecting at a very early stage undeclared nuclear activities. (author)

  16. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  17. Principles in safeguards: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.J. Keen presented the Canadian perspective on safeguards. She noted that the IAEA safeguards system has responded well to challenges and has acted as the effective early warning system that it was intended to be. The exit from the non-proliferation regime by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea has demonstrated how effective safeguards and verification are seen to be in detecting proliferation activity. The main areas of importance for Canada are effectiveness, efficiency and transparency. Effectiveness requires information and access, and assures citizens of the exclusively peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Efficiency requires risk informed decisions for the sound allocation of resources and the early incorporation of proliferation resistance in design and construction, so that IAEA efforts can concentrate on where the risks are greatest. Openness and transparency include the public, and for the IAEA this includes its Member States since ultimately they control its activities and finances. Canada received its broader safeguards conclusion in 2005 and intends to maintain it. This will require continuous improvement in an era of rapid expansion of the nuclear industry. One problem foreseen is the adequate supply of qualified personnel, with the CNSC's resources growing at about 12%. The CNSC is looking at internal training programmes and internships

  18. Non-proliferation policy and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of '90s the international community and IAEA have been confronted with serious problems related to the maintaining of the world non-proliferation policy. At the end of the cold war, rumors regarding Iraq's nuclear armament secret program and a new democracies' perception regarding nuclear safety have given a strong impetus toward reinforcing and redefining the safeguards systems. Today this system has got the most advanced and modern means for the detection of nuclear materials stealing and surreptitious production. At the same time with the implementation of the new additional model of safeguards agreements, every country developed an important contribution to end this period in which proliferation and threatening of nuclear weapons were a ruling feature on the international scene. The paper presents the principles of IAEA and national nuclear safeguards system. Mentioned are the techniques and equipment for nuclear safeguards control applied particularly at Cernavoda NPP and TRIGA reactor at IRN - Pitesti as well as those related to the evaluation of the plutonium content in the irradiated fuel. In Romania largely utilized was the program ORIGEN

  19. Calculating uncertainties of safeguards indices: error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical methods play an important role in making references about a MUF, shipper-receiver difference, operator-inspector difference, and other safeguards indices. This session considers the sources and types of measurement errors and treats a specific example to illustrate how the variance of MUF is calculated for the model plant

  20. Innovative audit program for today's safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An internal safeguards audit program was developed and implemented at GE facilities to meet the need for effective audit and accurate, timely reporting to management. The concepts from which the program was evolved are summarized. The documentation and reporting mechanism has worked well for both the auditee and management

  1. 45 CFR 164.308 - Administrative safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative safeguards. 164.308 Section 164.308 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... who is responsible for the development and implementation of the policies and procedures required...

  2. Year 2000 experience with safeguards instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation covers the following items concerning the experiences with safeguards instruments related to Y2K issues: initial Y2K evaluation process; improvement of Y2K testing procedure, policy of the Aquila Technologies Group, Inc. The results concerning Y2K evaluation are presented as designed in the manufacturing process in order to assure success

  3. Improving the Safeguardability of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; D. Hebditch; P. Peterson; M. Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to reduce security risks and proliferation hazards while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency, in a world where significant expansion of nuclear energy use may occur. Correspondingly, the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) includes objectives to contribute to international efforts to develop SBD, and to apply SBD in the development of new U.S. nuclear infrastructure. Here, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical protection, and safety objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility, from initial planning through design, construction and operation. The SBD process, in its simplest form, may be applied usefully today within most national regulatory environments. Development of a mature approach to implementing SBD requires work in the areas of requirements definition, design processes, technology and methodology, and institutionalization. The U.S. efforts described in this paper are supportive of SBD work for international safeguards that has recently been initiated by the IAEA with the participation of many stakeholders including member States, the IAEA, nuclear technology suppliers, nuclear utilities, and the broader international nonproliferation community.

  4. Applications of Virtual Reality to Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, S.

    1998-11-03

    This paper explores two potential applications of Virtual Reality (VR) to international nuclear safeguards: training and information organization and navigation. The applications are represented by two existing prototype systems, one for training nuclear weapons dismantlement and one utilizing a VR model to facilitate intuitive access to related sets of information.

  5. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the ''non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Global trade data to support IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the insight that trade data may support IAEA safeguards, a survey was conducted on world trade data available from open sources, resulting in a catalogue of web services on statistical and transactional trade data. Statistical data have a worldwide coverage and are provided, often for free, by international and governmental organizations and statistical offices. Services on trade transactions have a national or multi-national scope and are managed by companies. Trade data may provide information to support the verification of additional protocol declarations and nuclear material transfers as well as give indications of possible undeclared activities. Since trade data are retrieved by Harmonized System (H S) codes used by traders to declare goods to customs, a condition for using these data is to relate items of interest to safeguards with appropriate H S categories. The paper firstly reviews data services available on world trade with emphasis on type of data provided, geographical and temporal coverage. It then addresses the challenging task of correlating categories of items of interest to safeguards and H S codes, and presents a software tool developed for this goal. The paper concludes on possible uses of trade data for the purpose of nuclear safeguards.

  7. 负压区的存在对刚性陶瓷过滤器脉冲反吹性能的影响%EFFECT OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE REGION ON PULSE-JET CLEANING PERFORMANCE OF RIGID CERAMIC FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 郭建光

    2000-01-01

    利用压电式压力传感器测定了陶瓷过滤器在脉冲反吹过程中滤管内动态压力的变化规律,表明在脉冲反吹快要结束和正常过滤尚未开始的过渡过程中,滤管内存在严重的负压区。利用单个颗粒轨道模型分析了部分已被吹离滤管表面的小颗粒在负压区的作用下会重新返回到滤管壁,从而证实了负压区是影响刚性陶瓷过滤器稳定运行的重要原因。%In a ceramic filter experimental set-up with three filter candles,the dynamic pressures atthe inner wall of one filter candle during pulse-jet cleaning aremeasured by using resize-electric pressure transducer. The experimentalresults show that the dynamic pressure in wholepulse-jet cleaning process consists of two parts. One is the positivepressure in the filter candlegreater than the pressure outside the filter candle whichcorresponds to the outward radial fluidflow to break up and dislodge the dust cake on the surfaceof the filter tube. The other is anegative pressure region which is responsible for inward radialflow while the pulse-jet is closed.The influences of reservoir pressure on thedynamic pressure are discussed.The calculation results of particle motion indicate that negativepressure region cause a fractionof particles removed re-deposit on the candle surface. Especiallyfiner particles is more easierlyre-deposited on the surface to form thin and dense layer on thefilter candle and to increasegradually the residual pressure drop across the candle. It isconcluded that negative pressureregion may have important effects on the long-term stable operation of thefilter unit.

