WorldWideScience

Sample records for candle filter safeguard

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADHESIVE CANDLE FILTER SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Hurley; Ann K. Henderson; Jan W. Nowok; Michael L. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal conversion. Two main types of systems employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles. In both systems, suspended particulates must be cleaned from the gas stream before it enters the turbine so as to prevent fouling and erosion of the turbine blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in use in several facilities. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the particulates on the surface. The three main configurations of the barrier filters are candle, cross-flow, and tube filters. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer on the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle and individual elements can fail, allowing particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Preventing all failure of individual ceramic filter elements is not possible at the present state of development of the technology. Therefore, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the particulates streaming through occasional broken filters from reaching the turbine. However, the SGD must allow for the free passage of gas when it is not activated. Upon breaking of a filter, the SGD must either mechanically close or quickly plug with filter dust to prevent additional dust from reaching the turbine. Production of a dependable rapidly closing autonomous mechanical

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A CANDLE FILTER FAILURE SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Bruck; E.E. Smeltzer; Z.N. Sanjana

    2002-06-06

    Development, testing and optimization of advanced metal and ceramic, barrier and fiber safeguard devices (SGDs) is described. Metal barrier devices are found prone to manufacturing defects and premature blinding. Fiber devices are found to be satisfactory if fine fibers are used. Durable alloys are identified for both oxidation and gasification conditions. Ceramic honeycomb SGDs were found to perform as excellent barrier devices. Optimization has shown such devices to be durable. Field testing of ceramic honeycomb SGDs from two different manufacturers is being pursued.

  3. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  4. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of the advanced power systems, the filter components must sustain the thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down conditions, and of unanticipated process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive the various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, these elements must survive at operating temperatures of 1650{degrees}F for three years.

  5. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Roger H. L.; Kiriakidis, Alejandro C.; Peng, Steve W.

    1997-07-01

    This study aims at the development of an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to predict the remaining useful life of a ceramic candle filter during a power plant's annual maintenance shutdown. The objective of the present on-going study is to establish the vibration signatures of ceramic candle filters at varying degradation levels due to different operating hours, and to study the various factors involving the establishment of the signatures.

  7. Qualifications of Candle Filters for Combined Cycle Combustion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasz Wiltowski

    2008-08-31

    The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter that has to be removed for environmental and process reasons. In order to increase the current advanced coal combustion processes, under the U.S. Department of Energy's auspices, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has developed ceramic candle filters that can operate at high temperatures. The Coal Research Center of Southern Illinois University (SIUC), in collaboration with SWPC, developed a program for long-term filter testing at the SIUC Steam Plant followed by experiments using a single-filter reactor unit. The objectives of this program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy were to identify and demonstrate the stability of porous candle filter elements for use in high temperature atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) process applications. These verifications were accomplished through extended time slipstream testing of a candle filter array under AFBC conditions using SIUC's existing AFBC boiler. Temperature, mass flow rate, and differential pressure across the filter array were monitored for a duration of 45 days. After test exposure at SIUC, the filter elements were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area analyses. In addition, a single-filter reactor was built and utilized to study long term filter operation, the permeability exhibited by a filter element before and after the slipstream test, and the thermal shock resilience of a used filter by observing differential pressure changes upon rapid heating and cooling of the filter. The data acquired during the slipstream test and the post-test evaluations demonstrated the suitability of filter elements in advanced power generation applications.

  8. Three—Dimensional Flow Characteristics in One Ceramic Candle Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaewonSeo; KihyunKeum; 等

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the three-dimensional fluid flow in the vessel containing one ceramic candle filter.The three-dimensional governing equations are formulated in this study and the turbulent κ-ε model is adopted for the numerical computation.It is found that the viscous force is dominant in the porous region with compared to inertia force.Pressue decreases linearly when the flow passing through the porous medium.When the face velocity is 0.03 m/s,the pressure drop is about 350Pa.It has also been found that the fluid with the spiral motion to be sunk into the filter in the vessel.

  9. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  10. Operation Behavior of a Multi-Candle Filter with Coupled Pressure Pulse Recleaning during Normal Operation and in the Case of a Filter Candle Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, R.; Leibold, H. Seifert, H.; Heidenreich, S.; Haag, W.

    2002-09-18

    A pilot filter with the CPP recleaning system was installed and commissioned during the first half year of 2000 in ''PYDRA'', the pyrolytic rotary tube facility of the Institute for Technical Chemistry, Research Center Karlsruhe. The filter, with a rated throughput of 50 std.m{sup 3}/h, is equipped with two clusters of three filter candles each (DIA-SCHUMALITH{reg_sign} T 10-20, 1 = 1500 mm), and has been designed for a maximum operating temperature of 550 C. After commissioning, the filter was run in the stand-alone mode, first without pyrolysis, to filter sticky inorganic dust of the type which can arise in waste incineration in the temperature range above 400 C.

  11. Pulse cleaning flow models and numerical computation of candle ceramic filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Analytical and numerical computed models are developed for reverse pulse cleaning system of candle ceramic filters. A standard turbulent model is demonstrated suitably to the designing computation of reverse pulse cleaning system from the experimental and onedimensional computational result. The computed results can be used to guide the designing of reverse pulse cleaning system, which is optimum Venturi geometry. From the computed results, the general conclusions and the designing methods are obtained.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF TEST FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang; Eric K. Johnson

    2003-07-14

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure pulse of gas to back flush the filter. After this cleaning process has been completed there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may then lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A Room Temperature Test Facility (RTTF) and a High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) were built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at room and selected high temperatures. The RTTF system was used to gain experience with the selected instrumentation and develop an operating procedure to be used later at elevated temperatures. The HTTF system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time. Coal ash sample obtained from the Power System Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, AL was used at the

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Field in Ceramic Candle Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaewonSeo; Joo-HongChoi; 等

    1998-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle(IGCC)is one of the candidates to achieve stringent environmental regulation among the clean coal technologies.Advancing the technology of the hot gas cleanup systems is the most critical component in the development of the IGCC.Thus the aim of this study is to understand the flow field in the ceramic filter and the influence of ceramic filter in removal of the particles contained in the hot gas flow.The numerical model based on the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the Darycy's law in the porous region is adopted.It is found that the effect of the porosity in the flowfield is negligibly small while the effect of the filter length is significant.It is also found as the permeability decreases,the reattachment point due to the flow separation moves upstream,This is because the fluid is sucked into the filter region due to the pressure drop before the flow separation occurs.The particle follows well with the fluid stream and the particle is directly sucked into the filter due to the pressure drop even in the flow separation region.

  14. Filtration and dust cake experiment by ceramic candle filter in high temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, J.D.; Hwang, T.W.; Park, S.J. [Hoseo University, Asan (Republic of Korea)

    2003-11-01

    Particulate collection at high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) is important in an advanced coal power generation system not only to improve the thermal efficiency of the system, but also to prevent the gas turbine from erosion and to meet the emission limits of the effluent gas. The specifications for particulate collection in those systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) require absolutely high collection efficiency and reliability. Advanced cyclone, granular bed filter, electrostatic precipitator, and ceramic filter have been developed for particulate collection in the advanced coal power generation system. However, rigid ceramic filters and granular bed filters among them show the best potential. The problems experienced of these systems on performance, materials, and mechanical design were investigated. Ceramic candle filters have the best potential for IGCC at this moment because they have nearly the highest efficiency compared with other filtering systems and have accumulated many reliable design data from many field experiences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of ceramic filters and stability of material against high temperature and longterm operation condition by applying fly ash on the surface of the filter and relation of pressure drop and dust cake thickness. Experimental conditions were 50 hours at 450{sup o}C, 650{sup o}C and 850{sup o}C.

  15. Image Analysis on Detachment Process of Dust Cake on Ceramic Candle Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 焦海青; 陈鸿海

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of high-speed video images, the detachment behavior of dust cake from the ceramic candle filter surface during pulse cleaning process is investigated. The influences of the dust cake loading,the reservoir pressure, and the filtration velocity on the cleaning effectiveness are analyzed. Experimental results show that there exists an optimum dust cake thickness for pulse-cleaning process. For thin dust cake, the patchy cleaning exists and the cleaning efficiency is low; if the dust cake is too thick, the pressure drop across the dust cake becomes higher and a higher reservoir pressure may be needed. At the same time there also exists an optimum reservoir pressure for a given filtration condition.

  16. Gas cleaning, gas conditioning and tar abatement by means of a catalytic filter candle in a biomass fluidized-bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Di Marcello, Manuela; Matt, Muriel; Nacken, Manfred; Heidenreich, Steffen; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2010-09-01

    A bench-scale fluidized-bed biomass gasification plant, operating at atmospheric pressure and temperature within the range 800-820 degrees C, has been used to test an innovative gas cleaning device: a catalytic filter candle fitted into the bed freeboard. This housing of the gas conditioning system within the gasifier itself results in a very compact unit and greatly reduced thermal losses. Long term (22h) tests were performed on the gasifier both with and without the catalytic candle filter, under otherwise identical conditions. Analysis of the product gas for the two cases showed the catalytic filtration to give rise to notable improvements in both gas quality and gas yield: an increase in hydrogen yield of 130% and an overall increase in gas yield of 69% - with corresponding decreases in methane and tar content of 20% and 79%, respectively. HPLC/UV analysis was used to characterize the tar compounds.

  17. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.

    1993-04-05

    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  18. Bactericidal activity and silver release of porous ceramic candle filter prepared by sintering silica with silver nanoparticles/zeolite for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh Nguyen, Thuy Ai; Phu Dang, Van; Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Anh Quoc; Thanh Nguyen, Duc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Porous ceramic candle filters (PCCF) were prepared by sintering silica from rice husk with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/zeolite A at about 1050 °C to create bactericidal PCCF/AgNPs for water disinfection. The silver content in PCCF/AgNPs was of 300-350 mg kg-1 determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and the average pore size of PCCF/AgNPs was of 50-70 Å measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The bactericidal activity and silver release of PCCF/AgNPs have been investigated by flow test with water flow rate of 5 L h-1 and initial inoculation of E. coli in inlet water of 106 CFU/100 mL. The volume of filtrated water was collected up to 500 L. Results showed that the contamination of E. coli in filtrated water was water was low, far under the WHO guideline of 100 μg L-1 at maximum for drinking water. Based on the content of silver in PCCF/AgNPs and in filtrated water, it was estimated that one PCCF/AgNPs could be used to filtrate of ˜100 m3 water. Thus, as-prepared PCCF/AgNPs releases low content of silver into water and shows effectively bactericidal activity that is promising to apply as point-of-use water treatment technology for drinking water disinfection.

  19. New approach to safeguards accounting. [Kalman filter method for detecting continual small losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1977-03-01

    In recent years there has been widespread concern over the problem of nuclear safeguards. Due to the proliferation of nuclear reactors throughout the world, the concern about the loss or diversion of nuclear materials at various points in the fuel cycle has greatly increased. To minimize the possibility of material loss, the nuclear industry relies on physical protection systems and materials accountability procedures at licensed facilities. Present techniques of material accountability rely on double-entry accounting systems. For various reasons, only noisy observations of on-hand inventory are available. Hence one is forced to use statistical techniques in an attempt to detect the existence of missing material. Current practice is to use control charts as the basis for detecting significant material losses. Control charts may aid in detecting large material losses but are insensitive to small quantities of material loss, even if these small losses occur repeatedly over a long period of time. The purpose of this research is to show the feasibility of using linear state estimation theory in nuclear material accountability. The Kalman Filter is used as the state estimation technique. The state vector which consists of on-hand inventory and material losses is estimated recursively.

  20. Image Analysis on Detachment Process of Dust Cake on Ceramic Candle Filter%陶瓷过滤管表面粉尘层清除过程的图像分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 焦海青; 陈鸿海

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of high-speed video images, the detachment behavior of dust cake from the ceramic candle filter surface during pulse cleaning process is investigated. The influences of the dust cake loading,the reservoir pressure, and the filtration velocity on the cleaning effectiveness are analyzed. Experimental results show that there exists an optimum dust cake thickness for pulse-cleaning process. For thin dust cake, the patchy cleaning exists and the cleaning efficiency is low; if the dust cake is too thick, the pressure drop across the dust cake becomes higher and a higher reservoir pressure may be needed. At the same time there also exists an optimum reservoir pressure for a given filtration condition.

  1. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  2. Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162882.html Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids If swallowed, serious damage ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Tiny button batteries that light up flameless "tea candles" pose a ...

  3. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L;

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known,...

  4. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  5. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  6. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  7. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Baumgartner, Wayne H; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P Narayana; Briggs, Michael S; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Case, Gary L; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A; Kuulkers, Erik; Meegan, Charles A; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Skinner, Gerald K; Swartz, Doug; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008, a ~ 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the ~3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and INTEGRAL Joint European Monitor (JEM-X) and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM and INTEGRAL/IBIS. Observations from 100 to 500...

  8. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known......, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2008 August, a ~ 7% (70 mCrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the ~ 15-50 ke......-100 keV band with GBM, Swift /BAT, and INTEGRAL /IBIS. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE /PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a ~ 3 year timescale are also seen independently...

  9. Burns and injuries resulting from the use of gel candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickus, E J; Lionelli, G T; Parmele, J B; Lawrence, W T; Korentager, R A

    2001-01-01

    Scented gel candles are common decorative household items composed of gelled mineral oil, fragrances, and dye. Like traditional wax candles, they have an open flame. Because of defective design, there have been several burns and injuries caused by these products. Here we report our experience with a scald burn from a gel candle and describe 34 additional injuries attributed to gel candles previously unreported in the medical literature.

  10. Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.; Im, K.H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.

  11. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  12. Neutron flux from a 14‐MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14‐MeV (D‐T) neutron generator and a...

  13. Electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of functionalized candle flame carbon soot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Justin Raj; Byung Chul Kim; Bo-Bae Cho; Won-Je Cho; Sung-Jin Kim; Sang Yeup Park; Kook Hyun Yu

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of bare, washed and nitric acid functionalized candle flame carbon soots were reported. Crystallinity and the morphology of the candle soots were recorded using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The nitric acid functionalized candle soot showed an improved Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of 137.93 from 87.495 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$ of washed candle soot. The presence of various functional groups in candle soots and the development of oxygen functionalities in the functionalized candle soot were examined through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Raman spectra showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the D (diamond) and G (graphite) phase of carbon present in the candle soots. The electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test and impedance spectroscopy in 1MH2SO4 electrolyte. The functionalized candle soot electrode showed an enhanced specific capacitance value of 187 F g$^{−1}$ at 0.15 A g$^{−1}$ discharge current density, which is much higher than that of bare and washed candle soot electrodes.

  14. Neutron flux from a 14-MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennhofer, H.; Pedersen, B.; Crochemore, J.-M.

    2009-12-01

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14-MeV (D-T) neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator with a frequency in the range of 10 to 150 Hz, a sample may be interrogated first by fast neutrons and a few hundred micro-seconds later by a pure thermal neutron flux. The permanent detection systems incorporated in PUNITA include 3He neutrons detectors, HPGe gamma detectors, and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors. We have studied the effects of placing a tungsten liner around the neutron generator target. The 14-MeV neutrons induce (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions. In addition the mean neutron energy emitted from generator/tungsten assembly is reduced to about 1 MeV. Both of these effects increase the thermal neutron flux in the sample cavity. The paper describes the observed advantages of the tungsten liner with respect to increase in thermal flux, and better shielding capabilities of the nearby gamma and neutron detectors.

  15. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  16. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containing more than 50 percent beeswax. (4) The Domestic Industry is the U.S. producers as a whole of the... petroleum wax, except for candles that contain more than 50 percent beeswax. (5) An Importer is any...

  17. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  18. Lightweight ceramic filter components: Evaluation and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggerstedt, P.M.

    1995-11-01

    Ceramic candle filtration is an attractive technology for particulate removal at high temperatures. The primary objective of this SBIR research program is to increase the performance, durability, and corrosion resistance of lightweight filter candles and filter tubesheet components (Fibrosic{trademark}), fabricated from vacuum formed chopped ceramic fiber (VFCCF), for use in advanced coal utilization applications. Phase 1 results proved that significant gains in material strength and particle retentivity are possible by treatment of VFCCF materials with colloidal ceramic oxides. Phase 2 effort will show how these treated materials tolerate high temperature and vapor-phase alkali species, on a long-term basis. With good durability and corrosion resistance, high temperature capability, and a low installed and replacement cost, these novel materials will help promote commercial acceptance of ceramic candle filter technology, as well as increase the efficiency and reliability of coal utilization processes in general.

  19. Strengthening regional safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  20. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  1. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  2. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  3. Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Chai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor is highly economical, safe and efficiently saves resources, thus extending large scale fission nuclear energy utilization for thousands of years, benefitting the whole of society. For many developing countries with a large population and high energy demands, such as China and India, middle (1000 MWth and large (2000 MWth CANDLE fast reactors are obviously more suitable than small reactors [2]. In this paper, the middle and large CANDLE reactors are investigated with U-Pu and combined ThU-UPu fuel cycles, aiming to utilize the abundant thorium resources and optimize the radial power distribution. To achieve these design purposes, the present designs were utilized, simply dividing the core into two fuel regions in the radial direction. The less active fuel, such as thorium or natural uranium, was loaded in the inner core region and the fuel with low-level enrichment, e.g. 2.0% enriched uranium, was loaded in the outer core region. By this simple core configuration and fuel setting, rather than using a complicated method, we can obtain the desired middle and large CANDLE fast cores with reasonable core geometry and thermal hydraulic parameters that perform safely and economically; as is to be expected from CANDLE. To assist in understanding the CANDLE reactor’s attributes, analysis and discussion of the calculation results achieved are provided.

  4. Ceramic Hot Gas Filter with Integrated Failsafe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, S.; Haag, W.; Walch, A.; Scheibner, B.; Mai, R.; Leibold, H.; Seifert, H.

    2002-09-18

    In order to integrate a failsafe system and to improve the cleaning intensity a new cleaning method was recently developed, the CPP (coupled pressure pulse) cleaning (Heidenreich et al. 2001). For the CPP method the cleaning system is directly coupled with the filter candles. One feature of this new technique is that the cleaning gas pressure exceeds the system pressure only by 0.05 to 0.1 MPa, whereas in case of conventional jet pulse systems two times the system pressure (at least 0.6 MPa) is standard. The key advantage of the coupled pressure pulse cleaning is that a safety filter for each filter candle can be integrated in the clean gas side of the filter. Thus, a candle failure is not longer a serious problem. The integrated safety filter enables the operation of the filter system also in case a filter candle breaks. This increases the availability of the filter and prevents an unscheduled costly shut-down of the system. In this paper the design of the ceramic filter wit h the failsafe system and the CPP cleaning will be described. The new developed safety filter elements, their pressure drop and their filtration and clogging behavior will be shown. Tests of single system components, of the whole filter system and first experiences of operating this system will be reported.

  5. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  6. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38121) and determined on October 4, 2010 that it would conduct an expedited review (75 FR 63200, October 14, 2010). The... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  7. Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    Home fires are a threat after a natural disaster and fire trucks may have trouble getting to your home. If the power is out, use flashlights or other battery-powered lights if possible, instead of candles.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 8/20/2008.

  8. Demonstrating Sound Wave Propagation with Candle Flame and Loudspeaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Nettles, Corey; Bonilla, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    The motion of a candle flame in front of a loudspeaker has been suggested as a productive demonstration of the longitudinal wave nature of sound. The demonstration has been used also as a research tool to investigate students' understanding about sound. The underpinning of both applications is the expectation of a horizontal, back-and-forth…

  9. Using Quasars as Standard Candles for Studying Dark Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Watson, D.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated (Watson et al. 2011, ApJ, 740, L49) that quasars, or more generally active galactic nuclei (AGNs), can be used as standard candles for measuring distances in the universe, similar to Type Ia supernovae (SNe). Here, we present the initial findings of this new method...

  10. Facility Safeguardability Analysis In Support of Safeguards-by-Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Roald Wigeland; Robert Bari; Trond Bjornard; John Hockert; Michael Zentner

    2010-07-01

    The following report proposes the use of Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) to: i) compare and evaluate nuclear safeguards measures, ii) optimize the prospective facility safeguards approach, iii) objectively and analytically evaluate nuclear facility safeguardability, and iv) evaluate and optimize barriers within the facility and process design to minimize the risk of diversion and theft of nuclear material. As proposed by the authors, Facility Safeguardability Analysis would be used by the Facility Designer and/or Project Design Team during the design and construction of the nuclear facility to evaluate and optimize the facility safeguards approach and design of the safeguards system. Through a process of “Safeguards-by-Design” (SBD), this would be done at the earliest stages of project conceptual design and would involve domestic and international nuclear regulators and authorities, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The benefits of the Safeguards-by-Design approach is that it would clarify at a very early stage the international and domestic safeguards requirements for the Construction Project Team, and the best design and operating practices for meeting these requirements. It would also minimize the risk to the construction project, in terms of cost overruns or delays, which might otherwise occur if the nuclear safeguards measures are not incorporated into the facility design at an early stage. Incorporating nuclear safeguards measures is straight forward for nuclear facilities of existing design, but becomes more challenging with new designs and more complex nuclear facilities. For this reason, the facility designer and Project Design Team require an analytical tool for comparing safeguards measures, options, and approaches, and for evaluating the “safeguardability” of the facility. The report explains how preliminary diversion path analysis and the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PRPP) evaluation

  11. Long Gamma-Ray Bursts as standard candles

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzati, D; Ghisellini, G; Nava, L; Firmani, C; Morsony, B; Begelman, M C; Morsony, Brian

    2006-01-01

    As soon as it was realized that long GRBs lie at cosmological distances, attempts have been made to use them as cosmological probes. Besides their use as lighthouses, a task that presents mainly the technological challenge of a rapid deep high resolution follow-up, researchers attempted to find the Holy Grail: a way to create a standard candle from GRB observables. We discuss here the attempts and the discovery of the Ghirlanda correlation, to date the best method to standardize the GRB candle. Together with discussing the promises of this method, we will underline the open issues, the required calibrations and how to understand them and keep them under control. Even though GRB cosmology is a field in its infancy, ongoing work and studies will clarify soon if and how GRBs will be able to keep up to the promises.

  12. Synchronization in flickering of three-coupled candle flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Keiko; Kijima, Akifumi; Umeno, Yoshitaka; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    When two or more candle flames are fused by approaching them together, the resulting large flame often exhibits flickering, i.e., prolonged high-frequency oscillation in its size and luminance. In the present work, we investigate the collective behaviour of three-coupled candle flame oscillators in a triangular arrangement. The system showed four distinct types of syncronised modes as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The modes obtained include the in-phase mode, the partial in-phase mode, the rotation mode, and an anomalous one called the “death” mode that causes a sudden stop of the flame oscillation followed by self-sustained stable combustion. We also clarified the correlation between the inter-flame distance and the frequency with which the modes occur.

  13. Temperature Regulation of the Accelerating Section in CANDLE Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Tunyan, Sergey; Grigoryan, Bagrat

    2005-01-01

    The temperature of the CANDLE S-Band Linac high-power RF components will be regulated by stand-alone closed loop (SACL) water system. The RF components are made of oxygen-free high conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature changes. Temperature stabilization better than ± 0.1 C is required to achieve a good RF phase and energy stability. The temperature regulation and control philosophy along with the simulation results are discussed.

  14. Technology Development of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, H. Y.; Ko, W. I. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The objective of this project is to perform R and D on the essential technologies in nuclear material measurement and surveillance and verification system, and to improve the state of being transparent on the nuclear material management of DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) through the evaluation of safeguard ability on non-proliferation fuel cycle and nuclear proliferation resistance. Nuclear material position scan system for the reduction of measurement error was developed for the spatial distribution search of spent fuel in DUPIC facility. Web-based realtime remote monitoring system was designed and constructed for satisfying the IAEA's performance criteria of continuous monitoring, and also developed a software for the function of remote control and message. And diversion paths in a proliferation resistant pyroprocess for SFR were analyzed and its protecting system against the diversion paths were suggested for enhancing proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycle. These results could be used for planning the further R and D items in the area of safeguards. Those R and D results mentioned above would be helpful for increasing Korean nuclear transparency in the future.

  15. On Calibrations Using the Crab Nebula as a Standard Candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin; Guainazzi, Matteo; Jahoda, Keith; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; ODell, Stephen; Zavlin, Vyacheslav; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Elsner, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by a recent paper (Kirsch et al. 2005) on possible use of the Crab Nebula as a standard candle for calibrating X-ray response func tions, we examine possible consequences of intrinsic departures from a single (absorbed) power law upon such calibrations. We limited our analyses to three more modern X-ray instruments -- the ROSAT/PSPC, th e RXTE/PCA, and the XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn. The results are unexpected an d indicate a need to refine two of the three response functions studi ed. The implications for Chandra will be discussed.

  16. Emissions of air pollutants from scented candles burning in a test chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derudi, Marco; Gelosa, Simone; Sliepcevich, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Rota, Renato; Cavallo, Domenico; Nano, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Burning of scented candles in indoor environment can release a large number of toxic chemicals. However, in spite of the large market penetration of scented candles, very few works investigated their organic pollutants emissions. This paper investigates volatile organic compounds emissions, with particular reference to the priority indoor pollutants identified by the European Commission, from the burning of scented candles in a laboratory-scale test chamber. It has been found that BTEX and PAHs emission factors show large differences among different candles, possibly due to the raw paraffinic material used, while aldehydes emission factors seem more related to the presence of additives. This clearly evidences the need for simple and cheap methodologies to measure the emission factors of commercial candles in order to foresee the expected pollutant concentration in a given indoor environment and compare it with health safety standards.

  17. 75 FR 70713 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... order are certain scented or unscented petroleum wax candles made from petroleum wax and having fiber or... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). On the basis of a timely notice...

  18. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... a reasonably foreseeable future. See Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination, 75 FR 80843... scented or unscented petroleum wax candles made from petroleum wax and having fiber or paper-cored wicks... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation...

  19. IF&P Fibrosic{trademark} filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggerstedt, P.M.

    1994-11-01

    The primary objective of this SBIR research program is to increase the performance, durability, and corrosion resistance of lightweight filter candles and filter tubesheet components (Fibrosic{trademark}), fabricated from vacuum formed chopped ceramic fiber (VFCCF), for use in advanced coal utilization applications. Phase I results proved that significant gains in material strength and particle retentivity are possible by treatment of VFCCF materials with colloidal ceramic oxides. Phase II efforts will show how these treated materials tolerate high temperature and vapor-phase alkali species, on a long-term basis. With good durability and corrosion resistance, high temperature capability, and a low installed and replacement cost, these novel materials will help promote commercial acceptance of ceramic candle filter technology, as well as increase the efficiency and reliability of coal utilization processes in general.

  20. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Flow Field in Ceramic Filter During Pulse Cleaning%陶瓷过滤器脉冲反吹系统的流场的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 彭书; 谭立村

    2003-01-01

    In the commercial utilization of rigid ceramic filters, the performance of pulse cleaning has crucial effects on the long-term stable operation. In order to get a clear insight into the nature of this cleaning process and provide a solid basis for industrial applications, the flow in ceramic candle filter was investigated. The flow in the pulse-jet space and inside the ceramic candle is regarded as two- dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow, and numerical simulation is carried out by computational fluid dynamics. The numerical predictions of flow field are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Effects of the candle diameter, the separation distance between the nozzle and the candle injector and the length of the candle on the flowfield have been numerically analyzed to provide the basis for the optimum design of the pulse cleaning system.

  2. Characterization of hazardous and odorous volatiles emitted from scented candles before lighting and when lit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won

    2015-04-01

    Scented candles are known to release various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including both pleasant aromas and toxic components both before lighting (off) and when lit (on). In this study, we explored the compositional changes of volatiles from scented candles under various settings to simulate indoor use. Carbonyl compounds and other VOCs emitted from six different candle types were analyzed under 'on/off' conditions. The six candle types investigated were: (1) Clean cotton (CT), (2) Floral (FL), (3) Kiwi melon (KW), (4) Strawberry (SB), (5) Vanilla (VN), and (6) Plain (PL). Although a large number of chemicals were released both before lighting and when lit, their profiles were noticeably distinguishable. Before lighting, various esters (n = 30) showed the most dominant emissions. When lit, formaldehyde was found to have the highest emission concentration of 2098 ppb (SB), 1022 ppb (CT), and 925 ppb (PL). In most lit scented candles, there was a general tendency to show increased concentrations of low boiling point compounds. For some scented candle products, the emission of volatiles occurred strongly both before lighting and when lit. For instance, in terms of TVOC (ppbC), the highest concentrations were observed from the KW product with their values of 12,742 (on) and 2766 ppbC (off). As such, the results suggest that certain scented candle products should act as potent sources of VOC emission in indoor environment, regardless of conditions--whether being lit or not.

  3. A free topology safeguards network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.P.; Resnik, W.M. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schurig, A. [Communications Foundation, Orem, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Free Topology Network technology provides cost reduction benefits as well as flexibility in safeguards applications. Power line communications technologies have proven viability for transmission and reception of safeguards data, including surveillance photographs, the source of the largest data files. In the future, enhancements will be made to the technology that should boost both performance and flexibility. Work is already underway to achieve higher data rates over power line communications eventually, it should be possible to reach data rates of one million bits per second or higher. Also, the use of technologies such as Novell Embedded Systems Technology (NEST) and Echelon LON technology will allow a greater number of safeguards technologies to become resident on the Free Topology Safeguards Network.

