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Sample records for candle burnup scheme

  1. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifah, Maryam, E-mail: maryam.afifah210692@gmail.com; Su’ud, Zaki [Nuclear Research Group, FMIPA, Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Miura, Ryosuke; Takaki, Naoyuki [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Sekimoto, H. [Emerritus Prof. of Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don’t need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  2. 'CANDLE' burnup regime after LWR regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Akito

    2008-01-01

    CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) burnup strategy can derive many merits. From safety point of view, the change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and the core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission without the conventional reprocessing and enrichment. If the LWR produced energy of X Joules, the CANDLE reactor can produce about 50X Joules from the depleted uranium left at the enrichment facility for the LWR fuel. If we can say LWRs have produced energy sufficient for full 20 years, we can produce the energy for 1000 years by using the CANDLE reactors with depleted uranium. We need not mine any uranium ore, and do not need reprocessing facility. The burnup of spent fuel becomes 10 times. Therefore, the spent fuel amount per produced energy is also reduced to one-tenth. The details of the scenario of CANDLE burnup regime after LWR regime will be presented at the symposium. (author)

  3. Application of Candle burnup to small fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Satoshi, T.

    2004-01-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. An equilibrium state was obtained for a large fast reactor (core radius is 2 m and reflector thickness is 0.5 m) successfully by using a newly developed direct analysis code. However, it is difficult to apply this burnup strategy to small reactors, since its neutron leakage becomes large and neutron economy becomes worse. Fuel enrichment should be increased in order to sustain the criticality. However, higher enrichment of fresh fuel makes the CANDLE burnup difficult. We try to find some small reactor designs, which can realize the CANDLE burnup. We have successfully find a design, which is not the CANDLE burnup in the strict meaning, but satisfies qualitatively its characteristics mentioned at the top of this abstract. In the final paper, the general description of CANDLE burnup and some results on the obtained small fast reactor design are presented.(author)

  4. Light a CANDLE. An innovative burnup strategy of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2005-11-01

    CANDLE is a new burnup strategy for nuclear reactors, which stands for Constant Axial Shape of Neutron Flux, Nuclide Densities and Power Shape During Life of Energy Production. When this candle-like burnup strategy is adopted, although the fuel is fixed in a reactor core, the burning region moves, at a speed proportionate to the power output, along the direction of the core axis without changing the spatial distribution of the number density of the nuclides, neutron flux, and power density. Excess reactivity is not necessary for burnup and the shape of the power distribution and core characteristics do not change with the progress of burnup. It is not necessary to use control rods for the control of the burnup. This booklet described the concept of the CANDLE burnup strategy with basic explanations of excess neutrons and its specific application to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and a fast reactor with excellent neutron economy. Supplementary issues concerning the initial core and high burnup were also referred. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Observations on the CANDLE burn-up in various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2007-01-01

    We have looked at all geometrical conditions under which an auto catalytically propagating burnup wave (CANDLE burn-up) is possible. Thereby, the Sine Gordon equation finds a new place in the burn-up theory of nuclear fission reactors. For a practical reactor design the axially burning 'spaghetti' reactor and the azimuthally burning 'pancake' reactor, respectively, seem to be the most promising geometries for a practical reactor design. Radial and spherical burn-waves in cylindrical and spherical geometry, respectively, are principally impossible. Also, the possible applicability of such fission burn-waves on the OKLO-phenomenon and the GEOREACTOR in the center of Earth, postulated by Herndon, is discussed. A fast CANDLE-reactor can work with only depleted uranium. Therefore, uranium mining and uranium-enrichment are not necessary anymore. Furthermore, it is also possible to dispense with reprocessing because the uranium utilization factor is as high as about 40%. Thus, this completely new reactor type can open a new era of reactor technology

  6. Study on the application of CANDLE burnup strategy to several nuclear reactors. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H13-002 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2005-03-01

    The CANDLE burnup strategy is a new reactor burnup concept, where the distributions of fuel nuclide densities, neutron flux, and power density move with the same constant speed from bottom to top (or from top to bottom) of the core and without any change in their shapes. Therefore, any burnup control mechanisms are not required, and reactor characteristics do not change along burnup. The reactor is simple and safe. When this burnup scheme is applied to some neutron rich fast reactors, either natural or depleted uranium can be utilized as fresh fuel after second core and the burnup of discharged fuel is about 40%. It means that the nuclear energy can be utilized for many hundreds years without new mining, enrichment and reprocessing, and the amount of spent fuel can be reduced considerably. However, in order to perform such a high fuel burnup some innovative technologies should be developed. Though development of innovative fuel will take a lot of time, intermediate re-cladding may be easy to be employed. Compared to fast reactors, application of CANDLE burnup to prismatic fuel high-temperature gas cooled reactors is very easy. In this report the application of CANDLE burnup to both these types of reactors are studied. (author)

  7. Study on small long-life LBE cooled fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up. Part 1. Steady state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Mingyu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Small long-life reactor is required for some local areas. CANDLE small long-life fast reactor which does not require control rods, mining, enrichment and reprocessing plants can satisfy this demand. In a CANDLE reactor, the shapes of neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power density distributions remain constant and only shift in axial direction. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is used as coolant. From steady state analysis, we obtained the burn-up velocity, output power distribution, core temperature distribution, etc. The burn-up velocity is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long-life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40%. (author)

  8. Theory analysis and simple calculation of travelling wave burnup scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Yu Hong; Gang Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Travelling wave burnup scheme is a new burnup scheme that breeds fuel locally just before it burns. Based on the preliminary theory analysis, the physical imagine was found. Through the calculation of a R-z cylinder travelling wave reactor core with ERANOS code system, the basic physical characteristics of this new burnup scheme were concluded. The results show that travelling wave reactor is feasible in physics, and there are some good features in the reactor physics. (authors)

  9. Burnup performance of rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel in small pebble bed reactor with accumulative fuel loading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanullang, Irwan Liapto; Obara, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Burnup performance using ROX fuel in PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme was analyzed. • Initial excess reactivity was suppressed by reducing 235 U enrichment in the startup condition. • Negative temperature coefficient was achieved in all condition of PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel. • Core lifetime of PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel was shorter than with UO 2 fuel. • In PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel, achieved discharged burnup can be as high as that for UO 2 fuel. - Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has proposed rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel as a new, once-through type fuel concept. Here, burnup performance using ROX fuel was simulated in a pebble bed reactor with an accumulative fuel loading scheme. The MVP-BURN code was used to simulate the burnup calculation. Fuel of 5 g-HM/pebble with 20% 235 U enrichment was selected as the optimum composition. Discharged burnup could reach up to 218 GWd/t, with a core lifetime of about 8.4 years. However, high excess reactivity occurred in the initial condition. Initial fuel enrichment was therefore reduced from 20% to 4.65% to counter the initial excess reactivity. The operation period was reduced by the decrease of initial fuel enrichment, but the maximum discharged burnup was 198 GWd/t. Burnup performance of ROX fuel in this reactor concept was compared with that of UO 2 fuel obtained previously. Discharged burnup for ROX fuel in the PBR with an accumulative fuel loading scheme was as high as UO 2 fuel. Maximum power density could be lowered by introducing ROX fuel compared to UO 2 fuel. However, PBR core lifetime was shorter with ROX fuel than with UO 2 fuel. A negative temperature coefficient was achieved for both UO 2 and ROX fuels throughout the operation period.

  10. Improvement of burnup analysis for pebble bed reactors with an accumulative fuel loading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanullang, Irwan Liapto; Obara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Given the limitations of natural uranium resources, innovative nuclear power plant concepts that increase the efficiency of nuclear fuel utilization are needed. The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) shows some potential to achieve high efficiency in natural uranium utilization. To simplify the PBR concept, PBR with an accumulation fuel loading scheme was introduced and the Fuel Handling System (FHS) removed. In this concept, the pebble balls are added little by little into the reactor core until the pebble balls reach the top of the reactor core, and all pebble balls are discharged from the core at the end of the operation period. A code based on the MVP/MVP-BURN method has been developed to perform an analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. The optimum fuel composition was found using the code for high burnup performance. Previous efforts provided several motivations to improve the burnup performance: First, some errors in the input code were corrected. This correction, and an overall simplification of the input code, was implemented for easier analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. Second, the optimum fuel design had been obtained in the infinite geometry. To improve the optimum fuel composition, a parametric survey was obtained by varying the amount of Heavy Metal (HM) uranium per pebble and the degree of uranium enrichment. Moreover, an entire analysis of the parametric survey was obtained in the finite geometry. The results show that improvements in the fuel composition can lead to more accurate analysis with the code. (author)

  11. Biases and statistical errors in Monte Carlo burnup calculations: an unbiased stochastic scheme to solve Boltzmann/Bateman coupled equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumonteil, E.; Diop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    External linking scripts between Monte Carlo transport codes and burnup codes, and complete integration of burnup capability into Monte Carlo transport codes, have been or are currently being developed. Monte Carlo linked burnup methodologies may serve as an excellent benchmark for new deterministic burnup codes used for advanced systems; however, there are some instances where deterministic methodologies break down (i.e., heavily angularly biased systems containing exotic materials without proper group structure) and Monte Carlo burn up may serve as an actual design tool. Therefore, researchers are also developing these capabilities in order to examine complex, three-dimensional exotic material systems that do not contain benchmark data. Providing a reference scheme implies being able to associate statistical errors to any neutronic value of interest like k(eff), reaction rates, fluxes, etc. Usually in Monte Carlo, standard deviations are associated with a particular value by performing different independent and identical simulations (also referred to as 'cycles', 'batches', or 'replicas'), but this is only valid if the calculation itself is not biased. And, as will be shown in this paper, there is a bias in the methodology that consists of coupling transport and depletion codes because Bateman equations are not linear functions of the fluxes or of the reaction rates (those quantities being always measured with an uncertainty). Therefore, we have to quantify and correct this bias. This will be achieved by deriving an unbiased minimum variance estimator of a matrix exponential function of a normal mean. The result is then used to propose a reference scheme to solve Boltzmann/Bateman coupled equations, thanks to Monte Carlo transport codes. Numerical tests will be performed with an ad hoc Monte Carlo code on a very simple depletion case and will be compared to the theoretical results obtained with the reference scheme. Finally, the statistical error propagation

  12. Design study on small CANDLE reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, H; Yan, M [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. Here important points are that the solid fuel is fixed at each position and that any movable burnup reactivity control mechanisms such as control rods are not required. This burnup strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors especially for high burnup reactors. The transportation and storage of replacing fuels become easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. In our previous works it is appeared that application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. The average burnup of the spent fuel is about 40% that is equivalent to 40% utilization of the natural uranium without the reprocessing and enrichment. This reactor can be realized for large reactor, since the neutron leakage becomes small and its neutron economy becomes improved. In the present paper we try to design small CANDLE reactor whose performance is similar to the large reactor by increasing its fuel volume ration of the core, since its performance is strongly required for local area usage. Small long life reactor is required for some local areas. Such a characteristic that only natural uranium is required after second core is also strong merit for this case. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is

  13. Design study on small CANDLE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Yan, M.

    2007-01-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. Here important points are that the solid fuel is fixed at each position and that any movable burnup reactivity control mechanisms such as control rods are not required. This burnup strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors especially for high burnup reactors. The transportation and storage of replacing fuels become easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. In our previous works it is appeared that application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. The average burnup of the spent fuel is about 40% that is equivalent to 40% utilization of the natural uranium without the reprocessing and enrichment. This reactor can be realized for large reactor, since the neutron leakage becomes small and its neutron economy becomes improved. In the present paper we try to design small CANDLE reactor whose performance is similar to the large reactor by increasing its fuel volume ration of the core, since its performance is strongly required for local area usage. Small long life reactor is required for some local areas. Such a characteristic that only natural uranium is required after second core is also strong merit for this case. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is

  14. Flammability Parameters of Candles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balog Karol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the assessment of selected fire safety characteristics of candles. Weight loss of a candle during the burning process, candle burning rate, soot index, heat release rate and yield of carbon oxides were determined. Soot index was determined according to EN 15426: 2007 - Candles - Specification for Sooting Behavior. All samples met the prescribed amount of produced soot. Weight loss, heat release rate and the yield of carbon oxides were determined for one selected sample. While yield of CO increased during the measurement, the yield of CO2 decreased by half in 40 minutes.

  15. Burnup analysis of a peu a peu fuel-loading scheme in a pebble bed reactor using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwanto, Dwi; Obara, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The design of a pebble bed reactor can be simplified by removing the unloading device from the system. For this reactor design, a suitable fuel-loading scheme is the peu a peu (little by little) fueling scheme. In the peu a peu mode, there is no unloading device; as such, the fuels are never discharged and remain at the bottom of the core during reactor operation. This means that the burnup cycle and reactivity is controlled by the addition of fuel. In this study, the Monte Carlo method is used to perform calculations with high accuracy. However, the calculation procedures for the peu a peu mode using the Monte Carlo method require lot of steps. Therefore, a computer code to automate the process of the peu a peu fuel-loading scheme based on the Monte Carlo MVP/MVP-BURN code has been developed using Fortran. Using the method developed in this study, burnup characteristics for a reference design of a small 20-MW pebble bed reactor with the peu a peu concept were analyzed. (author)

  16. Comparative study for axial and radial shuffling scheme effect on the performance of Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors with natural uranium as fuel cycle input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki Suud; Indah Rosidah; Maryam Afifah; Ferhat Aziz; Sekimoto, H.