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards after Iraq - some Austrailian perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iraq's nuclear weapons development program used facilities and nuclear material separate from its safeguarded activities. To detect such a strategy the IAEA's safeguards inspectors need access to locations and information beyond that foreseen in NPT safeguards agreements. But the IAEA is short of money. And detecting undeclared activities could be expensive. If the IAEA can establish a capability to detect undeclared activities, then it might be able to save on regular safeguards. But it's important not to put the cart before the horse - effective safeguards must come first, savings second

  9. Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses the legal framework of IAEA Safeguards which consists of a number of elements, including agreements calling for verification of nonproliferation undertakings, basic safeguards documents (INFCIRC/66/Rev.2, INFCIRC/153 (Corr..), INFCIRC/540 (Corr.), INFCIRC/9/Rev.2, GC(V)/INF/39), the safeguards agreements themselves, along with the relevant protocols and subsidiary arrangements, and finally the decisions, interpretations and practices of the Boards of Governors. Major differences between the various types of IAEA safeguards agreements are outlined. Procedures involved in the initiation, negotiation, conclusion and amendment of safeguard agreements are described

  10. Waste isolation safeguards and security system. Volume 1. Scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to define the rationale and scope of the Waste Isolation System (WIS) safeguards system, to establish a set of proposed basic safeguards criteria, and to identify the areas requiring development of specific criteria and technology. The report also presents a proposed program schedule and provides an extensive bibliography of applicable reference safeguards documents. Volume one contains the following: glossary, system description; threat definition; safeguards regulations review - current and future; WIS safeguards criteria; assessment of criteria applicability and development requirements; and program plan

  11. Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal framework of IAEA safeguards consists of a number of elements, not at all of which are documents. These elements include the Statute of the IAEA; treaties and supply agreements calling for verification of nonproliferation undertakings; the basic safeguards documents, the safeguards agreements themselves, along with the relevant protocols and subsidiary arrangements; and finally, the decisions, interpretations and practices of the Board of Governors. After a discussion of these elements the major differences between the various types of IAEA safeguards agreements are outlined. Finally the procedures involved in the initiation, negotiation, conclusion and amendment of safeguards agreements are described. (author)

  12. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities - International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  13. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  14. The impact of candle burning during All Saints' Day ceremonies on ambient alkyl-substituted benzene concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Kłos, Andrzej

    2013-11-01

    Research findings concerning benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylene as well as styrene (BTEXS) emission at public cemeteries during All Saints' Day are presented here. Tests were carried out at town-located cemeteries in Opole and Grodków (southern Poland) and, as a benchmark, at the centres of those same towns. The purpose of the study was to estimate BTEXS emissions caused by the candle burning and, equally important to examine, whether emissions generated by the tested sources were similar to the BTEXS emissions generated by road transport. During the festive period, significant increases in benzene concentrations, by 200 % and 144 %, were noted at the cemeteries in Opole and Grodków, as well as in toluene, by 366 % and 342 %, respectively. Styrene concentrations also increased. It was demonstrated that the ratio of toluene to benzene concentrations from emissions caused by the burning candles are comparable to the ratio established for transportation emissions. PMID:24052143

  15. Migration of safeguards instrumentation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of new safeguards instrumentation for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is spurred by a number of factors: Technical issues, including the emergence of new technologies and the inevitable obsolescence of system components, as well as policy-related issues including changes in safeguards policies, new approaches to the safeguarding of excess material, and the introduction of new types of facilities. To cope with these issues, development projects are required that migrate between current safeguards systems and state-of-the-art technology. These projects usually involve IAEA staff as well as Member States and their Support Programs (MSSP), the private sector, and research and development institutions. One such development project currently underway is the migration between the IAEA's DCM-14 based surveillance system to the Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS). The challenges and opportunities of the NGSS project include those factors that prompted the migration, the development of user requirements, and the selection of appropriate development partners and funding resources. This paper will outline the challenges, issues, opportunities, and synergies that relate to safeguards instrumentation migration, using the NGSS project as an example. The problems necessitating new development will be outlined, as will the management of these problems from project initiation until new instrumentation is available for replacement. The generation of user requirements will be explained in detail. Focus will be given to how to best manage this process in order to produce requirements that will be useful both during the development project and after the migration is completed. The challenges and opportunities in the selection and procurement process will then be highlighted, followed by the structure of the actual development project. Finally, a summary of key steps that can help alleviate migration problems and the pressure to quickly complete

  16. Long Term R&D for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Office of Defense Nuclear Non-proliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), the Nuclear Weapons and Material Security Team conducts research to develop advanced detection and source technologies for the purposes of detecting and characterizing special nuclear materials (SNM); international safeguards and radiological source replacement; nuclear arms control treaty monitoring and verification; and supporting interdiction and nuclear security efforts across NNSA. Our safeguards-specific goal is to develop and demonstrate new technologies and capabilities to cooperatively quantify and track SNM in the nuclear fuel cycle and detect any diversion of these materials for illicit purposes. Our goals and objectives align with a technology goal of the International Atomic Energy's Long Term Strategy for 2012-2023 ''to improve the Department's technical capabilities by making use of scientific and technological innovation, and to enhance its readiness to safeguard new nuclear technology and support new verification missions.'' Toward that end, we work closely with the US Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the US Support Programme to meet their specific long term needs. In this talk we will give a brief overview of current research efforts and specifically describe several helium-3 replacement technologies, advanced spent nuclear fuel characterization methods, and upcoming tags and seals technologies. We will present additional research into cross cutting enabling technologies such as advancements in detector materials, electronics, and sources, and basic physics measurements that support long term safeguards R&D. (author)