  4. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I.; Song, D. Y. [and others

    2000-03-01

    During the first phase of R and D program conducted from 1997 to 1999, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. For the nuclear material measurement system, the performance test was finished and received IAEA approval, and now is being used in DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility(DFDF) for nuclear material accounting and control. Other systems being developed in this study were already installed in DFDF and being under performance test. Those systems developed in this study will make a contribution not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author)

  5. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  6. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Lindy, E-mail: purplerauscher@neb.rr.com [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: chainarong@huskers.unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 14}C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO{sub 4}) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using {sup 14}C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO{sub 2}), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide

  7. An experimental design for the investigation of water repellent property of candle soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Bichitra Nanda; Kandasubramanian, Balasubramanian, E-mail: meetkbs@gmail.com

    2014-11-14

    The mechanistic aspect of candle soot particles under controlled atmosphere has been reported. The soot particles were characterized using Fourier transformation Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Hydrophobicity of the candle soot particles was confirmed from the presence of C–H group which enhances water repellency and can be used as filler material for fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings. The layered soot particle on the glass slide exhibits maximum water contact angle of 168°. Roughness of soot particle and various hydrophobic groups involved for obtaining superhydrophobicity were exposed. The Raman spectrum of soot particles revealed the presence of disorder graphene which was confirmed from appearance of D1 band. The agglomeration of candle soot particles has been discussed by measuring fractal dimension (D{sub f}) of the particles. The in-depth investigation for bringing the mechanism of formation of soot particle inside the flame reveals the inception of the first particles, growth of soot particles, particle coalescence, agglomeration and oxidation. Here, we have found that the mechanism of particle formation in candle flame involves various steps, in which the sintering as well as coalescence/collision process plays a major role. - Highlights: • Mechanistic aspect for hydrophobicity of candle soot is demonstrated. • Hydrophobicity of soot particles at different exposure time is described. • Agglomeration of soot particles related to fractal dimension is reported. • Mechanism of formation of soot particles in the candle flame is also described.

  8. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer.

  9. Regional Cooperation to Strengthen Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnini, Margot; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2016-06-06

    President Obama’s decision over four years ago to ”pivot” toward Asia represented an important strategic shift in American foreign policy and a rebalancing of U.S. economic and security engagement in the Asia-Pacific countries. The United States has since supported a variety of regional initiatives aimed at promoting nuclear security and safeguards. When a new regional organization, the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was established in 2010, DOE/NNSA became an early member and enthusiastic advocate. Launched on the initiative of Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia, the APSN aims to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of safeguards implementation in the Asia-Pacific region.

  10. Implementing Safeguards-by-Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; Phillip Casey Durst; John Hockert; James Morgan

    2010-02-01

    Executive Summary Excerpt Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) is an approach to the design and construction of nuclear facilities whereby safeguards are designed-in from the very beginning. It is a systematic and structured approach for fully integrating international and national safeguards (MC&A), physical security, and other proliferation barriers into the design and construction process for nuclear facilities. SBD is primarily a project management or project coordination challenge, and this report focuses on that aspect of SBD. The present report continues the work begun in 2008 and focuses specifically on the design process, or project management and coordination - the planning, definition, organization, coordination, scheduling and interaction of activities of the safeguards experts and stakeholders as they participate in the design and construction of a nuclear facility. It delineates the steps in a nuclear facility design and construction project, in order to provide the project context within which the safeguards design activities take place, describes the involvement of safeguards experts in the design process, the nature of their analyses, interactions and decisions, as well as describing the documents created and how they are used. Designing and constructing a nuclear facility is an extremely complex undertaking. The stakeholders in an actual project are many – owner, operator, State regulators, nuclear facility primary contractor, subcontractors (e.g. instrument suppliers), architect engineers, project management team, safeguards, safety and security experts, in addition to the IAEA and its team. The purpose of the present report is to provide a common basis for discussions amongst stakeholders to collaboratively develop a SBD approach that will be both practically useful and mutually beneficial. The principal conclusions from the present study are: • In the short term, the successful implementation of SBD is principally a project management problem.

  11. Unbiased constraints on the clumpiness of universe from standard candles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengxiang; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We perform unbiased tests for the clumpiness of universe by confronting the Zel'dovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder luminosity distance which describes the effect of local inhomogeneities on the propagation of light with the observational one estimated from measurements of standard candles, i.e., type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Methodologically, we first determine the light-curve fitting parameters which account for distance estimation in SNe Ia observations and luminosity/energy relations which are responsible for distance estimation of GRBs in the global fit to reconstruct the Hubble diagrams in the context of a clumpy universe. Subsequently, these Hubble diagrams allow us to achieve unbiased constraints on the matter density parameter $\\Omega_m$ as well as clumpiness parameter $\\eta$ which quantifies the fraction of homogeneously distributed matter within a given light cone. At 1$\\sigma$ confidence level, the constraints are $\\Omega_m=0.34\\pm0.02$ and $\\eta=1.00^{+0.00}_{-0.02}$ from the ...

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense for protection against field populations of Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, L R; Surgeoner, G A; Heal, J D; Gallivan, G J

    1996-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense in protecting subjects from bites of Aedes spp. under field conditions. The study was conducted in a deciduous woodlot in Guelph, Ontario, Canada from July 26 to August 10, 1995. Eight subjects, dressed identically, were assigned to one of 8 positions on a grid within the study area. Two citronella candles, 2 citronella incense, 2 plain unscented candles, or no candles (i.e., nontreated controls) were assigned to 2 positions on the grid each evening. Subjects conducted 5-min biting counts at each position and performed 16 biting counts per evening. On average, subjects received 6.2 +/- 0.4, 8.2 +/- 0.5, 8.2 +/- 0.4, and 10.8 +/- 0.5 bites/ 5 min at positions with citronella candles, citronella incense, plain candles, and no candles, respectively. Although significantly fewer bites were received by subjects at positions with citronella candles and incense than at nontreated locations, the overall reduction in bites provided by the citronella candles and incense was only 42.3 and 24.2%, respectively.

  13. Safeguards against Takeover after Volkswagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the significance of the European Court's decision on the effects of the rules on the free movement of capital on the takeover safeguards in Volkswagen AG for restrictions on the right to vote, ownership ceilings, division into A and B share classes, increased majority...

  14. Instrument development for safeguards measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarth, M.; Davidson, D.; Koskelo, M.; Gardner, G. [Canberra Nuclear Products Group, Meriden, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    New safeguards requirements, such as those resulting from industrial reprocessing activities, makes the faster and more accurate determination of the uranium enrichment and/or the isotopic composition of plutonium essential in measuring the fissile mass. In response to these needs, Canberra has developed several improved safeguards systems in the last few years. In this paper, we will present an overview of our newest safeguards systems and the improvements they contain. The portable systems include the U-Pu InSpector, the IMCA and the JSR-14 systems. All combine automatic control of acquisition electronics and rapid analysis with an integrated software package for ease of use. The U-Pu InSpector incorporates the MGA code used by the IAEA and Euratom for plutonium analysis. The IMCA complies with IAEA PMCN and PMCG procedures for uranium analysis. With the JSR-14, we are currently developing the procedures to provide compliance with the IAEA neutron counting procedures. In addition to portable safeguards systems, Canberra has designed and installed many installed systems such as the WDAS and PSMC systems at PNC Tokai in Japan, and the large unattended neutron/gamma systems at Cogema La Hague and the Melox reprocessing facility in France. (author)

  15. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  16. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available.

  17. Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

    2002-09-19

    This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

  18. Visualizing Safeguards: Software for Conceptualizing and Communicating Safeguards Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-12

    The nuclear programs of states are complex and varied, comprising a wide range of fuel cycles and facilities. Also varied are the types and terms of states’ safeguards agreements with the IAEA, each placing different limits on the inspectorate’s access to these facilities. Such nuances make it difficult to draw policy significance from the ground-level nuclear activities of states, or to attribute ground-level outcomes to the implementation of specific policies or initiatives. While acquiring a firm understanding of these relationships is critical to evaluating and formulating effective policy, doing so requires collecting and synthesizing large bodies of information. Maintaining a comprehensive working knowledge of the facilities comprising even a single state’s nuclear program poses a challenge, yet marrying this information with relevant safeguards and verification information is more challenging still. To facilitate this task, Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a means of capturing the development, operation, and safeguards history of all the facilities comprising a state’s nuclear program in a single graphic. The resulting visualization offers a useful reference tool to policymakers and analysts alike, providing a chronology of states’ nuclear development and an easily digestible history of verification activities across their fuel cycles.

  19. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  20. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  1. Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Bastable, Andy; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-06-01

    The performance and acceptability of the Nerox(TM) membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households were visited and filter performance and use were assessed. Only 6% of the visited households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%. High turbidity in source water (irrigation canals), together with high temperatures and large family size were likely to have contributed to poor performance and uptake of the filters.

  2. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  3. Mechanical behavior of ceramic composite hot-gas filters after exposure to severe environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysher, D.J.; Weaver, B.L.; Smith, R.G. [Ceramic Technology Center, St. Paul, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    A novel type of hot-gas filter based on a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic matrix has been developed, as reported at previous Fossil Energy Materials Conferences, through research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the 3M Company. Simulated testing has been done at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. This filter technology has been extended to full size, 60 mm OD by 1.5 meter long candle filters and a commercially viable process for producing the filters has been developed filters are undergoing testing and demonstration use throughout the world for applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Demonstration tests of this ceramic composite filter along with other filters are in progress at the Tidd PFBC plant Mechanical tests were performed on the 3 M brand Ceramic Composite Candle Filter after exposure to various corrosive environments in order to assess its ability to function as a hot gas filter in coal-fired applications. Due to the different construction of ceramic composite filters and the thin composite wall versus the typical thick-walled monolithic filter, standard mechanical property tests had to be refined or modified to accurately determine the filters properties. These tests and filter property results will be described Longitudinal tensile and diametral O-ring compression tests were performed on as-produced candle filters as well as on filters which had been exposed to various environments. The exposures were for 1000 hrs at 850{degrees}C in wet air, in wet air containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and in wet air containing NaCl. In addition, a filter which bad been coated with ash (Old Grimethorpe) was exposed to wet air at 850{degrees}C for 1000 hours.

  4. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  5. Testing of ceramic filter materials at the PCFB test facility; Keraamisten suodinmateriaalien testaus PCFB-koelaitoksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P.; Tiensuu, J. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula, Finland since 1986. In 1989, a 10 MW PCFB test facility was constructed. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1994 for obtaining data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main objective of the project Y53 was to evaluate advanced candle filter materials for the Hot Gas Clean-up Unit (HGCU) to be used in a commercial PCFB Demonstration Project. To achieve this goal, the selected candle materials were exposed to actual high temperature, high pressure coal combustion flue gases for a period of 1000-1500 h during the PCFB test runs. The test runs were carried out in three test segments in Foster Wheeler`s PCFB test facility at the Karhula R and D Center. An extensive inspection and sampling program was carried out after the second test segment. Selected sample candles were analyzed by the filter supplier and the preliminary results were encouraging. The material strength had decreased only within expected range. Slight elongation of the silicon carbide candles was observed, but at this phase the elongation can not be addressed to creep, unlike in the candles tested in 1993-94. The third and last test segment was completed successfully in October 1996. The filter system was inspected and several sample candles were selected for material characterization. The results will be available in February - March 1997. (orig.)

  6. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  7. Skin contact transfer of three fragrance residues from candles to human hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, Anne Marie; Bredbenner, Amy; McGowen, Margaret; Niemiera, David; Parker, Lori; Renskers, Kevin; Selim, Sami; Sgaramella, Richard; Signorelli, Richard; Tedrow, Sebastian; Troy, William

    2007-08-01

    The dermal hand transfer of three fragrance materials (cinnamic aldehyde, d-limonene and eugenol) from scented candles was determined in 10 subjects (i.e., 20 hands) after grasping scented candles for 5 consecutive 20s exposures/grasps. The fragrance materials from each subject's hands were recovered by isopropyl alcohol wipes and subsequent extractions. Removal efficiencies for both cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol placed directly on the hands were not concentration dependent and ranged from 103% to 106%. The removal efficiency of d-limonene showed an inverse relation with 74.3% removed at the low concentration of 50 microg and 63.8% removed at the high concentration of 500 microg. The residue/transfer of d-limonene from the candles to the hands was below the limit of detection of 50 microg. The residue/transfer of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol to each subject's hands was consistent between subjects as well as between each exposure/grasp. The total mean residues of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol transferred per grasp from the candles to the hands were 0.255 microg/cm(2) and 0.279 microg/cm(2), respectively.

  8. The Candle Scheme for Creating an on-line Computer Science Program - Experiences and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki SUTINEN

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning programs have rapidly increased during the past few decades. In fall 2000 the University of Joensuu started to offer distance Computer Science (CS studies to the high school students in surrounding rural areas of Joensuu. In this program high school students study the first year's university level CS studies over the web simultaneously with their regular high school studies. We describe the creation process of our virtual curriculum which is based the so-called Candle scheme. The Candle scheme search the most essential principles needed in on-line course design, supporting a student locally in her authentic learning needs via electronic tools in a light way. With the Candle scheme we have successfully focused in our design process on the most essential parts of the virtual study process. Our experiences of the Candle scheme in the creation process of the on-line CS program during years 2000-2002 indicate that the scheme is the functional one and expandable to other contexts as well.

  9. Burning a Candle in a Vessel, a Simple Experiment with a Long History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The experiment in which a candle is burned inside an inverted vessel partially immersed in water has a history of more than 2,200 years, but even nowadays it is common that students and teachers relate the change in volume of the enclosed air to its oxygen content. Contrary to what many people think, Lavoisier concluded that any change in volume…

  10. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  11. 32 CFR 887.2 - Safeguarding certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... costly to the Air Force. To keep requests for CILs at a minimum: (a) Personnel officers will tell members of the importance of safeguarding the original certificates. (b) Persons who issue CILs will type or stamp across the lower margin “THIS IS AN IMPORTANT RECORD—SAFEGUARD IT” (if it is not printed on...

  12. A five-year performance review of field-scale, slow-release permanganate candles with recommendations for second-generation improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Mark; Kambhu, Ann; Reece, James; Comfort, Steve; Brunner, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, we identified a TCE plume at an abandoned landfill that was located in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate cylinders (oxidant candles) that had diameters of either 5.1 or 7.6 cm and were 91.4 cm long. In 2010, we compared two methods of candle installation by inserting equal masses of the oxidant candles (7.6-cm vs 5.1-cm dia). The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted with direct-push rods while the 7.6-cm candles were housed in screens and lowered into 10 permanent wells. Since installation, the 7.6-cm oxidant candles have been refurbished approximately once per year by gently scraping off surface oxides. In 2012, we reported initial results; in this paper, we provide a 5-yr performance review since installation. Temporal sampling shows oxidant candles placed in wells have steadily reduced migrating TCE concentrations. Moreover, these candles still maintain an inner core of oxidant that has yet to contribute to the dissolution front and should provide several more years of service. Oxidant candles inserted by direct-push have stopped reducing TCE concentrations because a MnO2 scale developed on the outside of the candles. To counteract oxide scaling, we fabricated a second generation of oxidant candles that contain sodium hexametaphosphate. Laboratory experiments (batch and flow-through) show that these second-generation permanganate candles have better release characteristics and are less prone to oxide scaling. This improvement should reduce the need to perform maintenance on candles placed in wells and provide greater longevity for candles inserted by direct-push.

  13. Safeguards technology and computer security training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunteman, W.J.; Zack, N.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Safeguards Systems Group provides a variety of training services to the federal government and its contractors. The US Department of Energy sponsors a Safeguards Technology Training Program at Los Alamos in which seminars are offered concerning materials accounting for nuclear safeguards, measurement control for materials accounting, and variance propagation and systems analysis. These seminars provide guidance and techniques for accounting for nuclear material, developing and quantifying quality nuclear material measurements, and assessing overall accounting system performance. The Safeguards Systems Group also provides training in computer and data security applications; i.e., a workshop and the Los Alamos Vulnerability/Risk Assessment System (LAVA), computer system security officer training, and nuclear material safeguards for managers training, which are available on request. This paper describes the purpose, content, and expected benefits of the training activities that can be applied at nuclear materials facilities or where there are computer and/or data security concerns.

  14. Safeguards technology and computer security training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunteman, W.J.; Zack, N.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Safeguards Systems Group provides a variety of training services to the federal government and its contractors. The US Department of Energy sponsors a Safeguards Technology Training Program at Los Alamos in which seminars are offered concerning materials accounting for nuclear safeguards, measurement control for materials accounting, and variance propagation and systems analysis. These seminars provide guidance and techniques for accounting for nuclear material, developing and quantifying quality nuclear material measurements, and assessing overall accounting system performance. The Safeguards Systems Group also provides training in computer and data security applications; i.e., a workshop and the Los Alamos Vulnerability/Risk Assessment System (LAVA), computer system security officer training, and nuclear material safeguards for managers training, which are available on request. This paper describes the purpose, content, and expected benefits of the training activities that can be applied at nuclear materials facilities or where there are computer and/or data security concerns.

  15. Safeguards and retrievability from waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danker, W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes issues discussed at a session from the PLutonium Stabilization and Immobilization Workshop related to safeguards and retrievability from waste forms. Throughout the discussion, the group probed the goals of disposition efforts, particularly an understanding of the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard{close_quotes}, since the disposition material form derives from these goals. The group felt strongly that not only the disposition goals but safeguards to meet these goals could affect the material form. Accordingly, the Department was encouraged to explore and apply safeguards as early in the implementation process as possible. It was emphasized that this was particularly true for any planned use of existing facilities. It is much easier to build safeguards approaches into the development of new facilities, than to backfit existing facilities. Accordingly, special safeguards challenges are likely to be encountered, given the cost and schedule advantages offered by use of existing facilities.

  16. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems.

  17. 76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... see also Memorandum to the File through Alex Villanueva, Program Manager, from Tim Lord, Case Analyst... Villanueva, Program Manager, from Tim Lord, Case Analyst, Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic...

  18. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  19. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  20. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  1. Effectiveness of ceramic filters in capturing Giardia duodenalis cysts in experimentally contaminated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Imaculada da Costa Sobrinho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is the main water-transmitted protozoan in developing countries. This study evaluated the effectiveness of ceramic filters in capturing G. duodenalis cysts and verified the porosity size needed to remove cysts from contaminated water. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Parasitology at the University of Taubaté, where each filter unit was made by joining two Pet gallons, latex hose and a ceramic filter. Two porosity sizes were selected: 0.5-1.0 μm and 5-15 μm with or without activated carbon, and the assays were run in triplicate. Approximately 60 μL (53 cysts of G. duodenalis cysts were placed in 2 liters of distilled water. After the preparation of the contaminated water, this solution was run through the filter until the completely filtered. Afterwards, the filtrate was processed according to the methodology described by De Faria (2006, in order to concentrate parasitic elements. The results were statistically evaluated using ANOVA and Tukey tests, showing that the 0.5- 1,0 μm porosity filter candles (with and without activated carbon were able to retain 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis. This is a result significantly superior to the results obtained in the control group (p<0.05. On the other hand, for the candles with porosity of 5 15 μm, total retention occurred only in candles with activated carbon. Based upon our results, it can be concluded that, in candles with both porosity sizes with activated carbon, all filters showed a satisfactory efficacy for filtration of G. duodenalis cysts.

  2. Status and future prospect of 48Ca double beta decay search in CANDLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ajimura, S.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Kakubata, H.; Khai, B. T.; Kishimoto, T.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Masuda, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Morishita, K.; Nakatani, N.; Nomachi, M.; Noshiro, S.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Osumi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tesuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Umehara, S.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-05-01

    The observation of neutrino-less double beta decay (0vßß) would be the most practical way to prove the Majorana nature of the neutrino and lepton number violation. CANDLES studies 48Ca double beta decay using CaF2 scintillator. The main advantage of 48Ca is that it has the highest Q-value (4.27 MeV) among all the isotope candidates for 0vßß. The CANDLES III detector is currently operating with 300kg CaF2 crystals in the Kamioka underground observatory, Japan. In 2014, a detector cooling system and a magnetic cancellation coil was installed with the aim to increase light emission of CaF2 scintillator and photo-electron collection efficiency of the photo-multipliers. After this upgrade, light yield was increased to 1000 p.e./MeV which is 1.6 times larger than before. According to data analysis and simulation, main background source in CANDLES is turned out to be high energy external gamma-ray originating neutron capture on the surrounding materials, so called (n,γ). Upgrading the detector by installing neutron and gamma-ray shield can reduce the remaining main backgrounds by two order magnitude. In this report, we discuss the detail of (n,γ) and background reduction by additional shielding.

  3. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  4. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T Bjornard; B. Castle

    2009-02-01

    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization’s purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations’ approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  5. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poe, Sarah [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  6. ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

    2003-06-01

    electrostatically enhanced barrier filter collection (EBFC). This concept combines electrostatic precipitation (ESP) with candle filters in a single unit. Similar technology has been recently proven on a commercial scale for atmospheric applications, but needed to be tested at high temperatures and pressures. The synergy obtained by combining the two control technologies into a single system should actually reduce filter system capital and operating costs and make the system more reliable. More specifically, the ESP is expected to significantly reduce candle filter load and also to limit ash reintrainment, allowing for full recovery of baseline pressure drop during backpulsing of the filters.

  7. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Richard; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-06-24

    U.S. efforts to promote the international expansion of nuclear energy through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will result in a dramatic expansion of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the United States. New demonstration facilities, such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC) will use advanced nuclear and chemical process technologies that must incorporate increased proliferation resistance to enhance nuclear safeguards. The ASA-100 Project, “Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities,” commissioned by the NA-243 Office of NNSA, has been tasked with reviewing and developing advanced safeguards approaches for these demonstration facilities. Because one goal of GNEP is developing and sharing proliferation-resistant nuclear technology and services with partner nations, the safeguards approaches considered are consistent with international safeguards as currently implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This first report reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new fuel reprocessing processes to be deployed at the AFCF and CFTC facilities. Similar analyses addressing the ABR and transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication lines at AFCF and CFTC will be presented in subsequent reports.

  8. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  9. CANDLES project for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sei

    2014-09-01

    There is, presently, strong evidence that neutrinos undergo flavor oscillations,and hence must have finite masses. Neutrino-less double beta (0 νββ) decay measurement offers a realistic opportunity to establish the Majorana nature of neutrinos and gives the absolute scale of the effective neutrino mass. CANDLES is the project to search for 0 νββ decay of 48Ca. A distinctive characteristic of 48Ca is the highest Q value (4.3 MeV) among 0 νββ isotopes. Therefore it enables us to measure 0 νββ decay signals in background free contribution. The CANDLES system consists of undoped CaF2 scintillators (CaF2),liquid scintillator (LS), and large photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A large number of CaF2 crystals in the form of 10 cm cubes are immersed in the LS. Scintillating CaF2 crystals work as an active source detector for 0 νββ decay of 48Ca, together with LS as a multi-purpose detector component to both reject backgrounds and to propagate scintillation photons. PMTs are placed around the LS vessel to detect photons from both scintillators. The simple design concept of CANDLES enables us to increase the 48Ca source amount. 48Ca enrichment is also effective for the high sensitive measurement, because natural abundance of 48Ca is very low (0.19%). We have studied 48Ca enrichment and succeeded in obtaining enriched 48Ca although it is a small amount. Now we have developed the CANDLES III system, which contained with 300kg CaF2 crystals without enrichment, at the Kamioka underground laboratory. New light collection system was installed in 2012, and accordingly photo-coverage has been enlarged by about 80%. Further improvement will be expected in 2014 by installing a detector cooling system in order to increase light emission from CaF2 crystals. The detail of the latest CANDLES III (U.G.) system and its performance will be presented. Recently, we found that gamma rays from neutron captures on materials surrounding detector could be dominant background. These

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A CERIA-ZIRCONIA TOUGHENED ALUMINA PROTOTYPE FILTER ELEMENT MADE OF RETICULATED CERAMIC FOAM COATED WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE ACTING AS BARRIER FILTER FOR FLY ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilio A. Rossi; Kenneth R. Butcher; Stacia M. Wagner

    1999-02-19

    The objective of this work was to fabricate subscale candle filters using a Ce-ZTA reticulated foam material. Specifically Selee fabricated 60mm diameter cylinders with one closed end and one flanged end. Selee Corporation developed a small pore size (5-10 {micro}m) filtration membrane which was applied to the reticulated foam surface to provide a barrier filter surface. The specific tasks to be performed were as follows: (Task 1) Filter Element Development--To fabricate subscale filter elements from zirconia toughened alumina using the reticulated foam manufacturing process. The filter elements were required to meet dimensional tolerances specified by an appropriate filter system supplier. The subscale filter elements were fabricated with integral flanges and end caps, that is, with no glued joints. (Task 2) Membrane Development--To develop a small pore filtration membrane that is to be applied to the reticulated foam material. This membrane was to provide filtration characteristics that meet gas turbine requirements and pressure drop or permeability requirements specified by the filter system supplier. (Task 3) Subscale Filter Element Fabrication--To fabricate six subscale filter elements with integral flanges and closed ends, as well as fine pore size filtration membranes. Three filters were to have a central clean gas channel, while three would have no central channel. The filters were to be provided to FETC for testing in laboratory systems or pilot scale exposure systems as appropriate. The candles were to meet dimensional tolerances as provided by filter system suppliers.

  11. Designing Data Protection Safeguards Ethically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pagallo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1990s, lawmakers and scholars have worked on the idea of embedding data protection safeguards in information and communication technology (ICT with the aim to access and control personal data in compliance with current regulatory frameworks. This effort has been strengthened by the capacities of computers to draw upon the tools of artificial intelligence (AI and operations research. However, work on AI and the law entails crucial ethical issues concerning both values and modalities of design. On one hand, design choices might result in conflicts of values and, vice versa, values may affect design features. On the other hand, the modalities of design cannot only limit the impact of harm-generating behavior but also prevent such behavior from occurring via self-enforcement technologies. In order to address some of the most relevant issues of data protection today, the paper suggests we adopt a stricter, yet more effective version of “privacy by design.” The goal should be to reinforce people’s pre-existing autonomy, rather than having to build it from scratch.

  12. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper,S.; Rosenthal, M.; Fishbone, L.; Occhiogrosso, D.; Carroll, C.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Rankhauser, J.

    2008-10-22

    In 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a yearlong review of the challenges facing the international safeguards system today and over the next 25 years. The study found that without new investment in international safeguards, the U.S. safeguards technology base, and our ability to support International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, will continue to erode and soon may be at risk. To reverse this trend, the then U.S. Secretary of Energy, Samuel Bodman, announced at the 2007 IAEA General Conference that the Department of Energy (DOE) would launch the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). He stated 'IAEA safeguards must be robust and capable of addressing proliferation threats. Full confidence in IAEA safeguards is essential for nuclear power to grow safely and securely. To this end, the U.S. Department of Energy will seek to ensure that modern technology, the best scientific expertise, and adequate resources are available to keep pace with expanding IAEA responsibilities.' To meet this goal, the NGSI objectives include the recruitment of international safeguards experts to work at the U.S. national laboratories and to serve at the IAEA's headquarters. Part of the latter effort will involve enhancing our existing efforts to place well-qualified Americans in a sufficient number of key safeguards positions within the IAEA's Department of Safeguards. Accordingly, the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards (ERIS) on October 22 and 23, 2008. The ISPO used a workshop format developed earlier with Sonalysts, Inc., that was followed at the U.S. Support Program's (USSP's) technology road-mapping sessions. ISPO invited participants from the U.S. DOE, the IAEA, the U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and

  13. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Wang, B.

    The objective of this study was to characterize the emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental test chamber. The target pollutants included particulate matters (PM 10, PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds. The average PM 10 concentrations for all tested mosquito coils exceeded Excellent and Good Classes objectives specified by Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [ HKEPD, 2003. Guidance Notes for the Management of Indoor Air Quality in Offices and Public Places. Indoor Air Quality Management Group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region]. The emission factors (mg g -1 mosquito coil) of mosquito coils combustion were: PM 2.5, 20.3-47.8; PM 10, 15.9-50.8; CO, 74.6-89.1; NO, 0.1-0.5; NO 2, n.d.-0.1; NO x, 0.1-0.5; CH 4, n.d.-4.7; NMHC, 0.1-5.7. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls species in the coil smoke. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene of all tested mosquito coils exceeded Good Class of IAQO. Nitrogen oxides were the most abundant gas pollutants relating to candle burning among all target air pollutants. The candle made of gel (CAN 4) would emit more air pollutants than the paraffin candles (CAN 1, 2 and 3) and beeswax candle (CAN 5). Among five candles tested, CAN 5, the one made of beeswax, generated relatively smaller amount of air pollutants. It was noted that the concentrations of most VOCs from candles combustion were below the detection limit.

  14. The development of a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN): hope for a new standard candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, G.; Chung, S.; Gonzales, E. V.; Gorjian, V.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Of the galaxies in our universe, only a small percentage currently have Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These galaxies tend to be further out in the universe and older, and are different from inactive galaxies in that they emit high amounts of energy from their central black holes. These AGN can be classified as either Seyferts or quasars, depending on the amount of energy emitted from the center (less or more). We are studying the correlation between the ratio of dust emission and accretion disk emission to luminosities of AGN in order to determine if there is a relationship strong enough to act as a predictive model for distance within the universe. This relationship can be used as a standard candle if luminosity is found to determine distances in space. We have created a color-magnitude diagram depicting this relationship between luminosity and wavelengths, similar to the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The more luminous the AGN, the more dust surface area over which to emit energy, which results in a greater near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This differs from previous research because we use NIR to differentiate accretion from dust emission. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), we analyzed over one thousand Type 1 Seyferts and quasars. We studied data at different wavelengths in order to show the relationship between color (the ratio of one wavelength to another) and luminosity. It was found that plotting filters i-K (the visible and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum) against the magnitude absolute K (luminosity) showed a strong correlation. Furthermore, the redshift range between 0.14 and 0.15 was the most promising, with an R2 of 0.66.

  15. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  16. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper,S.E.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Occhogrosso, D.M.; Lockwood, D.; Carroll, C.J.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Fankhauser, J.

    2009-07-12

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards October 22 and 23, 2008. The workshop was sponsored by DOE/NA-243 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Placing well-qualified Americans in sufficient number and in key safeguards positions within the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) Department of Safeguards is an important U.S. non-proliferation objective. The goal of the NGSI Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards was to improve U.S. efforts to recruit U.S. citizens for IAEA positions in the Department of Safeguards. The participants considered the specific challenges of recruiting professional staff, safeguards inspectors, and managers. BNL’s International Safeguards Project Office invited participants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the IAEA, U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who are either experts in international safeguards or who understand the challenges of recruiting for technical positions. A final report for the workshop will be finalized and distributed in early 2009. The main finding of the workshop was the need for an integrated recruitment plan to take into account pools of potential candidates, various government and private agency stakeholders, the needs of the IAEA, and the NGSI human capital development plan. There were numerous findings related to and recommendations for maximizing the placement of U.S. experts in IAEA Safeguards positions. The workshop participants offered many ideas for increasing the pool of candidates and increasing the placement rate. This paper will provide details on these findings and recommendations

  17. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  18. Characterization of Carbon Deposits Formed During Plasma Pyrolysis of Xinjiang Candle Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guilin; Meng, Yuedong; Shu, Xingsheng; Fang, Shidong

    2009-08-01

    Carbon deposits were formed on the reactor wall during plasma pyrolysis of the Xinjiang candle coal in our V-style plasma pyrolysis pilot-plant. The carbon deposits were studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. It was found that carbon deposits located at different parts in the reactor exhibited different microscopic patterns. The formation mechanism of the carbon deposits was deduced. The downward increase in the graphitization degree of the carbon deposits was found and interpreted.