    2013-01-01

    Full text:Comparative study for the Design of Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors with natural uranium as fuel cycle input using special radial shuffling strategy and axial direction modified CANDLE burn-up scheme has been performed. The reactors utilizes UN-PuN as fuel, Eutectic Pb-Bi as coolant, and can be operated without refueling for 10 years in each batch. Reactor design optimization is performed to utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This reactor subdivided into 6-10 regions with equal volume in radial directions. The natural uranium is initially put in region 1, and after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region 2 and the region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all regions. The calculation has been done by using SRAC-Citation system code and JENDL-3.2 library. The effective multiplication factor change increases monotonously during 10 years reactor operation time. There is significant power distribution change in the central part of the core during the BOC and the EOC in the radial shuffling system. It is larger than that in the case of modified CANDLE case which use axial direction burning region move. The burn-up level of fuel is slowly grows during the first 15 years but then grow faster in the rest of burn-up history. This pattern is a little bit different from the case of modified CANDLE burn-up scheme in Axial direction in which the slow growing burn-up period is relatively longer almost half of the burn-up history. (author)

  17. Innovative Energy Planning and Nuclear Option Using CANDLE Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, H; Nagata, A; Mingyu, Y [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A new reactor burn-up strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move upward (or downward) along its core axis. This burn-up strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burn-up is theoretically zero for ideal equilibrium condition, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed during life of operation. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors. The infinite-medium neutron multiplication factor of replacing fuel is less than unity. Therefore, the transportation and storage of replacing fuels becomes easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. Small long life fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up concept has investigated with depleted uranium as a replacing fuel. Both core diameter and height are chosen to be 2.0 m, and the thermal power is 200 MW. Lead-bismuth is used as a coolant, and nitride (enriched N-15) fuel are employed. The velocity of burning region along burn-up is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40 percent. It is about ten times of light water reactor burn-up. The spent fuel volume becomes one-tenth of light water reactor spent fuel. If a light water reactor with a certain power output has been operated for 40 years, the CANDLE reactor can be operated for 2000 years with the same power output and with only depleted uranium left after fuel production for the light water reactor. The system does not need any reprocessing or enrichment. Therefore, the reactor operation becomes very safe, the waste

  18. Innovative Energy Planning and Nuclear Option Using CANDLE Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Nagata, A.; Mingyu, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A new reactor burn-up strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move upward (or downward) along its core axis. This burn-up strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burn-up is theoretically zero for ideal equilibrium condition, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed during life of operation. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors. The infinite-medium neutron multiplication factor of replacing fuel is less than unity. Therefore, the transportation and storage of replacing fuels becomes easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. Small long life fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up concept has investigated with depleted uranium as a replacing fuel. Both core diameter and height are chosen to be 2.0 m, and the thermal power is 200 MW. Lead-bismuth is used as a coolant, and nitride (enriched N-15) fuel are employed. The velocity of burning region along burn-up is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40 percent. It is about ten times of light water reactor burn-up. The spent fuel volume becomes one-tenth of light water reactor spent fuel. If a light water reactor with a certain power output has been operated for 40 years, the CANDLE reactor can be operated for 2000 years with the same power output and with only depleted uranium left after fuel production for the light water reactor. The system does not need any reprocessing or enrichment. Therefore, the reactor operation becomes very safe, the waste

  19. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing

  20. Lighting that One Little Candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which fifth graders made observations of candles. Discusses the progress of the lesson and the necessity of instructing students in what and how to watch and measure. Stresses that this can be easily accomplished inexpensively with imagination. (CW)

  1. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-01-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In rep...

  2. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-09-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects.

  3. Electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of functionalized candle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and G (graphite) phase of carbon present in the candle soots. The electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test and impedance spectroscopy in 1MH2SO4 electrolyte. The functionalized candle soot electrode showed an enhanced specific capacitance value of ...

  4. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Esparza-Arredondo, Donají; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  5. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [CONACYT Research Fellow - Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padua (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain); Esparza-Arredondo, Donají [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Morelia (Mexico); Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión, E-mail: alenka@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  6. 75 FR 44224 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately and South Deerfield, MA Pursuant to... special-purpose subzone at the candle and gift set manufacturing and distribution facilities of Yankee... activity related to the manufacturing and distribution of candles and gift sets at the facilities of Yankee...

  7. Choosing the optimum burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, L.; Goldstein, L.; Franks, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the considerations utilities must evaluate when going to higher discharge burnups. The advantages and disadvantages of higher discharge burnups are described, as well as a consistent approach for evaluating optimum discharge burnup and its comparison to current practice. When an analysis is performed over the life of the plant, the design of the terminal cycles has significant impact on the lifetime savings from higher burnups. Designs for high burnup cycles have a greater average inventory value in the core. As one goes to higher burnup, there is a greater likelihood of discarding a larger value in unused fuel unless the terminal cycles are designed carefully. This effect can be large enough in some cases to wipe out the lifetime cost savings relative to operating with a higher discharge burnup cycle

  8. Electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of functionalized candle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soots have excellent optical property like luminescence in the. 241 .... cation SEM images of as bare candle soot, which clearly dis- plays that the sample is composed of .... of oxygenated compounds present on the surface of BCS apparently ...

  9. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of count and measure (e.g., length and diameter), to the extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this chapter...

  10. Comparative study on plutonium and MA recycling in equilibrium burnup and standard burnup of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki; Permana, Sidik

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium burnup model is a powerful method since its can handle all possible generated nuclides in any nuclear system. Moreover, this method is a simple time independent method. Hence the equilibrium burnup method could be very useful for evaluating and forecasting the characteristics of any nuclear fuel cycle, even the strange one, e.g. all nuclides are confined in the reactor. However, this method needs to be verified since the method is not a standard tool. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics of plutonium recycling and plutonium and minor actinides (MA) recycling in PWR with the equilibrium burnup and the standard burnup. In order to become more comprehensive study, an influence of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) changes by changing the pin-pitch of fuel cell has been evaluated. The MFR ranges from 0.5 to 4.0. For the equilibrium burnup we used equilibrium cell-burnup code. We have employed 1368 nuclides in the equilibrium calculation with 129 of them are heavy metals (HMs). For standard burnup, SRAC2002 code has been utilized with 26 HMs and 66 fission products (FPs). The JENDL 3.2 library has been employed for both burnup schemes. The uranium, plutonium and MA vector, which resulted from the equilibrium burnup are directly used as fuel input composition for the standard burnup calculation. Both burnup results demonstrate that plutonium recycling and plutonium and MA recycling can be conducted safer in tight lattice core. They are also show the similar trend in neutron spectrum, which become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides as well as the decreasing of the MFR values. However, there are some discrepancy on the effective multiplication factor and the conversion ratio, especially for the reactor core for MFR ≥ 2.0. (author)

  11. Lattice cell burnup calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics

  12. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  13. Optimum burnup of BAEC TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyric, Zoairia Idris; Mahmood, Mohammad Sayem; Motalab, Mohammad Abdul; Khan, Jahirul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimum loading scheme for BAEC TRIGA core is out-to-in loading with 10 fuels/cycle starting with 5 for the first reload. ► The discharge burnup ranges from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element for full power (3 MW) operation. ► Optimum extension of operating core life is 100 MWD per reload cycle. - Abstract: The TRIGA Mark II research reactor of BAEC (Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission) has been operating since 1986 without any reshuffling or reloading yet. Optimum fuel burnup strategy has been investigated for the present BAEC TRIGA core, where three out-to-in loading schemes have been inspected in terms of core life extension, burnup economy and safety. In considering different schemes of fuel loading, optimization has been searched by only varying the number of fuels discharged and loaded. A cost function has been defined and evaluated based on the calculated core life and fuel load and discharge. The optimum loading scheme has been identified for the TRIGA core, the outside-to-inside fuel loading with ten fuels for each cycle starting with five fuels for the first reload. The discharge burnup has been found ranging from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element and optimum extension of core operating life is 100 MWD for each loading cycle. This study will contribute to the in-core fuel management of TRIGA reactor

  14. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  15. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  16. High Burnup Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Candle Soot-Driven Performance Enhancement in Pyroelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Puneet; Singh, V. P.; Vaish, Rahul

    2018-05-01

    We observed substantial enhancement in pyroelectric output with the help of candle soot coating on the surface of lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Candle soot of varying thicknesses was coated by directly exposing pyroelectric material to the candle flame. The open-circuit pyroelectric voltage and closed-circuit pyroelectric current were recorded while applying infrared heating across the uncoated and candle soot-coated samples for different heating and cooling cycles. In comparison to the uncoated sample, the maximum open-circuit voltage improves seven times for the candle soot-coated sample and electric current increases by eight times across a resistance of 10Å. Moreover, the harvested energy is enhanced by 50 times for candle soot-coated sample. Results indicate that candle soot coating is an effective and economic method to improve infrared sensing performance of pyroelectric materials.

  18. Appropriate burnup measurements for transportation burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses two of the measurement specifications used in analyzing spent fuel packages to gain burnup credit. The philosophy and calculation of rejection criteria and measurement accuracy are discussed. Any assembly for which the declared measured value and reactor record value deviate by more than 10% will be rejected. Measurement accuracy requirements are established for dependent and independent systems. The requirements have been tested and are achievable, ensuring safe operation without extra cost. 6 refs

  19. Stellar candles for the extragalactic distance scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    This volume reviews the current status with respect to both theory and observation of the extragalactic distance scale. A sufficient accuracy is required both for a precise determination of the cosmological parameters and also in order to achieve a better understanding of physical processes in extragalactic systems. The "standard candles", used to set up the extragalactic distance scale, reviewed in this book include cepheid variables, RR Lyrae variables, novae, Type Ia and Type II supernovae as well as globular clusters and planetary nebulae.

  20. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ''end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified

  1. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  2. Conservative axial burnup distributions for actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.; Lancaster, D.

    1997-11-01

    Unlike the fresh fuel approach, which assumes the initial isotopic compositions for criticality analyses, any burnup credit methodology must address the proper treatment of axial burnup distributions. A straightforward way of treating a given axial burnup distribution is to segment the fuel assembly into multiple meshes and to model each burnup mesh with the corresponding isotopic compositions. Although this approach represents a significant increase in modeling efforts compared to the uniform average burnup approach, it can adequately determine the reactivity effect of the axial burnup distribution. A major consideration is what axial burnup distributions are appropriate for use in light of many possible distributions depending on core operating conditions and histories. This paper summarizes criticality analyses performed to determine conservative axial burnup distributions. The conservative axial burnup distributions presented in this paper are included in the Topical Report on Actinide-Only Burnup Credit for Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Packages, Revision 1 submitted in May 1997 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When approved by NRC, the conservative axial burnup distributions may be used to model PWR spent nuclear fuel for the purpose of gaining actinide only burnup credit

  3. Triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipsham, E.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.

    1989-01-01

    Triton burnup measurements have been made at JET using time-integrated copper activation and time-resolved silicon detector techniques. The results confirm the classical nature of both the confinement and the slowing down of the 1 MeV tritons in a plasma. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs

  4. Type Ia supernovae, standardizable candles, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill S.; Li, Baojiu

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally accepted to act as standardizable candles, and their use in cosmology led to the first confirmation of the as yet unexplained accelerated cosmic expansion. Many of the theoretical models to explain the cosmic acceleration assume modifications to Einsteinian general relativity which accelerate the expansion, but the question of whether such modifications also affect the ability of SNe Ia to be standardizable candles has rarely been addressed. This paper is an attempt to answer this question. For this we adopt a semianalytical model to calculate SNe Ia light curves in non-standard gravity. We use this model to show that the average rescaled intrinsic peak luminosity—a quantity that is assumed to be constant with redshift in standard analyses of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology data—depends on the strength of gravity in the supernova's local environment because the latter determines the Chandrasekhar mass—the mass of the SN Ia's white dwarf progenitor right before the explosion. This means that SNe Ia are no longer standardizable candles in scenarios where the strength of gravity evolves over time, and therefore the cosmology implied by the existing SN Ia data will be different when analysed in the context of such models. As an example, we show that the observational SN Ia cosmology data can be fitted with both a model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.62 ,0.38 ) and Newton's constant G varies as G (z )=G0(1 +z )-1/4 and the standard model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.3 ,0.7 ) and G is constant, when the Universe is assumed to be flat.

  5. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax... contained in USITC Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China...

  6. ABB high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Helmersson, S.; Nilsson, S.; Jourdain, P.; Karlsson, L.; Limback, M.; Garde, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel designed and fabricated by ABB is now operating in 40 PWRs and BWRs in Europe, the United States and Korea. An excellent fuel reliability track record has been established. High burnups are proven for both PWR and BWR. Thermal margin improving features and advanced burnable absorber concepts enable the utilities to adopt demanding duty cycles to meet new economic objectives. In particular we note the excellent reliability record of ABB PWR fuel equipped with Guardian TM debris filter proven to meet the 6 rod-cycles fuel failure goal, and the out-standing operating record of the SVEA 10 x 10 fuel, where ABB is the only vendor to date with batch experience to high burnup. ABB is dedicated to maintain high fuel reliability as well as continually improve and develop a broad line of PWR and BWR products. ABB's development and fuel follow-up activities are performed in close co-operation with its utility customers. This paper provides an overview of recent fuel performance and reliability experience at ABB. Selected development and validation activities for PWR and BWR fuel are presented, for which the ABB test facilities in Windsor (TF-2 loop, mechanical test laboratory) and Vaesteras (FRIGG, BURE) are essential. (authors)

  7. Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Home fires are a threat after a natural disaster and fire trucks may have trouble getting to your home. If the power is out, use flashlights or other battery-powered lights if possible, instead of candles.

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Roger H.L.; Kiriakidis, Alejandro C.; Peng, Steve W.

    1997-01-01

    This study aims at the development of an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to predict the remaining useful life of a ceramic candle filter during a power plant's annual maintenance shutdown. The objective of the present on-going study is to establish the vibration signatures of ceramic candle filters at varying degradation levels due to different operating hours, and to study the various factors involving the establishment of the signatures

  9. Optimum RA reactor fuelling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.; Nikolic, V.

    1965-10-01

    Ideal reactor refueling scheme can be achieved only by continuous fuel elements movement in the core, which is not possible, and thus approximations are applied. One of the possible approximations is discontinuous movement of fuel elements groups in radial direction. This enables higher burnup especially if axial exchange is possible. Analysis of refueling schemes in the RA reactor core and schemes with mixing the fresh and used fuel elements show that 30% higher burnup can be achieved by applying mixing, and even 40% if reactivity due to decrease in experimental space is taken into account. Up to now, mean burnup of 4400 MWd/t has been achieved, and the proposed fueling scheme with reduction of experimental space could achieve mean burnup of 6300 MWd/t which means about 25 Mwd/t per fuel channel [sr

  10. Calculation study of the WWER-440 fuel performance for extended burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujal, J.; Pazdera, F.; Barta, O.