  17. U.S.-India safeguards dispute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current U.S.-India dispute over nuclear safeguards is likely to be the single most important test of the Carter administration's anti-proliferation policies. The Carter administration wants India to accept comprehensive safeguards that would bar further production of nuclear explosives. The Desai government wants to maintain unsafeguarded facilities, in effect keeping the weapons option open. It has been a basic tenet of Indian nuclear policy since the mid-1950s that the big powers must disarm if the small powers are to renounce acquisition of nuclear weapons. As a matter of practical policy, India is willing to forego a nuclear deterrent only if sustained world pressure keeps China's nuclear aspirations in check. As a matter of basic principle, India regards it as unfair and imperialistic that the heavily armed big powers ask for special assurances from the lightly armed small powers. India takes the position that it will cooperate with the United States only voluntarily and only if the nuclear weapon states or at least the superpowers start to clean up their own act. The superpowers must (1) negotiate a comprehensive test ban treaty; (2) accept full-scope safeguards themselves, which would be tantamount to a ban on any further production of weapons-grade materials; and (3) make significant moves toward total nuclear disarmament. The dependence of India on the United States for nuclear supplies is almost negligible. India's major nuclear facilities in operation or under construction include five research reactors, seven power reactors and three reprocessing facilities. Of these 15 facilities, the United States supplied only one (the Tarapur reactor) and 12 of them are not under IAEA safeguards. The United States, in short, is threatening to terminate supplies of low-enriched uranium for just one reactor unless India places these 12 facilities under IAEA safeguards

  18. Periodontal Manifestations of Chronic Atypical Neutrophilic Dermatosis With Lipodystrophy and Elevated Temperature (CANDLE) Syndrome in an 11 Year Old Patient

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, Gerald J; Ziada, Hassan M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) is an auto inflammatory syndrome caused by an autosomal recessive gene mutation. This very rare syndrome has been reported in only 14 patients worldwide. A number of clinical signs have been reported including joint contractures, muscle atrophy, microcytic anaemia, and panniculitis-induced childhood lipodystrophy. Further symptoms include recurrent fevers, purpuric skin lesions, periorb...

  19. Integrated Safeguards: a case to go beyond the limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESARDA Integrated Safeguards Working Group has been created in 2000. It is a forum of exchange of views on the implementation of the Additional Protocol (eg site definition, reporting of research and development activities) as well as on the development of Integrated Safeguards. It also worked on analysing the Integrated Safeguards overall framework and its consequences for the European nuclear operators, national authorities and EURATOM Safeguards. This work has become particularly relevant now that Integrated Safeguards have reached a milestone with the achievement by the IAEA of its conceptual framework. The Integrated Safeguards Conceptual Framework was established taking into account a number of self-imposed boundary conditions such as one PIV per year, recoverability to classical criteria within existing timeliness goal, no change in safeguards levels on Unirradiated Direct Use material, and non-discrimination between states exclusively based upon quantitative parameters. Looking back at what was expected from Integrated Safeguards shows that some of these basic assumptions) put unnecessary constraints on what can be reasonably achieved. Consequently it puts a strong limitation on savings expected from 'classical' safeguards verification measures and it constrains the value expected from a greater use of qualitative tools. The paper discusses some of those boundary conditions, and suggests to reach a better balance between quantitative and qualitative tools. The ultimate goal is to grant integrated safeguards the strength of a real flexibility to enhance efficiency and effectiveness through a flexible implementation of Integrated Safeguards

  20. Addressing verification challenges. Proceedings of an international safeguards symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium on international safeguards, Addressing Verification Challenges, was held in Vienna from 16 to 20 October 2006, with the aim of assessing the challenges to the IAEA safeguards system that have emerged, or intensified, since the previous IAEA safeguards symposium in 2001. Some 500 nuclear safeguards and verification experts from more than 60 countries and international organizations attended the event. In all, 129 papers were presented in 21 sessions. There were 14 keynote speeches and 110 oral presentations. A total of 65 papers were presented as posters. In addition, 16 commercial suppliers of safeguards relevant equipment and technology presented their wares and capabilities. The symposium was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). The symposium provided an important forum at which related issues could be discussed, the IAEA could showcase some of its ongoing work and the experts present could provide inputs of fresh thinking. The IAEA Safeguards Symposium 2006 was developed to cover five topics: current challenges to the safeguards system, further strengthening of safeguards practices and approaches, improving the collection and analysis of safeguards information, advances in safeguards techniques and technology, and future challenges. These proceedings contain the addresses given at the opening session, the technical plenary session and the closing session. The summary provides an overview of the oral presentations at the 21 sessions of the symposium. Each individual paper is indexed separately

  1. SARP-II: Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program, Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A computer code, SARP (Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program) which will generate and maintain at-facility safeguards accounting records, and generate IAEA safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user, was completed in 1990 by the Safeguards, Safety, and Nonproliferation Division (formerly the Technical Support Organization) at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a task under the US Program of Technical Support to IAEA safeguards. The code was based on a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) for off-load refueled power reactor facilities, with model facility and safeguards accounting regime as described in IAEA Safeguards Publication STR-165. Since 1990, improvements in computing capabilities and comments and suggestions from users engendered revision of the original code. The result is an updated, revised version called SARP-II which is discussed in this report.

  2. Technical support organization efforts in support of IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Support Organization (TSO) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory has been carrying out tasks in support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards since 1968, when TSO was founded. These tasks have been funded by both the Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security and by the United States Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). These tasks have included a variety of systems studies (e.g. the zone approach to IAEA safeguards, the Safeguards Effectiveness Assessment Methodology, and international safeguards for uranium enrichment plants), development of instruments (e.g., the automated electromanometer and the load-cell-based weighing system for UF6 cylinders), preparation of guidance documents, training of inspectors, and the development and evaluation of safeguards seals. This paper reviews some of the highlights from this program of support

  3. SARP-II: Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program, Revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code, SARP (Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program) which will generate and maintain at-facility safeguards accounting records, and generate IAEA safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user, was completed in 1990 by the Safeguards, Safety, and Nonproliferation Division (formerly the Technical Support Organization) at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a task under the US Program of Technical Support to IAEA safeguards. The code was based on a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) for off-load refueled power reactor facilities, with model facility and safeguards accounting regime as described in IAEA Safeguards Publication STR-165. Since 1990, improvements in computing capabilities and comments and suggestions from users engendered revision of the original code. The result is an updated, revised version called SARP-II which is discussed in this report

  4. “晨举脂烛”解诂%Gloss and Emendation on“Holding Candles at Dawn”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝虹

    2014-01-01

    描述武王克商的“晨举脂烛”一语多次出现在典籍中,而现代辞书对“晨”的解释基本统一为日出前后天色已明的一段时间,此时仍“举脂烛”作战实在令人费解。经过考证,“晨”在古汉语中的时段是凌晨3-5点,天仍未亮,因此才会出现“晨举脂烛”作战一说。%The phrase“holding candles at dawn” appeared many times in the ancient books when describing King Wu’s fights with King Shang .However ,in different modern dictionaries and works ,“dawn” is always explained as the time around sunrise when the sky is already wide bright .It is strange to “hold candles to fight enemy at the sunrise” .By analyzing historical documents ,it is found that the time of “dawn” refers to the early morning around 3-5 o’clock .Thus ,“holding candles at daw n” holds w ater .