  19. Characterization of carbon deposits formed during plasma pyrolysis of Xinjiang candle coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, G.L.; Meng, Y.D.; Shu, X.S.; Fang, S.D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2009-08-15

    Carbon deposits were formed on the reactor wall during plasma pyrolysis of the Xinjiang candle coal in our V-style plasma pyrolysis pilot-plant. The carbon deposits were studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. It was found that carbon deposits located at different parts in the reactor exhibited different microscopic patterns. The formation mechanism of the carbon deposits was deduced. The down ward increase in the graphitization degree of the carbon deposits was found and interpreted

  20. The Latest Version of the Standardized Candle Method for Type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Hamuy, M

    2003-01-01

    I use the largest available sample of Type II plateau supernovae to examine the previously reported luminosity-velocity relation. This study confirms such relation which permits one to standardize the luminosities of these objects from a spectroscopic measurement of their envelope velocities, and use them as extragalactic distance indicators. The "standard candle method" (SCM) yields a Hubble diagram with a dispersion of 0.3 mag, which implies that the SCM produces distances with a precision of 15%. Using two nearby supernovae with Cepheid distances I find Ho=81+/-10 km/s/Mpc, which compares with Ho=74 derived from Type Ia supernovae.

  1. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

  2. Role of carbon monoxide in impaired endothelial function mediated by acute second-hand tobacco, incense, and candle smoke exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lynn P; Al-Dissi, Ahmad; Marit, Jordan S; German, Timothy N; Terletski, Sharilyn D

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for acute adverse cardiovascular effects of different sources of smoke: second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), incense and candle smoke. Endothelial function was tested using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in pigs and was shown to be sensitive to nitric oxide synthase blockade. Subsequent experiments showed that FMD was significantly impaired compared to sham-exposed pigs at 30 min after a 30-min exposure to all three sources of smoke. In contrast, SHS significantly increased systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures compared to sham-exposure, while both incense and candle smoke exposure had no effect. The FMD impairment correlated well with CO levels in the exposure chamber, but not total particulates or venous CO-hemoglobin. Therefore, this study suggests a gas phase component of smoke that accompanies CO, but not CO itself, is responsible for acute endothelial dysfunction after SHS, incense or candle smoke exposure.

  3. The evolution of information-driven safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budlong-sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-14

    From the adoption of the Model Additional Protocol and integrated safeguards in the 1990s, to current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts to deal with cases of noncompliance, the question of how the Agency can best utilize all the information available to it remains of great interest and increasing importance. How might the concept of 'information-driven' safeguards (IDS) evolve in the future? The ability of the Agency to identify and resolve anomalies has always been important and has emerged as a core Agency function in recent years as the IAEA has had to deal with noncompliance in Iran and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Future IAEA safeguards implementation should be designed with the goal of facilitating and enhancing this vital capability. In addition, the Agency should utilize all the information it possesses, including its in-house assessments and expertise, to direct its safeguards activities. At the State level, knowledge of proliferation possibilities is currently being used to guide the analytical activities of the Agency and to develop inspection plans. How far can this approach be extended? Does it apply across State boundaries? Should it dictate a larger fraction of safeguards activities? Future developments in IDS should utilize the knowledge resident within the Agency to ensure that safeguards resources flow to where they are most needed in order to address anomalies first and foremost, but also to provide greater confidence in conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear activities. The elements of such a system and related implementation issues are assessed in this paper.

  4. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, N S

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  5. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  6. Analysis of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Doo; Song, Dae Yong; Kwack, Eun Ho

    2000-12-01

    Safeguards Information Treatment System(SITS) at the facility level is required to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, the analysis of information, which the SITS treats, and operation environment of SITS including the review of the relationship between safeguards information are described. SITS will be developed to cover the different accounting procedures and methods applied at the various facilities under IAEA safeguards.

  7. Safeguards instruments for Large-Scale Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Case, R.S.; Sonnier, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Between 1987 and 1992 a multi-national forum known as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) met to assist the IAEA in development of effective and efficient safeguards for large-scale reprocessing plants. The US provided considerable input for safeguards approaches and instrumentation. This paper reviews and updates instrumentation of importance in measuring plutonium and uranium in these facilities.

  8. Emission characteristics of air pollutants from incense and candle burning in indoor atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Quivet, E; Temime-Roussel, B; Nicolas, M; Maupetit, F; Wortham, H

    2013-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles emitted by incense sticks and candles combustion in an experimental room have been monitored on-line and continuously with a high time resolution using a state-of-the-art high sensitivity-proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (HS-PTR-MS) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), respectively. The VOC concentration-time profiles, i.e., an increase up to a maximum concentration immediately after the burning period followed by a decrease which returns to the initial concentration levels, were strongly influenced by the ventilation and surface interactions. The obtained kinetic data set allows establishing a qualitative correlation between the elimination rate constants of VOCs and their physicochemical properties such as vapor pressure and molecular weight. The emission of particles increased dramatically during the combustion, up to 9.1(±0.2) × 10(4) and 22.0(±0.2) × 10(4) part cm(-3) for incenses and candles, respectively. The performed kinetic measurements highlight the temporal evolution of the exposure level and reveal the importance of ventilation and deposition to remove the particles in a few hours in indoor environments.

  9. Insights from Mendelian Interferonopathies: Comparison of CANDLE, SAVI with AGS, Monogenic Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna; Sanchez, Gina A Montealegre; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2016-10-01

    Autoinflammatory disorders are sterile inflammatory conditions characterized by episodes of early-onset fever and disease-specific patterns of organ inflammation. Recently, the discoveries of monogenic disorders with strong type I interferon (IFN) signatures caused by mutations in proteasome degradation and cytoplasmic RNA and DNA sensing pathways suggest a pathogenic role of IFNs in causing autoinflammatory phenotypes. The IFN response gene signature (IGS) has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases. In this review, we compare the clinical presentations and pathogenesis of two IFN-mediated autoinflammatory diseases, CANDLE and SAVI, with Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS) and monogenic forms of SLE (monoSLE) caused by loss-of-function mutations in complement 1 (C1q) or the DNA nucleases, DNASE1 and DNASE1L3. We outline differences in intracellular signaling pathways that fuel a pathologic type I IFN amplification cycle. While IFN amplification is caused by predominantly innate immune cell dysfunction in SAVI, CANDLE, and AGS, autoantibodies to modified RNA and DNA antigens interact with tissues and immune cells including neutrophils and contribute to IFN upregulation in some SLE patients including monoSLE, thus justifying a grouping of "autoinflammatory" and "autoimmune" interferonopathies. Understanding of the differences in the cellular sources and signaling pathways will guide new drug development and the use of emerging targeted therapies.

  10. Safeguards performance model for evaluation of potential safeguards strategies applied to pyroprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, T.R., E-mail: riletony@isu.edu; Pope, C.L.; Benedict, R.W.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A model was created for simulating safeguards strategies for a pyroprocessing facility. • The model is flexible and simulates process monitoring during steady state operations. • A sensitivity study revealed input spent fuel and storage mass measures most limiting. - Abstract: Electrochemical reprocessing has been proposed as a spent fuel disposition technique. If implemented on a commercial scale, traditional safeguards approaches used to satisfy IAEA requirements may be insufficient. To aid in testing safeguard strategies, a new tool was developed: the Pyroprocessing Safeguards Performance Model, a MATLAB/Simulink simulation of plant operations capable of calculating inventory differences for a specified balance period as well as sensitivity studies of detection measurements. This paper discusses the development of the model and a measurement uncertainty study performed using the model.

  11. Do low-cost ceramic water filters improve water security in rural South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Jens; Materne, Tineke; Grüner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of a low-cost ceramic candle filter system (CCFS) for point of use (POU) drinking water treatment in the village of Hobeni, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A stepwise laboratory test documented the negative effects of repeated loading and ambient field temperatures. Moreover, CCFS were distributed in Hobeni and a survey was carried out among their users. The performance of 51 CCFS was evaluated by dip slides and related to human factors. Already after ...

  12. "Safeguarding" Sports Coaching: Foucault, Genealogy and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Dean; Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a genealogical account of safeguarding in sport. Drawing specifically on Foucault's work, it examines the "politics of touch" in relation to the social and historical formation of child protection policy in sports coaching. While the analysis has some resonance with the context of coaching as a whole, for illustrative…

  13. 38 CFR 18.436 - Procedural safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or are believed to need special instruction or related services. The system shall include: (1) Notice... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Elementary, Secondary, and Adult Education § 18.436 Procedural safeguards. (a) A recipient that operates a public elementary...

  14. The integration of process monitoring for safeguards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen R.

    2010-09-01

    The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model is a reprocessing plant model that has been developed for safeguards analyses of future plant designs. The model has been modified to integrate bulk process monitoring data with traditional plutonium inventory balances to evaluate potential advanced safeguards systems. Taking advantage of the wealth of operator data such as flow rates and mass balances of bulk material, the timeliness of detection of material loss was shown to improve considerably. Four diversion cases were tested including both abrupt and protracted diversions at early and late times in the run. The first three cases indicated alarms before half of a significant quantity of material was removed. The buildup of error over time prevented detection in the case of a protracted diversion late in the run. Some issues related to the alarm conditions and bias correction will need to be addressed in future work. This work both demonstrates the use of the model for performing diversion scenario analyses and for testing advanced safeguards system designs.

  15. 75 FR 81894 - Safeguarding Child Support Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... effect safeguards on the access to and use of data in the State's automated system. II. Background This... referred to information provided to parents and putative fathers. The technical correction is necessary to...), which requires that a parent's or putative father's Social Security Number (SSN) be provided to...

  16. Readability of Special Education Procedural Safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Rudd, Rima; Hehir, Thomas; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on literacy-related barriers to understanding the rights of students with disabilities and their parents within the special education system. SMOG readability scores were determined for procedural safeguards documents issued by all state departments of education. The average reading grade level was 16; 6% scored in the high…

  17. Antineutrino reactor safeguards - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrinos have been proposed as a means of reactor safeguards for more than 30 years and there has been impressive experimental progress in neutrino detection. In this paper we conduct, for the first time, a case study of the application of antineutrino safeguards to a real-world scenario - the North Korean nuclear crisis in 1994. We derive detection limits to a partial or full core discharge in 1989 based on actual IAEA safeguards access and find that two independent methods would have yielded positive evidence for a second core with very high confidence. To generalize our results, we provide detailed estimates for the sensitivity to the plutonium content of various types of reactors, including most types of plutonium production reactors, based on detailed reactor simulations. A key finding of this study is that a wide class of reactors with a thermal power of less than 0.1-1 GWth can be safeguarded achieving IAEA goals for quantitative sensitivity and timeliness with detectors right outside the reactor ...

  18. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors could pose a safeguards challenge. To strengthen the effectiveness of safeguards at the State level, this paper advocates that the IAEA consider ways to focus additional attention and broaden its safeguards toolbox for research reactors. This increase in focus on the research reactors could begin with the recognition that the research reactor (of any size) could be a common path element on a large number of technically plausible pathways that must be considered when performing acquisition pathway analysis (APA) for developing a State Level Approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP). To

  19. 75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... complaints by some importers prompted another telex to customs on March 20, 1986, in which `candles not... Communication Following the communications with NCA described above, the Department sent a telex to the U.S... Register (February 19, 1986, page 6016) and referenced in our February 20, 1986 telex is as follows:...

  20. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifah, Maryam; Miura, Ryosuke; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, H.

    2015-09-01

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don't need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  1. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Howell, John [University of Glasgow

    2010-01-01

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide

  2. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers.

  3. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally-determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally-determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With only three parameters per solvent, this `CANDLE' model simultaneously reproduce...

  4. Candle Soot as a Template for a Transparent Robust Superamphiphobic Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xu; Mammen, Lena; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Vollmer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Coating is an essential step in adjusting the surface properties of materials. Superhydrophobic coatings with contact angles greater than 150° and roll-off angles below 10° for water have been developed, based on low-energy surfaces and roughness on the nano- and micrometer scales. However, these surfaces are still wetted by organic liquids such as surfactant-based solutions, alcohols, or alkanes. Coatings that are simultaneously superhydrophobic and superoleophobic are rare. We designed an easily fabricated, transparent, and oil-rebounding superamphiphobic coating. A porous deposit of candle soot was coated with a 25-nanometer-thick silica shell. The black coating became transparent after calcination at 600°C. After silanization, the coating was superamphiphobic and remained so even after its top layer was damaged by sand impingement.

  5. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monado, Fiber [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia and Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Su' ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Ariani, Menik [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [CRINES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okoyama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  6. Model-independent estimations for the curvature from standard candles and clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengxiang; Liao, Kai; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Model-independent estimations for the spatial curvature not only provide a test for the fundamental Copernican principle assumption, but also can effectively break the degeneracy between curvature and dark energy properties. In this paper, we propose to achieve model-independent constraints on the spatial curvature from observations of standard candles and standard clocks, without assuming any fiducial cosmology and other priors. We find that, for the popular Union2.1 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia ) observations, the spatial curvature is constrained to be $\\Omega_K=-0.045_{-0.172}^{+0.176}$. For the latest joint light-curve analysis (JLA) of SNe Ia observations, we obtain $\\Omega_K=-0.140_{-0.158}^{+0.161}$. It is suggested that these results are in excellent agreement with the spatially flat Universe. Moreover, compared to other approaches aiming for model-independent estimations of spatial curvature, this method also achieves constraints with competitive precision.

  7. SARS: Safeguards Accounting and Reporting Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedi, B.; Saadi, S.; Ait-Mohamed, S.

    In order to satisfy the requirements of the SSAC (State System for Accounting and Control of nuclear materials), for recording and reporting objectives; this computer program comes to bridge the gape between nuclear facilities operators and national inspection verifying records and delivering reports. The SARS maintains and generates at-facility safeguards accounting records and generates International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user at any nuclear facility. A database structure is built and BORLAND DELPHI programming language has been used. The software is designed to be user-friendly, to make extensive and flexible management of menus and graphs. SARS functions include basic physical inventory tacking, transaction histories and reporting. Access controls are made by different passwords.

  8. LESSONS LEARNED IN TESTING OF SAFEGUARDS EQUIPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEPPER,S.; FARNITANO,M.; CARELLI,J.; HAZELTINE,J.; BAILEY,D.

    2001-10-29

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards uses complex instrumentation for the application of safeguards at nuclear facilities around the world. Often, this equipment is developed through cooperation with member state support programs because the Agency's requirements are unique and are not met by commercially available equipment. Before approving an instrument or system for routine inspection use, the IAEA subjects it to a series of tests designed to evaluate its reliability. In 2000, the IAEA began to observe operational failures in digital surveillance systems. In response to the observed failures, the IAEA worked with the equipment designer and manufacturer to determine the cause of failure. An action plan was developed to correct the performance issues and further test the systems to make sure that additional operational issues would not surface later. This paper addresses the steps taken to address operation issues related to digital image surveillance systems and the lessons learned during this process.

  9. Integrating security analysis and safeguards software engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.D.; Axline, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    These initiatives will work together to provide more secure safeguards software, as well as other critical systems software. The resulting design tools and methodologies, the evolving guidelines for software security, and the adversary-resistant software components will be applied to the software design at each stage to increase the design's inherent security and to make the design easier to analyze. The resident hardware monitor or other architectural innovations will provide complementary additions to the design to remove some of the burden of security from the software. The security analysis process, supported by new analysis methodologies and tools, will be applied to the software design as it evolves in an attempt to identify and remove vulnerabilities at the earliest possible point in the safeguards system life cycle. The result should be better and more verifiably secure software systems.

  10. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidoni, S. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/CUA, Code 674, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Yoshimura, K. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Plowman, J. E., E-mail: silvina.e.guidoni@nasa.gov [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  11. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Shirley J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2011-10-10

    The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA draws such conclusions from the evaluation of all available information. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of this “State-level” approach. Efficiently used, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) methodologies , , , now being developed can contribute to effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards. The Facility Safeguardability Assessment (FSA) introduced here supports SBD in three areas. 1. It describes necessary interactions between the IAEA, the State regulator, and the owner / designer of a new or modified facility to determine where SBD efforts can be productively applied, 2. It presents a screening approach intended to identify potential safeguard issues for; a) design changes to existing facilities; b) new facilities similar to existing facilities with approved safeguards approaches, and c) new designs, 3. It identifies resources (the FSA toolkit), such as good practice guides, design guidance, and safeguardability evaluation methods that can be used by the owner/designer to develop solutions for potential safeguards issues during the interactions with the State regulator and IAEA. FSA presents a structured framework for the application of the SBD tools developed in other efforts. The more a design evolves, the greater the probability that new safeguards issues could be introduced. Likewise, for first-of-a-kind facilities or research facilities that involve previously unused processes or technologies, it is reasonable to expect that a number of possible safeguards issues might exist. Accordingly, FSA is intended to help the designer and its safeguards experts identify early in the design process: • Areas where elements of previous accepted safeguards approach(es) may be applied

  12. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this `Full Scope Safeguards` on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear weapon applications.

  13. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  14. Pebble bed modular reactor safeguards: developing new approaches and implementing safeguards by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durst, Philip [INL; Bean, Robert [INL

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) does not fit or seem appropriate to the IAEA safeguards approach under the categories of light water reactor (LWR), on-load refueled reactor (OLR, i.e. CANDU), or Other (prismatic HTGR) because the fuel is in a bulk form, rather than discrete items. Because the nuclear fuel is a collection of nuclear material inserted in tennis-ball sized spheres containing structural and moderating material and a PBMR core will contain a bulk load on the order of 500,000 spheres, it could be classified as a 'Bulk-Fuel Reactor.' Hence, the IAEA should develop unique safeguards criteria. In a multi-lab DOE study, it was found that an optimized blend of: (i) developing techniques to verify the plutonium content in spent fuel pebbles, (ii) improving burn-up computer codes for PBMR spent fuel to provide better understanding of the core and spent fuel makeup, and (iii) utilizing bulk verification techniques for PBMR spent fuel storage bins should be combined with the historic IAEA and South African approaches of containment and surveillance to verify and maintain continuity of knowledge of PBMR fuel. For all of these techniques to work the design of the reactor will need to accommodate safeguards and material accountancy measures to a far greater extent than has thus far been the case. The implementation of Safeguards-by-Design as the PBMR design progresses provides an approach to meets these safeguards and accountancy needs.

  15. Safeguards and Security progress report, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B.; Jaramillo, G.R. (comps.)

    1990-11-01

    From January to December 1989, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Research and Development (R D) program carried out the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Science and Technology Base Development, Basic Systems Design, Onsite Test and Evaluation and Facility Support, and International Safeguards. For the most part, these activities were sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Safeguards and Security. Part 1 covers development of the basic technology essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards and security. It includes our computer security R D and the activities of the DOE Center for Computer Security, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this important technology. Part 2 treats activities aimed at developing methods for designing and evaluating safeguards systems, with special emphasis on the integration of the several subsystems into a real safeguards system. Part 3 describes efforts of direct assistance to the DOE and its contractors and includes consultation on materials control and accounting problems, development and demonstration of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and demonstration of advanced safeguards systems. Part 3 also reports a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards that makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Part 5 reports several safeguards-related activities that have sponsors other than the DOE/OSS. 87 refs., 52 figs.

  16. Advancement of safeguards inspection technology for CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, W. S.; Cha, H. R.; Ham, Y. S.; Lee, Y. G.; Kim, K. P.; Hong, Y. D

    1999-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop both inspection technology and safeguards instruments, related to CANDU safeguards inspection, through international cooperation, so that those outcomes are to be applied in field inspections of national safeguards. Furthermore, those could contribute to the improvement of verification correctness of IAEA inspections. Considering the level of national inspection technology, it looked not possible to perform national inspections without the joint use of containment and surveillance equipment conjunction with the IAEA. In this connection, basic studies for the successful implementation of national inspections was performed, optimal structure of safeguards inspection was attained, and advancement of safeguards inspection technology was forwarded. The successful implementation of this project contributed to both the improvement of inspection technology on CANDU reactors and the implementation of national inspection to be performed according to the legal framework. In addition, it would be an opportunity to improve the ability of negotiating in equal shares in relation to the IAEA on the occasion of discussing or negotiating the safeguards issues concerned. Now that the national safeguards technology for CANDU reactors was developed, the safeguards criteria, procedure and instruments as to the other item facilities and fabrication facilities should be developed for the perfection of national inspections. It would be desirable that the recommendations proposed and concreted in this study, so as to both cope with the strengthened international safeguards and detect the undeclared nuclear activities, could be applied to national safeguards scheme. (author)

  17. Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI) Cost Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Alice Price

    2010-07-11

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) began operating Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) under the Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based and cost-effective program, in December 2006. The NTS SFPI Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Systems (COMPASS) Model is made up of specific elements (MC&A plan, graded safeguards, accounting systems, measurements, containment, surveillance, physical inventories, shipper/receiver differences, assessments/performance tests) and various sub-elements, which are each assigned effectiveness and contribution factors that when weighted and rated reflect the health of the MC&A program. The MC&A Cost Model, using an Excel workbook, calculates budget and/or actual costs using these same elements/sub-elements resulting in total costs and effectiveness costs per element/sub-element. These calculations allow management to identify how costs are distributed for each element/sub-element. The Cost Model, as part of the SFPI program review process, enables management to determine if spending is appropriate for each element/sub-element.

  18. Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop was held December 15–18, 2014, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This workshop was made possible by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development (NGSI HCD) Program. The idea of the workshop was to move beyond the tried-and-true boot camp training of nonproliferation concepts to spend several days on the unique perspective of applying modeling and simulation (M&S) solutions to safeguards challenges.

  19. An American Academy for Training Safeguards Inspectors - An Idea Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Robert Bean

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, we presented the idea of an American academy for training safeguards inspectors for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), due to the declining percentage of Americans in that international organization. In this paper we assert that there is still a compelling need for this academy. While the American Safeguards Academy would be useful in preparing and pre-training American inspectors for the IAEA, it would also be useful for preparing Americans for domestic safeguards duties in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. DOE National Laboratories, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is envisioned that such an academy would train graduate and post-graduate university students, DOE National Laboratory interns, and nuclear safeguards professionals in the modern equipment, safeguards measures, and approaches currently used by the IAEA. It is also envisioned that the Academy would involve the domestic nuclear industry, which could provide use of commercial nuclear facilities for tours and demonstrations of the safeguards tools and methods in actual nuclear facilities. This would be in support of the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This training would also help American nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation professionals better understand the potential limitations of the current tools used by the IAEA and give them a foundation from which to consider even more effective and efficient safeguards measures and approaches.

  20. Technology transfer significance of the International Safeguards Project Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W.; Wallgura, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are of major importance to the non-proliferation objectives of the United States of America and other nations of the world. Assurance of safeguards effectiveness is mandatory to continued peaceful use of nuclear power. To enhance the ability of the IAEA to apply safeguards effectively, and to ensure that the IAEA does not lack technical assistance in critical areas, the U.S. Congress has made available a special authorization for a Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). In expediting the program full use is made of existing DOE laboratory resources.

  1. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  2. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J; Ambers, Scott D

    2011-02-04

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of {gamma} rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. The promise of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique (NDA) in safeguards applications lies in its potential to directly quantify a specific isotope in an assay target without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as often required by other NDA methods. The use of NRF for detection of sensitive nuclear materials and other contraband has been researched in the past. In the safeguards applications considered here one has to go beyond mere detection and precisely quantify the isotopic content, a challenge that is discussed throughout this report. Basic NRF measurement methods, instrumentation, and the analytical calculation of NRF signal strengths are described in Section 2. Well understood modeling and simulation tools are needed for assessing the potential of NRF for safeguards and for designing measurement systems. All our simulations were performed with the radiation transport code MCNPX, a code that is widely used in the safeguards community. Our initial studies showed that MCNPX grossly underestimated the elastically scattered background at backwards angles due to an incorrect treatment of Rayleigh scattering. While new, corrected calculations based on ENDF form factors showed much better agreement with experimental data for the elastic scattering of photons on an uranium target, the elastic backscatter is still not rigorously treated. Photonuclear scattering processes (nuclear Thomson, Delbruck and Giant Dipole Resonance scattering), which are expected to play an important role at higher energies, are not yet included. These missing elastic scattering contributions were studied and their importance evaluated evaluated against data found in the literature as discussed in Section 3. A transmission experiment

  3. Secret Objective Standoff: International Safeguards Educational Exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okowita, Samantha L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The International Safeguards Regime, being so multi-faceted, can be overwhelming to those first introduced to its many components. The organizers and lecturers of workshops and courses on nonproliferation often provide a series of independent lectures and must somehow demonstrate the cohesive and effective nature of the system. An exercise titled The Secret Objective Standoff was developed to complement lectures with hands-on learning to assist participants in bringing all the many components (IAEA agreements, export controls, treaty obligations, international diplomacy, etc.) of the International Safeguards Regime together. This exercise divides participants into teams that are assigned the role of either a country or the IAEA and asks that they fully immerse themselves in their roles. The teams are then randomly assigned three unique and secret objectives that are intended to represent realistic and current geopolitical scenarios. Through construction, trading, or hoarding of four resources (experts, technology, money, and uranium), the teams have a finite number of turns to accomplish their objectives. Each turn has three phases random dispersal of resources, a timed discussion where teams can coordinate and strategize with others, and an action phase. During the action phase, teams inform the moderator individually and secretly what they will be doing that turn. The exercise has been tested twice with Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel, and has been conducted with outside participants twice, in each case the experience was well received by both participants and instructors. This exercise provides instructors the ability to modify the exercise before or during game play to best fit their educational goals. By offering a range of experiences, from an in-depth look at specific components to a generalized overview, this exercise is an effective tool in helping participants achieve a full understanding the International Safeguards Regime.

  4. Study on an Integrated Sintered Metal Screen Moving Granular Bed Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋沪; 王洋

    2004-01-01

    A new gas clean-up process called "integrated sintered metal screen moving granular bed" (ISMSMGB) for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressured fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) was developed on the basis of a sintered metal candle filter and a cross-flow moving granular bed filter. This is a combination of the surface and deep bed filtering processes. A set of facilities was established and a series of cold model tests were carried out. The dust removal efficiency and the pressure drop of the filter were measured and analyzed. The results show that this process features the advantages of the moving bed for high capacity as well as high inlet dust load and the surface filter for high efficiency. Meanwhile, the granules moving downward cleans the cake on the screen surface, so that the system is operated at steady state.

  5. “晨举脂烛”解诂%Gloss and Emendation on“Holding Candles at Dawn”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝虹

    2014-01-01

    描述武王克商的“晨举脂烛”一语多次出现在典籍中,而现代辞书对“晨”的解释基本统一为日出前后天色已明的一段时间,此时仍“举脂烛”作战实在令人费解。经过考证,“晨”在古汉语中的时段是凌晨3-5点,天仍未亮,因此才会出现“晨举脂烛”作战一说。%The phrase“holding candles at dawn” appeared many times in the ancient books when describing King Wu’s fights with King Shang .However ,in different modern dictionaries and works ,“dawn” is always explained as the time around sunrise when the sky is already wide bright .It is strange to “hold candles to fight enemy at the sunrise” .By analyzing historical documents ,it is found that the time of “dawn” refers to the early morning around 3-5 o’clock .Thus ,“holding candles at daw n” holds w ater .

  6. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including

  7. 7 CFR 4290.506 - Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls... Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  8. A colalborative environment for information driven safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mark R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michel, Kelly D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    For two decades, the IAEA has recognized the need for a comprehensive and strongly integrated Knowledge Management system to support its Information Driven Safeguards activities. In the past, plans for the development of such a system have progressed slowly due to concerns over costs and feasibility. In recent years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a knowledge management system that could serve as the basis for an IAEA Collaborative Environment (ICE). The ICE derivative knowledge management system described in this paper addresses the challenge of living in an era of information overload coupled with certain knowledge shortfalls. The paper describes and defines a system that is flexible, yet ensures coordinated and focused collaboration, broad data evaluation capabilities, architected and organized work flows, and improved communications. The paper and demonstration of ICE will utilize a hypothetical scenario to highlight the functional features that facilitate collaboration amongst and between information analysts and inspectors. The scenario will place these two groups into a simulated planning exercise for a safeguards inspection drawing upon past data acquisitions, inspection reports, analyst conclusions, and a coordinated walk-through of a 3-D model of the facility. Subsequent to the conduct of the simulated facility inspection, the detection of an anomaly and pursuit of follow up activities will illustrate the event notification, information sharing, and collaborative capabilities of the system. The use of a collaborative environment such as ICE to fulfill the complicated knowledge management demands of the Agency and facilitate the completion of annual State Evaluation Reports will also be addressed.

  9. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  10. Safeguards and security status report, August 1981-January 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, J.P. (comp.)

    1982-09-01

    From August 1981 through January 1982, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in many activities that are described in the four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Safeguards Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Support. Part 1 covers those efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities. This assistance varies from consultation on materials accounting problems, through development of specialized techniques and devices, to comprehensive participation in the design and implementation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards helps make the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 concerns a relatively new set of activities at Los Alamos aimed at the security of information and computer systems. The focus this period has been on furthering the development of the Computer Security Center, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating the emerging technology. Part 3 describes the development efforts that are essential to continued improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, in every case they are directed ultimately at recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. In addition, enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer.