    1984-01-01

    The results of preliminary calculational study of extended burnup cycling schemes impact on WWER-440 fuel performance are presented. Two high burnup schemes were proposed with three and four cycles, resp. Comparison was made with three cycle reference case. The thermal mechanical analysis was performed with PIN and RELA codes. The values of rod internal pressure, fuel centerline temperatures and fuel-cladding gap are expressed as function of power history. (author)

  11. Increased burnup of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.

    1983-01-01

    The specialists' group for fuel elements of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. held a meeting on ''Increased Burnup of Fuel Elements'' on 9th and 10th of November 1982 at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. Most papers dealt with the problems of burnup increase of fuel elements for light water reactors with respect to fuel manufacturing, power plant operation and reprocessing. Review papers were given on the burnup limits for high temperature gas cooled reactors and sodium fast breeder reactors. The meeting ended with a presentation of the technical equipment of the hot laboratory of the GKSS and the programs which are in progress there. (orig.) [de

  12. Research on burnup physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1974-07-01

    One of the major problems in burnup studies is the reasonably fast and accurate calculation of the space-and-energy dependent neutron flux and reaction rates for realistic power reactor fuel geometries and compositions, and its optimal integration in the global reactor calculations. The scope of the present research was to develop improved methods trying to satisfy the above requirements. In the epithermal region, simple and efficient approximation is proposed which allows the analytical solution for the space dependence of the spherical harmonics flux moments, and hence the derivation of the recurrence relations between he flux moments at successive lethargy pivotal points. A new matrix formalism to invert the coefficient matrix of band structure resulted in a reduce computer time and memory demands. The research on epithermal region is finalized in computing programme SPLET, which calculates the space-lethargy distribution of the spherical harmonics neutron flux moments, and the related integral quantities as reaction rates and resonance integrals. For partial verification of the above methods a Monte Carlo procedure was developed. Using point-wise representation of variables, a flexible and fast convergent integral transport method SEPT i developed. Expanding the neutron source and flux in finite series of arbitrary polynomials, the space-and-energy dependent integral transport equation is transformed into a general linear algebraic form, which is solved numerically. A simple and efficient procedure for deriving multipoint equations and constructing matrix is proposed and examined, and no unwanted oscillations were noticed. The energy point method was combined with the spherical harmonics method as well. A multi zone few-group program SPECTAR for global reactor calculations was developed. For testing, the flux distribution, neutron leakage and effective multiplication factor for the PWR reactor of the power station San Onofre were calculated. In order to verify

  13. Optimization of TRU burnup in modular helium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonghee, Kim; Venneri, F.

    2007-01-01

    An optimization study of a single-pass TRU (transuranic) deep-burn (DB) has been performed for a block-type MHR (Modular Helium Reactor) proposed by General Atomics. Assuming a future equilibrium scenario of advanced LWRs, a high-burnup TRU vector is considered: 50 GWD/MTU and 5-year cooling. For 3-D equilibrium cores, the performance analysis is done by using a continuous energy Monte Carlo depletion code MCCARD. The core optimization is performed from the viewpoints of the core configuration, fuel management, TRISO fuel specification, and neutron spectrum. With regard to core configuration, two annular cores are investigated in terms of the neutron economy. A conventional radial shuffling scheme of fuel blocks is compared with an axial block shuffling strategy in terms of the fuel burnup and core power distributions. The impact of the kernel size of TRISO fuel is evaluated and a diluted kernel, instead of a conventional concentrated kernel, is introduced to maximize the TRU burnup by reducing the self-shielding effects of TRISO fuels. A higher graphite density is evaluated in terms of the fuel burnup. In addition, it is shown that the core power distribution can be effectively controlled by zoning of the packing fraction of TRISO fuels. We also have shown that a long-cycle DB-MHR core can be designed by using a small batch size for fuel reloading, at the expense of a marginal decrease of the TRU discharge burnup. Depending on the fuel management scheme, fuel specifications, and core parameters, the TRU burnup in an optimized DB-MHR core is over 60% in a single-pass irradiation campaign. (authors)

  14. Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Chai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor is highly economical, safe and efficiently saves resources, thus extending large scale fission nuclear energy utilization for thousands of years, benefitting the whole of society. For many developing countries with a large population and high energy demands, such as China and India, middle (1000 MWth and large (2000 MWth CANDLE fast reactors are obviously more suitable than small reactors [2]. In this paper, the middle and large CANDLE reactors are investigated with U-Pu and combined ThU-UPu fuel cycles, aiming to utilize the abundant thorium resources and optimize the radial power distribution. To achieve these design purposes, the present designs were utilized, simply dividing the core into two fuel regions in the radial direction. The less active fuel, such as thorium or natural uranium, was loaded in the inner core region and the fuel with low-level enrichment, e.g. 2.0% enriched uranium, was loaded in the outer core region. By this simple core configuration and fuel setting, rather than using a complicated method, we can obtain the desired middle and large CANDLE fast cores with reasonable core geometry and thermal hydraulic parameters that perform safely and economically; as is to be expected from CANDLE. To assist in understanding the CANDLE reactor’s attributes, analysis and discussion of the calculation results achieved are provided.

  15. Application of burnup credit in spent fuel management at Russian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulikov, V.I.; Makarchuk, T.F.; Tikhonov, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    The article concerns implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel storage and transportation. Some of the problems with increased enrichment fuel can be resolved by use of modified transport methodology. Such as shipping in gas-filled casks only, reduced number of assemblies in casks, etc. However, the use of modified schemes of transportation results in essential financial losses. An actinide-only burnup credit is taken into account in most part of criticality calculations, and a parameter limiting loading of spent fuel in the cask or the repository is the avenge value of burnup on an assembly. The main method of burnup depth definition is its defect measurement. A short description of devices for measurement as well as some technical results of suing burnup credit approach in storage and transport are given. (author)

  16. Fuel burnup analysis for the Moroccan TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bakkari, B.; El Bardouni, T.; Nacir, B.; El Younoussi, C.; Boulaich, Y.; Boukhal, H.; Zoubair, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A fuel burnup analysis of the 2 MW TRIGA MARK II Moroccan research reactor was established. ► Burnup calculations were done by means of the in-house developed burnup code BUCAL1. ► BUCAL1 uses the MCNP tallies directly in the calculation of the isotopic inventories. ► The reactor life time was found to be 3360 MW h considering full power operating conditions. ► Power factors and fluxes of the in-core irradiation positions are strongly affected by burnup. -- Abstract: The fundamental advantage and main reason to use Monte Carlo methods for burnup calculations is the possibility to generate extremely accurate burnup dependent one group cross-sections and neutron fluxes for arbitrary core and fuel geometries. Yet, a set of values determined for a material at a given position and time remains accurate only in a local region, in which neutron spectrum and flux vary weakly — and only for a limited period of time, during which changes of the local isotopic composition are minor. This paper presents the approach of fuel burnup evaluation used at the Moroccan TRIGA MARK II research reactor. The approach is essentially based upon the utilization of BUCAL1, an in-house developed burnup code. BUCAL1 is a FORTRAN computer code designed to aid in analysis, prediction, and optimization of fuel burnup performance in nuclear reactors. The code was developed to incorporate the neutron absorption reaction tally information generated directly by MCNP5 code in the calculation of fissioned or neutron-transmuted isotopes for multi-fueled regions. The fuel cycle length and changes in several core parameters such as: core excess reactivity, control rods position, fluxes at the irradiation positions, axial and radial power factors and other parameters are estimated. Besides, this study gives valuable insight into the behavior of the reactor and will ensure better utilization and operation of the reactor during its life-time and it will allow the establishment of

  17. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B andW 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001)

  18. Improvements for Monte Carlo burnup calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenglong, Q.; Dong, Y.; Danrong, S.; Wei, L., E-mail: qiangshenglong@tsinghua.org.cn, E-mail: d.yao@npic.ac.cn, E-mail: songdr@npic.ac.cn, E-mail: luwei@npic.ac.cn [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Cheng Du, Si Chuan (China)

    2015-07-01

    Monte Carlo burnup calculation is development trend of reactor physics, there would be a lot of work to be done for engineering applications. Based on Monte Carlo burnup code MOI, non-fuel burnup calculation methods and critical search suggestions will be mentioned in this paper. For non-fuel burnup, mixed burnup mode will improve the accuracy of burnup calculation and efficiency. For critical search of control rod position, a new method called ABN based on ABA which used by MC21 will be proposed for the first time in this paper. (author)

  19. Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    Home fires are a threat after a natural disaster and fire trucks may have trouble getting to your home. If the power is out, use flashlights or other battery-powered lights if possible, instead of candles.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 8/20/2008.

  20. New Scientific Aspects of the "Burning Candle" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, Taha

    2016-01-01

    The "burning candle" experiment is used in middle school education programs to prove that air contains a component that is essential to burning (i.e., oxygen). The accepted interpretation taught by teachers in middle school is this: when burning occurs, oxygen is used up, creating an underpressure that causes a rise in water level inside…

  1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM OF ELECTRONIC CANDLE BASED ON MICROCONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeli Fitri Lianuari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described how the assembly process of designing and developing a series of inflatable candles microkontroller. The series based on electronics is a simple circuit that utilizes condenser microphone as a sensor. The use of these components are suitable for use in an application circuit electronic candles where the workings of this series starts from LEDs that analogous to wax and then lit using a pushbutton that analogy as lighters, and a flame from the LED can be extinguished by blowing. The concept of this series is simple but could be developed into a series of more innovative and interesting. One development is to add the output of the LED running that made candles burn more lively and interesting. Running LED of this circuit works by using a transistor as a switch that controls power of Az IC 368 and IC Az 418 M J. To simplify the development process, combination of a series of electronic candles with LED running can be simulated using the software Livewire and Proteus. Results of designing and developing a tool is not a new thing or that have not been found but the result of this achievement can be a source of inspiring in the world of electronics that can later be developed further so that it becomes a result of more recent example, lights out with once pat.

  2. Burnup measurement study and prototype development in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Weihua; Zhang Zhao; Xiao Zhigang; Zhang Liguo

    2014-01-01

    In a pebble-bed core which employs the multi-pass scheme, it is mandatory to determine the burnup of each pebble after the pebble has been extracted from the core in order to determine whether its design burnup has been reached or whether it has to be reinserted into the core again. The burnup of the fuel pebbles can be determined by measuring the activity of 137 Cs with an HPGe detector because of their good correspondence, which is independent of the irradiation history in the core. Based on experiments and Geant4 simulation, the correction factor between the fuel and calibration source was derived by using the efficiency transfer method. By optimizing spectrum analysis algorithm and parameters, the relative standard deviation of the 137 Cs activity can be still controlled below 3.0% despite of the presence of interfering peaks. On the foundation of the simulation and experiment research, a complete solution for burnup measurement system in HTR-PM is provided. (authors)

  3. High burnup MOX fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanpain, P.; Brunel, L.

    1999-01-01

    From the outset, the MOX product was required to have the same performance as UO 2 in terms of burnup and operational flexibility. In fact during the first years the UO 2 managements could not be applied to MOX. The changeover to an AFA 2G type fuel allowed an improvement in NPP operational flexibility. The move to the AFA 3G design fuel will enable an increase in the burnup of the MOX assemblies to the level of the UO 2 ones ('MOX Parity' project). But the FRAMATOME fuel development objective does not stop at the obtaining of parity between the current MOX and UO 2 products: this parity must remain guaranteed and the MOX managements must evolve in the same way as the UO 2 managements. The goal of the MOX product development programmes underway with COGEMA and the CEA is the demonstration over the next 10 years of a fuel capable of reaching burnups of 70 GWD/T. The research programmes focus on the fission gas release aspect, with three issues explored: optimization of pellet microstructures and validation in experimental reactor ; build-up of experience feedback from fission gas release at elevated burnups in commercial reactors, both for current and experimental products; adaptation and qualification of the design models and tools, over the ranges and for the products concerned. The product arising from these development programmes should be offered on the market around 2010. While meeting safety requirements, it will cater for the needs of the utilities in terms of product reliability, personnel dosimetry and kWh output costs (increase in burnup, NPP maneuverability and availability, minimization of process waste). (authors)

  4. How Real Detector Thresholds Create False Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Nemiroff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    GRB satellites are relatively inefficient detectors of dim hard bursts. For example, given two bursts of identical peak luminosity near the detection threshold, a dim soft burst will be preferentially detected over a dim hard burst. This means that a high E peak burst will need a higher peak luminosity to be detected than a low E peak GRB. This purely detector-created attribute will appear as a correlation between E peak and luminosity, and should not be interpreted as a real standard candle effect. This result derives from Monte Carlo simulations utilizing a wide range of initial GRB spectra, and retriggering to create a final ''detected'' sample. In sum, E peak is not a good standard candle, and its appearance as such in seeming correlations such as the Amati and other L iso vs. E peak relations is likely a ghost of real energy-related detection thresholds.

  5. Determination of enrichment of recycle uranium fuels for different burnup values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabunoglu, Okan H.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium (U) recovered from spent LWR fuels by reprocessing, which contains small amounts of U-236, is to be enriched before being re-irradiated as the recycle U. During the enrichment of recovered U in U-235, the mass fraction of U-236 also increases. Since the existence of U-236 in the recycle U has a negative effect on neutron economy, a greater enrichment of U-235 in the recycle U is required for reaching the same burnup as can be reached by the fresh U fuel. Two burnup values play the most important role in determining the enrichment of recycle U: (1) discharge burnup of spent fuel from which the recycle U is obtained and (2) desired discharge burnup of the recycle U fuel. A step-by-step procedure for calculating the enrichment of the recycle U as a function of these two burnup values is introduced. The computer codes MONTEBURNS and ORIGEN-S are made use of and a three-component (U-235, U-236, U-238) enrichment scheme is applied for calculating the amount of U-236 in producing the recycle U from the recovered U. As was aimed, the resulting expression is simple enough for quick/hand calculations of the enrichment of the recycle U for any given discharge burnup of spent fuel and for any desired discharge burnup of the recycle U fuel, most accurately within the range of 33,000-50,000 MWd/tonU

  6. Line shapes of atomic-candle-type Rabi resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffer, J.G.; Camparo, J.C.; Sickmiller, B.; Presser, A.