  5. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal

  6. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-22

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal.

  7. Challenging curriculum. Training the IAEA international safeguards inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, the IAEA recruits a group of highly qualified specialists to join its experienced international team of safeguards inspectors. Their work will take them to nuclear facilities around the world, to utilize instrumentation and gather information for verifying national pledges that nuclear activities and materials under IAEA safeguards are exclusively used for peaceful purposes, and in those States which have signed a protocol in addition to their safeguards agreement, they will provide assurances that there are no undeclared nuclear activities or materials. Under more than 220 safeguards agreements with 139 States, the IAEA has served as the world's nuclear safeguards inspectorate for the past four decades. The Agency carries out verification activities at more than 900 facilities worldwide, conducting about 2200 inspections a year. Before the new inspectors take to the field, however, they enter the classroom - participating in an extensive series of IAEA training courses, workshops, and seminars. The courses comprehensively cover the nuclear fuel cycle, the IAEA's safeguards role and responsibilities, and the skills and competence that safeguards inspectors need to do their jobs effectively and efficiently. Once on the job, training reinforces the evolving safeguards mission. Under the Agency's 'enhanced' safeguards training curriculum, experienced inspectors participate in seminars and courses designed to upgrade their skills and keep them fully informed of safeguards developments with respect to, for example, legal responsibilities, technological capabilities, and inspection procedures. The enhanced curriculum was developed in response to the IAEA's increasing safeguards responsibilities. The system has been strengthened in many ways since 1991, particularly for detecting any undeclared nuclear material and activities that should have been declared by a State under its safeguards agreement. This article presents an overview of the IAEA's safeguards

  8. Broader use of information under IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Safeguards applied for more than 25 years consists of a complex control system based on nuclear material accountancy. The technical objective is to provide for 'the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devises or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection' (para. 28. INFCIRC 153). Each Non-Nuclear Weapon State party to the NPT undertakes to accept full-scope IAEA Safeguards to all nuclear material within the State's territory or under it's jurisdiction or control. The current Safeguards system is focused on declared facilities and activities. It involves the independent verifications of the States' declarations. The IAEA's effort to Strengthen International Safeguards include measures to increase the information provided by States on their nuclear programmes broader access to 'other information' and measures related to increased physical access to sites and to the effectiveness of that access. The general approach is to compare a State's declared nuclear activities with supplementary information available to the IAEA, and to find any apparent inconsistencies. This paper presents an overview of the sources of information available to the Agency and its use with the overall goal of detecting at a very early stage undeclared nuclear activities. The discovery of clandestine nuclear activities in Iraq shows that nuclear material accountancy alone cannot give the international community through IAEA safeguards, credible assurance that State party to comprehensive safeguards are in compliance with their obligations. Nuclear material accountancy, as traditionally practised, focuses on detecting the possible diversion of nuclear material declared to the IAEA. Accountancy cannot indicate whether a state has undeclared nuclear material or facilities, which might point to the

  9. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  10. Safeguards techniques and equipment. 2003 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990s saw significant non-proliferation related developments in the world, resulting in a new period of safeguards development. Over several years an assessment was made of how to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of IAEA safeguards. In May 1997 this culminated in the adoption by the IAEA Board of Governors of a Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements which significantly broadens the role of IAEA safeguards. As a consequence, the IAEA safeguards system entered a new era. In 1997 the IAEA began to publish a new series of booklets on safeguards, called the International Nuclear Verification Series (NVS). The objective of these booklets was to help in explaining IAEA safeguards, especially the new developments in safeguards, particularly for facility operators and government officers involved with these topics. The current booklet, which is a revision and update of IAEA/NVS/1, is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. A completely new section on data security has been added to describe the specific features that are included in installed equipment systems in order to ensure the authenticity and confidentiality of information. As new verification measures continue to be developed the material in this booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. The basic verification measure used by the IAEA is nuclear material accountancy. In applying nuclear material accountancy, IAEA safeguards inspectors make independent measurements to verify quantitatively the amount of nuclear material presented in the State's accounts. For this purpose, inspectors count items (e.g. fuel assemblies, bundles or rods, or containers of powdered compounds of uranium or plutonium) and measure attributes of these items during their inspections using non

  11. Integrated safeguards: Australian views and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Australia has had a pioneering role in assisting the IAEA to develop the procedures and methods for strengthened safeguards, both before and after the conclusion of Australia's additional protocol. Australia played a key role in the negotiation of the model additional protocol, and made ratification a high priority in order to encourage early ratification by other States. Australia was the first State to ratify an additional protocol, on 10 December 1997, and was the first State in which the IAEA exercised complementary access and managed access under an additional protocol. Australia has undergone three full cycles of evaluation under strengthened safeguards measures, enabling the Agency to conclude it was appropriate to commence implementation of integrated safeguards. In January 2001 Australia became the first State in which integrated safeguards are being applied. As such, Australia's experience will be of interest to other States as they consult with the IAEA on the modalities for the introduction of integrated safeguards in their jurisdictions. The purpose of the paper is to outline Australia's experience with strengthened safeguards and Australia's views on the implementation of integrated safeguards. Australia has five Material Balance Areas (MBAs), the principal one covering the 10 MWt research reactor at Lucas Heights and the associated inventory of fresh and irradiated HEU fuel. Under classical safeguards, generally Australia was subject to annual Physical Inventory Verifications (PIVs) for the four MBAs at Lucas Heights, plus quarterly interim inspections, making a total of four inspections a year (PIVs for the different MBAs were conducted concurrently with each other or with interim inspections in other MBAs), although there was a period when the fresh fuel inventory exceeded one SQ, requiring monthly inspections. Under strengthened safeguards, this pattern of four inspections a year was maintained, with the addition of complementary

  12. Filtration efficiency of an electrostatic fibrous filter: Studying filtration dependency on ultrafine particle exposure and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnson, Matthew S.; Yazdi, Sadegh;

    2014-01-01

    controlled laboratory environment using two different particle counters: a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and a NanoTracer. Particles were generated at different concentrations by burning a pure wax candle in a test room. The set-up consisted of a test room, a fan a duct and the particle filter. The......The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between ultrafine particle concentrations and removal efficiencies for an electrostatic fibrous filter in a laboratory environment. Electrostatic fibrous filters capture particles efficiently, with a low pressure drop. Therefore...... they have applications in building ventilation systems. The relationship between particle removal efficiency and particle concentration has not been widely investigated in ventilation systems and indoor environments. In order to achieve the objective of this study, experiments were performed in a...