  11. Changing Landscapes in Safeguarding Babies and Young Children in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of safeguarding children from violence is internationally recognised. However, detecting, intervening and protecting children from abuse both within the family and in institutions is complex. This paper specifically focuses on safeguarding in England and how workforce reform in the early years offers the opportunity to forge new…

  12. Dark energy constraints from joint analysis of standard rulers and standard candles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Biesiada; Beata Malec; Aleksandra Piórkowska

    2011-01-01

    We performed joint analysis of five cosmological models invoked to explain the accelerating expansion of the Universe.We used the data from strong gravitational lensing systems, locations of cosmic microwave background acoustic peaks and baryon acoustic oscillation data in combination with supernova Ia data (Union2 compilation).The observables we used came from both standard rulers and standard candles, so they had different parameter degeneracies and different restrictive powers in the parameter spaces of cosmological models.The best fits we obtained for the model parameters in joint analysis turned out to prefer cases effectively equivalent to the ACDM model.They were also in agreement with other combined studies performed by other authors on different sets of diagnostic probes.Information theoretic methods used to assess which model is most supported by the data lead to the conclusion that the concordance model ACDM is clearly preferred in joint analysis.The quintessence (both having constant or time varying equation of state) and Chaplygin gas get considerably less support from the data while the brane world (DGP) scenario is practically ruled out.

  13. Safety Analysis of Pb-208 Cooled 800 MWt Modified CANDLE Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Widiawati, Nina; Sekimoto, H.; Artoto, A.

    2017-01-01

    Safely analysis of 800MWt Pb-208 cooled fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input employing axial-radial combined Modiified CANDLE burnup scheme has been performed. The analysis of unprotected loss of flow(ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient overpower (UTOP) are discussed. Some simulations for 800 MWt Pb-208 cooled fast reactors has been performed and the results show that the reactor can anticipate complete pumping failure inherently by reducing power through reactivity feedback and remove the rest of heat through natural circulations. Compared to the Pb-nat cooled long life Fast Reactors, Pb-208 cooled reactors have smaller Doppler but higher coolant density reactivity coefficient. In the UTOP accident case the analysis has been performed against external reactivity up to 0.003dk/k. And for ULOHS case it is assumed that the secondary cooling system has broken. During all accident the cladding temperature is the most critical. Especially for the case of UTOP accident. In addition the steam generator design has also consider excess power which may reach 50% extra during severe UTOP case..

  14. Constraining cosmological parameters when taking into account the distribution of candles

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Y P; Dong, Y M; Zhang, F W; Li, H Z; Jia, L W; Mao, L S; Lu, R J; Yi, T F; Cui, X H; Zhang, Z B; Qin, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Dong, Yun-Ming; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Li, Huai-Zhen; Jia, Lan-Wei; Mao, Li-Sheng; Lu, Rui-Jing; Yi, Ting-Feng; Cui, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Bin

    2005-01-01

    We study in detail the effect of the distribution of cosmological candles. First,we propose to perform a Monte-Carlo simulation to check if the hypothesis that there is not a distribution of the deduced relative luminosity distance moduli of a sample, when the measurement uncertainty is negligible, is true. If there exists such a distribution, the statistic chi2 cannot be defined since the distribution itself is unclear. Second, we suggest replacing the conventional minimizing chi2 2 method with the least square method to find the best estimated cosmological parameters due to this definition problem. Once the cosmological parameters are determined with the least square method, the bare distribution (the intrinsic distribution which is independent of the measurement uncertainty)can be estimated and then a lower and upper limits of chi2 can be determined. With these two extreme values of chi2,we are able to make the confidence contour plot in the conventional way. In addition to the gold SN Ia sample and the GR...

  15. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ~ 10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The "Ahead" satellite of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) provides a top view, in which the post-flare loops brighten sequentially, with one end fixed while the other apparently slipping eastward. By performing stereoscopic reconstruction of the post-flare loops in EUV and mapping out magnetic connectivities, we found that the footpoints of the post-flare loops are slipping along the footprint of a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) separating the two loop systems, and that the reconstructed loops share similarity with the magne...

  16. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  17. Organizational Culture, 3S, and Safeguards by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2012-01-31

    While Safety and Security Culture are well socialized among nuclear facility designers, the concept of safeguards culture is less well defined. One area where safeguards culture may play a helpful role is in the area of Safeguards by Design. This paper will include a theoretical discussion of organizational culture, leading with safety culture and security culture that are well known, and positing that there may be room to think about safeguards culture along with the others. It will also examine the utility of the 3S concept and how this concept has been used in training for newcomer states. These will lead into a discussion of how the addition of safeguards to the mix of safety by design and security by design can be valuable, particularly as it is socialized to newcomer states.

  18. Safeguards and nonproliferation aspects of a dry fuel recycling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook an independent assessment of the proliferation potentials and safeguardability of a dry fuel recycling technology, whereby spent pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuels are used to fuel canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. Objectives of this study included (1) the evaluation of presently available technologies that may be useful to safeguard technology options for dry fuel recycling (2) and identification of near-term and long-term research needs to develop process-specific safeguards requirements. The primary conclusion of this assessment is that like all other fuel cycle alternatives proposed in the past, the dry fuel recycle entails prolfferation risks and that there are no absolute technical fixes to eliminate such risks. This study further concludes that the proliferation risks of dry fuel recycling options are relatively minimal and presently known safeguards systems and technologies can be modified and/or adapted to meet the requirements of safeguarding such fuel recycle facilities.

  19. Developing the information management system for safeguards national inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. J.; Jeon, I.; Park, W. S.; Min, K. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The inspection information management system for safeguards national inspection is aimed to do the national safeguards inspection with efficiency, and to decrease the inspector's load to write inspection report by systematizing the inspection jobs and sharing the inspection data. National safeguards inspection is consisted two large jobs. The first is the national safeguards supporting job of managing to support the national inspection mission. The other is the writing a national inspection report after completing the national inspection. Before the developing of inspection information management system, the official tools(spread sheet, word processor) are usually used. But there is problem to share the data, to produce the statistics data. To solve the these problem, we developed the inspection information management system that process the job from initial to final inspection work, and opened user education. This paper explain the procedure of developing the inspection information management system for safeguards national inspection.

  20. Technology transfer significance of the International Safeguards Project Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W.; Waligura, A.J.

    1988-06-01

    The safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are of major importance to the non-proliferation objectives of the United States of America and other nations of the world. Assurance of safeguards effectiveness is mandatory to continued peaceful use of nuclear power. To enhance the ability of the IAEA to apply safeguards effectively, and to ensure that the IAEA does not lack technical assistance in critical areas, the US Congress has made available a special authorization for a Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). This substantial program of technology transfer was initiated in 1976. The United States Departments of State and Energy, the Arms control and Disarmament Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have each accepted responsibility for parts of the Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards. Funding is provided by state through the Foreign Assistance Act. This report provides a discussion of this program.

  1. Safeguardability of the vitrification option for disposal of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Safeguardability of the vitrification option for plutonium disposition is rather complex and there is no experience base in either domestic or international safeguards for this approach. In the present treaty regime between the US and the states of the former Soviet Union, bilaterial verifications are considered more likely with potential for a third-party verification of safeguards. There are serious technological limitations to applying conventional bulk handling facility safeguards techniques to achieve independent verification of plutonium in borosilicate glass. If vitrification is the final disposition option chosen, maintaining continuity of knowledge of plutonium in glass matrices, especially those containing boron and those spike with high-level wastes or {sup 137}Cs, is beyond the capability of present-day safeguards technologies and nondestructive assay techniques. The alternative to quantitative measurement of fissile content is to maintain continuity of knowledge through a combination of containment and surveillance, which is not the international norm for bulk handling facilities.

  2. Can a safeguards accountancy system really detect an unauthorized removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M.H.; Ellis, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Theoretical investigations and system studies indicate safeguards material balance data from reprocessing plants can be used to detect unauthorized removals. Plant systems have been modeled and simulated data used to demonstrate the techniques. But how sensitive are the techniques when used with actual plant data. What is the effect of safeguards applications on plant operability. Can safeguards be acceptable to plant operators, and are there any benefits to be derived. The Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) has been devoted to answering these and other questions over the past several years. A computerized system of near-real-time accounting and in-process inventory has been implemented and demonstrated during actual plant test runs. Measured inventories and hourly material balance closures have been made to assess safeguards in an operating plant application. The tests have culminated in actual removals of material from the operating plant to investigate the response and measure the sensitivity of the safeguards and data evaluation system.

  3. Training to raise staff awareness about safeguarding children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jane

    2015-04-01

    To improve outcomes for children and young people health organisations are required to train all staff in children's safeguarding. This creates difficulties for large complex organisations where most staff provide services to the adult population. Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust is a large acute and community trust that had difficulties in engaging staff in children's safeguarding training. Compliance rates for clinical staff who were trained in children's safeguarding were low and needed to be addressed. This article sets out why safeguarding training is important for all staff and how the trust achieved staff engagement and improved compliance rates. To evaluate, maintain and develop safeguarding knowledge, understanding, skills, attitude and behaviour further resources are planned to allow access to learning resources in a variety of formats.

  4. Parental Traffic Safeguarding at School Sites: Unequal Risks and Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Tigar McLaren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars recognize the importance of parental chauffeuring in urbanenvironments, but pay remarkably little attention to how parents, as part of everyday, domestic practices, safeguard their children in auto-dominated streets. Based on in-depth, qualitative interviews with parents whose children attend public elementary schools, this exploratory study compares traffic safeguarding experiences on the east and west sides of Vancouver, British Columbia. The analysisshows how social class and gender intersect in three traffic sites: school streetscapes, school entrances, and school traffic safety volunteerism. Utilizing automobility and feminist theories, we argue that urban parental traffic safeguarding is a complex and variegated phenomenon involving unequal risks and responsibilities. Our analysis illustrates the ways in which parental traffic safeguarding is a lynchpin to the automobility system, particularly with respect to itsillusion of safety, and how, conversely, this system shapes parenting by constituting traffic safeguarding as part of domestic responsibilities.

  5. Development of nuclear material accounting and safeguards technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H. S.; Kim, H. D.; Park, K. J; and others

    2012-04-15

    The objective of this project is to analyze the safeguard ability of pyroprocess facility and to establish the safeguards system for pyroprocess by developing the technology of nuclear material accounting for unit process, surveillance technology and nuclear characteristics analysis technology which are needed to demonstrate the safeguards technology of pyroprocess. In order to establish the nuclear material accountancy for PRIDE the unified NDA was designed by integrating neutron detection, gamma ray detection, and mass measurement. The surveillance system of PRIDE includes gamma ray detector system for tracing the position of nuclear material in PRIDE and the safeguards system was designed considering the characteristics of nuclear material accountancy and surveillance equipment and monitoring the main factors of process equipment. Based on the design of safeguards system for PRIDE a simulation program for the integrated accounting and surveillance information system has been developed and tested. The safeguard ability analysis code for pyroprocessing facility has been designed to develop a Pyroprocessing Material flow and Material Unaccounted For Uncertainty Simulation (PYMUS) program based on the result from safeguard ability analysis by ROK IAEA MSSP. For novel technologies development of nuclear material accountancy by domestic and international cooperation, the application of XRF, SINRD, PNAR, FRAM, LIBS to NMA has been studied. The safeguards system of PRIDE will be referred to verify the safeguards approach and implementation techniques for pyroprocessing facility on international cooperation(ROK US Joint Fuel Cycle Study and ROK IAEA Member State Support Program). The results of this project will contribute to increase the nuclear transparency for realizing the pyroprocessing technology of the ROK as well as to establish the safeguards technology for pyroprocessing facility.

  6. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    From January to December 1985, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Safeguards Operations, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Support. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities. This assistance includes consultation on materials accounting problems, development and demonstration of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and evaluation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. Our focus this period was on continuing the activities of the Center for Computer Security, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this emerging technology, and on the development and demonstration of secure computer systems. Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards and international safeguards for reprocessing plants required a significant portion of our resources. All of these efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in our benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  7. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  8. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures

  9. Technology development for DUPIC process safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J. S.; Kim, H. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Kang, H. Y.; Cha, H. R.; Byeon, K. H.; Park, Y. S.; Choi, H. N. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    As the strategy for DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) process safeguards, the neutron detection method was introduced to account for nuclear materials in the whole DUPIC process by selectively measuring spontaneous fission neutron signals from {sup 244}Cm. DSNC was designed and manufactured to measure the account of curium in the fuel bundle and associated process samples in the DUPIC fuel cycle. The MCNP code had response profile along the length of the CANDU type fuel bundle. It was found experimentally that the output signal variation due to the overall azimuthal asymmetry was less than 0.2%. The longitudinal detection efficiency distribution at every position including both ends was kept less than 2% from the average value. Spent fuel standards almost similar to DUPIC process material were fabricated from a single spent PWR fuel rod and the performance verification of the DSNC is in progress under very high radiation environment. The results of this test will be eventually benchmarked with other sources such as code simulation, chemical analysis and gamma analysis. COREMAS-DUPIC has been developed for the accountability management of nuclear materials treated by DUPIC facility. This system is able to track the controlled nuclear materials maintaining the material inventory in near-real time and to generate the required material accountability records and reports. Concerning the containment and surveillance technology, a focused R and D effort is given to the development of unattended continuous monitoring system. Currently, the component technologies of radiation monitoring and surveillance have been established, and continued R and D efforts are given to the integration of the components into automatic safeguards diagnostics. (author).

  10. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B. (comp.)

    1986-01-01

    From January to December 1984, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Safeguards. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensee facilities. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. was Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  11. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Diaz-Gómez, Jaime; Castellanos-Rozo, Jose; Usaquen-Perilla, Olga Lucía

    2016-07-01

    Despite technological advances water supply quality and poor access to safe water remain a major problem in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment has been shown to be a viable option to produce safe drinking water quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF). The evaluation was made using spiked water having the required concentrations of turbidity, Escherichia coli and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results show that all systems have high removal efficiencies for turbidity (98-99%), and E. coli 4-5 Log Reduction Value (LRV). The poorest efficiency was for TDS (9-18%). The MF and the CCF displayed no significant difference in efficiencies for these parameters. The PCF had less significant differences for turbidity removal than the other systems. The average filtration rate for all systems decreased during the operation time. The CPF showed the major potential to be used in rural communities mainly for its low operational level and maintenance requirements as well as its local craftsmanship. It was observed that the efficiency of the systems is highly sensitive to cleaning and maintenance activities and therefore, the system sustainability will depend considerably on the training and education of the potential users.

  12. Smart structures for application in ceramic barrier filter technology. Final report, August 1991--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, S.J.; Lippert, T.E

    1994-12-01

    High temperature optical fiber sensors were developed to measure the in-service stressing that occurs in ceramic barrier filter systems. The optical fiber sensors were based on improvements to the sensor design developed under the DOE/METC Smart Structures for Fossil Energy Applications contract no. DE-AC21-89MC25159. In-house application testing of these sensors on both candle and cross-flow filters were performed in the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center High-Temperature, High-Pressure Filter Test Facility and the results analyzed. This report summarizes the sensor developments, methods to apply the sensors to the filters for in-situ testing, and the test results from the four in-house tests that were performed.

  13. Numerical Study of the Effects of the Face Velocity on Ceramic Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seo,Taewon

    1998-01-01

    Time-averaged explicit Navier-Stokes equations with the modified Darcy's law for the three-dimensional cylindrical flow field were formulated to the problem.Numerical investigation of the effects of the face velocity on ceramic candle filter was executed in three-dimensional turbulent flow field.It is found that the flow in the vessel is pushed toward the filter region by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the filter due to the viscosity and inertial resistance.It is also found that the pressure drop is directly proportional to the flow rate and the slope of the pressure drop will be mitigated when the thickness of the filter cake(δ)is larger than 10mm.

  14. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B. (comp.)

    1984-09-01

    From January to December 1983, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Safeguards. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensee facilities. This assistance includes consultation on materials accounting problems, development of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and implementation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. Our focus this peiod was on continuing the activities of the Computer Security Center, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this emerging technology, and on the development and demonstration of secure computer systems. Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in our benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  15. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  16. 多管陶瓷对过滤器内耦合效应数值模拟%Numerical Investigation of Coupling Effect in Multipipe Ceramic Filter Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞; 姬忠礼; 吴小林; CHOI Joo-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The Reynolds stress transport model and the Eulerian two-fluid model provided by the FLUENT code were applied to evaluate the gas-particle two-phase flow in the ceramic filter vessel.The ceramic filter vessel contains six candle filters.which are arranged in the form of equilateral hexagon.The variation of the areal density of the filter cake during the filtration and the back.pulse process were analyzed.The coupling effect between filters.gas and solid,filtration and pulse cleaning process were investigated,respectively.The numerical results show a good approach to predict the particle distribution in the vessel and the particle deposition on the filter element.This study provides the base for the intensive study on the analysis of the gas-particle flow in the filter vessel.

  17. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  18. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system.

  19. FY 2008 Next Generation Safeguards Initiative International Safeguards Education and Training Pilot Progerams Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M; Anzelon, G; Essner, J; Dougan, A; Doyle, J; Boyer, B; Hypes, P; Sokova, E; Wehling, F

    2008-10-17

    Key component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) launched by the National Nuclear Security Administration is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. Two pilot programs at university level, involving 44 students, were initiated and implemented in spring-summer 2008 and linked to hands-on internships at LANL or LLNL. During the internships, students worked on specific safeguards-related projects with a designated Laboratory Mentor to provide broader exposure to nuclear materials management and information analytical techniques. The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between the Texas A&M University (TAMU), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It included a 16-lecture course held during a summer internship program. The instructors for the course were from LANL together with TAMU faculty and LLNL experts. The LANL-based course was shared with the students spending their internship at LLNL via video conference. A week-long table-top (or hands-on) exercise on was also conducted at LANL. The student population was a mix of 28 students from a 12 universities participating in a variety of summer internship programs held at LANL and LLNL. A large portion of the students were TAMU students participating in the NGSI pilot. The International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) in cooperation with LLNL. It included a two-week intensive course consisting of 20 lectures and two exercises. MIIS, LLNL, and speakers from other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students were

  20. Food Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through

  1. 负压区的存在对刚性陶瓷过滤器脉冲反吹性能的影响%EFFECT OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE REGION ON PULSE-JET CLEANING PERFORMANCE OF RIGID CERAMIC FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 郭建光

    2000-01-01

    利用压电式压力传感器测定了陶瓷过滤器在脉冲反吹过程中滤管内动态压力的变化规律,表明在脉冲反吹快要结束和正常过滤尚未开始的过渡过程中,滤管内存在严重的负压区。利用单个颗粒轨道模型分析了部分已被吹离滤管表面的小颗粒在负压区的作用下会重新返回到滤管壁,从而证实了负压区是影响刚性陶瓷过滤器稳定运行的重要原因。%In a ceramic filter experimental set-up with three filter candles,the dynamic pressures atthe inner wall of one filter candle during pulse-jet cleaning aremeasured by using resize-electric pressure transducer. The experimentalresults show that the dynamic pressure in wholepulse-jet cleaning process consists of two parts. One is the positivepressure in the filter candlegreater than the pressure outside the filter candle whichcorresponds to the outward radial fluidflow to break up and dislodge the dust cake on the surfaceof the filter tube. The other is anegative pressure region which is responsible for inward radialflow while the pulse-jet is closed.The influences of reservoir pressure on thedynamic pressure are discussed.The calculation results of particle motion indicate that negativepressure region cause a fractionof particles removed re-deposit on the candle surface. Especiallyfiner particles is more easierlyre-deposited on the surface to form thin and dense layer on thefilter candle and to increasegradually the residual pressure drop across the candle. It isconcluded that negative pressureregion may have important effects on the long-term stable operation of thefilter unit.

  2. Development of Pattern Recognition Options for Combining Safeguards Subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Thomas L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    This talk reviews project progress in combining process monitoring data and nuclear material accounting data to improve the over nuclear safeguards system. Focus on 2 subsystems: (1) nuclear materials accounting (NMA); and (2) process monitoring (PM).

  3. Interim Procedures Safeguarding Mobile Devices during International Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    This procedure is for safeguarding EPA information and systems for all employees, contractors, and other users while on international travel or to specifically designated locations within the United States and foreign embassies.

  4. Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report on BNLs Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, Susan E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL’s) Nonproliferation and National Security Department contributes to the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) through university engagement, safeguards internships, safeguards courses, professional development, recruitment, and other activities aimed at ensuring the next generation of international safeguards professionals is adequately prepared to support the U.S. safeguards mission. This report is a summary of BNL s work under the NGSI program in Fiscal Year 2014.

  5. Minor isotope measurements for safeguarding a uranium enrichment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumkin, S.; Levin, S.A.; Von Halle, E.

    1979-03-26

    A study of the behavior of the minor uranium isotopes in enrichment cascades indicates that the measurement of their concetrations in cascade feed and withdrawal streams can be used to confirm or deny material accountability results in safeguarding an enrichment plant. In further support of safeguard measures, an indirect non-intrusive method to measure cascade uranium inventory has been devised and tested satisfactorily in a gaseous diffusion cascade.

  6. Safeguards in prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Takehide; Tomura, Katsuji; Okuda, Yosihisa; Iwamoto, Tomonori [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    MONJU is the prototype fast breeder reactor in Japan designed to have the electricity output of 280 MWe. Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) started its construction in the autumn of 1985 in Tsuruga site. The loading of the core fuel assemblies to the core have been started since October 1993 and the pre-operational test is undergoing. MONJU uses 198 MOX fuel assemblies as core fuel and 172 DU assemblies as blanket fuel. Assemblies loaded in core and stored in the ex-vessel storage tank (EVST) exist in liquid sodium. These Pu containing fuel assemblies, MOX and irradiated DU, are regarded as in the difficult-to-access area, and the flows of fuel assemblies into and out of the area are requested to be verified. The verification of the flows is designed to be made with fuel flow monitors measuring radiations, which can abridge the inspector attendance during the fuel handling. This paper describes the detailed aspects of the fuel transfers in MONJU facility and the verification of them through flow monitors together with the functions of other safeguards equipments. (author).

  7. Operating experiences of the TESC BWE filter in the Escatron PFBC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, A.; Guilarte, R.; Nales, T.; Abellanal, I.

    1999-07-01

    A Ceramic Filter based on the TESC (Two Ends Supported Candle) concept by BWE has been operating since November 1997 at the 71 MWe Escatron PFBC Power Plant of ENDESA S.A. The Ceramic Filter is treating 1/9 of the combustion gases (this is 10.5 Kg/s), replacing a secondary cyclone, at temperatures ranging 750--820 C. The aim of this Project is to demonstrate the performance of a Ceramic Filter based on the TESC system, which keeps the ceramic elements working on compression by a pneumatic supporting system. The Escatron PFBC plant burns local lignites working under commercial conditions, and the objective is to optimize the main filtration parameters for these coals. The operating experience will permit evaluation of the design, the prediction of life expectancy of the materials used, while carrying out the tests needed to define commercial operating parameters. At present (December 1998) 4,420 hours of operation have been logged, 2,300 hours through the Ceramic Filter (mainly at full load) and the rest through a bypass cyclone system. The longest continuous Filter run lasted 687 hours, while the average run duration at the present test period is around 500 hours. Some problems regarding massive ash bridging due to the extremely sticky nature of the ash have been the main operating problem. Nevertheless, the operating results together with the very few candle failures (only in two of the runs) have proved that the TESC concept is right and a promising way to commercial hot gas filtration units. This paper describes the Escatron Filter Plant and reviews the operation experiences of the TESC Ceramic Filter at 71 MWe Escatron PFBC Plant.

  8. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters Utilized for Emission Control Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Mei; Jianren Zhou; Ziaul Huque

    1998-03-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Therefore, effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable key component in both of the advanced IGCC and PFBC coal based power systems to perform hot gas cleanup work. To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are mainly utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant, in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. But the most undesirable thing ever happened was the sudden functional and physical failures of filters prior to its designed life time. In Tidd APF filter vessel, twenty eight (28) filters failed one time. Significant research effort has been carried out to find out the causes that led to the early failure of filters. In this work, the studies are emphasized on the possible failure causes analysis of rigid ceramic candle filters. The objectives of this program were to provide an systematic study on the characterization of filters, material laboratory analysis on filter micro-structure, the

  9. Supporting Technical Work Under IAEA Safeguards Agreements of 2013 Completed by Laboratory of Technical Research for Nuclear Safeguards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Qiang; LIU; Hong-bin; YANG; Qun; BU; Li-xin; MIAO; Qiang; HE; Li-xia; XU; Zheng; ZHANG; Wen-liang

    2013-01-01

    Safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA)are an important element of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime.In order to verify that commitments made by states under safeguards agreements with the IAEA are fulfilled.China signed the voluntary offer agreement(INFCIRC/369)with IAEA in 1988.The agreement entered into force in 1989.There are three nuclear

  10. Hot-gas filter manufacturing assessments: Volume 5. Final report, April 15, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), intermetallic alloys, and alternate filter geometries. The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to production volumes. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs. While each organization had specific needs, some common among all of the filter manufacturers were access to performance testing of the filters to aide process/product development, a better understanding of the stresses the filters will see in service for use in structural design of the components, and a strong process sensitivity study to allow optimization of processing.

  11. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-22

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal.

  12. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL; Johnson, Shirley [Tucker Creek Consulting

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  13. Implementation of integrated safeguards at nuclear fuel plant Pitesti Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaru, Vasilica; Tiberiu, Ivana; Epure, Gheorghe [Nuclear Safety Department, Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti, Cimpului, No 1, 115400 Mioveni (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear activity in Romania was for many years under Traditional Safeguards (TS) and has developed in good conditions this type of nuclear safeguards. Now it has the opportunity to improve the performance and quality of the safeguards activity and increase the accountancy and control of nuclear material by passing to Integrated Safeguards (IS). The legal framework is Law 100/2000 for ratification of the Protocol between Romania and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Romania Government and IAEA related to safeguards as part of the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons published in the Official Gazette no. 3/31 January 1970, and the Additional Protocol content published in the Official Gazette no. 295/ 29.06.2000. The first discussion about Integrated Safeguards (IS) between Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN) representatives and IAEA inspectors was in June 2005. In Feb. 2007 an IAEA mission visited FCN and established the main steps for implementing the IS. There were visited the storages, technological flow, and was reviewed the residence times for different nuclear materials, the applied chemical analysis, metrological methods, weighting method and elaborating the documents and lists. At that time the IAEA and FCN representatives established the main points for starting the IS at FCN: perform the Short Notice Random Inspections (SNRI), communicate the eligible days for SNRI for each year, communicate the estimated deliveries and shipments for first quarter and then for the rest of the year, daily mail box declaration (DD) with respect to the residence time for several nuclear material, advance notification (AN) for each nuclear material transfer (shipments and receipts), others. At 01 June 2007 Romania has passed officially to Integrated Safeguards and FCN (RO-D) has taken all measures to realize this objective. (authors)

  14. Safeguard monitoring of direct electrolytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurovitzki, Abraham L.

    Nuclear power is regaining global prominence as a sustainable energy source as the world faces the consequences of depending on limited fossil based, CO2 emitting fuels. A key component to achieving this sustainability is to implement a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Without achieving this goal, a relatively small fraction of the energy value in nuclear fuel is actually utilized. This involves recycling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)---separating fissile actinides from waste products and using them to fabricate fresh fuel. Pyroprocessing is a viable option being developed for this purpose with a host of benefits compared to other recycling options, such as PUREX. Notably, pyroprocessing is ill suited to separate pure plutonium from spent fuel and thus has non-proliferation benefits. Pyroprocessing involves high temperature electrochemical and chemical processing of SNF in a molten salt electrolyte. During this batch process, several intermediate and final streams are produced that contain radioactive material. While pyroprocessing is ineffective at separating pure plutonium, there are various process misuse scenarios that could result in diversion of impure plutonium into one or more of these streams. This is a proliferation risk that should be addressed with innovative safeguards technology. One approach to meeting this challenge is to develop real time monitoring techniques that can be implemented in the hot cells and coupled with the various unit operations involved with pyroprocessing. Current state of the art monitoring techniques involve external chemical assaying which requires sample removal from these unit operations. These methods do not meet International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) timeliness requirements. In this work, a number of monitoring techniques were assessed for their viability as online monitoring tools. A hypothetical diversion scenario for the direct electrolytic reduction process was experimentally verified (using Nd2O3 as a surrogate for PuO2

  15. ELECTROCHEMICALLY-MODULATED SEPARATIONS FOR SAFEGUARDS MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Liezers, Martin; Orton, Christopher R.; Douglas, Matthew; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Hazelton, Sandra G.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2010-08-11

    A critical objective of materials accountability in safeguards is the accurate and timely analysis of fuel reprocessing streams to detect both abrupt and prolonged diversions of nuclear materials. For this reason both on-line nondestructive (NDA) and destructive analysis (DA) approaches are sought-after. Current methods for DA involve grab sampling and laboratory based column extractions that are costly, hazardous, and time consuming. While direct on-line gamma measurements of Pu are desirable, they are not possible due to contributions from other actinides and fission products. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are currently investigating electrochemically-modulated separation (EMS) as a straightforward, cost-effective technology for selective separation of Pu or U from aqueous reprocessing streams. The EMS selectivity is electrochemically controlled and results from the sorption of Pu4+ and U4+ redox states onto the anodized target electrode, allowing for selective accumulation of U or Pu from nitric acid streams to be turned “on” or “off.” It is envisioned that this technology can be utilized to isolate Pu for both NDA and DA analysis. For the NDA approach, rapid Pu analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy could be performed after chemical clean-up of activation and fission products by EMS. Likewise, in the DA approach, EMS could be used to retain and concentrate the Pu in nanogram quantities on the electrode surface to be transported to the lab for analysis using high precision mass spectrometry. Due to the challenges associated with complex matrices, a systematic investigation of the redox-dependent accumulation of Pu using EMS was necessary, and results will be presented. Approaches to mitigate interelement effects using large surface area cells will also be discussed. The EMS chemistry and spectroscopy for Pu isolation and measurement will be presented, proof-of-principle measurements will be described, and the application of this

  16. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  17. Notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.