    2002-01-01

    When atoms interact with a phase-modulated field, the probability of finding the atom in the excited-state oscillates at the second harmonic of the modulation frequency, 2ω m . The amplitude of this oscillating probability is a resonant function of the Rabi frequency Ω, and this is termed a β Rabi resonance. In this work, we examine the line shape of the β Rabi resonance both theoretically and experimentally. We find that a small-signal theory of the β-Rabi-resonance condition captures much of the line shape's character, and, in particular, that the resonance's 'line Q' (i.e., 2δΩ 1/2 /Ω) is proportional to the modulation frequency. This result can be applied to the atomic candle, where β Rabi resonances are employed to stabilize field strength. Considering our results in the context of developing an optical atomic candle, we find that a free-running diode laser's intensity noise could be improved by orders of magnitude using the atomic candle concept

  7. Investigating the Effect of Cosmic Opacity on Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Yu, H.; Wang, F. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Standard candles can probe the evolution of dark energy over a large redshift range. But the cosmic opacity can degrade the quality of standard candles. In this paper, we use the latest observations, including Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the “joint light-curve analysis” sample and Hubble parameters, to probe the opacity of the universe. A joint fitting of the SNe Ia light-curve parameters, cosmological parameters, and opacity is used in order to avoid the cosmological dependence of SNe Ia luminosity distances. The latest gamma-ray bursts are used in order to explore the cosmic opacity at high redshifts. The cosmic reionization process is considered at high redshifts. We find that the sample supports an almost transparent universe for flat ΛCDM and XCDM models. Meanwhile, free electrons deplete photons from standard candles through (inverse) Compton scattering, which is known as an important component of opacity. This Compton dimming may play an important role in future supernova surveys. From analysis, we find that about a few per cent of the cosmic opacity is caused by Compton dimming in the two models, which can be corrected.

  8. High burnup issues and modelling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of high burnup fuel is affected by a number of phenomena, such as, conductivity degradation, modified radial flux profile, fission gas release from high burnup structures, PCMI, burnup dependent thermo-mechanical properties, etc. The modelling strategies of some of these phenomena are available in literature. These can be readily incorporated in a fuel modelling performance code. The computer code FAIR has been developed in BARC over the years to evaluate the fuel performance at extended burnup and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. The present paper deals with the high burnup issues in the fuel pins, their modelling strategies and results of the case studies specifically involving high burnup fuel. (author)

  9. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  10. Application of burnup credit concept to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamura, Yoshiaki; Nakagome, Yoshihiro.

    1994-01-01

    For the design and safety assessment of the casks for transporting spent fuel, the fuel contained in them has been assumed to be new fuel. The reason is, it was difficult to evaluate the variation of the reactivity of fuel, and the research on the affecting factors and the method of measuring burnup were not much advanced. Recently, high burnup fuel has been adopted, and initial degree of enrichment rose. The research has been advanced for pursuing the economy of the casks for spent fuel, and burnup credit has become applicable to their design and safety assessment. As the result, the containing capacity increases by about 20%. When burnup credit is considered, it is necessary to confirm accurately the burnup of spent fuel. The burnup dependence of the concentration of fissile substances and neutron emissivity, the coolant void dependence of the concentration of fissile substances, and the relation of neutron multiplication rate with initial degree of enrichment or burnup are discussed. The conceptual design of casks considering burnup credit and its assessment, the merit, problem and the countermeasures to it when burnup credit is introduced are described. (K.I.)

  11. Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Dehart, M.D.; Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)

  12. Burnup credit for storage and transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of burnup credit to storage and transportation cask licensing results in a significant improvement in cask capacity and an associated reduction of the cost per kilogram of uranium in the cask contents. The issues for licensing with burnup credit deal primarily with the treatment of fission product poisons and methods of verification of burnup during cask operations. Other issues include benchmarking of cross-section sets and codes and the effect of spatial variation of burnup within an assembly. The licensing of burnup credit for casks will be complex, although the criticality calculations are not themselves difficult. Attention should be directed to the use of fission product poisons and the uncertainties that they introduce. Verification of burnup by measurements will remove some of the concerns for criticality safety. Calculations for burnup credit casks should consider rod-to-rod and axial variations of burnup, as well as variability of burnable poisons it they are used in the assembly. In spite of the complexity of cask burnup credit licensing issues, these issues appear to be resolvable within the current state of the art of criticality safety

  13. Numerical solution of matrix exponential in burn-up equation using mini-max polynomial approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yosuke; Chiba, Go; Tsuji, Masashi; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new numerical solution of matrix exponential in burn-up depletion calculations. • The depletion calculation with extremely short half-lived nuclides can be done numerically stable with this method. • The computational time is shorter than the other conventional methods. - Abstract: Nuclear fuel burn-up depletion calculations are essential to compute the nuclear fuel composition transition. In the burn-up calculations, the matrix exponential method has been widely used. In the present paper, we propose a new numerical solution of the matrix exponential, a Mini-Max Polynomial Approximation (MMPA) method. This method is numerically stable for burn-up matrices with extremely short half-lived nuclides as the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), and it has several advantages over CRAM. We also propose a multi-step calculation, a computational time reduction scheme of the MMPA method, which can perform simultaneously burn-up calculations with several time periods. The applicability of these methods has been theoretically and numerically proved for general burn-up matrices. The numerical verification has been performed, and it has been shown that these methods have high precision equivalent to CRAM

  14. 9 CFR 590.506 - Candling and transfer-room facilities and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candling and transfer-room facilities... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.506 Candling and transfer-room... containers are furnished daily. (h) Shell egg conveyors shall be constructed so that they can be thoroughly...

  15. Burnup determination of mass spectrometry for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunhua.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods currently being used in burnup determination of nuclear fuels are studied and reviewed. The mass spectrometry method of destructive testing is discussed emphatically. The burnup determination of mass spectrometry includes heavy isotopic abundance ratio method and isotope dilution mass spectrometry used as burnup indicator for the fission products. The former is applied to high burnup level, but the later to various burnup level. According to experiences, some problems which should be noticed in burnup determination of mass spectrometry are presented

  16. Implementation of burnup in FERM nodal computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoriyaz, H.; Nakata, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this work a spatial burnup scheme and feedback effects has been implemented into the FERM [1] ('Finite Element Response Matrix') program. The spatially dependent neutronic parameters have been considered in three levels: zonewise calculation, assemblywise calculation and pointwise calculation. The results have been compared with the results obtained by CITATION [2] program and showed that the processing time in the FERM code has been hundred of times shorter and no significant difference has been observed in the assembly average power distribution. (Author) [pt

  17. About a fuel for burnup reactor of periodical pulsed nuclear pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.I.; Lukin, A.V.; Magda, L.E.; Magda, E.P.; Pogrebov, I.S.; Putnikov, I.S.; Khmelnitsky, D.V.; Scherbakov, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    A physical scheme of burnup reactor for a Periodic Pulsed Nuclear Pumped Laser was supposed. Calculations of its neutron physical parameters were made. The general layout and construction of basic elements of the reactor are discussed. The requirements for the fuel and fuel elements are established. (author)

  18. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from... order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  19. Issues for effective implementation of burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, burnup credit has been used in the criticality safety evaluation for storage pools at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and considerable work has been performed to lay the foundation for use of burnup credit in dry storage and transport cask applications and permanent disposal applications. Many of the technical issues related to the basic physics phenomena and parameters of importance are similar in each of these applications. However, the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States has never been fully integrated and the implementation of burnup credit to each of these applications is dependent somewhat on the specific safety bases developed over the history of each operational area. This paper will briefly review the implementation status of burnup credit for each application area and explore some of the remaining issues associated with effective implementation of burnup credit. (author)

  20. Fast reactor cycle calculation routine using a 3D-simulator and investigation of new burnup stategies for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yulun.

    1987-03-01

    Three-dimensional calculations of the longtime behaviour of PWR can be done in short computing times with satisfactory accuracy for power and burn-up distributions. This has been proved by comparison with operational data of Biblis-B. Various possibilities are investigated to increase the discharge burn-up and to improve the utilization of uranium. In view of the increase of discharge burn-up due to enhanced cycle number (decreased batch size) and decreased neutron leakage these new strategies are intensively studied in the conventional fuel management scheme (Out-in) and in the low leakage fuel management scheme (In-Out). By a conventional fuel management scheme with four cycle operation and a low leakage fuel management scheme with three cycle operation an attractive increase of discharge burn-up to about 40% can be achieved by an increase in the reload enrichment to 4%. (orig.) [de

  1. SYNTHESIS ALKANOLAMIDE TETRAHIDROXY OCTADECANOATE COMPOUND FROM CANDLE NUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Candle nut oil could be transesterificated by methanol with concentrated H2SO4 as a catalyst to form fatty acid methyl esther. Methyl linoleate could be separated by Column Chromatography mechanism technic partition from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME mixture, then it was treated by ethanolamine at base condition in benzene as solvent and sodium methylate as a catalyst at reflux condition for 6 hours to form an alkanolamide. Alkanolamide could be epoxydized by tert-buthyl hydroperoxyde and peroxygenase as a catalyst and it was refluxed for 6 hours at 40 °C and nitrogen gas condition to form the epoxy alkanolamide octadecanoate, and then it was hydrolyzed by HCl 0.1 M to form alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate (Polyol. Alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate could be separated by Column Chromatography using silica gel H 40 and the eluent was the mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, formic acid in a ratio 90:10:1 (v/v/v/. Determination of HLB value from alknolamide tetrahydroxy octadecanoate is 13.096. Therefore, this compound was particularly suitable for application as an o/w emulsifiers. All af the reaction steps were confirmed by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS, Gas Chromatography and TLC.   Keywords: Esterification, Candle nut oil, Surfactant, Amidation, Polyol.

  2. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  3. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development

  4. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development.

  5. Value of burnup credit beyond actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, Chi.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has submitted a topical report to the NRC justifying burnup credit based only on actinide isotopes (U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241). When this topical report is approved, it will allow a great deal of the commercial spent nuclear fuel to be transported in significantly higher capacity casks. A cost savings estimate for shipping fuel in 32 assembly (burnup credit) casks as opposed to 24 assembly (non-burnup credit) casks was previously presented. Since that time, more detailed calculations have been performed using the methodology presented in the Actinide-Only Burnup Credit Topical Report. Loading curves for derated casks have been generated using actinide-only burnup credit and are presented in this paper. The estimates of cost savings due to burnup credit for shipping fuel utilizing 32, 30, 28, and 24 assembly casks where only the 24 assembly cask does not burnup credit have been created and are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs

  6. Burn-up function of fuel management code for aqueous homogeneous reactors and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liangzi; Yao Dong; Wang Kan

    2011-01-01

    Fuel Management Code for Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (FMCAHR) is developed based on the Monte Carlo transport method, to analyze the physics characteristics of aqueous homogeneous reactors. FMCAHR has the ability of doing resonance treatment, searching for critical rod heights, thermal hydraulic parameters calculation, radiolytic-gas bubbles' calculation and bum-up calculation. This paper introduces the theory model and scheme of its burn-up function, and then compares its calculation results with benchmarks and with DRAGON's burn-up results, which confirms its bum-up computing precision and its applicability in the bum-up calculation and analysis for aqueous solution reactors. (authors)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADHESIVE CANDLE FILTER SAFEGUARD DEVICE; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Hurley; Ann K. Henderson; Jan W. Nowok; Michael L. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal conversion. Two main types of systems employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles. In both systems, suspended particulates must be cleaned from the gas stream before it enters the turbine so as to prevent fouling and erosion of the turbine blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in use in several facilities. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the particulates on the surface. The three main configurations of the barrier filters are candle, cross-flow, and tube filters. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer on the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle and individual elements can fail, allowing particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Preventing all failure of individual ceramic filter elements is not possible at the present state of development of the technology. Therefore, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the particulates streaming through occasional broken filters from reaching the turbine. However, the SGD must allow for the free passage of gas when it is not activated. Upon breaking of a filter, the SGD must either mechanically close or quickly plug with filter dust to prevent additional dust from reaching the turbine. Production of a dependable rapidly closing autonomous mechanical

  8. Burnup verification using the FORK measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    Verification measurements may be used to help ensure nuclear criticality safety when burnup credit is applied to spent fuel transport and storage systems. The FORK measurement system, designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards program, has been used to verify reactor site records for burnup and cooling time for many years. The FORK system measures the passive neutron and gamma-ray emission from spent fuel assemblies while in the storage pool. This report deals with the application of the FORK system to burnup credit operations based on measurements performed on spent fuel assemblies at the Oconee Nuclear Station of Duke Power Company

  9. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-11-30

    Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO(4)) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using (14)C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO(2)), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. How Beatrice Tinsley Destroyed Sandage's Quest for a Standard Candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of cosmology and most extragalactic optical astronomy during the heroic period spanning the half century from Hubble to Sandage (1920s - 1970s) was a search for two numbers, the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter. Standard candles were needed to establish the measure of the universe. In 1968, Beatrice Tinsley, then a postdoctoral fellow in the astronomy department of the University of Texas at Austin showed that the great enterprise at Palomar of calibrating the galaxies was in need of major revision. At the 132nd AAS Meeting (June 1970, Boulder, Colorado) she presented a paper on galactic evolution on the magnitude-redshift relation. In her Abstract she boldly wrote: "My present conclusion is opposite to that reached by most cosmologists." In fact her claims caused great consternation among cosmologists. In 1972 she published eight papers on the evolution of galaxies, and the effects of that evolution for observational cosmology and the origin of structure.