  13. Advanced safeguards technologies promote transparency and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the months following the September 11 terror attacks on the United States, the international nuclear safeguards industry witnessed a merge between physical protection (PP) activities and safeguards principles. Traditionally, physical protection encompassed the physical security equipment, procedures, response tactics, and regulatory requirements necessary to protect a nuclear facility from unauthorized actions of in-house personnel or other persons (sabotage, blackmail, theft of nuclear materials, etc.) that may result in a radiological accident, loss of nuclear material, and other extremely undesirable consequences. In the post-September 11th era, PP has integrated the element of verification into PP activities. In general, safeguards refers to the ensemble of measures taken, within the context of international treaties, to verify that nuclear materials have not been diverted from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. However, the foundation of safeguards is built upon a system of controls established by a monitoring agency (e.g., IAEA, the European Commission, etc.) in order to satisfy itself that any particular safeguarding obligation is complied with. It is this element that has been integrated into PP activities, particularly into those PP activities being carried out in the former Soviet Union. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy is working with a number of Russian organizations to upgrade security at dozens of nuclear facilities in Russia, and after September 11th, the program began to realize that the ability of Russian sites to thwart nuclear theft depends on the effective, uninterrupted operation of the upgraded security systems. Thus, program participants have incorporated the notion of safeguards verification by installing unattended monitoring systems that will allow Russian and U.S. Government officials to ensure sites continue to operate security systems on an

  14. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Shirley J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2011-10-10

    The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA draws such conclusions from the evaluation of all available information. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of this “State-level” approach. Efficiently used, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) methodologies , , , now being developed can contribute to effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards. The Facility Safeguardability Assessment (FSA) introduced here supports SBD in three areas. 1. It describes necessary interactions between the IAEA, the State regulator, and the owner / designer of a new or modified facility to determine where SBD efforts can be productively applied, 2. It presents a screening approach intended to identify potential safeguard issues for; a) design changes to existing facilities; b) new facilities similar to existing facilities with approved safeguards approaches, and c) new designs, 3. It identifies resources (the FSA toolkit), such as good practice guides, design guidance, and safeguardability evaluation methods that can be used by the owner/designer to develop solutions for potential safeguards issues during the interactions with the State regulator and IAEA. FSA presents a structured framework for the application of the SBD tools developed in other efforts. The more a design evolves, the greater the probability that new safeguards issues could be introduced. Likewise, for first-of-a-kind facilities or research facilities that involve previously unused processes or technologies, it is reasonable to expect that a number of possible safeguards issues might exist. Accordingly, FSA is intended to help the designer and its safeguards experts identify early in the design process: • Areas where elements of previous accepted safeguards approach(es) may be applied

  15. From a Better Understanding of GRB Prompt Emission to a New Type of Standard Candles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiriec, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Recent results revealed the simultaneous existence of multiple components in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) leading to a unified spectro-temporal model for the broadband spectrum from the optical regime up to higher gamma rays. Unexpectedly, we discovered a relation intrinsic to one specific component of this model: its luminosity is strongly and tightly correlated to its spectral break energy. This new luminosity-hardness relation has the same index for all GRBs when fitted to a power law. In addition, this relation seems to have the same normalization for all GRBs; therefore, this is a promising and physically motivated tool that may establish GRBs as cosmological standard candles. During this presentation, I will introduce this new relation, which might eventually be used to (i) estimate GRB distances, (ii) to support searches for gravitational waves and cosmic high-energy neutrinos, and (iii) constrain the cosmological parameters. I will give a few examples of GRB redshift estimates using this relation and I will show why this new result cannot solely be explain by instrumental selection effects and/or measurement/analysis biases.

  16. Dark energy constraints from joint analysis of standard rulers and standard candles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Biesiada; Beata Malec; Aleksandra Piórkowska

    2011-01-01

    We performed joint analysis of five cosmological models invoked to explain the accelerating expansion of the Universe.We used the data from strong gravitational lensing systems, locations of cosmic microwave background acoustic peaks and baryon acoustic oscillation data in combination with supernova Ia data (Union2 compilation).The observables we used came from both standard rulers and standard candles, so they had different parameter degeneracies and different restrictive powers in the parameter spaces of cosmological models.The best fits we obtained for the model parameters in joint analysis turned out to prefer cases effectively equivalent to the ACDM model.They were also in agreement with other combined studies performed by other authors on different sets of diagnostic probes.Information theoretic methods used to assess which model is most supported by the data lead to the conclusion that the concordance model ACDM is clearly preferred in joint analysis.The quintessence (both having constant or time varying equation of state) and Chaplygin gas get considerably less support from the data while the brane world (DGP) scenario is practically ruled out.

  17. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ~ 10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The "Ahead" satellite of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) provides a top view, in which the post-flare loops brighten sequentially, with one end fixed while the other apparently slipping eastward. By performing stereoscopic reconstruction of the post-flare loops in EUV and mapping out magnetic connectivities, we found that the footpoints of the post-flare loops are slipping along the footprint of a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) separating the two loop systems, and that the reconstructed loops share similarity with the magne...