  18. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Next Generation Safeguards Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [ORNL; Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. The review examined trends and events impacting the mission of international safeguards and the implications of expanding and evolving mission requirements on the legal authorities and institutions that serve as the foundation of the international safeguards system, as well as the technological, financial, and human resources required for effective safeguards implementation. The review's findings and recommendations were summarized in the report, 'International Safeguards: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century (October 2007)'. One of the report's key recommendations was for DOE/NNSA to launch a major new program to revitalize the international safeguards technology and human resource base. In 2007, at the International Atomic Energy Agency's General Conference, then Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced the newly created Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). NGSI consists of five program elements: (1) Policy development and outreach; (2) Concepts and approaches; (3) Technology and analytical methodologies; (4) Human resource development; and (5) Infrastructure development. The ensuing report addresses the 'Human Resource Development (HRD)' component of NGSI. The goal of the HRD as defined in the NNSA Program Plan (November 2008) is 'to revitalize and expand the international safeguards human capital base by attracting and training a new generation of talent.' One of the major objectives listed in the HRD goal includes education and training, outreach to universities, professional societies, postdoctoral appointments, and summer internships at national laboratories. ORNL is a participant in the NGSI program, together

  20. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  1. Remote instrumentation and safeguards monitoring for the star project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, H M; Labiak, W; Spiridon, A

    2000-06-15

    A part of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) is the development of the Small Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) for deployment in countries that do not have a nuclear industry. STARs would have an output of from 100 to 150 MW electric, would be fueled in the country of manufacture, and after 15 to 20 years of operation the reactor core would be returned to the country of manufacture for refueling. A candidate STAR design can be found in (Greenspan, 2000). This paper describes the design of the control and monitoring system that might be used. There are two unique features to this system. One is that the monitored information will be transmitted to a remote site for two purposes, safeguards, and allowing experts a great distance away direct access to view the reactor's operating parameters. The second feature is safeguards sensors will be designed into the system and there will monitoring of the safeguards aspects of the system for tampering. Any safeguards anomalies will be sent to the remote site as alarms. Encrypted satellite communications will be used to transmit the data. These features allow the STAR to be operated by a small staff and will reduce the costs of safeguards monitoring by reducing the number of plant visits by inspectors.

  2. Advanced hot-gas filter development. Topical report, September 30, 1994--May 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.E.; LeCostaouec, J.F.; Painter, C.J.; Sue, W.A.; Radford, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    The application of high-performance, high-temperature particulate control devices is considered to be beneficial to advanced fossil fuel processing technology, to selected high-temperature industrial processes, and to waste incineration concepts. Ceramic rigid filters represent the most attractive technology for these applications due to their capability to withstand high-temperature corrosive environments. However, current generation monolithic filters have demonstrated poor resistance to crack propagation and can experience catastrophic failure during use. To address this problem, ceramic fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) filter materials are needed for reliable damage tolerant candle filters. This program is focused on the development of an oxide-fiber reinforced oxide material composite filter material that is cost competitive with prototype next generation filters. This goal would be achieved through the development of a low cost sol-gel fabrication process and a three-dimensional fiber architecture optimized for high volume filter manufacturing. The 3D continuous fiber reinforcement provides a damage tolerant structure which is not subject to delamination-type failures. This report documents the Phase 1, Filter Material Development and Evaluation, results. Section 2 provides a program summary. Technical results, including experimental procedures, are presented and discussed in Section 3. Section 4 and 5 provide the Phase 1 conclusions and recommendations, respectively. The remaining sections cover acknowledgements and references.

  3. An Introduction to Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Ane; Jonter, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this project was to compile a course material that covers how the nuclear safeguards system has emerged and how it works today. The produced compendium is directed to both university students and people concerned by safeguards from the industry. The primary aim of the first part of this paper is to describe the historical development of this global non-proliferation system and its central tasks. A second purpose is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of its current design in order to answer the following question: Can we today say that we have a functioning global non-proliferation system? Does it require further strengthening, and, if so, how can this be achieved? In the second section we review the verification regime within nuclear safeguards, i. e. describe the methods and techniques that are available to reassure the world community that concluded treaties are adhered to

  4. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  5. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  6. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  7. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Anzelon, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deland, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whiteson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  8. A Unified Model for GRB Prompt Emission from Optical to Gamma-Rays; a New Type of Standard Candle

    CERN Document Server

    Guiriec, S; Hartmann, D H; Granot, J; Asano, K; Meszaros, P; Gill, R; Gehrels, N; McEnery, J

    2016-01-01

    The origin of prompt emission from gamma ray bursts remains to be an open question. Correlated prompt optical and gamma-ray emission observed in a handful of GRBs strongly suggests a common emission region, but failure to adequately fit the broadband GRB spectrum prompted the hypothesis of different emission mechanisms for the low- and high-energy radiations. We demonstrate that our multi-component model for GRB gamma-ray prompt emission provides an excellent fit to GRB 110205A from optical to gamma-ray energies. Our results show that the optical and highest gamma-ray emissions have the same spatial and spectral origin, which is different from the bulk of the X- and softest gamma-ray radiation. Finally, our accurate redshift estimate for GRB 110205A demonstrates promise for using GRBs as cosmological standard candles.

  9. Virus removal in ceramic depth filters based on diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michen, Benjamin; Meder, Fabian; Rust, Annette; Fritsch, Johannes; Aneziris, Christos; Graule, Thomas

    2012-01-17

    Ceramic filter candles, based on the natural material diatomaceous earth, are widely used to purify water at the point-of-use. Although such depth filters are known to improve drinking water quality by removing human pathogenic protozoa and bacteria, their removal regarding viruses has rarely been investigated. These filters have relatively large pore diameters compared to the physical dimension of viruses. However, viruses may be retained by adsorption mechanisms due to intermolecular and surface forces. Here, we use three types of bacteriophages to investigate their removal during filtration and batch experiments conducted at different pH values and ionic strengths. Theoretical models based on DLVO-theory are applied in order to verify experimental results and assess surface forces involved in the adsorptive process. This was done by calculation of interaction energies between the filter surface and the viruses. For two small spherically shaped viruses (MS2 and PhiX174), these filters showed no significant removal. In the case of phage PhiX174, where attractive interactions were expected, due to electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged surfaces, only little adsorption was reported in the presence of divalent ions. Thus, we postulate the existence of an additional repulsive force between PhiX174 and the filter surface. It is hypothesized that such an additional energy barrier originates from either the phage's specific knobs that protrude from the viral capsid, enabling steric interactions, or hydration forces between the two hydrophilic interfaces of virus and filter. However, a larger-sized, tailed bacteriophage of the family Siphoviridae was removed by log 2 to 3, which is explained by postulating hydrophobic interactions.

  10. Working Toward Robust Process Monitoring for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Bell, Lisa S [ORNL; Gilligan, Kimberly V [ORNL; Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Miller, Paul [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    New safeguards technologies allow continuous monitoring of plant processes. Efforts to deploy these technologies, as described in a preponderance of literature, typically have consisted of case studies attempting to prove their efficacy in proof-of-principle installations. While the enhanced safeguards capabilities of continuous monitoring have been established, studies thus far have not addressed such challenges as manipulation of a system by a host nation. To prevent this and other such vulnerabilities, one technology, continuous load cell monitoring, was reviewed. This paper will present vulnerabilities as well as mitigation strategies that were identified.

  11. Assessment of Critical Mass Laboratory safeguards and security upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, B.J.; DeMyer, J.J.

    1985-05-31

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation of the safeguards and security systems at the Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) in February 1985, to identify appropriate upgrading actions necessary to ensure that effective and efficient systems consistent with DOE-RL policies, procedures, and site priorities are in place. Since that evaluation, there have been changes in Patrol contingency philosophy, response tactics, and distribution of manpower. Because of these changes, and at the request of DOE-RL, PNL has re-evaluated the safeguards and security systems in place at CML.

  12. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  13. Safeguards and security research and development progress report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B.; Jaramillo, G.R. [comp.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the activities carried out by the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Research and Development (R&D) program from October 1993 through September 1994. The activities presented in the first part of the report were directed primarily to domestic US safeguards applications and were, for the most part, sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS, NN-50). The activities described in Part 2, International Safeguards, were supported by the International Safeguards Division of the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE/OACN, NN-40). Part 3 describes several safeguards or safeguards-related activities that have other sponsors. The final part of the report lists titles and abstracts of Los Alamos safeguards R&D reports, technical journal articles, and conference papers that were published or presented in 1994.

  14. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  15. INSTITUTIONALIZING SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN: HIGH-LEVEL FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard PhD; Joseph Alexander; Robert Bean; Brian Castle; Scott DeMuth, Ph.D.; Phillip Durst; Michael Ehinger; Prof. Michael Golay, Ph.D.; Kevin Hase, Ph.D.; David J. Hebditch, DPhil; John Hockert, Ph.D.; Bruce Meppen; James Morgan; Jerry Phillips, Ph.D., PE

    2009-02-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities can reduce proliferation risks. A multi-laboratory team was sponsored in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 to define a SBD process and determine how it could be incorporated into existing facility design and construction processes. The possibility to significantly influence major design features, such as process selection and plant layout, largely ends with the conceptual design step. Therefore SBD’s principal focus must be on the early inclusion of safeguards requirements and the early identification of beneficial design features. The result could help form the basis for a new international norm for integrating safeguards into facility design. This is an interim report describing progress and project status as of the end of FY08. In this effort, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost-effective integration of international and national safeguards, physical security, and other nonproliferation objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility. A key objective is to ensure that security and nonproliferation issues are considered when weighing facility design alternatives. Central to the work completed in FY08 was a study in which a SBD process was developed in the context of the current DOE facility acquisition process. The DOE study enabled the development of a “SBD design loop” that is suitable for use in any facility design process. It is a graded, iterative process that incorporates safeguards concerns throughout the conceptual, preliminary and final design processes. Additionally, a set of proposed design principles for SBD was developed. A “Generic SBD Process” was then developed. Key features of the process include the initiation of safeguards design activities in the pre-conceptual planning phase, early incorporation of safeguards requirements into the project requirements, early appointment of an SBD team, and

  16. Nuclear safeguards research and development. Program status report, October 1980-January 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.N. (comp.)

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the status of the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development Program pursued by the Energy, Chemistry-Materials Science, and Operational Security/Safeguards Divisions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards systems. Also discussed are training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Safeguards and Security quarterly progress report ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Mansur, D.L.; Ruhter, W.D.; Strait, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    LLNL carries out safeguards and security activities for DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) and other organizations within and outside DOE. LLNL is supporting OSS in 6 areas: safeguards technology, safeguards and materials accountability, computer security--distributed systems, complex-wide access control, standardization of security systems, and information technology and security center. This report describes the activities in each of these areas.

  18. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  19. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 73 - Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recommendations of the safeguards contingency plan review, management findings on whether the safeguards.... Licensee's Organizational Structure for Contingency Responses—A delineation of the organization's chain of... safeguards contingency will be easily accessible, in good working order, and in sufficient supply to...

  20. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  1. Role for Federal Government in Safeguarding Student Data Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Khaliah; Kowalski, Paige

    2016-01-01

    Unsurprisingly, schools, companies, and others that have amassed student information have been unable to adequately safeguard it. They simply cannot keep up with all the data they have collected and have routinely experienced data breaches. These breaches have compromised grades, student financial information, Social Security numbers, and even…

  2. 34 CFR 300.150 - SEA implementation of procedural safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision and... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA implementation of procedural safeguards. 300.150 Section 300.150 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  3. A GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS TECHNOLOGY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISHBONE, L.; SISKIND, B.; PEPPER, S.

    2005-07-10

    While there are a number of university graduate-education programs that address non-proliferation and safeguards policy issues; there are none in the United States that train students in the specific technical aspects of nuclear safeguards. Formal education of this kind is necessary to sustain the flow of technically trained individuals to diverse programs in safeguards, nonproliferation, and national security. In response to this need, the University of Missouri-Columbia, with assistance from Brookhaven National Laboratory, is initiating a Graduate Certificate Program in Nuclear Safeguards Technology: Students seeking advanced degrees in a variety of technical areas will complete a required sequence of courses in order to receive the certification. Required course work covers topics such as Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A), Physical Protection (PP); nuclear measurements, and a variety of other relevant subjects. Laboratory-based instruction will be included which will utilize the University of Missouri Research Reactor(MURR). MURR is the largest university-based research reactor and has extensive laboratory resources including a Canberra Aquila MPC&A Operational Monitoring demonstration system.

  4. Project Report on Development of a Safeguards Approach for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken an effort to develop a standard safeguards approach for international commercial pyroprocessing facilities. This report details progress for the fiscal year 2010 effort. A component by component diversion pathway analysis has been performed, and has led to insight on the mitigation needs and equipment development needed for a valid safeguards approach. The effort to develop an in-hot cell detection capability led to the digital cloud chamber, and more importantly, the significant potential scientific breakthrough of the inverse spectroscopy algorithm, including the ability to identify energy and spatial location of gamma ray emitting sources with a single, non-complex, stationary radiation detector system. Curium measurements were performed on historical and current samples at the FCF to attempt to determine the utility of using gross neutron counting for accountancy measurements. A solid cost estimate of equipment installation at FCF has been developed to guide proposals and cost allocations to use FCF as a test bed for safeguards measurement demonstrations. A combined MATLAB and MCNPX model has been developed to perform detector placement calculations around the electrorefiner. Early harvesting has occurred wherein the project team has been requested to provide pyroprocessing technology and safeguards short courses.

  5. 5 CFR 293.106 - Safeguarding information about individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individuals. 293.106 Section 293.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Basic Policies on Maintenance of Personnel Records § 293.106 Safeguarding information about individuals. (a) To ensure the security and confidentiality of personnel records,...

  6. 5 CFR 293.107 - Special safeguards for automated records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special safeguards for automated records. 293.107 Section 293.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Basic Policies on Maintenance of Personnel Records § 293.107 Special...

  7. 75 FR 25200 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... to December 31, 2010. kilograms. American-Type Cheese 7,093,001 January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. kilograms. Edam/Gouda Cheese 7,019,833 January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. kilograms. Italian-Type Cheese... Round negotiations, and only one type of safeguard, price or quantity, may be applied at any given...

  8. Nuclear Safeguards and the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Control and Disarmament McLean, VA AecBurton F. Judson Agency David Dorn Consultant Washington, DC United Nations Special Los Gatos , CA Henry Sokolski...admitted to conducting nuclear activities safeguards are willing to cede additional soy - there. If the request for such a "special inspec- ereignty to

  9. 75 FR 8154 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... NRC staff regarding new advanced reactor designs such as NuScale, Iris, Babcock and Wilcox Modular... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards In accordance with the purposes of Sections 29 and...

  10. 21 CFR 312.88 - Safeguards for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... initial human testing (§ 312.23), and the monitoring of adverse drug experiences through the requirements... application (§ 314.50 of this chapter), and postmarketing adverse reaction reporting (§ 314.80 of this chapter). ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safeguards for patient safety. 312.88 Section...

  11. Progress Towards Deployable Antineutrino Detectors for Reactor Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, N; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Keefer, G; Reyna, D; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Kiff, S

    2010-04-05

    Fission reactors emit large numbers of antineutrinos and this flux may be useful for the measurement of two quantities of interest for reactor safeguards: the reactor's power and plutonium inventory throughout its cycle. The high antineutrino flux and relatively low background rates means that simple cubic meter scale detectors at tens of meters standoff can record hundreds or thousands of antineutrino events per day. Such antineutrino detectors would add online, quasi-real-time bulk material accountancy to the set of reactor monitoring tools available to the IAEA and other safeguards agencies with minimal impact on reactor operations. Between 2003 and 2008, our LLNL/SNL collaboration successfully deployed several prototype safeguards detectors at a commercial reactor in order to test both the method and the practicality of its implementation in the field. Partially on the strength of the results obtained from these deployments, an Experts Meeting was convened by the IAEA Novel Technologies Group in 2008 to assess current antineutrino detection technology and examine how it might be incorporated into the safeguards regime. Here we present a summary of our previous deployments and discuss current work that seeks to provide expanded capabilities suggested by the Experts Panel, in particular aboveground detector operation.

  12. Safeguards Issues at Nuclear Reactors and Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-15

    The Agency's safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.

  13. Safeguards-by-Design: An Element of 3S Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. S. Bean; T. A. Bjornard; D. J. Hebdich

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, the “20/20 Vision for the Future” background report by the IAEA Director General identified the possibility of integrating certain activities related to safeguards, safety, and security. Later in the year, the independent Commission report prepared at the request of the IAEA Director General noted that the Agency’s roles in nuclear safeguards, safety, and security (3S) complement and can mutually reinforce each other. Safeguards-by-design (SBD) is a practical measure that strengthens 3S integration, especially for the stage of nuclear facility design and construction, but also with ramifications for other stages of the facility life-cycle. This paper describes the SBD concept, with examples for diverse regulatory environments, being developed in the U.S under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. This is compared with related international SBD work performed in the recent IAEA workshop on “Facility Design and Plant Operation Features that Facilitate the Implementation of IAEA Safeguards”. Potential future directions for further development of SBD and its integration within 3S are identified.

  14. Safeguarding and Promoting Human Rights and Building a Harmonious World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN SHIQIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ It is the common wish of the people from all over the world as well as the inexorable demand for the progress of human society to build a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity. Many preconditions are indispensable for building a harmonious world, one of which is to abide by the international laws on human rights and safeguard and promote human rights.

  15. Long-term proliferation and safeguards issues in future technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, B.; Auerbach, C.; Fainberg, A.; Fiarman, S.; Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Lemley, J.R.; O' Brien, J.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the task was to assess the effect of potential new technologies, nuclear and non-nuclear, on safeguards needs and non-proliferation policies, and to explore possible solutions to some of the problems envisaged. Eight subdivisions were considered: New Enrichment Technologies; Non-Aqueous Reprocessing Technologies; Fusion; Accelerator-Driven Reactor Systems; New Reactor Types; Heavy Water and Deuterium; Long-Term Storage of Spent Fuel; and Other Future Technologies (Non-Nuclear). For each of these subdivisions, a careful review of the current world-wide effort in the field provided a means of subjectively estimating the viability and qualitative probability of fruition of promising technologies. Technologies for which safeguards and non-proliferation requirements have been thoroughly considered by others were not restudied here (e.g., the Fast Breeder Reactor). The time scale considered was 5 to 40 years for possible initial demonstration although, in some cases, a somewhat optimistic viewpoint was embraced. Conventional nuclear-material safeguards are only part of the overall non-proliferation regime. Other aspects are international agreements, export controls on sensitive technologies, classification of information, intelligence gathering, and diplomatic initiatives. The focus here is on safeguards, export controls, and classification.

  16. Assess How Changes in Fuel Cycle Operation Impact Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Adigun, Babatunde John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division

    2016-10-31

    In this report two research topics of interest to Concepts and Approaches are investigated. The motivation of joining them into one project is that both require (1) the simulation of fuel irradiation in a reactor and (2) the transport of gamma and neutron irradiation from the fuel to safeguards detectors. In the next two subsections the merits of each of the two safeguards applications are further introduced. Given the cumulative impact of the enhancements listed above, it is not surprising that both fuel assembly design and fuel assembly irradiation optimization have improved over the past 50+ years. The purpose of the research summarized in this sub-­section is to investigate what, if any, consequence this evolution in reactor operation might have for nuclear safeguards. It is anticipated that the burnup and isotopics of the spent fuel should exhibit less variation over the decades as reactor operators irradiate each assembly to the optimum amount. In contrast, older spent fuel is anticipated to vary more in burnup and resulting isotopics for a given initial enrichment. Continuing with this thesis, modern fuel should be more uniform in composition, and thus, measured safeguards results should be easier to interpret than results from older spent fuel. With spent fuel ponds filling up, interim and long-­term storage of spent fuel will need to be addressed. Additionally after long periods of storage, spent fuel is no longer self-­protecting and as such the IAEA will categorize it as more attractive; in approximately 20 years many of the assemblies from early commercial cores will no longer be considered self-­protecting. This study will assess how more recent changes in the reactor operation could impact the interpretation of safeguards measurements.

  17. Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one or more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.

  18. Machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using candle stick drill and multi-facet drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.

  19. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  20. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  1. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  2. 论纳兰词中的灯烛意象%Analysis of the Image of Candles in Nalan Xingde’s Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思园

    2016-01-01

    Images, including objects and feelings, are the key to poetry. Candles are the usual image in the classical poetry of China, which mean the worship of the sun and the ifre in ancient society. With time goes by, candles have more meanings, such in Nalan Xingde’s poems, which symbolizes the complex emotions in the particular experience of the author. In Nalan Xingde’s poems, it is unusual for us to see the positive meanings of candles; instead, the poet prefers to use the misshapen form of the candle or to create a negative atmosphere in a rainy night to express the sad feelings, which include the following three sides: the tragedy of marriage, the missing of the hometown, and the pure friendship between friends. With the sentimental candles, Nalan Xingde’s poems have the unique sensible and pure meanings, which are the charm of his poems.%意象是客观物象与主观情意的统一体,是诗词创作与品鉴的关键。灯烛是中国古典诗词中常见的一个意象,它体现着远古人类对光与火的原始崇拜,并由此衍生出光明与希望、温馨愉悦的情感体验以及悲剧性的人生感受等象征意义。灯烛意象是纳兰词中常见的意象之一,寄寓着词人复杂微妙的情感体验。在纳兰词中少有展现蜡烛积极的象征意义,更多的是通过对灯烛残缺形态的描绘以及夜雨孤灯时空场景的营造来体现词人独特的人生经历与情感体验。具体包括以下三点:婚姻爱情的痛苦体验、家园意识的归附以及真挚友谊的见证。灯烛意象以其迷离婉约、凄美感伤的审美意蕴对纳兰词哀感顽艳、自然真切的词风的形成起着很大的作用。

  3. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community.

  4. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Bradley S [ORNL; Alcala, Benjamin S [ORNL; Alcala, Scott [ORNL; Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL; Weil, Logan B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  5. Safeguarding vulnerable families: work with refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, John

    2011-02-01

    This paper will highlight one of the key findings of a qualitative study based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 14 health visitors describing their experiences working with refugees and asylum seekers. Despite changes in government legislation to improve children's services in order to prevent harm to children, this recent study demonstrated that health visitors were working with the complexities of needs among refugees and asylum seekers related to safeguarding both children and vulnerable women. The health visitors often worked with families and individuals with no support from other professional services, they worked with failed asylum seekers who were unable to access other forms of support and they worked with women and children who were caught in a cycle of domestic abuse due to their immigration status. They were also working with families who would disappear from the systems in place to safeguard children.

  6. Used fuel extended storage security and safeguards by design roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, Eric Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); England, Jeffrey [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Scherer, Carolynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Michael. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rauch, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is safely and securely stored in spent fuel pools and dry storage casks. The available capacity in spent fuel pools across the nuclear fleet has nearly reached a steady state value. The excess SNF continues to be loaded in dry storage casks. Fuel is expected to remain in dry storage for periods beyond the initial dry cask certification period of 20 years. Recent licensing renewals have approved an additional 40 years. This report identifies the current requirements and evaluation techniques associated with the safeguards and security of SNF dry cask storage. A set of knowledge gaps is identified in the current approaches. Finally, this roadmap identifies known knowledge gaps and provides a research path to deliver the tools and models needed to close the gaps and allow the optimization of the security and safeguards approaches for an interim spent fuel facility over the lifetime of the storage site.

  7. Changes to criminal records checks used to safeguard vulnerable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2012-07-01

    The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is introducing changes to the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) checks carried out on those people who work with vulnerable groups. The new law is the coalition Government's response to the criticism of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Group Act 2006. It will merge the CRB and Independent Safeguarding Authority into a new Disclosure and Barring Service and will enhance the rights of applicants to challenge the CRB's right to disclose non-conviction information as part of an enhanced criminal records check. In the first of two articles on the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the current framework for disclosing criminal records and the impact of the changes on district nurses applying for new posts.

  8. Type II-P Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey and the Standardized Candle Method

    CERN Document Server

    D'Andrea, Chris B; Dilday, Benjamin; Frieman, Joshua A; Holtzman, Jon; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Schneider, Donald P; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J C; Yasuda, Naoki; Cinabro, David; Jha, Saurabh; Nichol, Robert C; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W; Basset, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J; Goobar, Ariel; Miquel, Ramon; Nordin, Jakob; Östman, Linda; Prieto, Jose Luis; Quimby, Robert; Riess, Adam G; Stritzinger, Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe - 0.027 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. (2009). We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 mus...

  9. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  10. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  11. SAFEGUARD: An Assured Safety Net Technology for UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Evan T.; Young, Steven D.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    As demands increase to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a broad spectrum of commercial applications, regulatory authorities are examining how to safely integrate them without loss of safety or major disruption to existing airspace operations. This work addresses the development of the Safeguard system as an assured safety net technology for UAS. The Safeguard system monitors and enforces conformance to a set of rules defined prior to flight (e.g., geospatial stay-out or stay-in regions, speed limits, altitude limits). Safeguard operates independently of the UAS autopilot and is strategically designed in a way that can be realized by a small set of verifiable functions to simplify compliance with regulatory standards for commercial aircraft. A framework is described that decouples the system from any other devices on the UAS as well as introduces complementary positioning source(s) for applications that require integrity and availability beyond what the Global Positioning System (GPS) can provide. Additionally, the high level logic embedded within the software is presented, as well as the steps being taken toward verification and validation (V&V) of proper functionality. Next, an initial prototype implementation of the described system is disclosed. Lastly, future work including development, testing, and system V&V is summarized.

  12. Determining information management needs for enhanced international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); DeLand, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whiteson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anzelon, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Safeguards Information Management System initiative is a program of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation aimed at supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) efforts to strengthen safeguards through the enhancement of information management capabilities. The DOE hopes to provide the IAEA with the ability to correlate and analyze data from existing and new sources of information, including publicly available information, information on imports and exports, design information, environmental monitoring data, and non-safeguards information. The first step in this effort is to identify and define IAEA requirements. In support of this, we have created a users` requirements document based on interviews with IAEA staff that describes the information management needs of the end user projected by the IAEA, including needs for storage, retrieval, analysis, communication, and visualization of data. Also included are characteristics of the end user and attributes of the current environment. This paper describes our efforts to obtain the required information. We discuss how to accurately represent user needs and involve users for an international organization with a multi-cultural user population. We describe our approach, our experience in setting up and conducting the interviews and brainstorming sessions, and a brief discussion of what we learned.

  13. The organisation of interagency training to safeguard children in England: a case study using realistic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demi Patsios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Joint training for interagency working is carried out by Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England to promote effective local working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Purpose: This paper reports on the findings of the outputs and outcomes of interagency training to safeguard children in eight Local Safeguarding Children Boards. Methods: A review of Local Safeguarding Children Board documentation, observations of Local Safeguarding Children Board training sub-group meetings and a series of interviews with training key stakeholders in each Local Safeguarding Children Board were used to assess how partner agencies in the Local Safeguarding Children Boards carried out their statutory responsibilities to organise interagency training. 'Realistic Evaluation' was used to evaluate the mechanisms by which a central government mandate produced particular inter-agency training outputs (number of courses, training days and joint working outcomes (effective partnerships, within particular Local Safeguarding Children Board contexts. Results: The 'mandated partnership' imposed on Local Safeguarding Children Boards by central government left little choice but for partner agencies to work together to deliver joint training, which in turn affected the dynamics of working partnerships across the various sites. The effectiveness of the training sub group determined the success of the organisation and delivery of training for joint working. Despite having a central mandate, Local Safeguarding Children Boards had heterogeneous funding and training arrangements. These resulted in significant variations in the outputs in terms of the number of courses per 'children in need' in the locality and in the cost per course. Conclusions: Interagency training which takes account of the context of the Local Safeguarding Children Board is more likely to produce better trained staff, effective partnership working, and lead to better integrated

  14. The organisation of interagency training to safeguard children in England: a case study using realistic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demi Patsios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Joint training for interagency working is carried out by Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England to promote effective local working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.Purpose: This paper reports on the findings of the outputs and outcomes of interagency training to safeguard children in eight Local Safeguarding Children Boards.Methods: A review of Local Safeguarding Children Board documentation, observations of Local Safeguarding Children Board training sub-group meetings and a series of interviews with training key stakeholders in each Local Safeguarding Children Board were used to assess how partner agencies in the Local Safeguarding Children Boards carried out their statutory responsibilities to organise interagency training. 'Realistic Evaluation' was used to evaluate the mechanisms by which a central government mandate produced particular inter-agency training outputs (number of courses, training days and joint working outcomes (effective partnerships, within particular Local Safeguarding Children Board contexts.Results: The 'mandated partnership' imposed on Local Safeguarding Children Boards by central government left little choice but for partner agencies to work together to deliver joint training, which in turn affected the dynamics of working partnerships across the various sites. The effectiveness of the training sub group determined the success of the organisation and delivery of training for joint working. Despite having a central mandate, Local Safeguarding Children Boards had heterogeneous funding and training arrangements. These resulted in significant variations in the outputs in terms of the number of courses per 'children in need' in the locality and in the cost per course.Conclusions: Interagency training which takes account of the context of the Local Safeguarding Children Board is more likely to produce better trained staff, effective partnership working, and lead to better integrated

  15. Feasibility of x ray fluorescence for spent fuel safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Corey Ross [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Julia M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, Alissa [TAMU; Charlton, William [TAMU

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel is necessary for many reasons, in particular to verify that diversion or other illicit activities have not occurred. Therefore, safeguarding the world's nuclear fuel is paramount to responsible nuclear regulation and public acceptance, but achieving this goal presents many difficulties from both a technical and economic perspective. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of NA-24 is funding a large collaborative effort between multiple laboratories and universities to improve spent nuclear fuel safeguards methods and equipment. This effort involves the current work of modeling several different nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Several are being researched, because no single NDA technique, in isolation, has the potential to properly characterize fuel assemblies and offer a robust safeguards measure. The insights gained from this research, will be used to down-select from the original set a few of the most promising techniques that complement each other. The goal is to integrate the selected instruments to create an accurate measurement system for fuel verification that is also robust enough to detect diversions. These instruments will be fabricated and tested under realistic conditions. This work examines one of the NDA techniques; the feasibility of using x ray emission peaks from Pu and U to gather information about their relative quantities in the spent fuel. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF), is unique compared to the investigated techniques in that it is the only one able to give the elemental ratio of Pu to U, allowing the possibility of a Pu gram quantity for the assembly to be calculated. XRF also presents many challenges, mainly its low penetration, since the low energy x rays of interest are effectively shielded by the first few millimeters of a fuel pin. This paper will explore the results of Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code calculations of spent fuel x ray peaks. The MCNPX

  16. Study on an integrated sintered metal screen moving granular bed filter%烧结复合式烧结金属丝网颗粒移动床过滤器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋沪; 王洋

    2004-01-01

    A new gas clean-up process called "integrated sintered metal screen moving granular bed"(ISMSMGB)for the integrated gasification combined cycle(IGCC)and pressured fluidized bed combustion(PFBC)was developed on the basis of a sintered metal candle filter and a cross-flow moving granular bed filter.This is a combination of the surface and deep bed filtering processes.A set of facilities was established and a series of cold model tests were carried out.The dust removal efficiency and the pressure drop of the filter were measured and analyzed.The results show that this process features the advantages of the moving bed for high capacity as well as high inlet dust load and the surface filter for high efficiency.Meanwhile,the granules moving downward cleans the cake on the screen surface,so that the system is operated at steady state.