  11. Threshold burnup for recrystallization and model for rim porosity in the high burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1998-01-01

    Applicability of the threshold burnup for rim formation was investigated as a function of temperature by Rest's model. The threshold burnup was the lowest in the intermediate temperature region, while on the other temperature regions the threshold burnup is higher. The rim porosity was predicted by the van der Waals equation based of the rim pore radius of 0.75μm and the overpressurization model on rim pores. The calculated centerline temperature is in good agreement with the measured temperature. However, more efforts seem to be necessary for the mechanistic model of the rim effect including rim growth with the fuel burnup

  12. Comparison of scale/triton and helios burnup calculations for high burnup LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittelbach, S.; Mispagel, T.; Phlippen, P.W. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The presented analyses provide information about the suitability of the lattice burnup code HELIOS and the recently developed code SCALE/TRITON for the prediction of isotopic compositions of high burnup LWR fuel. The accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory of high burnt spent fuel is a prerequisite for safety analyses in and outside of the reactor core, safe loading of spent fuel into storage casks, design of next generation spent fuel casks and for any consideration of burnup credit. Depletion analyses are performed with both burnup codes for PWR and BWR fuel samples which were irradiated far beyond 50 GWd/t within the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II project. (orig.)

  13. On the theories, techniques, and computer codes used in numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Osery, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theories, techniques and computer codes that are frequently used in numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations. It is a part of an integrated nuclear reactor calculation scheme conducted by the Reactors Department, Inshas Nuclear Research Centre. The crude part in numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations includes the determination of neutron flux distribution which can be obtained in principle as a solution of Boltzmann transport equation. Numerical methods used for solving transport equations are discussed. Emphasis are made on numerical techniques based on multigroup diffusion theory. These numerical techniques include nodal, modal, and finite difference ones. The most commonly known computer codes utilizing these techniques are reviewed. Some of the main computer codes that have been already developed at the Reactors Department and related to numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations have been presented

  14. Development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Young Hwan; Jung, Jin Gone; Hwang, Won; Park, Zoo Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Il Gone

    1987-04-01

    The objectives of the project are mainly to develope both design and manufacturing technologies for 600 MWe-CANDU-PHWR-type high burnup nuclear fuel, and secondly to build up the foundation of PWR high burnup nuclear fuel technology on the basis of KAERI technology localized upon the standard 600 MWe-CANDU- PHWR nuclear fuel. So, as in the first stage, the goal of the program in the last one year was set up mainly to establish the concept of the nuclear fuel pellet design and manufacturing. The economic incentives for high burnup nuclear fuel technology development are improvement of fuel utilization, backend costs plant operation, etc. Forming the most important incentives of fuel cycle costs reduction and improvement of power operation, etc., the development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology and also the research on the incore fuel management and safety and technologies are necessary in this country

  15. Physical models for high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyukova, V.; Khoruzhii, O.; Likhanskii, V.; Solodovnikov, G.; Sorokin, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper some models of processes in high burnup fuel developed in Src of Russia Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research are presented. The emphasis is on the description of the degradation of the fuel heat conductivity, radial profiles of the burnup and the plutonium accumulation, restructuring of the pellet rim, mechanical pellet-cladding interaction. The results demonstrate the possibility of rather accurate description of the behaviour of the fuel of high burnup on the base of simplified models in frame of the fuel performance code if the models are physically ground. The development of such models requires the performance of the detailed physical analysis to serve as a test for a correct choice of allowable simplifications. This approach was applied in the SRC of Russia TRINITI to develop a set of models for the WWER fuel resulting in high reliability of predictions in simulation of the high burnup fuel

  16. Burnup analysis of the power reactor, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezure, Hideo

    1975-09-01

    In burnup analysis of JPDR-1 with FLARE, it was found to have problems. The program FLORA was developed for solution of the problems. By their bench mark tests FLORA was found to be useful for three-dimensional thermal-hydro-dynamic analysis of BWRs. It was applied to analysis of the burnup of JPDR-1. The input data and option of FLORA were corrected on referring to the results of gammer probe tests for JPDR-1. The void, source and burnup distributions were calculated each month during the operation. The burnup distribution in three assemblies revealed by a destructive test agrees better with that by FLORA than by FLARE. It was shown that the distortion of power distribution around the control rods by FLORA was smaller and closer to that by the gammer probe tests than by FLARE, and the connector of fuel assemblies and the plugs in the reflector had much influence on the power distribution. (auth.)

  17. Effect of core burnup on the dynamic behavior of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilberg, D.; Saphier, D.; Yiftah, S.

    1977-01-01

    Performance of a dynamic analysis, taking burnup changes into account, requires fission-product nuclear data of relatively small uncertainty, suitable burnup calculation models, and dynamic computer programs. These were prepared and used with the following results: (1) Significant changes in static and dynamic parameters were observed when investigating the effect of burnup. These changes were found to be larger than differences introduced by the uncertainty of the fission-product nuclear data. (2) A one-dimensional burnup computer program was prepared. It was found that a burnup model based on the generalized radioactive decay scheme is suitable for accurate fast reactor calculations. (3) Space-time dynamic calculations of fast reactors having different burnup levels were performed. The stability difference between ''clean'' and high burnup cores is greater when local rather than uniform perturbations are inserted along the entire core length. The magnitude by which the ''end-of-life'' core increases the transient excursion over that of the clean core depends on the particular region in which the perturbation is inserted. The end-of-life core will magnify the transient excursion more than the clean core whenever the perturbation is inserted into a region having a higher adjoint flux level than that of the clean core. However, when a reactor safety system operates successfully, the difference in the temperature transient of the clean and end-of-life cores will be relatively small. It is suggested that only the analysis of large local perturbations be performed for end-of-life cores as well as for clean cores in the safety evaluation of fast reactors

  18. Burnup calculation code system COMRAD96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Ido, Masaru; Enomoto, Masaki; Takyu, Shuiti; Hara, Toshiharu.

    1997-06-01

    COMRAD was one of the burnup code system developed by JAERI. COMRAD96 is a transfered version of COMRAD to Engineering Work Station. It is divided to several functional modules, 'Cross Section Treatment', 'Generation and Depletion Calculation', and 'Post Process'. It enables us to analyze a burnup problem considering a change of neutron spectrum using UNITBURN. Also it can display the γ Spectrum on a terminal. This report is the general description and user's manual of COMRAD96. (author)

  19. Burnup calculation code system COMRAD96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Ido, Masaru; Enomoto, Masaki; Takyu, Shuiti; Hara, Toshiharu

    1997-06-01

    COMRAD was one of the burnup code system developed by JAERI. COMRAD96 is a transfered version of COMRAD to Engineering Work Station. It is divided to several functional modules, `Cross Section Treatment`, `Generation and Depletion Calculation`, and `Post Process`. It enables us to analyze a burnup problem considering a change of neutron spectrum using UNITBURN. Also it can display the {gamma} Spectrum on a terminal. This report is the general description and user`s manual of COMRAD96. (author)

  20. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Lindy, E-mail: purplerauscher@neb.rr.com [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: chainarong@huskers.unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 14}C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO{sub 4}) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using {sup 14}C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO{sub 2}), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide

  1. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. ► 14 C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. ► Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. ► A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin–KMnO 4 ) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2–4 h. Using 14 C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO 2 ), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet–dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to

  2. Systemization of burnup sensitivity analysis code. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Masahiro; Hyoudou, Hideaki

    2005-02-01

    Towards the practical use of fast reactors, it is a very important subject to improve prediction accuracy for neutronic properties in LMFBR cores from the viewpoint of improvements on plant efficiency with rationally high performance cores and that on reliability and safety margins. A distinct improvement on accuracy in nuclear core design has been accomplished by the development of adjusted nuclear library using the cross-section adjustment method, in which the results of criticality experiments of JUPITER and so on are reflected. In the design of large LMFBR cores, however, it is important to accurately estimate not only neutronic characteristics, for example, reaction rate distribution and control rod worth but also burnup characteristics, for example, burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio and so on. For this purpose, it is desired to improve prediction accuracy of burnup characteristics using the data widely obtained in actual core such as the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. The analysis of burnup characteristics is needed to effectively use burnup characteristics data in the actual cores based on the cross-section adjustment method. So far, a burnup sensitivity analysis code, SAGEP-BURN, has been developed and confirmed its effectiveness. However, there is a problem that analysis sequence become inefficient because of a big burden to users due to complexity of the theory of burnup sensitivity and limitation of the system. It is also desired to rearrange the system for future revision since it is becoming difficult to implement new functions in the existing large system. It is not sufficient to unify each computational component for the following reasons; the computational sequence may be changed for each item being analyzed or for purpose such as interpretation of physical meaning. Therefore, it is needed to systemize the current code for burnup sensitivity analysis with component blocks of functionality that can be divided or constructed on occasion. For

  3. A comparison of Candle Auctions and Hard Close Auctions with Common Values

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Füllbrunn

    2009-01-01

    With this study, we contribute to the literature of auction design by presenting a new auction format: the Candle auction, a popular auction in the Middle Ages. Considering a common value framework, we theoretically and experimentally point out that the Candle auction, where bidding is allowed until a stochastic deadline, yields a better outcome to the seller than the Hard Close auction, the popular eBay online auction format.

  4. Systemization of burnup sensitivity analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Masahiro; Hyoudou, Hideaki

    2004-02-01

    To practical use of fact reactors, it is a very important subject to improve prediction accuracy for neutronic properties in LMFBR cores from the viewpoints of improvements on plant efficiency with rationally high performance cores and that on reliability and safety margins. A distinct improvement on accuracy in nuclear core design has been accomplished by development of adjusted nuclear library using the cross-section adjustment method, in which the results of critical experiments of JUPITER and so on are reflected. In the design of large LMFBR cores, however, it is important to accurately estimate not only neutronic characteristics, for example, reaction rate distribution and control rod worth but also burnup characteristics, for example, burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio and so on. For this purpose, it is desired to improve prediction accuracy of burnup characteristics using the data widely obtained in actual core such as the experimental fast reactor core 'JOYO'. The analysis of burnup characteristics is needed to effectively use burnup characteristics data in the actual cores based on the cross-section adjustment method. So far, development of a analysis code for burnup sensitivity, SAGEP-BURN, has been done and confirmed its effectiveness. However, there is a problem that analysis sequence become inefficient because of a big burden to user due to complexity of the theory of burnup sensitivity and limitation of the system. It is also desired to rearrange the system for future revision since it is becoming difficult to implement new functionalities in the existing large system. It is not sufficient to unify each computational component for some reasons; computational sequence may be changed for each item being analyzed or for purpose such as interpretation of physical meaning. Therefore it is needed to systemize the current code for burnup sensitivity analysis with component blocks of functionality that can be divided or constructed on occasion. For this

  5. Alloy development for high burnup cladding (PWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    An overview on current alloy development for high burnup PWR fuel cladding is given. It is mainly based on literature data. First, the reasons for an increase of the current mean discharge burnup from 35 MWd / kg(U) to 70 MWd / kg(U) are outlined. From the material data, it is shown that a batch average burnup of 60-70 MWd / kg(U), as aimed by many fuel vendors, can not be achieved with stand (=ASTM-) Zry-4 cladding tubes without violating accepted design criteria. Specifically criteria which limit maximum oxide scale thickness and maximum hydrogen content, and to a less degree, maximum creep and growth rate, can not be achieved. The development potential of standard Zry-4 is shown. Even when taking advantage of this potential, it is shown that an 'improved' Zry-4 is reaching its limits when it achieves the target burnup. The behavior of some Zr alloys outside the ASTM range is shown, and the advantages and disadvantages of the 3 alloy groups (ZrSn+transition metals, ZrNb, ZrSnNb+transition metals) which are currently considered to have the development potential for high burnup cladding materials are depicted. Finally, conclusions are drawn. (author). 14 refs., 11 tabs., 82 figs.

  6. Integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya; Hirakawa, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Tomohiko.

    1997-11-01

    SWAT is an integrated burnup code system developed for analysis of post irradiation examination, transmutation of radioactive waste, and burnup credit problem. It enables us to analyze the burnup problem using neutron spectrum depending on environment of irradiation, combining SRAC which is Japanese standard thermal reactor analysis code system and ORIGEN2 which is burnup code widely used all over the world. SWAT makes effective cross section library based on results by SRAC, and performs the burnup analysis with ORIGEN2 using that library. SRAC and ORIGEN2 can be called as external module. SWAT has original cross section library on based JENDL-3.2 and libraries of fission yield and decay data prepared from JNDC FP Library second version. Using these libraries, user can use latest data in the calculation of SWAT besides the effective cross section prepared by SRAC. Also, User can make original ORIGEN2 library using the output file of SWAT. This report presents concept and user's manual of SWAT. (author)

  7. Parallel GPU implementation of PWR reactor burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimlich, A.; Silva, F.C.; Martinez, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three GPU algorithms used to evaluate the burn-up in a PWR reactor. • Exhibit speed improvement exceeding 200 times over the sequential. • The C++ container is expansible to accept new nuclides chains. - Abstract: This paper surveys three methods, implemented for multi-core CPU and graphic processor unit (GPU), to evaluate the fuel burn-up in a pressurized light water nuclear reactor (PWR) using the solutions of a large system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The reactor physics simulation of a PWR reactor spends a long execution time with burnup calculations, so performance improvement using GPU can imply in better core design and thus extended fuel life cycle. The results of this study exhibit speed improvement exceeding 200 times over the sequential solver, within 1% accuracy.

  8. Nuclear fuels with high burnup: safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam authorities foresees to build 3 reactors from Russian design (VVER AES 2006) by 2030. In order to prepare the preliminary report on safety analysis the Vietnamese Agency for Radioprotection and Safety has launched an investigation on the behaviour of nuclear fuels at high burnups (up to 60 GWj/tU) that will be those of the new plants. This study deals mainly with the behaviour of the fuel assemblies in case of loss of coolant (LOCA). It appears that for an average burnup of 50 GWj/tU and for the advanced design of the fuel assembly (cladding and materials) safety requirements are fulfilled. For an average burnup of 60 GWj/tU, a list of issues remains to be assessed, among which the impact of clad bursting or the hydrogen embrittlement of the advanced zirconium alloys. (A.C.)