  18. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A

    2015-02-14

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With four parameters per solvent, this "CANDLE" model simultaneously reproduces solvation energies of large datasets of neutral molecules, cations, and anions with a mean absolute error of 1.8 kcal/mol in water and 3.0 kcal/mol in acetonitrile. PMID:25681887

  19. Cancer Driver Log (CanDL): Catalog of Potentially Actionable Cancer Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Miya, Jharna; Kautto, Esko; Zhu, Eliot; Samorodnitsky, Eric; Datta, Jharna; Reeser, Julie W; Roychowdhury, Sameek

    2015-09-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technologies have enabled characterization of genomic alterations across multiple tumor types. Efforts have focused on identifying driver mutations because they represent potential targets for therapy. However, because of the presence of driver and passenger mutations, it is often challenging to assign the clinical relevance of specific mutations observed in patients. Currently, there are multiple databases and tools that provide in silico assessment for potential drivers; however, there is no comprehensive resource for mutations with functional characterization. Therefore, we created an expert-curated database of potentially actionable driver mutations for molecular pathologists to facilitate annotation of cancer genomic testing. We reviewed scientific literature to identify variants that have been functionally characterized in vitro or in vivo as driver mutations. We obtained the chromosome location and all possible nucleotide positions for each amino acid change and uploaded them to the Cancer Driver Log (CanDL) database with associated literature reference indicating functional driver evidence. In addition to a simple interface, the database allows users to download all or selected genes as a comma-separated values file for incorporation into their own analysis pipeline. Furthermore, the database includes a mechanism for third-party contributions to support updates for novel driver mutations. Overall, this freely available database will facilitate rapid annotation of cancer genomic testing in molecular pathology laboratories for mutations. PMID:26320871

  20. Type Ia Supernovae are Good Standard Candles in the Near Infrared: Evidence from PAIRITEL

    CERN Document Server

    Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Bloom, Joshua S; Hicken, Malcolm; Modjaz, Maryam; Kirshner, Robert P; Starr, Dan L; Blake, Cullen H; Falco, Emilio E; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H; Challis, Peter; Blondin, Stephane; Rest, Armin

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained 1065 near-infrared (NIR; JHKs) measurements of 19 Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) using PAIRITEL, the 1.3-m Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope at Mount Hopkins, Arizona. This new set of observations doubles the number of well-sampled NIR SNIa light curves. These data strengthen the evidence that SNeIa are excellent standard candles in the NIR, even without correction for light-curve shape or for reddening. We construct fiducial NIR templates for normal SNeIa from our sample, excluding only the two known peculiar SNeIa, SN 2005hk and SN 2005ke. The H-band absolute magnitudes in this sample of 17 SNe Ia have an uncorrected intrinsic RMS of only 0.14 mag. This variation is as small as the scatter in luminosity distance measurements currently used for cosmology that are based on optical light curves after corrections for light-curve shape and for dust absorption. Combining the homogeneous PAIRITEL measurements with 17 SNeIa from the literature, these 34 SNeIa have standard H-band magnitudes w...

  1. Safeguards and Security progress report, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B.; Jaramillo, G.R. (comps.)

    1990-11-01

    From January to December 1989, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Research and Development (R D) program carried out the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Science and Technology Base Development, Basic Systems Design, Onsite Test and Evaluation and Facility Support, and International Safeguards. For the most part, these activities were sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Safeguards and Security. Part 1 covers development of the basic technology essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards and security. It includes our computer security R D and the activities of the DOE Center for Computer Security, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this important technology. Part 2 treats activities aimed at developing methods for designing and evaluating safeguards systems, with special emphasis on the integration of the several subsystems into a real safeguards system. Part 3 describes efforts of direct assistance to the DOE and its contractors and includes consultation on materials control and accounting problems, development and demonstration of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and demonstration of advanced safeguards systems. Part 3 also reports a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards that makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Part 5 reports several safeguards-related activities that have sponsors other than the DOE/OSS. 87 refs., 52 figs.

  2. Advancement of safeguards inspection technology for CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, W. S.; Cha, H. R.; Ham, Y. S.; Lee, Y. G.; Kim, K. P.; Hong, Y. D

    1999-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop both inspection technology and safeguards instruments, related to CANDU safeguards inspection, through international cooperation, so that those outcomes are to be applied in field inspections of national safeguards. Furthermore, those could contribute to the improvement of verification correctness of IAEA inspections. Considering the level of national inspection technology, it looked not possible to perform national inspections without the joint use of containment and surveillance equipment conjunction with the IAEA. In this connection, basic studies for the successful implementation of national inspections was performed, optimal structure of safeguards inspection was attained, and advancement of safeguards inspection technology was forwarded. The successful implementation of this project contributed to both the improvement of inspection technology on CANDU reactors and the implementation of national inspection to be performed according to the legal framework. In addition, it would be an opportunity to improve the ability of negotiating in equal shares in relation to the IAEA on the occasion of discussing or negotiating the safeguards issues concerned. Now that the national safeguards technology for CANDU reactors was developed, the safeguards criteria, procedure and instruments as to the other item facilities and fabrication facilities should be developed for the perfection of national inspections. It would be desirable that the recommendations proposed and concreted in this study, so as to both cope with the strengthened international safeguards and detect the undeclared nuclear activities, could be applied to national safeguards scheme. (author)

  3. Advancement of safeguards inspection technology for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project are to develop both inspection technology and safeguards instruments, related to CANDU safeguards inspection, through international cooperation, so that those outcomes are to be applied in field inspections of national safeguards. Furthermore, those could contribute to the improvement of verification correctness of IAEA inspections. Considering the level of national inspection technology, it looked not possible to perform national inspections without the joint use of containment and surveillance equipment conjunction with the IAEA. In this connection, basic studies for the successful implementation of national inspections was performed, optimal structure of safeguards inspection was attained, and advancement of safeguards inspection technology was forwarded. The successful implementation of this project contributed to both the improvement of inspection technology on CANDU reactors and the implementation of national inspection to be performed according to the legal framework. In addition, it would be an opportunity to improve the ability of negotiating in equal shares in relation to the IAEA on the occasion of discussing or negotiating the safeguards issues concerned. Now that the national safeguards technology for CANDU reactors was developed, the safeguards criteria, procedure and instruments as to the other item facilities and fabrication facilities should be developed for the perfection of national inspections. It would be desirable that the recommendations proposed and concreted in this study, so as to both cope with the strengthened international safeguards and detect the undeclared nuclear activities, could be applied to national safeguards scheme. (author)