  17. Filter quality of pleated filter cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wan; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Chiang, Che-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-04-01

    The performance of dust cartridge filters commonly used in dust masks and in room ventilation depends both on the collection efficiency of the filter material and the pressure drop across the filter. Currently, the optimization of filter design is based only on minimizing the pressure drop at a set velocity chosen by the manufacturer. The collection efficiency, an equally important factor, is rarely considered in the optimization process. In this work, a filter quality factor, which combines the collection efficiency and the pressure drop, is used as the optimization criterion for filter evaluation. Most respirator manufacturers pleat the filter to various extents to increase the filtration area in the limit space within the dust cartridge. Six sizes of filter holders were fabricated to hold just one pleat of filter, simulating six different pleat counts, ranging from 0.5 to 3.33 pleats cm(-1). The possible electrostatic charges on the filter were removed by dipping in isopropyl alcohol, and the air velocity is fixed at 100 cm s(-1). Liquid dicotylphthalate particles generated by a constant output atomizer were used as challenge aerosols to minimize particle loading effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure the challenge aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the pleated filter. The pressure drop across the filter was monitored by using a calibrated pressure transducer. The results showed that the performance of pleated filters depend not only on the size of the particle but also on the pleat count of the pleated filter. Based on filter quality factor, the optimal pleat count (OPC) is always higher than that based on pressure drop by about 0.3-0.5 pleats cm(-1). For example, the OPC is 2.15 pleats cm(-1) from the standpoint of pressure drop, but for the highest filter quality factor, the pleated filter needed to have a pleat count of 2.65 pleats cm(-1) at particle diameter of 122 nm. From the aspect of

  18. Preliminary concepts: materials management in an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-11-01

    Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste.

  19. The Use of Performance Metrics for the Assessment of Safeguards Effectiveness at the State Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachner K. M.; George Anzelon, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Yana Feldman, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Mark Goodman,Department of State, Washington, DC Dunbar Lockwood, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC Jonathan B. Sanborn, JBS Consulting, LLC, Arlington, VA.

    2016-07-24

    In the ongoing evolution of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the state level, many safeguards implementation principles have been emphasized: effectiveness, efficiency, non-discrimination, transparency, focus on sensitive materials, centrality of material accountancy for detecting diversion, independence, objectivity, and grounding in technical considerations, among others. These principles are subject to differing interpretations and prioritizations and sometimes conflict. This paper is an attempt to develop metrics and address some of the potential tradeoffs inherent in choices about how various safeguards policy principles are implemented. The paper carefully defines effective safeguards, including in the context of safeguards approaches that take account of the range of state-specific factors described by the IAEA Secretariat and taken note of by the Board in September 2014, and (2) makes use of performance metrics to help document, and to make transparent, how safeguards implementation would meet such effectiveness requirements.

  20. Safeguards and security research and development: Program status report, February-July 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.N.; Walton, R.B. (comps.)

    1982-04-01

    This report, one of a series of biannual progress reports, describes the status of research and development in the Safeguards and Security Program at Los Alamos from February-July 1981. Most work covered here is sponsored by the Office of Safeguards and Security of the Department of Energy; however, project activities that are technically closely related to nuclear safeguards and security also are included where appropriate for conveying information useful to the nuclear community. The report comprises four major subject areas: Security Development and Support; Nuclear Materials Measurement and Engineering; Nuclear Facility Safeguards Support; and International Safeguards, Technology Transfer, and Training. Some technical topics included in the subject areas are computer and informational security, chemical and nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials, process modeling and analysis, nuclear materials accounting systems, evaluation of prototype measurement instrumentation and procedures in nuclear facilities, design and consultation for facilities, technical exchange, training courses, and international safeguards.

  1. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  2. Coordinated safeguards for materials management in a mixed-oxide fuel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, J.P.; Cobb, D.D.; Dietz, R.J.; Evans, M.L.; Schelonka, E.P.; Smith, D.B.; Walton, R.B.

    1977-02-01

    A coordinated safeguards system is described for safeguarding strategic quantities of special nuclear materials in mixed-oxide recycle fuel fabrication facilities. The safeguards system is compatible with industrial process requirements and combines maximum effectiveness consistent with modest cost and minimal process interference. It is based on unit process accounting using a combination of conventional and state-of-the-art NDA measurement techniques. The effectiveness of the system against single and multiple thefts is evaluated using computer modeling and simulation techniques.

  3. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R

    2015-01-01

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  4. Negotiating supranational rules. The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, A.

    1997-12-31

    The object of this study is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid-1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The main aim of the study is not to describe the IAEA safeguards system as such. The focus will be on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective will be to single out the factors determining the result. In the course of the time span under study two international treaties were negotiated which were decisive for the development of international nuclear safeguards. These were the IAEA Stature (1956) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968). The Statue as well as the NPT contain articles on international nuclear safeguards. These articles limit themselves to spelling out the safeguards principles. It was thus left to the IAEA Board of Governors to develop the safeguards procedures in detail. Two IAEA safeguards documents were negotiated between 1959 and 1965 in order to implement the safeguards article of the Statue. The safeguards requirements of the NPT were spelled out in a new model agreement in 1972. 58 refs.

  5. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  6. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  7. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next

  8. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-05

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  9. Landmark Law Provides Equal Safeguards to Public,Private Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIN

    2007-01-01

    @@ After more than a quarter-century of market-oriented economic policies and unprecedented economic growths,China on March 15, 2007enacted its first law that provides equal legal safeguards to both public and private properties. The 247-article People's Republic of China Property Law, which is due to come into effect as of October 1, 2007, stipulates that "the property of the State, the collecfive, the individual and other obligees shall be protected by law, and no units or individuals may infringe upon it".

  10. Safeguarding cultural properties security for museums, libraries, parks, and zoos

    CERN Document Server

    Layne, Stevan P

    2014-01-01

    Safeguarding Cultural Properties is a step-by-step guide for creating and maintaining a comprehensive security program in any cultural facility or public institution. Author Stevan P. Layne, the leading expert in the field of cultural property protection, draws from his many years of experience providing protection training and planning to more than 350 cultural and public institutions around the world. Designed especially for those with limited security budgets, the book provides a proven and effective program for hiring the right security personnel, selecting the appropriate electronic s

  11. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  12. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  13. Generalized Hampel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald K.; Neuvo, Yrjö; Astola, Jaakko; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    The standard median filter based on a symmetric moving window has only one tuning parameter: the window width. Despite this limitation, this filter has proven extremely useful and has motivated a number of extensions: weighted median filters, recursive median filters, and various cascade structures. The Hampel filter is a member of the class of decsion filters that replaces the central value in the data window with the median if it lies far enough from the median to be deemed an outlier. This filter depends on both the window width and an additional tuning parameter t, reducing to the median filter when t=0, so it may be regarded as another median filter extension. This paper adopts this view, defining and exploring the class of generalized Hampel filters obtained by applying the median filter extensions listed above: weighted Hampel filters, recursive Hampel filters, and their cascades. An important concept introduced here is that of an implosion sequence, a signal for which generalized Hampel filter performance is independent of the threshold parameter t. These sequences are important because the added flexibility of the generalized Hampel filters offers no practical advantage for implosion sequences. Partial characterization results are presented for these sequences, as are useful relationships between root sequences for generalized Hampel filters and their median-based counterparts. To illustrate the performance of this filter class, two examples are considered: one is simulation-based, providing a basis for quantitative evaluation of signal recovery performance as a function of t, while the other is a sequence of monthly Italian industrial production index values that exhibits glaring outliers.

  14. Advanced Safeguards Technology Demonstration at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Douglas, Matthew; Farmer, O. T.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Lehn, Scott A.; Liezers, Martin; Peper, Shane M.; Christensen, Richard

    2008-10-01

    The IAEA has established international safeguards standards for fissionable materials at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted over a specified time frame. It is, therefore, necessary to confirm proper operational performance to verify facilities operate under adequate safeguard-declared conditions. This verification can be achieved by employing monitoring equipment. Online real time monitoring of the flowsheet radiochemical streams provides a unique capability to rapidly identify deviations from normal operating conditions. Flowsheet monitoring technologies being developed at PNNL include three integrated systems: Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, spectroscopy-based monitor (UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectrometers), and Electrochemically Modulated Separations (EMS). The MIP Monitor is designed to identify off-normal conditions in process streams using gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software. The spectroscopic monitoring continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals. EMS provides an on-line means for pre-separating and pre-concentrating elements of interest out of complex matrices prior to detection. PNNL is preparing to test these multi-parametric technologies using different samples of dissolved spent fuel and aqueous and organic phases of the PUREX and UREX flowsheets. We will report our on-going efforts with specific focus given to quantifying sensitivity of the MIP Monitor and UV-Vis and Raman spectrometers to detect minor changes in major process variables.

  15. Safeguards and Security Technology Development Directory. FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Safeguards and Security Technology Development Directory is published annually by the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is Intended to inform recipients of the full scope of the OSS R&D program. It is distributed for use by DOE headquarters personnel, DOE program offices, DOE field offices, DOE operating contractors, national laboratories, other federal agencies, and foreign governments. Chapters 1 through 7 of the Directory provide general information regarding the Technology Development Program, including the mission, program description, organizational roles and responsibilities, technology development lifecycle, requirements analysis, program formulation, the task selection process, technology development infrastructure, technology transfer activities, and current research and development tasks. These chapters are followed by a series of appendices which contain more specific information on aspects of the Program. Appendix A is a summary of major technology development accomplishments made during FY 1992. Appendix B lists S&S technology development reports issued during FY 1992 which reflect work accomplished through the OSS Technology Development Program and other relevant activities outside the Program. Finally, Appendix C summarizes the individual task statements which comprise the FY 1993 Technology Development Program.

  16. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  17. Safeguards and security research and development: Progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.R.; Henriksen, P.W. [comp.

    1997-03-01

    The primary goal of the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Technology Development Program, International Safeguards, and other Safeguards and Security Programs is to continue to be the center of excellence in the field of Safeguards and Security. This annual report for 1995 describes those scientific and engineering projects that contribute to all of the aforementioned programs. The authors have presented the information in a different format from previous annual reports. Part I is devoted to Nuclear Material Measurement Systems. Part II contains projects that are specific to Integrated Safeguards Systems. Part III highlights Safeguards Systems Effectiveness Evaluations and Part IV is a compilation of highlights from Information Assurance projects. Finally Part V highlights work on the projects at Los Alamos for International Safeguards. The final part of this annual report lists titles and abstracts of Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Technology Development reports, technical journal articles, and conference papers that were presented and published in 1995. This is the last annual report in this format. The authors wish to thank all of the individuals who have contributed to this annual report and made it so successful over the years.

  18. Improving Transparency in the Reporting of Safeguards Implementation: FY11 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Odlaug, Christopher S.; Wyse, Evan T.

    2011-09-30

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data and available for viewing at http://safeguardsportal.pnnl.gov.

  19. 41 CFR 51-9.101-5 - Safeguarding systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Safeguarding systems of records. 51-9.101-5 Section 51-9.101-5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... ACT RULES 9.1-General Policy § 51-9.101-5 Safeguarding systems of records. The Executive...

  20. 42 CFR 431.305 - Types of information to be safeguarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of information to be safeguarded. 431.305... Information on Applicants and Recipients § 431.305 Types of information to be safeguarded. (a) The agency must have criteria that govern the types of information about applicants and recipients that are...

  1. 10 CFR 73.23 - Protection of Safeguards Information-Modified Handling: Specific requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.23 Protection of Safeguards Information—Modified... specific design features of plant security communications systems; (vi) Lock combinations, mechanical key... access Safeguards Information by gaining access to retained memory or network connectivity). (f)...

  2. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...

  3. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. The review examined: trends and events that have an effect on the mission of international safeguards; the implications of expanding and evolving mission requirements of the legal authorities and institutions that serve as the foundation of the international safeguards system; and, the technological, financial, and human resources required for effective safeguards implementation. The review’s findings and recommendations were summarized in the report International Safeguards: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century (October 2007). The executive summary is available at the following link: http://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/inlinefiles/NGSI_Report.pdf.

  5. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  6. Negotiating supranational rules - The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, Astrid

    1998-12-31

    The object of this thesis is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid 1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The evolution is traced not through the practical implementation of the safeguards system, but through the various multilateral negotiations through which it was created. The focus is on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective is to single out the factors determining the result. The discussion is organised into the following chapters: (1) The statute of the IAEA, (2) The IAEA 1961 safeguard document (INFCIRC/26), (3) The IAEA 1965 safeguards document (INFCIRC/66), (4) The non-proliferation treaty, (5) NPT safeguards. 92 refs.

  7. Distortions of Sino-US and Sino-EU Safeguard Agreements: Effects on World Textile Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suwen Pan; Mark Welch; Samarendu Mohanty; Xiurong He

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Sino-US and Sino-EU safeguard agreements on US, Chinese and world cotton and textile sectors are investigated using a partial equilibrium model. The effects are compared to a free trade scenario under the provisions of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing. The two safeguard agreements capping Chinese textile exports would decrease China's textile and apparel exports, production, and domestic consumption by an average 1.57, 0.63 and 0.32 percent, respectively. The safeguard agreements cause an increase in the US cotton textile price index and a slight decrease in US net textile imports and textile consumption. The agreements cause a decrease in the world cotton price and the quantity of cotton traded, but these trends reverse at safeguard expiration. The results generally support the view that the safeguard agreements forestall the effects of free trade in textiles and apparel rather than creating long lasting shifts in the textile trade.

  8. Compilation of Published PM2.5 Emission Rates for Cooking, Candles and Incense for Use in Modeling of Exposures in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Tianchao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    recent analysis of health impacts from air pollutant inhalation in homes found that PM2.5 is the most damaging at the population level. Chronic exposure to elevated PM2.5 has the potential to damage human respiratory systems, and may result in premature death. PM2.5 exposures in homes can be mitigated through various approaches including kitchen exhaust ventilation, filtration, indoor pollutant source reduction and designing ventilation systems to reduce the entry of PM2.5 from outdoors. Analysis of the potential benefits and costs of various approaches can be accomplished using computer codes that simulate the key physical processes including emissions, dilution and ventilation. The largest sources of PM2.5 in residences broadly are entry from outdoors and emissions from indoor combustion. The largest indoor sources are tobacco combustion (smoking), cooking and the burning of candles and incense. Data on the magnitude of PM2.5 and other pollutant emissions from these events and processes are required to conduct simulations for analysis. The goal of this study was to produce a database of pollutant emission rates associated with cooking and the burning of candles and incense. The target use of these data is for indoor air quality modeling.

  9. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  10. Implementation of remove monitoring in facilities under safeguards with unattended systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nordquist, Heather A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Umebayaashi, Eiji [JAEA

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring is being applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at nuclear facilities around the world. At the Monju Reactor in Japan we have designed, developed and implemented a remote monitoring approach that can serve as a model for applying remote monitoring to facilities that are already under full-scope safeguards using unattended instrumentation. Remote monitoring implementations have historically relied upon the use of specialized data collection hardware and system design features that integrate remote monitoring into the safeguards data collection system. The integration of remote monitoring and unattended data collection increases the complexity of safeguards data collection systems. This increase in complexity necessarily produces a corresponding reduction of system reliability compared to less-complex unattended monitoring systems. At the Monju facility we have implemented a remote monitoring system that is decoupled from the activity of safeguards data collection. In the completed system the function of remote data transfer is separated from the function of safeguards data collection. As such, a failure of the remote monitoring function cannot produce an associated loss of safeguards data, as is possible with integrated remote-monitoring implementations. Currently, all safeguards data from this facility is available to the IAEA on a 24/7 basis. This facility employs five radiation-based unattended systems, video surveillance and numerous optical seal systems. The implementation of remote monitoring at this facility, while increasing the complexity of the safeguards system, is designed to avoid any corresponding reduction in reliability of the safeguards data collection systems by having decoupled these functions. This design and implementation can serve as a model for implementation of remote monitoring at nuclear facilities that currently employ unattended safeguards systems.

  11. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat - theft and sabotage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mullen, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-10-05

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is receiving significant interest with respect to international safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses requirements such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic Material Protection, Control and Accounting measures (MPC&A) are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and more specifically its Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA for international safeguards. This activity includes the participation of industry (through DOE-sponsored contracts) and DOE National Laboratories. This paper will identify the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e. MC&A and physical protection) and explain how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems.

  12. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  13. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security facility approval and safeguarding of National...

  14. A Monte Carlo based spent fuel analysis safeguards strategy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Safeguarding nuclear material involves the detection of diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials, and the deterrence of such diversions by the risk of early detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguards nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from spent fuel; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium and other actinides of interest in spent fuel. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of cost effective techniques for quantifying plutonium mass in spent fuel for nuclear safeguards. A standardized assessment process was developed to compare the effective merits and faults of 12 different detection techniques in order to integrate a few techniques and to down-select among the techniques in preparation for experiments. The process involves generating a basis burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library, creating diversion scenarios, developing detector models and quantifying the capability of each NDA technique. Because hundreds of input and output files must be managed in the couplings of data transitions for the different facets of the assessment process, a graphical user interface (GUI) was development that automates the process. This GUI allows users to visually create diversion scenarios with varied replacement materials, and generate a MCNPX fixed source detector assessment input file. The end result of the assembly library assessment is to select a set of common source terms and diversion scenarios for quantifying the capability of each of the 12 NDA techniques. We present here the generalized

  15. A unified Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Allen R.

    2017-01-01

    When considering problems of linear sequential estimation, two versions of the Kalman filter, the continuous-time version and the discrete-time version, are often used. (A hybrid filter also exists.) In many applications in which the Kalman filter is used, the system to which the filter is applied is a linear continuous-time system, but the Kalman filter is implemented on a digital computer, a discrete-time device. The two general approaches for developing a discrete-time filter for implementation on a digital computer are: (1) approximate the continuous-time system by a discrete-time system (called discretization of the continuous-time system) and develop a filter for the discrete-time approximation; and (2) develop a continuous-time filter for the system and then discretize the continuous-time filter. Generally, the two discrete-time filters will be different, that is, it can be said that discretization and filter generation are not, in general, commutative operations. As a result, any relationship between the discrete-time and continuous-time versions of the filter for the same continuous-time system is often obfuscated. This is particularly true when an attempt is made to generate the continuous-time version of the Kalman filter through a simple limiting process (the sample period going to zero) applied to the discrete-time version. The correct result is, generally, not obtained. In a 1961 research report, Kalman showed that the continuous-time Kalman filter can be obtained from the discrete-time Kalman filter by taking limits as the sample period goes to zero if the white noise process for the continuous-time version is appropriately defined. Using this basic concept, a discrete-time Kalman filter can be developed for a continuous-time system as follows: (1) discretize the continuous-time system using Kalman's technique; and (2) develop a discrete-time Kalman filter for that discrete-time system. Kalman's results show that the discrete-time filter generated in

  16. Computer Aided Filter Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    FIR filter can be described in the following. [Ref. 2] 1. FIR filters with exact linear phase can be easily designed. Linear phase filters are important...response for the four cases of linear phase filter , i.e., even or odd symmetry with an even or odd number of terms, can be written in the form: H (eJ ) = e...Ansari, The Design and Application of Optimal FIR Fractional Phase Filters , IEEE on Acoutics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 1987, pp.896-899. 77 14

  17. Safeguarding nonhuman primate iPS cells with suicide genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bonan; Watts, Korashon L; Gori, Jennifer L; Wohlfahrt, Martin E; Enssle, Joerg; Adair, Jennifer E; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    The development of technology to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells constitutes one of the most exciting scientific breakthroughs because of the enormous potential for regenerative medicine. However, the safety of iPS cell-related products is a major concern for clinical translation. Insertional mutagenesis, possible oncogenic transformation of iPS cells or their derivatives, or the contamination of differentiated iPS cells with undifferentiated cells, resulting in the formation of teratomas, have remained considerable obstacles. Here, we demonstrate the utility of suicide genes to safeguard iPS cells and their derivatives. We found suicide genes can control the cell fate of iPS cells in vitro and in vivo without interfering with their pluripotency and self-renewal capacity. This study will be useful to evaluate the safety of iPS cell technology in a clinically highly relevant, large animal model and further benefit the clinical use of human iPS cells.

  18. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  19. Advanced Safeguards Technology Demonstration at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrigo, Leah M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Christensen, Richard; Douglas, Matthew; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Liezers, Martin; Orton, Christopher R.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-05-21

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted over a specified time frame. Currently, methods to verify that the facilities are operating under adequate safeguard-declared conditions require time consuming sampling and expensive, destructive analysis. The time delay between sampling and subsequent analysis provides a potential opportunity to divert the material out of the appropriate chemical stream. One way to avoid this problem is to use process monitoring equipment that is capable of on-line and in near-real time monitoring of the flowsheet radiochemical streams to rapidly identify deviations from normal operating conditions. Three integrated systems for flowsheet monitoring are currently being developed at PNNL including: 1) Multi-Isotope Process Monitor (MIP), 2) a spectroscopy-based monitor utilizing UV-Vis-NIR (Ultra Violet-Visible-Near Infrared) and Raman spectrometers, and 3) Electrochemically Modulated Separations (EMS). MIP uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The UV-Vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopic monitoring continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals. EMS provides an on-line means for pre-separating and preconcentrating elements of interest out of complex matrices prior to detection via non-destructive assay by gamma spectroscopy or destructive analysis with mass spectrometry. PNNL previously reported some of its initial modeling work as proof of principle. Here we will provide a general overview of the technologies and the ongoing demonstrations that utilize actual spent fuel.

  20. Nonproliferation and safeguards aspects of the DUPIC fuel cycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persiani, P. K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiative and safeguards systems. Alternative recycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products. The concepts are alternatives to either the direct long-term storage deposition of or the purex reprocessing of the spent fuels. The alternate fuel cycle concepts reviewed include: the dry-recycle processes such as the direct use of reconfigured PWR spent fuel assemblies into CANDU reactors(DUPIC); low-decontamination, single-cycle co-extraction of fast reactor fuels in a wet-purex type of reprocessing; and on a limited scale the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The nonproliferation advantages usually associated with the above non-separation processes are: the highly radioactive spent fuel presents a barrier to the physical diversion of the nuclear material; avoid the need to dissolve and chemically separate the plutonium from the uranium and fission products; and that the spent fuel isotopic quality of the plutonium vector is further degraded. Although the radiation levels and the need for reprocessing may be perceived as barriers to the terrorist or the subnational level of safeguards, the international level of nonproliferation concerns is addressed primarily by material accountancy and verification activities. On the international level of nonproliferation concerns, the non-separation fuel cycle concepts involved have to be evaluated on the bases of the impact the processes may have on nuclear materials accountancy. (author).

  1. Web-Based Training Applications in Safeguards and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.L.

    1999-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires all employees who hold a security clearance and have access to classified information and/or special nuclear material to be trained in the area of Safeguards and Security. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, personnel who are responsible for training have capitalized on this communication medium to develop and deliver Web-based training. Unlike traditional computer based training where the student was required to find a workstation where the training program resided, one of Web-based training strongest advantage is that the training can be delivered right to the workers desk top computer. This paper will address reasons for the driving forces behind the utilization of Web-based training at the Laboratory with a brief explanation of the different types of training conducted. Also discussed briefly is the different types of distance learning used in conjunction with Web-based training. The implementation strategy will be addressed and how the Laboratory utilized a Web-Based Standards Committee to develop standards for Web-based training applications. Web-based problems resulting from little or no communication between training personnel across the Laboratory will be touched on and how this was solved. Also discussed is the development of a ''Virtual Training Center'' where personnel can shop on-line for their training needs. Web-based training programs within the Safeguards and Security arena will be briefly discussed. Specifically, Web-based training in the area of Materials Control and Accountability will be explored. A Web-based example of what a student would experience during a training session is also discussed. A short closing statement of what the future of Web-based Training holds in the future is offered.

  2. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Cameron Russell [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  3. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, Susan E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pickett, Chris A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Queirolo, Al [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worrall, Louise G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  4. System aspects on safeguards for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    This thesis has investigated system aspects of safeguarding the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. These aspects include the important notion of continuity of knowledge, the philosophy of verifying measurements and the need to consider the safeguards system as a whole when expanding it to include the encapsulation facility and the geological repository. The research has been analytical in method both in the identification of concrete challenges for the safeguards community in Paper 1, and in the diversion path analysis performed in Paper 2. This method of work is beneficial for example when abstract notions are treated. However, as a suggestion for further work along these lines, a formal systems analysis would be advantageous, and may even reveal properties of the safeguards system that the human mind so far has been to narrow to consider. A systems analysis could be used to model a proposed safeguards approach with the purpose of finding vulnerabilities in its detection probabilities. From the results, capabilities needed to overcome these vulnerabilities could be deduced, thereby formulating formal boundary conditions. These could include: The necessary partial defect level for the NDA measurement; The level of redundancy required in the C/S system to minimize the risk of inconclusive results due to equipment failure; and, Requirements on the capabilities of seismic methods, etc. The field of vulnerability assessment as a tool for systems analysis should be of interest for the safeguards community, as a formal approach could give a new dimension to the credibility of safeguards systems

  5. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirolo,A.

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

  6. Open source information acquisition, analysis and integration in the IAEA Department of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, M.; Zarimpas, N.; Zarucki, R., E-mail: M.Barletta@iaea.or [IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Acquisition and analysis of open source information plays an increasingly important role in the IAEA strengthened safeguards system. The Agency's focal point for open source information collection and analysis is the Division of Safeguards Information Management (SGIM) within the IAEA Department of Safeguards. In parallel with the approval of the Model Additional Protocol in 1997, a new centre of information acquisition and analysis expertise was created within SGIM. By acquiring software, developing databases, retraining existing staff and hiring new staff with diverse analytical skills, SGIM is pro actively contributing to the future implementation of information-driven safeguards in collaboration with other Divisions within the Department of Safeguards. Open source information support is now fully integrated with core safeguards processes and activities, and has become an effective tool in the work of the Department of Safeguards. This provides and overview of progress realized through the acquisition and use of open source information in several thematic areas: evaluation of additional protocol declarations; support to the State Evaluation process; in-depth investigation of safeguards issues, including assisting inspections and complementary access; research on illicit nuclear procurement networks and trafficking; and monitoring nuclear developments. Demands for open source information have steadily grown and are likely to continue to grow in the future. Coupled with the enormous growth and accessibility in the volume and sources of information, new challenges are presented, both technical and analytical. This paper discusses actions taken and future plans for multi-source and multi-disciplinary analytic integration to strengthen confidence in safeguards conclusions - especially regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities. (Author)

  7. Future challenges and DOE/NNSA-JAEA cooperation for the development of advanced safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clelland - Kerr, John [NNSA-NA-242; Senzaki, Masao [JAEA; Hori, Masato [JAEA

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has been cooperating with Japan on nuclear safeguards for over thirty years. DOE/NNSA has collaborated with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and its predecessors in addressing the need for innovative solutions to nuclear transparency and verification issues in one of the world's most advanced nuclear fuel cycle states. This collaboration includes over ninety activities that have involved nearly every facility in the JAEA complex and many national laboratories in the U.S. complex. The partnership has yielded new technologies and approaches that have benefited international safeguards not only in Japan, but around the world. The International Atomic Energy Agency uses a number of safeguards solutions developed under this collaboration to improve its inspection efforts in Japan and elsewhere. Japanese facilities serve as test beds for emerging safeguards technologies and are setting the trend for new nuclear energy and fuel cycle development worldwide. The collaboration continues to be an essential component of U.S. safeguards outreach and is integral to the DOE/NNSA's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative. In addition to fostering international safeguards development, the cooperation is an opportunity for U.S. scientists to work in facilities that have no analog in the United States, thus providing crucial real-life experience for and aiding development of the next generation of U.S. safeguards specialists. It is also an important element of promoting regional transparency thereby building confidence in the peaceful nature of nuclear programs in the region. The successes engendered by this partnership provide a strong basis for addressing future safeguards challenges, in Japan and elsewhere. This paper summarizes these challenges and the associated cooperative efforts that are either underway or anticipated.

  8. Study On Safeguard Measures for Implementing Overall Planning of Land Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on minutely analysing the main problems existing in safeguard measures for implementing a new round of overall planning of land use,this paper constructs implementation security system of overall planning of land use,and puts forward the principles and basis of formulating safeguard measures for implementing overall planning of land use.Finally,this paper establishes the content system of safeguard measures:effectively strengthen social supervision;strengthen administrative management of land use planning;strengthen economic management of land use planning;reinforce the legal status of planning;establish incentive and constraint mechanism for reinforcing implementation;improve support system of planning.