  9. Burnup credit in a dry storage module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of spent fuel storage expansion options available to Oconee Nuclear Station revealed that dry storage could be economically competitive with transshipment and rod consolidation. Economic competitiveness, however, mandated large unit capacity while existing cask handling facilities at Oconee severely limited size and weight. The dry storage concept determined to best satisfy these conflicting criteria is a 24 pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly capacity NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system. The Oconee version of the NUHOMS system takes advantage of burnup credit in demonstrating criticality safety. The burnup credit criticality analysis was performed by Duke Power Company's Design Engineering Department. This paper was prepared to summarize the criticality control design features employed in the Oconee NUHOMS-24P DSC basket and to describe the incentives for pursuing a burnup credit design. Principal criticality design parameters, criteria, and analysis methodology are also presented

  10. Status of burnup credit implementation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    1998-01-01

    Burnup credit is currently not used for the storage of spent fuel in the reactor pools in Switzerland, but credit is taken for integral burnable absorbers. Interest exists to take credit of burnup in future for the storage in a central away-from-reactor facility presently under construction. For spent fuel transports to foreign reprocessing plants the regulations of the receiving countries must be applied in addition to the Swiss licensing criteria. Burnup credit has been applied by one Swiss PWR utility for such transports in a consistent manner with the licensing practice in the receiving countries. Measurements of reactivity worths of small spent fuel samples in a Swiss zero-power research reactor are at an early stage of planning. (author)

  11. COGEMA/TRANSNUCLEAIRE's experience with burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanzy, Y.; Guillou, E.

    1998-01-01

    Facing a continuous increase in the fuel enrichments, COGEMA and TRANSNUCLEAIRE have implemented step by step a burnup credit programme to improve the capacity of their equipment without major physical modification. Many authorizations have been granted by the French competent authority in wet storage, reprocessing and transport since 1981. As concerns transport, numerous authorizations have been validated by foreign competent authorities. Up to now, those authorizations are restricted to PWR Fuel type assemblies made of enriched uranium. The characterization of the irradiated fuel and the reactivity of the systems are evaluated by calculations performed with well qualified French codes developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission): CESAR as a depletion code and APPOLO-MORET as a criticality code. The authorizations are based on the assurance that the burnup considered is met on the least irradiated part of the fuel assemblies. Besides, the most reactive configuration is calculated and the burnup credit is restricted to major actinides only. This conservative approach allows not to take credit for any axial profile. On the operational side, the procedures have been reevaluated to avoid misloadings and a burnup verification is made before transport, storage and reprocessing. Depending on the level of burnup credit, it consists of a qualitative (go/no-go) verification or of a quantitative measurement. Thus the use of burnup credit is now a common practice in France and Germany and new improvements are still in progress: extended qualifications of the codes are made to enable the use of six selected fission products in the criticality evaluations. (author)

  12. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  13. The octopus burnup and criticality code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Kuijper, J.C. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Leege, P.F.A. de

    1996-09-01

    The OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system is described. This system links the spectrum codes from the SCALE4.1, WIMS7 and MCNP4A packages to the ORIGEN-S and FISPACT4.2 fuel depletion and activation codes, which enables us to perform very accurate burnup calculations in complicated three-dimensional geometries. The data used by all codes are consistently based on the JEF2.2 evaluated nuclear data file. Some special features of OCTOPUS not available in other codes are described, as well as the validation of the system. (author)

  14. The OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Kuijper, J.C. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Leege, P.F.A. de [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.

    1996-06-01

    The OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system is described. This system links the spectrum codes from the SCALE4.1, WIMS7 and MCNP4A packages to the ORIGEN-S and FISPACT4.2 fuel depletion and activation codes, which enables us to perform very accurate burnup calculations in complicated three-dimensional goemetries. The data used by all codes are consistently based on the JEF2.2 evaluated nuclear data file. Some special features of OCTOPUS not available in other codes are described, as well as the validation of the system. (orig.).

  15. The octopus burnup and criticality code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Kuijper, J.C.; Leege, P.F.A. de.

    1996-01-01

    The OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system is described. This system links the spectrum codes from the SCALE4.1, WIMS7 and MCNP4A packages to the ORIGEN-S and FISPACT4.2 fuel depletion and activation codes, which enables us to perform very accurate burnup calculations in complicated three-dimensional geometries. The data used by all codes are consistently based on the JEF2.2 evaluated nuclear data file. Some special features of OCTOPUS not available in other codes are described, as well as the validation of the system. (author)

  16. The OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Kuijper, J.C.; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1996-06-01

    The OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system is described. This system links the spectrum codes from the SCALE4.1, WIMS7 and MCNP4A packages to the ORIGEN-S and FISPACT4.2 fuel depletion and activation codes, which enables us to perform very accurate burnup calculations in complicated three-dimensional goemetries. The data used by all codes are consistently based on the JEF2.2 evaluated nuclear data file. Some special features of OCTOPUS not available in other codes are described, as well as the validation of the system. (orig.)

  17. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small ( 2 /s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. User's manual for the reactor burnup system, REBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, A.P.; Regis, J.P.; Meneley, D.A.; Hoover, L.J.

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual for the REBUS System (REactor BUrnup System) is presented. Its primary purpose is to provide sufficient information about the REBUS capability to the user to ensure its efficient utilization. The current REBUS System either solves for the infinite time (equilibrium) operating conditions of a recycle system under fixed conditions, or solves for operating conditions during a single time step (non-equilibrium). The capability of studying various in-reactor fuel management and ex-reactor fuel management schemes has been included. REBUS has been operated with one- and two-dimensional diffusion theory neutronics solutions up to the present time. The model was specifically designed for extension to other neutronics models such as three-dimensional diffusion or transport theory and direct or synthesis solutions

  19. Fuel and fuel cycles with high burnup for WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernushev, V.; Sokolov, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the status and trends in development of nuclear fuel and fuel cycles for WWER reactors. Parameters and main stages of implementation of new fuel cycles will be presented. At present, these new fuel cycles are offered to NPPs. Development of new fuel and fuel cycles based on the following principles: profiling fuel enrichment in a cross section of fuel assemblies; increase of average fuel enrichment in fuel assemblies; use of refuelling schemes with lower neutron leakage ('in-in-out'); use of integrated fuel gadolinium-based burnable absorber (for a five-year fuel cycle); increase of fuel burnup in fuel assemblies; improving the neutron balance by using structural materials with low neutron absorption; use of zirconium alloy claddings which are highly resistant to irradiation and corrosion. The paper also presents the results of fuel operation. (author)

  20. Burnup verification tests with the FORK measurement system-implementation for burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    Verification measurements may be used to help ensure nuclear criticality safety when burnup credit is applied to spent fuel transport and storage systems. The FORK system measures the passive neutron and gamma-ray emission from spent fuel assemblies while in the storage pool. It was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards program and is well suited to verify burnup and cooling time records at commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) sites. This report deals with the application of the FORK system to burnup credit operations

  1. Burnup-dependent core neutronics analysis of plate-type research reactor using deterministic and stochastic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Wang, Guanbo; Liang, Jingang; Wu, Gaochen; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DRAGON & DONJON were applied in burnup calculations of plate-type research reactors. • Continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup calculations by RMC were chosen as references. • Comparisons of keff, isotopic densities and power distribution were performed. • Reasons leading to discrepancies between two different approaches were analyzed. • DRAGON & DONJON is capable of burnup calculations with appropriate treatments. - Abstract: The burnup-dependent core neutronics analysis of the plate-type research reactors such as JRR-3M poses a challenge for traditional neutronics calculational tools and schemes for power reactors, due to the characteristics of complex geometry, highly heterogeneity, large leakage and the particular neutron spectrum of the research reactors. Two different theoretical approaches, the deterministic and the stochastic methods, are used for the burnup-dependent core neutronics analysis of the JRR-3M plate-type research reactor in this paper. For the deterministic method the neutronics codes DRAGON & DONJON are used, while the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code RMC (Reactor Monte Carlo code) is employed for the stochastic one. In the first stage, the homogenizations of few-group cross sections by DRAGON and the full core diffusion calculations by DONJON have been verified by comparing with the detailed Monte Carlo simulations. In the second stage, the burnup-dependent calculations of both assembly level and the full core level were carried out, to examine the capability of the deterministic code system DRAGON & DONJON to reliably simulate the burnup-dependent behavior of research reactors. The results indicate that both RMC and DRAGON & DONJON code system are capable of burnup-dependent neutronics analysis of research reactors, provided that appropriate treatments are applied in both assembly and core levels for the deterministic codes

  2. Monte Carlo burnup codes acceleration using the correlated sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieudonne, C.

    2013-01-01

    For several years, Monte Carlo burnup/depletion codes have appeared, which couple Monte Carlo codes to simulate the neutron transport to deterministic methods, which handle the medium depletion due to the neutron flux. Solving Boltzmann and Bateman equations in such a way allows to track fine 3-dimensional effects and to get rid of multi-group hypotheses done by deterministic solvers. The counterpart is the prohibitive calculation time due to the Monte Carlo solver called at each time step. In this document we present an original methodology to avoid the repetitive and time-expensive Monte Carlo simulations, and to replace them by perturbation calculations: indeed the different burnup steps may be seen as perturbations of the isotopic concentration of an initial Monte Carlo simulation. In a first time we will present this method, and provide details on the perturbative technique used, namely the correlated sampling. In a second time we develop a theoretical model to study the features of the correlated sampling method to understand its effects on depletion calculations. In a third time the implementation of this method in the TRIPOLI-4 code will be discussed, as well as the precise calculation scheme used to bring important speed-up of the depletion calculation. We will begin to validate and optimize the perturbed depletion scheme with the calculation of a REP-like fuel cell depletion. Then this technique will be used to calculate the depletion of a REP-like assembly, studied at beginning of its cycle. After having validated the method with a reference calculation we will show that it can speed-up by nearly an order of magnitude standard Monte-Carlo depletion codes. (author) [fr

  3. Fuel analysis code FAIR and its high burnup modelling capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.S.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1995-01-01

    A computer code FAIR has been developed for analysing performance of water cooled reactor fuel pins. It is capable of analysing high burnup fuels. This code has recently been used for analysing ten high burnup fuel rods irradiated at Halden reactor. In the present paper, the code FAIR and its various high burnup models are described. The performance of code FAIR in analysing high burnup fuels and its other applications are highlighted. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs

  4. Burnup calculation for a tokamak commercial hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Kaiming; Xie Zhongyou

    1990-08-01

    A computer code ISOGEN-III and its associated data library BULIB have been developed for fusion-fission hybrid reactor burnup calculations. These are used to calcuate burnup of a tokamak commercial hybrid reactor. The code and library are introduced briefly, and burnup calculation results are given

  5. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  6. Burnup credit effect on proposed cask payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Cask Systems Development Program (CSDP) is to develop a variety of cask systems which will allow safe and economical movement of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from the generator to the Federal repository or Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Program schedule objectives for the initial phase of the CSDP include the development of certified spent fuel cask systems by 1995 to support Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management shipments from the utilities beginning in the late 1990s. Forty-nine proposals for developing a family of spent fuel casks were received and comparisons made. General conclusions that can be drawn from the comparisons are that (1) the new generation of casks will have substantially increased payloads in comparison to current casks, and (2) an even greater payload increase may be achievable with burnup credit. The ranges in the payload estimates do not allow a precise separation of the payload increase attributable to the proposed allowance of fuel burnup credit, as compared wilt the no-burnup-credit case. The beneficial effects of cask payload increases on overall costs and risks of transporting spent fuel are significant; therefore further work aimed toward taking advantage of burnup credit is warranted

  7. WWER-1000 Burnup Credit Benchmark (CB5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the specification of WWER-1000 Burnup Credit Benchmark first phase (depletion calculations), given. The second phase - criticality calculations for the WWER-1000 fuel pin cell, will be given after the evaluation of the results, obtained at the first phase. The proposed benchmark is a continuation of the WWER benchmark activities in this field (Author)

  8. Whole core burnup calculations using 'MCNP'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, O.; Shaham, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Core parameters such as the reactivity, the power distribution and different reactivity coefficients calculated in simulations play an important role in the nuclear reactor handling. Operational safety margins are decided upon, based on the calculated parameters. Thus, the ability to accurately calculate those parameters is of uppermost importance. Such ability exists for fresh cores, using the Monte-Carlo method. The change in the core parameters that results from the core burnup is nowadays calculated within transport codes that simplifies the transport process by using approximations such as the diffusion approximation. The inaccuracy in the burned core parameters arising from the use of such approximations is hard to quantify, leading to an increased gap between the operational routines and the safety limits. A Monte Carlo transport code that caries out accurate static calculations in three dimensional geometries using continuous-energy neutron cross-section data such as the MCNP can be used to generate accurate reaction rates for burnup purposes. Monte Carlo method is statistical by nature, so that the reaction rates calculated will be accurate only to a certain known extent. The purpose of this work was to create a burnup routine that uses the capabilities of the Monte Carlo based MCNP code. It should be noted that burnup using Monte Carlo has been reported in the literatures, but this work is the result of an independent effort (authors)

  9. Whole core burnup calculations using `MCNP`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haran, O; Shaham, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    Core parameters such as the reactivity, the power distribution and different reactivity coefficients calculated in simulations play an important role in the nuclear reactor handling. Operational safety margins are decided upon, based on the calculated parameters. Thus, the ability to accurately calculate those parameters is of uppermost importance. Such ability exists for fresh cores, using the Monte-Carlo method. The change in the core parameters that results from the core burnup is nowadays calculated within transport codes that simplifies the transport process by using approximations such as the diffusion approximation. The inaccuracy in the burned core parameters arising from the use of such approximations is hard to quantify, leading to an increased gap between the operational routines and the safety limits. A Monte Carlo transport code that caries out accurate static calculations in three dimensional geometries using continuous-energy neutron cross-section data such as the MCNP can be used to generate accurate reaction rates for burnup purposes. Monte Carlo method is statistical by nature, so that the reaction rates calculated will be accurate only to a certain known extent. The purpose of this work was to create a burnup routine that uses the capabilities of the Monte Carlo based MCNP code. It should be noted that burnup using Monte Carlo has been reported in the literatures, but this work is the result of an independent effort (authors).