  4. Lessons learned in testing of safeguards equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards uses complex instrumentation for the application of safeguards at nuclear facilities around the world. Often, this equipment is developed through cooperation with member state support programs because the Agency's requirements are unique and are not met by commercially available equipment. Before approving an instrument or system for routine inspection use, the IAEA subjects it to a series of tests designed to evaluate its reliability. In 2000, the IAEA began to observe operational failures in digital surveillance systems. In response to the observed failures, the IAEA worked with the equipment designer and manufacturer to determine the cause of failure. An action plan was developed to correct the performance issues and further test the systems to make sure that additional operational issues would not surface later. This paper addresses the steps taken to address operation issues related to digital image surveillance systems and the lessons learned during this process. (author)

  5. Introducing closed circuit television for safeguards surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second half of the 1980s 8 mm film and camera production, used by the IAEA for safeguards surveillance purposes, was discontinued worldwide as so called camcorders began to dominate the market. It became clear that it would be necessary to replace all of the installed twin camera units by closed circuit television systems, which offer the following advantages over 8 mm film cameras: higher picture capacity and quality; higher light sensitivity; the possibility of date and time annotation; and a lower sensitivity to nuclear radiation. The present article describes the planning of this transition by a special working group, the development of alternative equipment for the film camera systems through the safeguards support programmes of Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA; and the progress that has been achieved so far. 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  6. Safeguards in Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assemblies loaded in the core and stored in the ex-vessel storage tank (EVST) are in liquid sodium in the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR) Monju. Since it is difficult to apply a direct verification procedure for the fuel assemblies in these areas, a dual containment and surveillance system consisting of two monitoring devices such as surveillance camera and radiation monitor that are functionally independent has been applied. In addition, the Monju Remote Monitoring System was developed to strengthen the continuous surveillance and to reduce the load of the inspection activities. Furthermore, the ex-vessel transfer machine radiation monitor (EVRM) and the exit gate monitor (EXGM) were upgraded to strengthen the monitoring of spent blanket fuel assemblies and to improve the reliability of distinguishing between fuel assemblies and non-fuel items. As the result, the integrated safeguards was introduced in November 2009, and the effective safeguards activities have been implemented in Monju. (author)

  7. Status and trends of safeguards equipment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting the technical and logistical challenges of international safeguards instrumentation has been a major concern since the first safeguards inspection in the early 1960s. This concern and the related activities have been pursued vigorously since the inception of Member State Support Programs in 1976. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the vital and crucial assistance of member states, has strived toward reliable, credible instrumentation that can be directed toward the various specific applications encountered in the nuclear fuel cycle. This paper provides a status report on agency instrumentation as of 1993 and lists some of the new, perhaps even more formidable, challenges and trends that are expected to be encountered over the next few years

  8. Digital image surveillance for IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic technologies utilized for optical surveillance equipment for IAEA safeguards are mostly dictated by the trends in the commercial market. When in the late 1970s the 8 mm amateur movie film market was gradually subsumed in the market for video home system cameras and video cassette recorders, the IAEA had to cope with this trend and consequently embarked upon developing surveillance equipment by adapting the technology developed for the domestic and security markets. Currently, there is a technological trend towards digital imaging, digital processing, digital storage and digital transmission of image data which will probably continue during the next ten years. The paper describes the move to digital image surveillance, which is planned for IAEA safeguards, and its advantages for present and recommended future approaches, as well as its requirements and limitations. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  9. New trends in safeguards measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safeguards measurement technology in the past has concentrated on improving precision and accuracy, including making available better standards and applying measurements to an ever increasing variety of materials. These will continue to play an important part in the future. However, other forces also will drive the skills of the measurement technologist. Process changes including larger facilities with higher throughputs, more automation of facility operation, and proposed changes in nuclear materials accounting techniques, such as near-real-time accounting, will impact safeguards measurement development. Larger plant throughputs, health and safety, and waste management requirements will influence development of in- or at-line measurement procedures, often to flowing solutions. Both nondestructive assay and conventional analytical methods are being applied to meet these new challenges

  10. Measuring the safeguards value of material accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material accountability (MA) activities focus on providing after-the-fact indication of diversion or theft of special nuclear material (SNM). MA activities include maintaining records for tracking nuclear material and conducting periodic inventories and audits to ensure that loss has not occurred. This paper presents a value model concept for assessing the safeguards benefits of MA activities and for comparing these benefits to those provided by physical protection (PP) and material control (MC) components. The model considers various benefits of MA, which include: 1) providing information to assist in recovery of missing material, 2) providing assurance that physical protection and material control systems have been working, 3) defeating protracted theft attempts, and 4) properly resolving causes of and responding appropriately to anomalies of missing material and external alarms (e.g., hoax). Such a value model can aid decision-makers in allocating safeguards resources among PP, MC, and MA systems

  11. Satellite imagery and the Department of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the contribution that the Satellite Imagery Analysis Laboratory (SIAL) is making and challenges it faces in supporting Safeguards. Commercial satellite imagery is being utilized as a complementary source of information in the State Evaluation process and under the Strengthened Safeguards regime. Commercial satellite imagery has been embraced by operations and enhanced products that support the inspectorate are now being delivered. These products are a direct result of the integration of different skill-sets, datasets and technology that have taken place under the auspices of a clearly defined and concise analytical process created in the SIAL. This paper will discuss how satellite imagery, its analysis and the fast evolving technology concerned with its use are becoming a fundamental part of an efficient and effective inspection system. (author)

  12. Safeguards Accountability Network accountability and materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an on-line accountability system used by Rocky Flats Plant to provide accountability control of its nuclear material inventory. The system is also used to monitor and evaluate the use of the nuclear material inventory against programmatic objectives for materials management. The SAN system utilizes two Harris 800 Computers as central processing units. Enhancement plans are currently being formulated to provide automated data collection from process operations on the shop floor and from non-destructive analysis safeguards instrumentation. SAN, discussed in this paper, is an excellent system for basic accountability control of nuclear materials inventories and is a quite useful tool in evaluating the efficient use of nuclear materials inventories at Rocky Flats Plant

  13. Safeguards Accountability Network accountability and materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is a computerized on-line accountability system for the safeguards accountability control of nuclear materials inventories at Rocky Flats Plant. SAN is a dedicated accountability system utilizing source documents filled out on the shop floor as its base. The system incorporates double entry accounting and is developed around the Material Balance Area (MBA) concept. MBA custodians enter transaction information from source documents prepared by personnel in the process areas directly into the SAN system. This provides a somewhat near-real time perpetual inventory system which has limited interaction with MBA custodians. MBA custodians are permitted to inquire into the system and status items on inventory. They are also responsible for the accuracy of the accountability information used as input to the system for their MBA. Monthly audits by the Nuclear Materials Control group assure the timeliness and accuracy of SAN accountability information