  9. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a country’s safeguards agreement with

  10. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON NUCLEAR FACILITY DESIGN INFORMATION EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION FOR SAFEGUARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-10-01

    Executive Summary The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements nuclear safeguards and verifies countries are compliant with their international nuclear safeguards agreements. One of the key provisions in the safeguards agreement is the requirement that the country provide nuclear facility design and operating information to the IAEA relevant to safeguarding the facility, and at a very early stage. , This provides the opportunity for the IAEA to verify the safeguards-relevant features of the facility and to periodically ensure that those features have not changed. The national authorities (State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material - SSAC) provide the design information for all facilities within a country to the IAEA. The design information is conveyed using the IAEA’s Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) and specifies: (1) Identification of the facility’s general character, purpose, capacity, and location; (2) Description of the facility’s layout and nuclear material form, location, and flow; (3) Description of the features relating to nuclear material accounting, containment, and surveillance; and (4) Description of existing and proposed procedures for nuclear material accounting and control, with identification of nuclear material balance areas. The DIQ is updated as required by written addendum. IAEA safeguards inspectors examine and verify this information in design information examination (DIE) and design information verification (DIV) activities to confirm that the facility has been constructed or is being operated as declared by the facility operator and national authorities, and to develop a suitable safeguards approach. Under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security identified the need for more effective and efficient verification of design information by the IAEA for improving international safeguards

  11. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  12. Crux vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin H; Johnson, Eric D; Kopchok, George E; Fogarty, Thomas J; Arko, Frank R

    2009-09-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are widely accepted for pulmonary embolic prophylaxis in high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. While long-term complications have been associated with permanent filters, retrievable filters are now available and have resulted in the rapid expansion of this technology. Nonetheless, complications are still reported with optional filters. Furthermore, device tilting and thrombus load may prevent retrieval in up to 30% of patients, thereby eliminating the benefits of this technology. The Crux vena cava filter is a novel, self-centering, low-profile filter that is designed for ease of delivery, retrievability and improved efficacy while limiting fatigue-related device complications. This device has been proven safe and user-friendly in an ovine model and has recently been implanted in human subjects.

  13. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  14. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  15. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  16. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  17. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS BY THE JAPANESE CANDLES METHOD ON THE EXAMPLE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETS ANALIZA TECHNICZNA METODA SWIEC JAPONSKICH NA PRZYKLADZIE RYNK ROLNYCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA JAKUBCZAK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The key goal of work was to study of basic information possibilities of the Japanese Candles method and to present its usefulness to make decisions on agricultural markets. The method is a result of the evolution of methods of technical analysis, which lasted for centuries. The usefulness of this method to make decisions is high, but significantly affect have the ability to interpret the observed signals and taking into account the specificities of agricultural markets.Celem opracowania bylo zbadanie podstawowych mozliwosci informacyjnych metody swiec japonskich oraz przedstawienie jej przydatnosci do podejmowania decyzji na rynkach rolnych. Zaprezentowano zwiezla ewolucje metod analizy technicznej oraz scharakteryzowano podstawowe narzedzia metody swiec japonskich, takie jak objecie bessy i hossy, pojedyncze swiece i ich formacje dajace sygnal do wycofania z rynku, doji , luki oraz formacje kontynuacji trendu.

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 310 - Safeguarding Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Risk Management and Safeguarding Standards 1. Establish administrative, technical, and physical... sensitivity of the data being processed, stored and accessed. b. The installation environment. c. The risk of... alteration. 2. Develop access procedures for unclassified computer rooms, tape libraries,...

  19. 77 FR 37804 - Rules for Investigations Relating to Global and Bilateral Safeguard Actions, Market Disruption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., Market Disruption, Trade Diversion, and Review of Relief Actions AGENCY: United States International...) governing investigations relating to global and bilateral safeguard actions, market disruption, trade...--INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARG ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND...

  20. 77 FR 51496 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Basic Safeguarding of Contractor Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... basic safeguarding of contractor information systems that contain information provided by or generated... contractor information systems. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to the Regulatory... information systems that contain or process information provided by or generated for the Government...

  1. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  2. Feasibility Study of Implementing a Mobile Collaborative Information Platform for International Safeguards Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Doehle, Joel R.; Toomey, Christopher M.

    2014-09-30

    In response to the growing pervasiveness of mobile technologies such as tablets and smartphones, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories have been exploring the potential use of these platforms for international safeguards activities. Specifically of interest are information systems (software, and accompanying servers and architecture) deployed on mobile devices to increase the situational awareness and productivity of an IAEA safeguards inspector in the field, while simultaneously reducing paperwork and pack weight of safeguards equipment. Exploratory development in this area has been met with skepticism regarding the ability to overcome technology deployment challenges for IAEA safeguards equipment. This report documents research conducted to identify potential challenges for the deployment of a mobile collaborative information system to the IAEA, and proposes strategies to mitigate those challenges.

  3. Feasibility Study of Implementing a Mobile Collaborative Information Platform for International Safeguards Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gitau, Ernest T. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doehle, Joel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toomey, Christopher M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In response to the growing pervasiveness of mobile technologies such as tablets and smartphones, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories have been exploring the potential use of these platforms for international safeguards activities. Specifically of interest are information systems (software, and accompanying servers and architecture) deployed on mobile devices to increase the situational awareness and productivity of an IAEA safeguards inspector in the field, while simultaneously reducing paperwork and pack weight of safeguards equipment. Exploratory development in this area has been met with skepticism regarding the ability to overcome technology deployment challenges for IAEA safeguards equipment. This report documents research conducted to identify potential challenges for the deployment of a mobile collaborative information system to the IAEA, and proposes strategies to mitigate those challenges.

  4. Evaluation of a Business Case for Safeguards by Design in Nuclear Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Seward, Amy M.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-12-01

    Safeguards by Design (SbD) is a well-known paradigm for consideration and incorporation of safeguards approaches and associated design features early in the nuclear facility development process. This paradigm has been developed as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and has been accepted as beneficial in many discussions and papers on NGSI or specific technologies under development within NGSI. The Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to examine the business case justification of SbD for nuclear power reactors. Ultimately, the implementation of SbD will rely on the designers of nuclear facilities. Therefore, it is important to assess the incentives which will lead designers to adopt SbD as a standard practice for nuclear facility design. This report details the extent to which designers will have compelling economic incentives to adopt SbD.

  5. 76 FR 34276 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation...

  6. 78 FR 2295 - Consideration of Approval of Application Containing Sensitive Unclassified Non-Safeguards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Consideration of Approval of Application Containing Sensitive Unclassified Non-Safeguards Information Regarding Proposed Energy Future Holdings Corporation Internal Restructuring AGENCY:...

  7. 10 CFR 73.22 - Protection of Safeguards Information: Specific requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or sabotage of source, byproduct, or special nuclear material. (2) Physical protection in transit... Safeguards Information is attended by such an individual even though the information is in fact...

  8. Enhanced AFCI Sampling, Analysis, and Safeguards Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this study includes the investigation of sampling technologies used in industry and their potential application to nuclear fuel processing. The goal is to identify innovative sampling methods using state of the art techniques that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements. Sampling and analysis of nuclear fuel recycling plant processes is required both to monitor the operations and ensure Safeguards and Security goals are met. In addition, environmental regulations lead to additional samples and analysis to meet licensing requirements. The volume of samples taken by conventional means, can restrain productivity while results samples are analyzed, require process holding tanks that are sized to meet analytical issues rather than process issues (and that create a larger facility footprint), or, in some cases, simply overwhelm analytical laboratory capabilities. These issues only grow when process flowsheets propose new separations systems and new byproduct material for transmutation purposes. Novel means of streamlining both sampling and analysis are being evaluated to increase the efficiency while meeting all requirements for information. This report addresses just a part of the effort to develop and study novel methods by focusing on the sampling and analysis of aqueous samples for metallic elements. It presents an overview of the sampling requirements, including frequency, sensitivity, accuracy, and programmatic drivers, to demonstrate the magnitude of the task. The sampling and analysis system needed for metallic element measurements is then discussed, and novel options being applied to other industrial analytical needs are presented. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry instruments are the most versatile for metallic element analyses and are thus chosen as the focus for the study. Candidate novel means of process sampling, as well as modifications that are necessary to couple such instruments to

  9. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to

  10. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

    2012-08-01

    The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEA’s statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information

  11. Organizational Culture for Safety, Security, and Safeguards in New Nuclear Power Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacic, Donald N [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will contain the following sections: Existing international norms and standards for developing the infrastructure to support new nuclear power programs The role of organizational culture and how it supports the safe, secure, and peaceful application of nuclear power Identifying effective and efficient strategies for implementing safety, security and safeguards in nuclear operations Challenges identified in the implementation of safety, security and safeguards Potential areas for future collaboration between countries in order to support nonproliferation culture

  12. Potential application of LIBS to NNSA next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barefield Ii, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Ron [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamontagne, Stephen A [DOE/NNSA/NA241; Veal, Kevin [NN/ADTR

    2009-01-01

    In a climate in which states and nations have been and perhaps currently are involved in the prol iferation of nuclear materials and technologies, advanced methodologies and improvements in current measurement techniques are needed to combat new threats and increased levels of sophistication. The Department of Energy through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has undertaken a broad review of International Safeguards. The conclusion from that review was that a comprehensive initiative to revitalize international safeguards technology and the human resource base was urgently needed to keep pace with demands and increasingly sophisticated emerging safeguards challenges. To address these challenges, NNSA launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to develop policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and infrastructure necessary to sustain the international safeguards system as its mission evolves for the next 25 years. NGSI is designed to revitalize and strengthen the U.S. safeguards technical base, recognizing that without a robust program the United States of America will not be in a position to exercise leadership or provide the necessary support to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). International safeguards as administrated by the IAEA are the primary vehicle for verifying compliance with the peaceful use and nonproliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy or LIBS has the potential to support the goals of NGSI as follows: by providing (1) automated analysis in complex nuclear processing or reprocessing facilities in real-time or near real-time without sample preparation or removal, (2) isotopic and important elemental ratio (Cm/Pu, Cm/U, ... etc) analysis, and (3) centralized remote control, process monitoring, and analysis of nuclear materials in nuclear facilities at multiple locations within the facility. Potential application of LIBS to international safeguards as

  13. Social Safeguards for REDD+ in Mexico’s Watershed Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Garduño Diaz, Philippe Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Case studies on environmental governance are essential to improve comprehension on howto implement international agreements. This study focuses on seven social safeguards relevant toREDD+. The existence of these social safeguards is examined in Mexico’s watershed managementprogram in La Sierra Madre and La Costa of Chiapas. The watershed management program is anotherPayment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme similar to REDD+. Questionnaires and interviews wereused to conduct primary research...

  14. Start-up and safeguarding of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den, M.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The safeguarding methodology currently used in the chemical industry is based on controlling the instantaneous values of the process state variables within a certain operating window, the process being brought to shut-down when the operating constraints are exceeded. It is concluded from an analysis of runaways which occurred in industrial reactors that this safeguarding methodology does not necessarily prevent reactor systems suffering from a runaway because (a) excessive amounts of unreacte...

  15. Safeguarding critical e-documents implementing a program for securing confidential information assets

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Practical, step-by-step guidance for corporations, universities and government agencies to protect and secure confidential documents and business records Managers and public officials are looking for technology and information governance solutions to "information leakage" in an understandable, concise format. Safeguarding Critical E-Documents provides a road map for corporations, governments, financial services firms, hospitals, law firms, universities and other organizations to safeguard their internal electronic documents and private communications.Provides practical, step-by-step guidance o

  16. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computin

  17. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets the cr...

  18. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter...

  19. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  20. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimold, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, Steven L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, John [GLASGOW UNIV.

    2010-09-13

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  1. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  2. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  3. Robustifying Vector Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

  4. Naive Bayesian for Email Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a method of email filter based on Naive Bayesian theory that can effectively filter junk mail and illegal mail. Furthermore, the keys of implementation are discussed in detail. The filtering model is obtained from training set of email. The filtering can be done without the users specification of filtering rules.

  5. Safeguards First Principles Initiative at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geneva Johnson

    2007-07-08

    The Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was selected as a test bed for the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI). The implementation of the SFPI is evaluated using the system effectiveness model and the program is managed under an approved MC&A Plan. The effectiveness model consists of an evaluation of the critical elements necessary to detect, deter, and/or prevent the theft or diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The modeled results indicate that the MC&A program established under this variance is still effective, without creating unacceptable risk. Extensive performance testing is conducted through the duration of the pilot to ensure the protection system is effective and no material is at an unacceptable risk. The pilot was conducted from January 1, 2007, through May 30, 2007. This paper will discuss the following activities in association with SFPI: 1. Development of Timeline 2. Crosswalk of DOE Order and SFPI 3. Peer Review 4. Deviation 5. MC&A Plan and Procedure changes 6. Changes implemented at NTS 7. Training 8. Performance Test

  6. Application of Telepresence Technologies to Nuclear Material Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.C.; Rome, J.A.

    1999-09-20

    Implementation of remote monitoring systems has become a priority area for the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international inspection regimes. For the past three years, DOE2000 has been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) initiative to develop innovative applications to exploit the capabilities of broadband networks and media integration. The aim is to enhance scientific collaboration by merging computing and communications technologies. These Internet-based telepresence technologies could be easily extended to provide remote monitoring and control for confidence building and transparency systems at nuclear facilities around the world. One of the original DOE2000 projects, the Materials Microcharacterization Collaboratory is an interactive virtual laboratory, linking seven DOE user facilities located across the US. At these facilities, external collaborators have access to scientists, data, and instrumentation, all of which are available to varying degrees using the Internet. Remote operation of the instruments varies between passive (observational) to active (direct control), in many cases requiring no software at the remote site beyond a Web browser. Live video streams are continuously available on the Web so that participants can see what is happening at a particular location. An X.509 certificate system provides strong authentication, The hardware and software are commercially available and are easily adaptable to safeguards applications.

  7. Integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitors for nuclear safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlau, Paul E.

    1994-08-01

    Radiation monitoring is one nuclear-safeguards measure used to protect against the theft of special nuclear materials (SNM) by pedestrians departing from SNM access areas. The integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitor is an ideal radiation monitor for the task when the SNM is plutonium. It achieves high sensitivity for detecting both bare and shielded plutonium by combining two types of radiation detector. One type is a neutron-chamber detector, comprising a large, hollow, neutron moderator that contains a single thermal-neutron proportional counter. The entrance wall of each chamber is thin to admit slow neutrons from plutonium contained in a moderating shield, while the other walls are thick to moderate fast neutrons from bare or lead-shielded plutonium so that they can be detected. The other type of detector is a plastic scintillator that is primarily for detecting gamma rays from small amounts of unshielded plutonium. The two types of detector are easily integrated by making scintillators part of the thick back wall of each neutron chamber or by inserting them into each chamber void. We compared the influence of the two methods of integration on detecting neutrons and gamma rays, and we examined the effectiveness of other design factors and the methods for signal detection as well.

  8. The separation efficiency of ceramic barrier filters determined at high temperatures by optical particle size and concentration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmer, G.; Umhauer, H.; Kasper, G. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Berbner, S. [Freudenberg Nonwovens, Filtration Div., Hopkinsville, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Based on the experiences of earlier investigations a special optical particle counter was developed capable of recording size and quantity (concentration) of the particles directly within a given gas particle stream under the prevailing conditions (true in-situ measurements at high temperatures). In addition to earlier investigations [1], a second type of ceramic filter media with much smaller porosity and a membrane layer on the filtration side was tested. The candles with a length of 1.5 m which are used in industrial applications were mounted in the same hot gas filtration unit already used before. Measurements on the clean gas side at temperatures of up to 1000 C have been conducted using a fraction of quartz particles as test dust. The particle size ranged between 0.3 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m. Filtration velocity (1.5 cm/s) and final pressure drop of dust cake {delta}p (1000 Pa) were kept constant. As a main result the fractional efficiency as function of temperature is discussed and compared with that obtained before for a filter media of type I: The fractional efficiency values of filter type II are at least 100 times higher than that of filter type I. (orig.)

  9. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1...... filter and the DD2 filter. It also contains functions for Unscented Kalman filters as well as several versions of particle filters. The toolbox requires MATLAB version 7, but no additional toolboxes are required....

  10. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  11. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  12. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  13. Air Filter Simulation by Geodict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-peng; Kitai Kim; Changhwan Lee; Jooyong Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discussed the relationship of filter efficiency and pressure drop with the porosity, fiber diameter and filter thickness by Geodict. We found that filter efficiency will increase when filter porosity and fiber diameter decreasing or filter thickness increasing. And the pressure drop has a linear relationship with filter thickness and non-linear relationship with filter porosity and fiber diameter. We also compared the simulation results with the real test results by TSI 3160. Although there are some differences, I think Geodict can be used to predict filter efficiency and pressure drop.

  14. Long-Term Information Management (LTIM) of Safeguards Data at Repositories: Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Risa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    One of the challenges of implementing safeguards for geological repositories will be the long-term preservation of safeguards-related data for 100 years or more. While most countries considering the construction and operation of such facilities agree that safeguards information should be preserved, there are gaps with respect to standardized requirements, guidelines, timescales, and approaches. This study analyzes those gaps and explores research to clarify stakeholder needs, identify current policies, approaches, best practices and international standards, and explores existing safeguards information management infrastructure. The study also attempts to clarify what a safeguards data classification system might look like, how long data should be retained, and how information should be exchanged between stakeholders at different phases of a repository’s life cycle. The analysis produced a variety of recommendations on what information to preserve, how to preserve it, where to store it, retention options and how to exchange information in the long term. Key findings include the use of the globally recognized international records management standard, ISO15489, for guidance on the development of information management systems, and the development of a Key Information File (KIF). The KIF could be used to identify only the most relevant, high-level safeguards information and the history of decision making about the repository. The study also suggests implementing on-site and off-site records storage in digital and physical form; developing a safeguards data classification system; long-term records retention with periodic reviews every 5 to 10 years during each phase of the repository life cycle; and establishing transition procedures well in advance so that data shepherds and records officers can transfer information with incoming facility managers effectively and efficiently. These and other recommendations are further analyzed in this study.

  15. Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-03

    The delayed gamma-ray assay technique utilizes an external neutron source (D-D, D-T, or electron accelerator-driven), and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to perform characterization of SNM materials behind shielding and in complex configurations such as a nuclear fuel assembly. High-energy delayed gamma-rays (2.5 MeV and above) observed following the active interrogation, provide a signature for identification of specific fissionable isotopes in a mixed sample, and determine their relative content. Potential safeguards applications of this method are: 1) characterization of fresh and spent nuclear fuel assemblies in wet or dry storage; 2) analysis of uranium enrichment in shielded or non-characterized containers or in the presence of a strong radioactive background and plutonium contamination; 3) characterization of bulk and waste and product streams at SNM processing plants. Extended applications can include warhead confirmation and warhead dismantlement confirmation in the arms control area, as well as SNM diagnostics for the emergency response needs. In FY16 and prior years, the project has demonstrated the delayed gamma-ray measurement technique as a robust SNM assay concept. A series of empirical and modeling studies were conducted to characterize its response sensitivity, develop analysis methodologies, and analyze applications. Extensive experimental tests involving weapons-grade Pu, HEU and depleted uranium samples were completed at the Idaho Accelerator Center and LLNL Dome facilities for various interrogation time regimes and effects of the neutron source parameters. A dedicated delayed gamma-ray response modeling technique was developed and its elements were benchmarked in representative experimental studies, including highresolution gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel at the CLAB facility in Sweden. The objective of the R&D effort in FY17 is to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the delayed gamma-ray interrogation of shielded SNM

  16. Monitoring REDD+: From Social Safeguards to Social Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A.; Andersson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Krister Andersson 1 and Ashwin Ravikumar 1 The UNFCCC requires countries that participate in the REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) program to monitor both forest carbon inventories as well as the governance of REDD+ activities and their social consequences. Exactly how this should be done, however, remains an open question. This paper addresses this question by drawing on existing research on social-ecological systems and new institutional economics. We make the case for a monitoring system that goes beyond a narrow focus of qualitative indicators of REDD+ governance that seek to provide social safeguards for international investors to create a more comprehensive monitoring system that is useful for social learning about how policies affect a variety of forest outcomes. We describe the defining characteristics of five existing approaches to monitoring REDD+ governance. Applying evaluative criteria of affordability, comprehensiveness, transparency, uncertainty specification, and explanatory potential, we analyze the extent to which each of the programs contribute to broader social learning processes in participating countries. Our analysis finds that it makes sense to move from the current narrow focus of monitoring for control to monitoring for social learning. Particularly valuable to participating REDD+ actors would be the creation of learning systems that can help policy makers to identify opportunities for policy improvements, with the ultimate goal of making REDD+ more effective, efficient, and equitable. Such learning is not possible, however, without timely and systematic collection of data on the relationships between forests and forest users. 1University of Colorado at Boulder, Environmental Studies Program, Boulder, CO 80309-0397

  17. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  18. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  19. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes that are......OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... that are universal to all studies of the effects of intervention effects. There is no published outline for instrument choice or development that is aimed at measuring outcome, was derived from broad consensus over its underlying philosophy, or includes a structured and documented critique. Therefore, a new proposal...

  20. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imagin...

  1. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  2. Cryogenic coaxial microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Tancredi, G; Meeson, P J

    2014-01-01

    At millikelvin temperatures the careful filtering of electromagnetic radiation, especially in the microwave regime, is critical for controlling the electromagnetic environment for experiments in fields such as solid-state quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We present a design for a filter consisting of small diameter dissipative coaxial cables that is straightforward to construct and provides a quantitatively predictable attenuation spectrum. We describe the fabrication process and demonstrate that the performance of the filters is in good agreement with theoretical modelling. We further perform an indicative test of the performance of the filters by making current-voltage measurements of small, underdamped Josephson Junctions at 15 mK and we present the results.

  3. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  4. The Endogenous Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Baxter; Liam Graham; Stephen Wright

    2007-01-01

    We relax the assumption of full information that underlies most dynamic general equilibrium models, and instead assume agents optimally form estimates of the states from an incomplete information set. We derive a version of the Kalman filter that is endogenous to agents' optimising decisions, and state conditions for its convergence. We show the (restrictive) conditions under which the endogenous Kalman filter will at least asymptotically reveal the true states. In general we show that incomp...

  5. Holographic interference filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Damon W.

    Holographic mirrors have wavelength-selection properties and thus qualify as a class of interference filters. Two theoretical methods for analyzing such structures are developed. The first method uses Hill's matrix method to yield closed-forms solutions in terms of the Floquet-Bloch waves within a periodic structure. A process is developed for implementing this solution method on a computer, using sparse-matrix memory allocation, numerical root-finding algorithms, and inverse-iteration techniques. It is demonstrated that Hill's matrix method is valid for the analysis of finite and multi-periodic problems. The second method of theoretical analysis is a transfer-matrix technique, which is herein termed thin-film decomposition. It is shown that the two methods of solution yield results that differ by, at worst, a fraction of a percent. Using both calculation techniques, a number of example problems are explored. Of key importance is the construction of a set of curves that are useful for the design and characterization of holographic interference filters. In addition to the theoretical development, methods are presented for the fabrication of holographic interference filters using DuPont HRF-800X001 photopolymer. Central to the exposure system is a frequency-stabilized, tunable dye laser. The types of filters fabricated include single-tone reflection filters, two types of multitone reflection filters, and reflection filters for infrared wavelengths. These filters feature index profiles that are not easily attainable through other fabrication methods. As a supplement to the body of the dissertation, the computer algorithms developed to implement Hill's matrix method and thin-film decomposition are also included as an appendix. Further appendices provide more information on Floquet's theorem and Hill's matrix method. A final appendix presents a design for an infrared laser spectrophotometer.

  6. Contactor/filter improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  7. Lessons Learned from the Development of an Example Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henry, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, IV, E. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doehle, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hampton, S. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); La Mothe, R. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nordquist, P. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zarzhitsky, D. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is interested in increasing capabilities of IAEA safeguards inspectors to access information that would improve their situational awareness on the job. A mobile information platform could potentially provide access to information, analytics, and technical and logistical support to inspectors in the field, as well as providing regular updates to analysts at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna or at satellite offices. To demonstrate the potential capability of such a system, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) implemented a number of example capabilities within a PNNL-developed precision information environment (PIE), and using a tablet as a mobile information platform. PNNL’s safeguards proof-of-concept PIE intends to; demonstrate novel applications of mobile information platforms to international safeguards use cases; demonstrate proof-of-principle capability implementation; and provide “vision” for capabilities that could be implemented. This report documents the lessons learned from this two-year development activity for the Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards (PIE-IS), describing the developed capabilities, technical challenges, and considerations for future development, so that developers working to develop a similar system for the IAEA or other safeguards agencies might benefit from our work.

  8. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  9. Coupling a Transient Solvent Extraction Module with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A past difficulty in safeguards design for reprocessing plants is that no code existed for analysis and evaluation of the design. A number of codes have been developed in the past, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the SSPM Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a much more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and the initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  10. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, David W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Birdwell, Joseph F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Gauld, Ian C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  11. Do low-cost ceramic water filters improve water security in rural South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jens; Materne, Tineke; Grüner, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the performance of a low-cost ceramic candle filter system (CCFS) for point of use (POU) drinking water treatment in the village of Hobeni, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. CCFSs were distributed in Hobeni and a survey was carried out among their users. The performance of 51 CCFSs was evaluated by dip slides and related to human factors. Already after two-thirds of their specified lifetime, none of the distributed CCFSs produced water without distinct contamination, and more than one-third even deteriorated in hygienic water quality. Besides the water source (springs were preferable compared to river or rain water), a high water throughput was the dominant reason for poor CCFS performance. A stepwise laboratory test documented the negative effects of repeated loading and ambient field temperatures. These findings suggest that not every CCFS type per se guarantees improved drinking water security and that the efficiency of low-cost systems should continuously be monitored. For this purpose, dip slides were found to be a cost-efficient alternative to standard laboratory tests. They consistently underestimated microbial counts but can be used by laypersons and hence by the users themselves to assess critical contamination of their filter systems.

  12. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  13. Fractional vortex dipole phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam

    2014-10-01

    In spatial filtering experiments, the use of vortex phase filters plays an important role in realizing isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper, we report the use of a vortex dipole phase filter in spatial filtering. A dipole made of fractional vortices is used, and its filtering characteristics are studied. It is observed that the filter performance can be tuned by varying the distance of separation between the vortices of the dipole to achieve better contrast and output noise suppression, and when this distance tends to infinity, the filter performs like a 1-D Hilbert mask. Experimental and simulation results are presented.

  14. Initial Evaluation of a New Electromechanical Cooler for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, RL

    2002-10-21

    The use of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) constitutes the current state of the art in cryogenic cooling for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which are widely used for {gamma}-ray and characteristic X-ray spectroscopy because of their excellent energy discrimination. Use of LN{sub 2} requires a liquid nitrogen supply, cumbersome storage tanks and plumbing, and the frequent attention of personnel to be sure that nitrogen levels are sufficient to maintain the detectors at a sufficiently low operating temperature. Safety hazards also are associated with the use of LN{sub 2}, both because of the potential for severe frostbite on exposure to skin and because it displaces ambient oxygen when it evaporates in closed spaces. Existing electromechanical coolers have, until now, been more expensive to procure and maintain than LN{sub 2} systems. Performance and reliability have also been serious issues because of microphonic degradation of photon energy peak resolution and cooler failures due to compressor oil becoming entrained in the refrigerant. This report describes the results of tests of a new HPGe detector cooling technology, the PerkinElmer ORTEC{reg_sign} Products X-Cooler{trademark} that, according to the manufacturer, significantly reduces the lifetime cost of the cooling system without degradation of the output signal. The manufacturer claims to have overcome cost, performance and reliability problems of older-generation electromechanical coolers, but the product has no significant history of use, and this project is the first independent evaluation of its performance for Total cost savings for the DOE and other agencies that use HPGe systems extensively for safeguards monitoring is expected to be quite significant if the new electromechanical cooler technology is shown to be reliable and if performance characteristics indicate its usefulness for this application. The technology also promises to make HPGe monitoring, characterization and detection available for

  15. Integrated Safeguards and Security Management Self-Assessment 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunford, Dan; Ramsey, Dwayne

    2005-04-01

    In 2002 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory deployed the first Integrated Safeguards and Security Management (ISSM) Self-Assessment process, designed to measure the effect of the Laboratory's ISSM efforts. This process was recognized by DOE as a best practice and model program for self-assessment and training. In 2004, the second Self-Assessment was launched. The cornerstone of this process was an employee survey that was designed to meet several objectives: (1) Ensure that Laboratory assets are protected. (2) Provide a measurement of the Laboratory's current security status that can be compared against the 2002 Self-Assessment baseline. (3) Educate all Laboratory staff about security responsibilities, tools, and practices. (4) Provide security staff with feedback on the effectiveness of security programs. (5) Provide line management with the information they need to make informed decisions about security. This 2004 Self Assessment process began in July 2004 with every employee receiving an information packet and instructions for completing the ISSM survey. The Laboratory-wide survey contained questions designed to measure awareness and conformance to policy and best practices. The survey response was excellent--90% of Berkeley Lab employees completed the questionnaire. ISSM liaisons from each division followed up on the initial survey results with individual employees to improve awareness and resolve ambiguities uncovered by the questionnaire. As with the 2002 survey, the Self-Assessment produced immediate positive results for the ISSM program and revealed opportunities for longer-term corrective actions. Results of the questionnaire provided information for organizational profiles and an institutional summary. The overall level of security protection and awareness was very high--often above 90%. Post-survey work by the ISSM liaisons and line management consistently led to improved awareness and metrics, as shown by a comparison of

  16. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.J.; Zaladonis, L.A.

    1987-07-22

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station. 6 figs.

  17. An IIR median hybrid filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  18. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  19. NOTCH FILTER USING SIMULATED INDUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.SUSAN,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of analog filters at low frequencies is not possible because the size of inductors becomes very large. In such cases, the simulated inductors using operational amplifiers are used. This paper deals with the implementation of notch filter using band pass filter which uses simulated inductor where the direct implementation of notch filter using simulated inductor is not possible because of floating inductor. The design of notch filter and the simulation done in PSPICE is presented.

  20. Improved directional-distance filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new spatial-distance weighting function.By combining the weighting function and the traditional directional-distance filter (DDF) in a novel way,a new vector filter-the adaptive distance-weighted directional-distance filter (ADWDDF)-is presented.The experimental results show that the proposed solution provides better filtering performance and preserves better image chromaticity and edge or detail information compared with the traditional DDF and some other typical vector filters.

  1. DOE HEPA filter test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  2. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and effects on nutrient intake in the Mid-South: the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, Eszter; Carroll, Kecia N; Hare, Marion E; Ringwald-Smith, Karen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Yoo, Wonsuk; Tylavsky, Frances A

    2013-05-03

    Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m(2)). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3.