  10. Burnup calculations using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biplab; Degweker, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, interest in burnup calculations using Monte Carlo methods has gained momentum. Previous burn up codes have used multigroup transport theory based calculations followed by diffusion theory based core calculations for the neutronic portion of codes. The transport theory methods invariably make approximations with regard to treatment of the energy and angle variables involved in scattering, besides approximations related to geometry simplification. Cell homogenisation to produce diffusion, theory parameters adds to these approximations. Moreover, while diffusion theory works for most reactors, it does not produce accurate results in systems that have strong gradients, strong absorbers or large voids. Also, diffusion theory codes are geometry limited (rectangular, hexagonal, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates). Monte Carlo methods are ideal to solve very heterogeneous reactors and/or lattices/assemblies in which considerable burnable poisons are used. The key feature of this approach is that Monte Carlo methods permit essentially 'exact' modeling of all geometrical detail, without resort to ene and spatial homogenization of neutron cross sections. Monte Carlo method would also be better for in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) which could have strong gradients due to the external source and a sub-critical assembly. To meet the demand for an accurate burnup code, we have developed a Monte Carlo burnup calculation code system in which Monte Carlo neutron transport code is coupled with a versatile code (McBurn) for calculating the buildup and decay of nuclides in nuclear materials. McBurn is developed from scratch by the authors. In this article we will discuss our effort in developing the continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up code, McBurn. McBurn is intended for entire reactor core as well as for unit cells and assemblies. Generally, McBurn can do burnup of any geometrical system which can be handled by the underlying Monte Carlo transport code

  11. Depletion of gadolinium burnable poison in a PWR assembly with high burnup fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refeat, Riham Mahmoud [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Safety Engineering Dept.

    2015-12-15

    A tendency to increase the discharge burnup of nuclear fuel for Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has been a characteristic of its operation for many years. It will be able to burn at very high burnup of about 70 GWd/t with UO{sub 2} fuels. The U-235 enrichment must be higher than 5 %, which leads to the necessity of using an extremely efficient burnable poison like Gadolinium oxide. Using gadolinium isotope is significant due to its particular depletion behavior (''Onion-Skin'' effect). In this paper, the MCNPX2.7 code is used to calculate the important neutronic parameters of the next generation fuels of PWR. K-infinity, local peaking factor and fission rate distributions are calculated for a PWR assembly which burn at very high burnup reaching 70 GWd/t. The calculations are performed using the recently released evaluated Gadolinium cross section data. The results obtained are close to those of a LWR next generation fuel benchmark problem. This demonstrates that the calculation scheme used is able to accurately model a PWR assembly that operates at high burnup values.

  12. 75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...''); the National Retail Federation (``NRF''); HSE USA, Inc. (``HSE''); Universal Candle Company (``UC... research firm in Malaysia on producers' prices for candles made and sold in Malaysia and stated that the... Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, Sec. 1502, 116 Stat. 2135, 2308-09 2002); Reorganization Plan...

  13. FTIR Study of Comustion Species in Several Regions of a Candle Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.

    2013-06-01

    The complex chemical structure of the fuel in a candle flame, parafin, is broken down into smaller hydrocarbons in the dark region just above the candle wick during combustion. This creates fuel-rich, fuel-lean, hydrocarbon reaction, and combustion product regions in the flame during combustion that are spectroscopically rich, particularly in the infrared. IR emissions were measured for each reaction region via collection optics focused into an FTIR and used to identify IR active species present in that region and, when possible, temperature of the sampling region. The results of the measurements are useful for combustion reaction modeling as well as for future validation of mass spectroscopy sampling systems.

  14. Burnup credit activities being conducted in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes burnup credit activities being conducted in the U.S. where burnup credit is either being used or being planned to be used for storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Currently approved uses of burnup credit are for wet storage of PWR fuel. For dry storage of spent PWR fuel, burnup credit is used to supplement a principle of moderator exclusion. These storage applications have been pursued by the private sector. The Department of Energy (DOE) which is an organization of the U.S. Federal government is seeking approval for burnup credit for transport and disposal applications. For transport of spent fuel, regulatory review of an actinide-only PWR burnup credit method is now being conducted. A request by DOE for regulatory review of actinide and fission product burnup credit for disposal of spent BWR and PWR fuel is scheduled to occur in 1998. (author)

  15. Core burn-up calculation method of JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2007-01-01

    SRAC code system is utilized for core burn-up calculation of JRR-3. SRAC code system includes calculation modules such as PIJ, PIJBURN, ANISN and CITATION for making effective cross section and calculation modules such as COREBN and HIST for core burn-up calculation. As for calculation method for JRR-3, PIJBURN (Cell burn-up calculation module) is used for making effective cross section of fuel region at each burn-up step. PIJ, ANISN and CITATION are used for making effective cross section of non-fuel region. COREBN and HIST is used for core burn-up calculation and fuel management. This paper presents details of NRR-3 core burn-up calculation. FNCA Participating countries are expected to carry out core burn-up calculation of domestic research reactor by SRAC code system by utilizing the information of this paper. (author)

  16. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Viet-Phu; Tran, Hoai-Nam; Yamamoto, Akio; Endo, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. Algorithms are proposed to reevaluate decay modes, branching ratios and effective fission product (FP) cumulative yields of a given list of important FPs taking into account intermediate reactions. A new burnup chain is generated using the updated data sources taken from the JENDL FP decay data file 2011 and Fission yields data file 2011. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Burnup calculations using the new burnup chain have also been performed based on UO_2 and MOX fuel pin cells and compared with a reference chain th2cm6fp193bp6T.

  17. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Viet-Phu [VINATOM, Hanoi (Viet Nam). Inst. for Nuclear Science and Technology; Tran, Hoai-Nam [Duy Tan Univ., Da Nang (Viet Nam). Inst. of Research and Development; Yamamoto, Akio; Endo, Tomohiro [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya-shi (Japan). Dept. of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering

    2017-05-15

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. Algorithms are proposed to reevaluate decay modes, branching ratios and effective fission product (FP) cumulative yields of a given list of important FPs taking into account intermediate reactions. A new burnup chain is generated using the updated data sources taken from the JENDL FP decay data file 2011 and Fission yields data file 2011. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Burnup calculations using the new burnup chain have also been performed based on UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel pin cells and compared with a reference chain th2cm6fp193bp6T.

  18. Assesment of advanced step models for steady state Monte Carlo burnup calculations in application to prismatic HTGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępisty Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the methodology of different time-step models in the context of Monte Carlo burnup calculations for nuclear reactors. We discuss the differences between staircase step model, slope model, bridge scheme and stochastic implicit Euler method proposed in literature. We focus on the spatial stability of depletion procedure and put additional emphasis on the problem of normalization of neutron source strength. Considered methodology has been implemented in our continuous energy Monte Carlo burnup code (MCB5. The burnup simulations have been performed using the simplified high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR system with and without modeling of control rod withdrawal. Useful conclusions have been formulated on the basis of results.

  19. Nuclear fuel burnup calculation in a Voronezh type reactor; Analiza izgaranja nuklearnog goriva u reaktoru tipa Voronjez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matausek, M; Marinkovic, N; Kocic, A [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1977-07-01

    In order to summarize and present our abilities to perform a complex computation of the nuclear fuel burn-up, a systematic review of the available methods, algorithms and computer programmes is given in this paper. The computer programmes quoted have all been developed, modified and tested in our department, so that they can be successfully used in the analysis of nuclear power plants from both physics and economic points of view. For a commercially proven nuclear reactor - reactor of the Voronezh type - an illustrative computation of the fuel burn-up is performed. The typical results are presented and discussed. The conclusion concerns the completion of a modular scheme for the fuel burn-up calculation and the fuel cycle analysis (author)

  20. Parametric studies of the effect of MOx environment and control rods for PWR-UOx burnup credit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Anne; Roque, Benedicte; Marimbeau, Pierre; Venard, Christophe; Bioux, Philippe; Toubon, Herve

    2003-01-01

    The increase of PWR-UOX fuel initial enrichment and the extensive needs for spent fuel storage or cask capacities reinforce the interest in taking burnup credit into account in criticality calculations. However, this utilization of credit for fuel burnup requires the definition of a methodology that ensures the conservatism of calculations. In order to guarantee the conservatism of the spent fuel inventory calculation, a depletion calculation scheme for burnup credit is under development. This paper presents the studies on the main parameters which have an effect on nuclides concentration: the presence of control rods during depletion and the fuel assembly environment, particularly the presence of MOx fuels around the UO 2 assembly. Reactivity effects which are relevant to these parameters are then presented, and physics phenomena are identified. (author)

  1. Fission product margin in burnup credit analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.; Stenberg, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently working toward the licensing of a methodology for using actinide-only burnup credit for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Important margins are built into this methodology. By using comparisons with a representative experimental database to determine bias factors, the methodology ensures that actinide concentrations and worths are estimated conservatively; furthermore, the negative net reactivity of certain actinides and all fission products (FPs) is not taken into account, thus providing additional margin. A future step of DOE's effort might aim at establishing an actinide and FP burnup credit methodology. The objective of this work is to establish the uncertainty to be applied to the total FP worth in SNF. This will serve two ends. First, it will support the current actinide-only methodology by demonstrating the margin available from FPs. Second, it will identify the major contributions to the uncertainty and help set priorities for future work

  2. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small (<<0.1 m[sup 2]/s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Study of nuclear fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Borza, M.

    1975-01-01

    The authors approach theoretical treatment of isotopic composition changement for nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors. They show the difficulty of exhaustive treatment of burn-up problems and introduce the principal simplifying principles. Due to these principles they write and solve analytically the evolution equations of the concentration for the principal nuclides both in the case of fast and thermal reactors. Finally, they expose and comment the results obtained in the case of a power fast reactor. (author)

  4. Conceptual cask design with burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Hee; Ahn, Joon Gi; Hwang, Hae Ryong

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual design has been performed for a spent fuel transport cask with burnup credit and a neutron-absorbing material to maximize transportation capacity. Both fresh and burned fuel are assumed to be stored in the cask and boral and borated stainless steel are selected for the neutron-absorbing materials. Three different sizes of cask with typical 14, 21 and 52 PWR fuel assemblies are modeled and analyzed with the SCALE 4.4 code system. In this analysis, the biases and uncertainties through validation calculations for both isotopic predictions and criticality calculation for the spent fuel have been taken into account. All of the reactor operating parameters, such as moderator density, soluble boron concentration, fuel temperature, specific power, and operating history, have been selected in a conservative way for the criticality analysis. Two different burnup credit loading curves are developed for boral and borated stainless steel absorbing materials. It is concluded that the spent fuel transport cask design with burnup credit is feasible and is expected to increase cask payloads. (author)

  5. Propagation of cross section uncertainties in combined Monte Carlo neutronics and burnup calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Oppe, J.; Klein Meulekamp, R.; Koning, H. [NRG - Fuels, Actinides and Isotopes group, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Some years ago a methodology was developed at NRG for the calculation of 'density-to-density' and 'one-group cross section-to-density' sensitivity matrices and covariance matrices for final nuclide densities for burnup schemes consisting of multiple sets of flux/spectrum and burnup calculations. The applicability of the methodology was then demonstrated by calculations of BR3 MOX pin irradiation experiments employing multi-group cross section uncertainty data from the EAF4 data library. A recent development is the extension of this methodology to enable its application in combination with the OCTOPUS-MCNP-FISPACT/ORIGEN Monte Carlo burnup scheme. This required some extensions to the sensitivity matrix calculation tool CASEMATE. The extended methodology was applied on the 'HTR Plutonium Cell Burnup Benchmark' to calculate the uncertainties (covariances) in the final densities, as far as these uncertainties are caused by uncertainties in cross sections. Up to 600 MWd/kg these uncertainties are larger than the differences between the code systems. However, it should be kept in mind that the calculated uncertainties are based on EAF4 uncertainty data. It is not exactly clear on beforehand what a proper set of associated (MCNP) cross sections and covariances would yield in terms of final uncertainties in calculated densities. This will be investigated, by the same formalism, once these data becomes available. It should be noted that the studies performed up till the present date are mainly concerned with the influence of uncertainties in cross sections. The influence of uncertainties in the decay constants, although included in the formalism, is not considered further. Also the influence of other uncertainties (such as -geometrical- modelling approximations) has been left out of consideration for the time being. (authors)

  6. Propagation of cross section uncertainties in combined Monte Carlo neutronics and burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Oppe, J.; Klein Meulekamp, R.; Koning, H.