  14. Design of safeguards systems for authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To permit valid conclusions to be drawn from safeguards data, it is essential that this data is known to be authentic. That is, it must be known that the data originated from the intended source, that the data was not changed in transit, and that it is not a repeat or delayed copy of previous data. Safeguards systems and equipment should be designed with authentication included, instead of attempting to add security later. Failure to integrate authentication measures early in the design results in systems that are expensive or possibly impossible to deploy securely. This paper gives some of the factors that should be considered and some of the methods that can be employed for ensuring high security while minimizing cost. The paper is a compilation of some of the lessons learned by the authors during many years of working with the authentication of these systems. (author)

  15. Authentication in the context of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International atomic Energy Agency held its first Advisory Group meeting on the subject of authentication in 1981. This meeting concentrated on the application of authentication to in-plant Non-Destructive Assay equipment supplied by the Facility Operator/State. In the decade since this meeting, a considerable amount of interest has developed over the use of authentication technology as a vital element of effective International Safeguards. Attendant with this interest, confusion has developed over the meaning and the need for the application of the technology as it exists today, and it may exist in the future. This paper addresses the subject of authentication, with emphasis on its basic definition and the applications of authentication technology in International Safeguards

  16. Pebble bed modular reactor safeguards: developing new approaches and implementing safeguards by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durst, Philip [INL; Bean, Robert [INL

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) does not fit or seem appropriate to the IAEA safeguards approach under the categories of light water reactor (LWR), on-load refueled reactor (OLR, i.e. CANDU), or Other (prismatic HTGR) because the fuel is in a bulk form, rather than discrete items. Because the nuclear fuel is a collection of nuclear material inserted in tennis-ball sized spheres containing structural and moderating material and a PBMR core will contain a bulk load on the order of 500,000 spheres, it could be classified as a 'Bulk-Fuel Reactor.' Hence, the IAEA should develop unique safeguards criteria. In a multi-lab DOE study, it was found that an optimized blend of: (i) developing techniques to verify the plutonium content in spent fuel pebbles, (ii) improving burn-up computer codes for PBMR spent fuel to provide better understanding of the core and spent fuel makeup, and (iii) utilizing bulk verification techniques for PBMR spent fuel storage bins should be combined with the historic IAEA and South African approaches of containment and surveillance to verify and maintain continuity of knowledge of PBMR fuel. For all of these techniques to work the design of the reactor will need to accommodate safeguards and material accountancy measures to a far greater extent than has thus far been the case. The implementation of Safeguards-by-Design as the PBMR design progresses provides an approach to meets these safeguards and accountancy needs.

  17. Next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI) program plan for safeguards by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lockwood, Dunbar [DOE/NA-243

    2010-01-01

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is defined as the incorporation of safeguards features early in the design phase of a new nuclear facility in order to avoid the need to redesign the facility at a later date, or retrofit the completed facility. Not only can SBD avoid the need for redesign or retrofit, but consideration of safeguards features early in the facility design effort can provide for a more efficient and effective safeguards design. A program has been initiated by the United States Department of Energy during the past several years to develop, demonstrate and institutionalization SBD. This plan has been developed in parallel with a similar effort at the IAEA while taking into account their achievements and future plans. The United States SBD program is focused on (1) identification of best practices that satisfy existing safeguards requirements, (2) identification of advanced concepts where best practices can be improved, and (3) institutionalizing SBD by gaining its acceptance as a global norm for the design of new nuclear facilities. SBD guidance documents are being prepared as an aid to industry for their design activities, to describe the relationship between requirements, best practices, and advanced concepts. SBD 'lessons learned' studies have been conducted to help identify the existing best practices and potential areas for improvement. Finally, acceptance as a global norm is being pursued by way of international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example by way of its use in new nuclear facilities in the United States.

  18. Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX). An experience in international co-operation on safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASTEX stands for Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise, and was the joint programme of Japan, the United States of America, France and the International Atomic Energy Agency for developing, testing and evaluating advanced safeguards technology to be used in reprocessing facilities. The TASTEX programme, which started early in 1978 and successfully ended in May 1981, consisted of thirteen safeguards-technology-related tasks, from Task A to M. They were classified into four groups from the viewpoints of their usefulness and effectiveness: (1) Tasks technically feasible for international safeguards application in the near future: Tasks E, G, H and part of Task A (underwater CCTV and monitoring cameras); (2) Tasks which can be used in the future if research and development are continued: Tasks F, I, J, C and the other part of Task A (exclusive of the themes shown in (1)); (3) Tasks which may be used in future at the Tokai Reprocessing Facility if research and development are continued: Tasks K and L; and (4) Tasks which are difficult to be used at the Tokai Reprocessing Facility: Tasks B, D and M. The tasks classified under Group (1) are being developed further as part of the JASPAS (Japan Support Programme for Agency's Safeguards) project. (author)

  19. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this `Full Scope Safeguards` on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear weapon applications.

  20. Maintaining continuity of knowledge on safeguards samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conclusions of the vulnerability test on VOPAN (verification of Operator's Analysis) as conducted at Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (ASA) at Seibersdorf, Austria in October 1990 and documented in STR-266, indicate that ''whenever samples are taken for safeguards purposes extreme care must be taken to ensure that they have not been interfered with during the sample taking, transportation, storage or sample preparation process.'' Indeed there exist a number of possibilities to alter the content of a safeguards sample vial from the moment of sampling up to the arrival of the treated (or untreated) sample at SAL. The time lapse between these two events can range from a few days up to months. The sample history over this period can be subdivided into three main sub-periods: (1) the period from when the sampling activities are commenced up to the treatment in the operator's laboratory, (2) during treatment of samples in the operator's laboratory, and finally, (3) the period between that treatment and the arrival of the sample at SAL. A combined effort between the Agency and the United States Support Program to the Agency (POTAS) has resulted in two active tasks and one proposed task to investigate improving the maintenance of continuity of knowledge on safeguards samples during the entire period of their existence. This paper describes the use of the Sample Vial Secure Container (SVSC), of the Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS), and of the Secure Container for Storage and Transportation of samples (SCST) to guarantee that a representative portion of the solution sample will be received at SAL