  3. LSQ13fn: A type II-Plateau supernova with a possibly low metallicity progenitor that breaks the standardised candle relation

    CERN Document Server

    Polshaw, J; Dessart, L; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Inserra, C; Sim, S A; Smartt, S J; Sollerman, J; Baltay, C; Rabinowitz, D; Benetti, S; Botticella, M T; Campbell, H; Chen, T -W; Galbany, L; McKinnon, R; Nicholl, M; Smith, K W; Sullivan, M; Takats, K; Valenti, S; Young, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present optical imaging and spectroscopy of supernova (SN) LSQ13fn, a type II supernova with several hitherto-unseen properties. Although it initially showed strong symmetric spectral emission features attributable to \\ion{He}{ii}, \\ion{N}{iii}, and \\ion{C}{iii}, reminiscent of some interacting SNe, it transitioned into an object that would fall more naturally under a type II-Plateau (IIP) classification. However, its spectral evolution revealed several unusual properties: metal lines appeared later than expected, were weak, and some species were conspicuous by their absence. Furthermore, the line velocities were found to be lower than expected given the plateau brightness, breaking the SNe~IIP standardised candle method for distance estimates. We found that, in combination with a short phase of early-time ejecta-circumstellar material interaction, metal-poor ejecta, and a large progenitor radius could reasonably account for the observed behaviour. Comparisons with synthetic model spectra of SNe~IIP of a g...

  4. Safeguarding what and for whom? The role of institutional fit in shaping REDD+ in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance L. McDermott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+, and its associated multitude of global to local safeguards, as they apply to a single ejido on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. It draws on written sources and interviews to analyze the ways in which broad international norms articulated through the REDD+ safeguards, including support for human rights and sustainable livelihoods for local communities, are translated at national, regional, and local levels. Our findings indicate a wide range of perspectives on what constitutes sustainability, from strict conservation to more forest use-oriented strategies, such as community forestry and traditional Mayan shifting cultivation. These visions, in turn, shape what types of REDD+ interventions are considered a good "environmental fit," i.e., that fit the environmental problems they aim to address. Fits and misfits also occur between institutions, and play a core role in determining whose visions of sustainability prevail. We found a good fit in the case study ejido between REDD+ and the Payment for Ecosystem service (PES scheme, which sets the parameters for what counts as "sustainable livelihoods" within a strict conservation paradigm. We likewise found a good fit between REDD+ safeguards and institutions supporting local community rights to reject REDD+ projects. However, despite the strength of procedural safeguards, the parameters of the PES scheme constrained the choice of REDD+ activities available, including the possibilities of local people to work on the farm and in the forest, and hence the scope of its distributive benefits. This highlights the important, but also problematic, roles of institutional and environmental "fit" in determining whose rights are safeguarded and what is recognized as a sustainable livelihood strategy. It also calls for more proactive efforts to expand the range of REDD+ activities

  5. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOE,J.

    2007-07-08

    Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders.

  6. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  7. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  8. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  9. Possible Nuclear Safeguards Applications: Workshop on Next-Generation Laser Compton Gamma Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, J. Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for the development of a next-generation photon source white paper. The following topics are covered in these slides: Nuclear Safeguards; The Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Precise isotopic determination via NRF; UF6 Enrichment Assay; and Non-Destructive Assay of Spent Nuclear Fuel. In summary: A way to non-destructively measure precise isotopics of ~kg and larger samples has multiple uses in nuclear safeguards; Ideally this is a compact, fieldable device that can be used by international inspectors. Must be rugged and reliable; A next-generation source can be used as a testing ground for these techniques as technology develops.

  10. Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

  11. Towards integrated safeguards in Spain: implementation issues at the Juzbado plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron-Cifuentes, Oscar; Luis-Merino, Marcos [Department of Safety, ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas S.A., Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant, Ctra. Salamanca-Ledesma, km. 26, 37015 Juzbado, Salamanca (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear safeguards are implemented on the global international scale by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which aims to verify that a State uses nuclear energy for only peaceful purposes, whereas in the European Union (EU) the European Commission applies nuclear safeguards to make certain that nuclear materials are not diverted to purposes other than those for which are intended. Thus, nuclear operators in the EU are subjected to the scrutiny of two different Inspectorates with different goals. To cope with this issue, safeguards in the EU are undertaken on a joint team partnership approach (EURATOM/IAEA), designed to minimise the burden on nuclear operators whilst ensuring that both Inspectorates are able to meet the goals derived from their respective safeguards regime. Notwithstanding, nuclear safeguards implementation has largely evolved since 1950's to the present day, which implies a continuous effort to adapt the EURATOM/IAEA's partnership agreements to state-of-the art approaches without excessive burden to nuclear operators. In this context, Integrated Safeguards (IS) can be seen as the latest evolution of the IAEA's safeguards regime. IS introduces new key factors to provide credible assurance of both the non-diversion of nuclear material from declared nuclear activities and the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in the State as a whole. The adaptation of the EU States to this new regime has just been finished. Nevertheless, the way to IS has not always been straight and easy, mainly because several parties were involved in the discussions and the common minimum denominator was sometimes hard to achieve. In particular, discussions in Spain started by 2004 and finished at the end of 2009. An example is the Facility Specific Partnership Approach agreement for the Juzbado Plant, which entered into force recently in September 2009 and governs IS implementation at the Juzbado Plant. This paper briefly describes

  12. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Paul Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  13. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory safeguards and security quarterly progress report to the US Department of Energy quarter ending September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Mansur, D.L.; Ruhter, W.D.; Steele, E.; Strait, R.S.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the details of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory safeguards and securities program. This program is focused on developing new technology, such as x- and gamma-ray spectrometry, for measurement of special nuclear materials. This program supports the Office of Safeguards and Securities in the following five areas; safeguards technology, safeguards and decision support, computer security, automated physical security, and automated visitor access control systems.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory safeguards and security quarterly progress report to the US Department of Energy. Quarter ending June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D; Mansur, D.L.; Ruhter, W.D.; Strait, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    LLNL carries out safeguards and security activities for DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) and other organizations, both within and outside DOE. This document summarizes activities conducted for OSS during this quarter. LLNL is supporting OSS in six areas: safeguards technology, safeguards and materials accountability, computer security/distributed system, complex-wide access control, standardization of security systems, and information technology & security center. This document describes the activities in each of these six areas.

  16. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Juan G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the -stable and generalized- . We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the "normal" equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  17. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  18. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computing perspective. An implementation scheme for normal covolution and f

  19. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  20. Digital hum filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, R.W.; Anderson, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    Data may be overprinted by a steady-state cyclical noise (hum). Steady-state indicates that the noise is invariant with time; its attributes, frequency, amplitude, and phase, do not change with time. Hum recorded on seismic data usually is powerline noise and associated higher harmonics; leakage from full-waveform rectified cathodic protection devices that contain the odd higher harmonics of powerline frequencies; or vibrational noise from mechanical devices. The fundamental frequency of powerline hum may be removed during data acquisition with the use of notch filters. Unfortunately, notch filters do not discriminate signal and noise, attenuating both. They also distort adjacent frequencies by phase shifting. Finally, they attenuate only the fundamental mode of the powerline noise; higher harmonics and frequencies other than that of powerlines are not removed. Digital notch filters, applied during processing, have many of the same problems as analog filters applied in the field. The method described here removes hum of a particular frequency. Hum attributes are measured by discrete Fourier analysis, and the hum is canceled from the data by subtraction. Errors are slight and the result of the presence of (random) noise in the window or asynchrony of the hum and data sampling. Error is minimized by increasing window size or by resampling to a finer interval. Errors affect the degree of hum attenuation, not the signal. The residual is steady-state hum of the same frequency. ?? 1994.

  1. Magnetic-Optical Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Formicola, I; Pinto, C; Cerulo, P

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic-Optical Filter (MOF) is an instrument suited for high precision spectral measurements for its peculiar characteristics. It is employed in Astronomy and in the field of the telecommunications (it is called FADOF there). In this brief paper we summarize its fundamental structure and functioning.

  2. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  4. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...... indicate that IIR filters are the most effective in a number of situations....

  5. Everybody's Business? A Research Review of the Informal Safeguarding of Other People's Children in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Sally; Tannock, Stuart; Collicott, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews public discourses and research on the safeguarding of other people's children by adults at the neighbourhood level. There is much empirical evidence pointing to the existence of thriving informal communities of support and informal childcare for parents across the social classes. There appears to be less empirical evidence…

  6. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting..., Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  7. 76 FR 22934 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on May 11, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike..., Acting Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  8. 77 FR 3922 - Rules for Investigations Relating to Global and Bilateral Safeguards Actions, Market Disruption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ..., Market Disruption, Trade Diversion, and Review of Relief Actions AGENCY: United States International... governing investigations relating to global and bilateral safeguard actions, market disruption, trade... DISRUPTION, AND REVIEW OF RELIEF ACTIONS Section 206.1 of subpart 206, which lists the statutory...

  9. 13 CFR 108.506 - Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assets/Internal controls. 108.506 Section 108.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Requirements § 108.506 Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to... document describing your control procedures....

  10. 77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room...

  11. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room...

  12. 77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room...

  13. 77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room...

  14. 78 FR 2694 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... the Federal Register on Monday, December 17, 2012, (77 FR 74697-74698). Information regarding this... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Cancellation of the January 18, 2013, ACRS Subcommittee Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee meeting on...

  15. 77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room...

  16. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1,...

  17. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 16, 2011, Room...

  18. 77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room...

  19. 77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room...

  20. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room...

  1. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 23, 2011, Room...

  2. 78 FR 17945 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on April 10, 2013, Room...

  3. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Register on October 18, 2012 (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room...

  4. 78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room...

  5. 76 FR 27103 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 26, 2011, Room...

  6. 77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011 (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room...

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Office of International Nuclear Safeguards: Human Capital Development Activity in FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology Division; Gaudet, Rachel N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology Division

    2016-09-30

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. One of the report’s key recommendations was for DOE NNSA to launch a major new program to revitalize the international safeguards technology and human resource base. In 2007, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference, then Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced the newly created Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). NGSI consists of five program elements: policy development and outreach, concepts and approaches, technology and analytical methodologies, human capital development (HCD), and infrastructure development. This report addresses the HCD component of NGSI. The goal of the HCD component as defined in the NNSA Program Plan is “to revitalize and expand the international safeguards human capital base by attracting and training a new generation of talent.” The major objectives listed in the HCD goal include education and training, outreach to universities and professional societies, postdoctoral appointments, and summer internships at national laboratories.

  8. 77 FR 45700 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 148 (Wednesday, August 1, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 45700] [FR... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. [FR Doc. 2012-18763 Filed 7-31-12; 8:45 am]...

  9. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 148 (Wednesday, August 1, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 45699] [FR... Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... Advisor, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. [FR Doc. 2012-18757 Filed 7-31-12; 8:45 am]...

  10. Reactor antineutrino monitoring with a plastic scintillator array as a new safeguards method

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, S; Kato, Y; Nakata, R; Inoue, Y; Ito, C; Minowa, M

    2014-01-01

    We developed a segmented reactor-antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for application as a tool in nuclear safeguards inspection and performed mostly unmanned field operations at a commercial power plant reactor. At a position outside the reactor building, we measured the difference in reactor antineutrino flux above the ground when the reactor was active and inactive.

  11. 78 FR 40773 - Order Imposing Requirements for the Protection of Certain Safeguards Information (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ..., include verification of employment, education, and personal references. The licensee shall also, to the..., contractual, or licensee duties of employment. The Licensee and all other persons who obtain Safeguards...., seeking references not supplied by the individual). (b) If an individual's employment has been less...

  12. 78 FR 31886 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS [Docket : 130430427-3427-01; OMB Control : 0625-0274 (Expiration: 04/30/2016)] RIN 0625-XC006 Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard Actions on Imports From Panama AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile...

  13. INL Human Resource Development and the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, Fernando; Metcalf, Richard Royce Madison

    2010-07-01

    It is the stated goal of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to promote the development of a strengthened nuclear safeguards base, one with the potential to advance the secure and peaceful implementation of nuclear energy world-wide. To meet this goal, the initiative, among other things, has sought to develop a revitalized effort to ensure the continued availability of next generation safeguards professionals. Accordingly, this paper serves to outline the human capital building strategies taken by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in line with the NGSI. Various components are presented in detail, including INL’s efforts directed at university outreach, in particular the laboratory’s summer internship program, along with the development of various innovative training programs and long-term oriented strategies for student professional development. Special highlights include a video training series, developed by INL in cooperation with LLNL and other laboratories, which sought to expose students and entry-level professionals to the concept and practice of international nuclear safeguards.

  14. The Case for Social Safeguards in a Post-2012 Agreement on REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kelly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy need and legal case for including social safeguards in a post-2012 agreement on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD. One serious charge laid against so called 'market-based' approaches to REDD is the potential for forest dwelling communities to be dispossessed from their land and to lose other rights afforded to them in international human rights law. Rather than criticise current REDD proposals as being inherently negative for forest dwelling communities, this paper asks firstly, whether REDD can potentially work in their favour and secondly, how such an opportunity could be realised in a future REDD agreement. After reviewing current REDD proposals and related threats, this paper argues for the inclusion of social safeguards within the post-2012 agreement on REDD. The primary cause of forest dwelling communities vulnerability is not REDD itself but the potential for REDD to operate in the absence of social safeguards. This paper presents four mutually reinforcing safeguards to protect forest dwelling communities in the context of a future agreement on REDD. This paper finds that a REDD market which requires minimum international standards of social protection is likely to benefit forest dwelling communities.

  15. From "Public Health" to "Safeguarding Children": British Health Visiting in Policy, Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the location of British health visiting in contemporary policy discourses concerned with public health and safeguarding children. It argues that professional identity and orientation can be understood through health visiting's long history of public health work with children and families, which has included an engagement with…

  16. 76 FR 18586 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Revised Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... discussion on the Commission Paper on Emergency Planning for Small Modular Reactors, scheduled to be held on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Revised Meeting Notice The Agenda for the 582nd...

  17. 77 FR 7618 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on March 7... the Chairman as necessary to facilitate the conduct of the meeting, persons planning to attend...

  18. 75 FR 13611 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Planning and Procedures Subcommittee will hold a meeting on April 7, 2010, at Room T2-B1, at 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to...

  19. 75 FR 1830 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Planning and Procedures Subcommittee will hold a meeting on February 3, 2010, Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to...

  20. 75 FR 7634 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Planning and Procedures Subcommittee will hold a meeting on March 3, 2010, Room T2-B1, at 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  2. Child Ecology: Dimensions to Safeguard the Development and Education of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Klaus

    A human-ecological dimension is needed to safeguard the development of children. This "child ecology" will protect children against alienating forces of modern civilization caused by rapid social, cultural, and technical changes. The human-ecological dimension is a contribution toward regaining an overall framework for human self-interpretation…

  3. Human Rights Safeguards in Criminal Procedure——An interview with Prof. Fan Chongyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The issue relating to human rights safeguards in criminal procedure has of late attracted extensive attention. A Human Rights reporter recently interviewed Prof. Fan Chongyi of China University of Political Science and Law on the issue. Following are excerpts of the interview.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1112 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1112 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards. (a) When welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame near...

  5. In-Born Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Safeguards Use at Gas-Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward,R.; Rosenthal,M.

    2009-07-12

    Global expansion of nuclear power has made the need for improved safeguards measures at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) imperative. One technology under consideration for safeguards applications is Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFIDs). RFIDs have the potential to increase IAEA inspector"s efficiency and effectiveness either by reducing the number of inspection visits necessary or by reducing inspection effort at those visits. This study assesses the use of RFIDs as an integral component of the "Option 4" safeguards approach developed by Bruce Moran, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for a model GCEP [1]. A previous analysis of RFIDs was conducted by Jae Jo, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which evaluated the effectiveness of an RFID tag applied by the facility operator [2]. This paper presents a similar evaluation carried out in the framework of Jo’s paper, but it is predicated on the assumption that the RFID tag is applied by the manufacturer at the birth of the cylinder, rather than by the operator. Relevant diversion scenarios are examined to determine if RFIDs increase the effectiveness and/ or efficiency of safeguards in these scenarios. Conclusions on the benefits offered to inspectors by using in-born RFID tagging are presented.

  6. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horak, Karl Emanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaChance, Jeffrey L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tolk, Keith Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, Donnie Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  7. Startup strategy design and safeguarding of industrial adiabatic tubular reactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    The safeguarding methodology of chemical plants is usually based on controlling the instantaneous values of process state variables within a certain operating window, the process being brought to shutdown when operating constraints are exceeded. This method does not necessarily prevent chemical reac

  8. Start-up and safeguarding of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The safeguarding methodology currently used in the chemical industry is based on controlling the instantaneous values of the process state variables within a certain operating window, the process being brought to shut-down when the operating constraints are exceeded. It is concluded from an analysis

  9. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper S. E.; .; Worrall, L.; Pickett, C.; Bachner, K.; Queirolo, A.

    2014-08-08

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, the U.S. Department of State, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a a workshop on the subject of ”Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation.” The workshop was held at the Vienna International Centre in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. The workshop participants included software and hardware experts from national laboratories, industry, government, and IAEA member states who were specially selected by the workshop organizers based on their experience with software that is developed for the control and operation of safeguards instrumentation. The workshop included presentations, to orient the participants to the IAEA Department of Safeguards software activities related to instrumentation data collection and processing, and case studies that were designed to inspire discussion of software development, use, maintenance, and upgrades in breakout sessions and to result in recommendations for effective software practices and management. This report summarizes the results of the workshop.

  10. 78 FR 56541 - Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... September 12, 2013 Part IV Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Chapter I Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 177 / Thursday, September 12, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] COMMODITY FUTURES...

  11. Development of DWDM Filter Manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DWDM technology is developing rapidly. Thin film narrow bandpass filter plays an important role in this field. This article presents some achievements in developing the DWDM narrow bandpass filters and also describes the results achieved by us.

  12. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  13. Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) through a Common Global Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badwan, Faris M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Michael Conrad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pshakin, Gennady [Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-23

    Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with power levels significantly less than the currently standard 1000 to 1600-MWe reactors have been proposed as a potential game changer for future nuclear power. SMRs may offer a simpler, more standardized, and safer modular design by using factory built and easily transportable components. Additionally, SMRs may be more easily built and operated in isolated locations, and may require smaller initial capital investment and shorter construction times. Because many SMRs designs are still conceptual and consequently not yet fixed, designers have a unique opportunity to incorporate updated design basis threats, emergency preparedness requirements, and then fully integrate safety, physical security, and safeguards/material control and accounting (MC&A) designs. Integrating safety, physical security, and safeguards is often referred to as integrating the 3Ss, and early consideration of safeguards and security in the design is often referred to as safeguards and security by design (SSBD). This paper describes U.S./Russian collaborative efforts toward developing an internationally accepted common approach for implementing SSBD/3Ss for SMRs based upon domestic requirements, and international guidance and requirements. These collaborative efforts originated with the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security working group established under the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission during the 2009 Presidential Summit. Initial efforts have focused on review of U.S. and Russian domestic requirements for Security and MC&A, IAEA guidance for security and MC&A, and IAEA requirements for international safeguards. Additionally, example SMR design features that can enhance proliferation resistance and physical security have been collected from past work and reported here. The development of a U.S./Russian common approach for SSBD/3Ss should aid the designer of SMRs located anywhere in the world. More specifically, the application of this approach may

  14. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy and Effects on Nutrient Intake in the Mid-South: The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2. Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001 from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3.

  15. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  16. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  17. Regulated complex assembly safeguards the fidelity of Sleeping Beauty transposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Diana; Nagy, Enikö Éva; Kaufman, Christopher D.; Singh, Manvendra; Yant, Steve; Wang, Jichang; Dalda, Anna; Kay, Mark A.; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end. This extra layer of regulation suppresses aberrant, potentially genotoxic recombination activities, and the mobilization of internally deleted copies in the IR/DR subgroup, including Sleeping Beauty (SB). In contrast, internally deleted sequences (MITEs) are preferred substrates of mariner transposition, and this process is associated with the emergence of Hsmar1-derived miRNA genes in the human genome. Translating IR/DR regulation to in vitro evolution yielded an SB transposon version with optimized substrate recognition (pT4). The ends of SB transposons excised by a K248A excision+/integration- transposase variant are processed by hairpin resolution, representing a link between phylogenetically, and mechanistically different recombination reactions, such as V(D)J recombination and transposition. Such variants generated by random mutation might stabilize transposon-host interactions or prepare the transposon for a horizontal transfer. PMID:27913727

  18. Regulated complex assembly safeguards the fidelity of Sleeping Beauty transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Diana; Nagy, Enikö Éva; Kaufman, Christopher D; Singh, Manvendra; Yant, Steve; Wang, Jichang; Dalda, Anna; Kay, Mark A; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-09

    The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end. This extra layer of regulation suppresses aberrant, potentially genotoxic recombination activities, and the mobilization of internally deleted copies in the IR/DR subgroup, including Sleeping Beauty (SB). In contrast, internally deleted sequences (MITEs) are preferred substrates of mariner transposition, and this process is associated with the emergence of Hsmar1-derived miRNA genes in the human genome. Translating IR/DR regulation to in vitro evolution yielded an SB transposon version with optimized substrate recognition (pT4). The ends of SB transposons excised by a K248A excision(+)/integration(-) transposase variant are processed by hairpin resolution, representing a link between phylogenetically, and mechanistically different recombination reactions, such as V(D)J recombination and transposition. Such variants generated by random mutation might stabilize transposon-host interactions or prepare the transposon for a horizontal transfer.

  19. Concerns when designing a safeguards approach for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    In Sweden, the construction of an encapsulation plant and a geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel is planned to start within the next ten years. Due to Sweden's international agreements on non-proliferation, the Swedish safeguards regime must be extended to include these facilities. The geological repository has some unique features, which present the safeguards system with unprecedented challenges. These features include, inter alia, the long period of time that the facility will contain nuclear material and that the disposed nuclear material will be very difficult to access, implying that physical verification of its presence in the repository is not foreseen. This work presents the available techniques for creating a safeguards system for the backend of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. Important issues to consider in the planning and implementation of the safeguards system have been investigated, which in some cases has led to an identification of areas needing further research. The results include three proposed options for a safeguards approach, which have been evaluated on the basis of the safeguards authorities' requirements. Also, the evolution and present situation of the work carried out in connection to safeguards for geological repositories has been compiled

  20. Filtered cathodic arc source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  1. Web Content Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Hidalgo, José María; Puertas Sanz, Enrique; Carrero García, Francisco Manuel; Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel de

    2009-01-01

    Across the years, Internet has evolved from an academic network to a truly communication medium, reaching impressive levels of audience and becoming a billionaire business. Many of our working, studying, and entertainment activities are nowadays overwhelmingly limited if we get disconnected from the net of networks. And of course, with the use comes abuse. The World Wide Web features a wide variety of content that are harmful for children or just inappropriate in the workplace. Web filtering ...

  2. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  3. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  4. Experimental investigation of dust deposit within ceramic filter medium during filtration-cleaning cycles%循环过程中陶瓷滤材内粉尘沉积规律实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟化昌; 姬忠礼; 孙冬梅; 崔立山

    2009-01-01

    The penetration and deposit of particles within the medium is thought to be one reason that the residual pressure drop ot the rigid ceramic filter Increase with cycle number.In this study,the change in the microstructure of a single layer ceramic filter candle during fiItration-cleaning cycle was observed by scanning clectron microscope(SEM)and thc resistance property of the filter was monitored accordingly.The experimentaI results show that there exists a serious dust deposit within the filter medium,especially at the surface region.This should be responsible tbr the decrease of the filter permeability.The deposit law of dust in the filter medium during filtration-cleaning cycle was then studied by measuring the deposit depth.the deposit amount.the particles distribution within the medium,the sIZe distribution of deposited particles,and so on.Particles migration and fine particles penetration were tound to be the main reasons,for which dust deposit within the filter medium became aggravated with cycle number.Based on a ditlerential form of Ergun equation,an expression for the pressure drop of a used ceramic filter was developed with a good a~cement with experimental results.Then,the effect of dust deposit on the residual pressure drop was studied at the diffcrent face velocities and dust sizes.It was found that faee vclocity and dust size significantly Intluence dust deposit within filter medium,and then the operation performance of the filter.

  5. Exhaust fumes of candles: Emissions of PCDD/F, PAH and short-chain aldehydes; Bestimmung und Bewertung der Emissionen von PCDD/PCDF, PAK und kurzkettigen Aldehyden in den Brandgasen von Kerzen. Untersuchung von Wachsen und Dochten - Bestimmung der Emissionen aus den Brandgasen von Kerzen - Toxikologische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwind, K.H. [Oekometric GmbH, Bayreuther Inst. fuer Umweltforschung, Bayreuth (Germany); Hosseinpour, J. [Oekometric GmbH, Bayreuther Inst. fuer Umweltforschung, Bayreuth (Germany); Fiedler, H. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany); Lau, C. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany); Hutzinger, O. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Exhaust fumes of paraffin, beeswax and stearin candles without any further paint or decorative element were analysed for the toxicological important substance classes of PCDD/PCDF, PAH and short chain aldehydes. The candle waxes and wicks were investigated for chlorinated dioxins, furans and some known precursors. Toxicological risk assessment shows that emissions of the investigated candles are much lower than all administrative limitation values - even under `worst case conditions`. Thus, they do not produce a toxicological risk for human health. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Untersuchungsprogrammes zur Schadstoffemission von Paraffin-, Stearin- und Bienenwachskerzen ohne Farb- und Lackbeimischungen wurden sowohl die Wachse und Dochte als auch die Brandgase dieser Kerzen auf die toxikologisch besonders relevanten Schadstoffklassen der PCDD/PCDF, PAK und kurzkettigen Aldehyde untersucht. Die toxikologische Bewertung kommt selbst bei einem angenommenen `worst case`-Szenario und unter Beruecksichtigung von geltenden Grenz- und Richtwerten zu dem Ergebnis, dass von den untersuchten Kerzen kein zusaetzliches Gesundheitsrisiko ausgeht. (orig.)

  6. Approximately liner phase IIR digital filter banks

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Ćertić; M. D. Lutovac; L. D. Milić

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM) are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with li...

  7. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  8. Robust Kriged Kalman Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baingana, Brian; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Mateos, Gonzalo; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-11-11

    Although the kriged Kalman filter (KKF) has well-documented merits for prediction of spatial-temporal processes, its performance degrades in the presence of outliers due to anomalous events, or measurement equipment failures. This paper proposes a robust KKF model that explicitly accounts for presence of measurement outliers. Exploiting outlier sparsity, a novel l1-regularized estimator that jointly predicts the spatial-temporal process at unmonitored locations, while identifying measurement outliers is put forth. Numerical tests are conducted on a synthetic Internet protocol (IP) network, and real transformer load data. Test results corroborate the effectiveness of the novel estimator in joint spatial prediction and outlier identification.

  9. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  10. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  11. 76 FR 5220 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... small modular reactor applications. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future...

  12. From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1989-01-01

    A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2......) The study of the new digital filtertype has led to design formulas for interdigital transmission line filters that are very simple compared to the hitherto known formulas. The accuracy is the same or better....

  13. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Developing Our Human Capital FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Rebecca S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hawkins Erpenbeck, Heather [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report documents the accomplishments of the Safeguards HCD Fiscal Year 2015 (FY15) Project Work Plan, highlighting LANL’s work as well as the accomplishments of our NGSI-sponsored students, graduate and postdoctoral fellows, and mid-career professionals during this past year. While fiscal year 2015 has been a year of transition in the Human Capital Development area for LANL, we are working to revitalize our efforts to promote and develop Human Capital in Safeguards and Non-proliferation and are looking forward to implementing new initiatives in the coming fiscal year and continuing to transition the knowledge of staff who have been on assignment at IAEA and Headquarters to improve our support to HCD.

  14. Using a dual safeguard web-based interactive teaching approach in an introductory physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lie-Ming; Li, Bin; Luo, Ying

    2015-06-01

    We modified the Just-in-Time Teaching approach and developed a dual safeguard web-based interactive (DGWI) teaching system for an introductory physics course. The system consists of four instructional components that improve student learning by including warm-up assignments and online homework. Student and instructor activities involve activities both in the classroom and on a designated web site. An experimental study with control groups evaluated the effectiveness of the DGWI teaching method. The results indicate that the DGWI method is an effective way to improve students' understanding of physics concepts, develop students' problem-solving abilities through instructor-student interactions, and identify students' misconceptions through a safeguard framework based on questions that satisfy teaching requirements and cover all of the course material. The empirical study and a follow-up survey found that the DGWI method increased student-teacher interaction and improved student learning outcomes.

  15. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  16. Is Safety in the Eye of the Beholder? Safeguards in Research With Adults With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Kim, Carolyn I; LoBraico, Emily J; Prather, Ellis M; Olick, Robert S

    2016-12-01

    Human subjects research has a core commitment to participant well-being. This obligation is accentuated for once exploited populations such as adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about the public's views on appropriate safeguards for this population. We surveyed adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members to compare views on safeguards. We found many points of convergence of views, particularly for decision-making and participation. One trend is that adults with intellectual disability perceive greater safety in being engaged directly in recruitment, and recruitment by specific individuals. Researchers and IRB members need to consider community views to facilitate the safe and respectful inclusion of adults with intellectual disability.

  17. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology; development of web based nuclear material accounting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. T.; Choi, S. H.; Choi, S. J. [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop the web-based digital image processing system with the client/server architecture based on TCP/IP to be able to search and manage image data at the remote place. This system provides a nuclear facility with the ability to track the movement of nuclear material and to control and account nuclear material at anywhere and anytime. Also, this system will be helpful to increase the efficiency of safeguards affairs. The developed web-based digital image processing system for tracking the movement of nuclear material and MC and A can be applied to DUPIC facility. The result of this project will eventually contribute to similar nuclear facilities as well as the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards. In addition, it will be helpful to enhance international confidence build-up in the peaceful use of spent fuel material. 15 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  18. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  19. New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2013-04-01

    An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

  20. Safeguard Measures for Implementation of New Round of Land Consolidation Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chen; LIU Xin-feng; PENG Zhe; SI Tao

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the current situation of security system for implementation of China’s land consolidation planning. The prominent problems in the process of implementing safeguard measures for planning are summarized as follows: the guiding ideology for planning formulation is imperfect; the legal basis is weak, and administrative means are not sound; the economic security mechanism is not brought into full play, and the social security measures still need to be further deepened; the technical safeguard measures are short. From laws and regulations, administrative management, economic security, social supervision, technology management and other aspects, we establish the scientific security system for implementation of land consolidation planning; put forth the recommendations for guaranteeing the implementation of planning in China.