    2005-01-01

    Some years ago a methodology was developed at NRG for the calculation of 'density-to-density' and 'one-group cross section-to-density' sensitivity matrices and covariance matrices for final nuclide densities for burnup schemes consisting of multiple sets of flux/spectrum and burnup calculations. The applicability of the methodology was then demonstrated by calculations of BR3 MOX pin irradiation experiments employing multi-group cross section uncertainty data from the EAF4 data library. A recent development is the extension of this methodology to enable its application in combination with the OCTOPUS-MCNP-FISPACT/ORIGEN Monte Carlo burnup scheme. This required some extensions to the sensitivity matrix calculation tool CASEMATE. The extended methodology was applied on the 'HTR Plutonium Cell Burnup Benchmark' to calculate the uncertainties (covariances) in the final densities, as far as these uncertainties are caused by uncertainties in cross sections. Up to 600 MWd/kg these uncertainties are larger than the differences between the code systems. However, it should be kept in mind that the calculated uncertainties are based on EAF4 uncertainty data. It is not exactly clear on beforehand what a proper set of associated (MCNP) cross sections and covariances would yield in terms of final uncertainties in calculated densities. This will be investigated, by the same formalism, once these data becomes available. It should be noted that the studies performed up till the present date are mainly concerned with the influence of uncertainties in cross sections. The influence of uncertainties in the decay constants, although included in the formalism, is not considered further. Also the influence of other uncertainties (such as -geometrical- modelling approximations) has been left out of consideration for the time being. (authors)

  7. A Monte Carlo burnup code linking MCNP and REBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The REBUS-3 burnup code, used in the ANL RERTR Program, is a very general code that uses diffusion theory (DIF3D) to obtain the fluxes required for reactor burnup analyses. Diffusion theory works well for most reactors. However, to include the effects of exact geometry and strong absorbers that are difficult to model using diffusion theory, a Monte Carlo method is required. MCNP, a general-purpose, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, Monte Carlo transport code, is the most widely used Monte Carlo code. This paper presents a linking of the MCNP code and the REBUS burnup code to perform these difficult burnup analyses. The linked code will permit the use of the full capabilities of REBUS which include non-equilibrium and equilibrium burnup analyses. Results of burnup analyses using this new linked code are also presented

  8. Burnup credit applications in a high-capacity truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The use of burnup credit in the criticality safety analysis of the GA-4 Cask increases the cask's capacity from three spent fuel assemblies to four, resulting in reduced public and occupational risk and reduced life cycle costs. GA's criticality calculations for burnup credit, including the associated uncertainties and analytical bias, establish the minimum burnup required as a function of initial enrichment to maintain K eff ≤ 0.95 under any conceivable condition. The minimum burnup requirement as a function of initial enrichment has been determined to be 15,000 MWd/MTU for 3.5 wt% U-235 fuel, 20,000 MWd/MTU for 4.0 wt% U-235 fuel and 25,000 MWd/MTU for 4.5 wt% U-235 fuel. The minimum burnup requirement as a function of enrichment is well below the typical burnup levels seen in the current and projected spent fuel inventory. (J.P.N.)

  9. Implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    Improved calculational methods allow one to take credit for the reactivity reduction associated with fuel burnup. This means reducing the analysis conservatism while maintaining an adequate safety margin. The motivation for using burnup credit in criticality safety applications is based on economic considerations and additional benefits contributing to public health and safety and resource conservation. Interest in the implementation of burnup credit has been shown by many countries. In 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a task to monitor the implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems, to provide a forum to exchange information, to discuss the matter and to gather and disseminate information on the status of national practices of burnup credit implementation in the Member States. The task addresses current and future aspects of burnup credit. This task was continued during the following years. (author)

  10. Burnup calculation in microcells of high conversion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.E.; Salvatore, M.; Patino, N.E.; Abbate, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of high converter reactors (HCR) requires careful burnup calculations because their main goals are reach high discharge burnup levels (Up to 50 GWd/T) and a close to one conversion ratio. Then, it is necessary a revision of design elements used for this type of calculation. In this work, a burnup module (BUM) developed in order to use nuclear data directly from evaluated data files is presented; these was included in the AMPX system. (author)

  11. Fission-product burnup chain model for research reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sup; Lee, Jong Tai [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)

    1990-12-01

    A new fission-product burnup chain model was developed for use in research reactor analysis capable of predicting the burnup-dependent reactivity with high precision over a wide range of burnup. The new model consists of 63 nuclides treated explicitly and one fissile-independent pseudo-element. The effective absorption cross sections for the preudo-element and the preudo-element yield of actinide nuclides were evaluated in the this report. The model is capable of predicting the high burnup behavior of low-enriched uranium-fueled research reactors.(Author).

  12. Burnup measurements of leader fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, C; Navarro, G; Pereda, C

    2000-01-01

    Some time ago the CCHEN authorities decided to produce a set of 50 low enrichment fuel elements. These elements were produced in the PEC (Fuel Elements Plant), located at CCHEN offices in Lo Aguirre. These new fuel elements have basically the same geometrical characteristics of previous ones, which were British and made with raw material from the U.S. The principal differences between our fuel elements and the British ones is the density of fissile material, U-235, which was increased to compensate the reduction in enrichment. Last year, the Fuel Elements Plant (PEC) delivered the shipment's first four (4) fuel elements, called leaders, to the RECH1. A test element was delivered too, and the complete set was introduced into the reactor's nucleus, following the normal routine, but performing a special follow-up on their behavior inside the nucleus. This experimental element has only one outside fuel plate, and the remaining (15) structural plates are aluminum. In order to study the burnup, the test element was taken out of the nucleus, in mid- November 1999, and left to decay until June 2000, when it was moved to the laboratory (High Activity Cell), to start the burnup measurements, with a gamma spectroscopy system. This work aims to show the results of these measurements and in addition to meet the following objectives: (a) Visual test of the plate's general condition; (b) Sipping test of fission products; (c) Study of burn-up distribution in the plate; (d) Check and improve the calculus algorithm; (e) Comparison of the results obtained from the spectroscopy with the ones from neutron calculus

  13. Burnup characteristics of binary breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Burnup calculations of a binary breeder reactor have been done for two cases of fueling. In one case the U 233 /TH fueled inner core and the Pu/U-fueled outer core have the same number of fuel assemblies. In the other case two outermost rings in the inner core are Pu/U-fueled. The second case is considered for an initial phase of thorim cycle introduction when the supply of U 233 could be limited. Results show an efficient breeding on the thorium cycle in both cases. (Author) [pt

  14. Determination of nuclear fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristak, J.; Vobecky, M.

    1973-01-01

    Samples containing a known content of 235 U were irradiated with several different neutron doses and activities were determined of radionuclides including 125 Sb, 144 Ce, 134 Cs, 154 Eu, 103 Ru, 95 Zr. The values thus obtained were divided by the 137 Cs activity value. The resulting neutron dose-dependent value is plotted into a calibration graph. The degree of nuclear fuel burn-up is obtained from the graph using an experimentally determined ratio of the activities of the above radionuclides. (B.S.)

  15. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  16. Technological and licensing challenges for high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, H.; Urban, P.; Fenzlein, C.

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of electricity markets is driving electricity prices downward as well in the U.S. as in Europe. As a consequence high burnup fuel will be demanded by utilities using either the storage or the reprocessing option. At a minimum, burnups consistent with the current political enrichment limit of 5 w/o will be required for both markets.Significant progress has been achieved in the past by Siemens in meeting the demands of utilities for increased fuel burnup. The technological challenges posed by the increased burnup are mainly related to the corrosion and hydrogen pickup of the clad, the high burnup properties of the fuel and the dimensional changes of the fuel assembly structure. Clad materials with increased corrosion resistance appropriate for high burnup have been developed. The high burnup behaviour of the fuel has been extensively investigated and the decrease of thermal conductivity with burnup, the rim effect of the pellet and the increase of fission gas release with burnup can be described, with good accuracy, in fuel rod computer codes. Advanced statistical design methods have been developed and introduced. Materials with increased corrosion resistance are also helpful controlling the dimensional changes of the fuel assembly structure. In summary, most of the questions about the fuel operational behaviour and reliability in the high burnup range have been solved - some of them are still in the process of verification - or the solutions are visible. This fact is largely acknowledged by regulators too. The main licensing challenges for high burnup fuel are currently seen for accident condition analyses, especially for RIA and LOCA. (author)

  17. Underestimation of nuclear fuel burnup – theory, demonstration and solution in numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajda Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo methodology provides reference statistical solution of neutron transport criticality problems of nuclear systems. Estimated reaction rates can be applied as an input to Bateman equations that govern isotopic evolution of reactor materials. Because statistical solution of Boltzmann equation is computationally expensive, it is in practice applied to time steps of limited length. In this paper we show that simple staircase step model leads to underprediction of numerical fuel burnup (Fissions per Initial Metal Atom – FIMA. Theoretical considerations indicates that this error is inversely proportional to the length of the time step and origins from the variation of heating per source neutron. The bias can be diminished by application of predictor-corrector step model. A set of burnup simulations with various step length and coupling schemes has been performed. SERPENT code version 1.17 has been applied to the model of a typical fuel assembly from Pressurized Water Reactor. In reference case FIMA reaches 6.24% that is equivalent to about 60 GWD/tHM of industrial burnup. The discrepancies up to 1% have been observed depending on time step model and theoretical predictions are consistent with numerical results. Conclusions presented in this paper are important for research and development concerning nuclear fuel cycle also in the context of Gen4 systems.

  18. Needs of reliable nuclear data and covariance matrices for Burnup Credit in JEFF-3 library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambon, A.; Santamarina, A.; Riffard, C.; Lavaud, F.; Lecarpentier, D.

    2013-01-01

    Burnup Credit (BUC) is the concept which consists in taking into account credit for the reduction of nuclear spent fuel reactivity due to its burnup. In the case of PWR-MOx spent fuel, studies pointed out that the contribution of the 15 most absorbing, stable and non-volatile fission products selected to the credit is as important as the one of the actinides. In order to get a 'best estimate' value of the keff, biases of their inventory calculation and individual reactivity worth should be considered in criticality safety studies. This paper enhances the most penalizing bias towards criticality and highlights possible improvements of nuclear data for the 15 fission products (FPs) of PWR-MOx BUC. Concerning the fuel inventory, trends in function of the burnup can be derived from experimental validation of the DARWIN-2.3 package (using the JEFF- 3.1.1/SHEM library). Thanks to the BUC oscillation programme of separated FPs in the MINERVE reactor and fully validated scheme PIMS, calculation over experiment ratios can be accurately transposed to tendencies on the FPs integral cross sections. (authors)

  19. Development of a Burnup Module DECBURN Based on the Krylov Subspace Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Shim, H. J.; Song, J. S

    2008-05-15

    This report is to develop a burnup module DECBURN that is essential for the reactor analysis and the assembly homogenization codes to trace the fuel composition change during the core burnup. The developed burnup module solves the burnup equation by the matrix exponential method based on the Krylov Subspace method. The final solution of the matrix exponential is obtained by the matrix scaling and squaring method. To develop DECBURN module, this report includes the followings as: (1) Krylov Subspace Method for Burnup Equation, (2) Manufacturing of the DECBURN module, (3) Library Structure Setup and Library Manufacturing, (4) Examination of the DECBURN module, (5) Implementation to the DeCART code and Verification. DECBURN library includes the decay constants, one-group cross section and the fission yields. Examination of the DECBURN module is performed by manufacturing a driver program, and the results of the DECBURN module is compared with those of the ORIGEN program. Also, the implemented DECBURN module to the DeCART code is applied to the LWR depletion benchmark and a OPR-1000 pin cell problem, and the solutions are compared with the HELIOS code to verify the computational soundness and accuracy. In this process, the criticality calculation method and the predictor-corrector scheme are introduced to the DeCART code for a function of the homogenization code. The examination by a driver program shows that the DECBURN module produces exactly the same solution with the ORIGEN program. DeCART code that equips the DECBURN module produces a compatible solution to the other codes for the LWR depletion benchmark. Also the multiplication factors of the DeCART code for the OPR-1000 pin cell problem agree to the HELIOS code within 100 pcm over the whole burnup steps. The multiplication factors with the criticality calculation are also compatible with the HELIOS code. These results mean that the developed DECBURN module works soundly and produces an accurate solution

  20. Modeling of PWR fuel at extended burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Raphael Mejias

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the modifications implemented over successive versions in the empirical models of the computer program FRAPCON used to simulate the steady state irradiation performance of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel rods under high burnup condition. In the study, the empirical models present in FRAPCON official documentation were analyzed. A literature study was conducted on the effects of high burnup in nuclear fuels and to improve the understanding of the models used by FRAPCON program in these conditions. A steady state fuel performance analysis was conducted for a typical PWR fuel rod using FRAPCON program versions 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. The results presented by the different versions of the program were compared in order to verify the impact of model changes in the output parameters of the program. It was observed that the changes brought significant differences in the results of the fuel rod thermal and mechanical parameters, especially when they evolved from FRAPCON-3.3 version to FRAPCON-3.5 version. Lower temperatures, lower cladding stress and strain, lower cladding oxide layer thickness were obtained in the fuel rod analyzed with the FRAPCON-3.5 version. (author)

  1. Establishing a PWR burn-up library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Starting out from data file ENDF/B IV /1/, a cross-section library has been established for the calculation of operating conditions in pressurized water reactors of the type used in BIBLIS B. The library includes macroscopic, homogenized 2-group cross-sections for all types of fuel elements used in this reactor, including those equipped with boron glass rods. For their calculation the previous irradiation of the fuel has been taken into consideration by approximation. Information on fuel consumption from cell burn-up calculations has been stored in a separate data file. It was designed as a base for the determination of cross sections to be used in the calculation of the incident ''main-steam pipe fracture''. For this library the description of cross sections as a function of the moderator status chose the water densities at 300 0 C/155 bar, 190 0 C/140 bar and 100 0 C/100 bar as fixed values. The burn-up library has been tested by a three-dimensional calculation for the 1sup(st) cycle of the BIBLIS B-reactor using program QUABOX /2/. This showed variances with the anticipated course concerning critically, which can be explained almost quantitatively by known deficiencies of the ENDF/b-IV library. (orig.) [de

  2. Device for measuring a burnup degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshiaki; Goto, Seiichiro

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the burnup degree at high efficiency and accuracy. Constitution: The outer metal wall of fuel assemblies is heated under gamma radiation with long half life gamma rays in inverse proportion to the burnup degree and issues infrared radiation in proportion to the intensity of the gamma rays. An image pick-up tube is opposed to one surface of the fuel assemblies to detect the radiated infrared rays. Since the output signal from the pick-up tube is subjected to the absorptive damping by the distance between the pick-up tube and the fuel assembly, as well as water filled in the gap therebetween, it is corrected through a main amplifier comprising a signal correction circuit composed of a characteristic section inverse to the absorption property and a characteristic section inverse to the square of the distance. The corrected output signal is displayed on a display unit such as CRT or recorded in a film or a magnetic tape. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Actinides burnup in a sodium fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Pineda A, R.; Martinez C, E.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The burnup of actinides in a nuclear reactor is been proposed as part of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, this process would close the fuel cycle recycling some of the radioactive material produced in the open nuclear fuel cycle. These actinides are found in the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power reactors at the end of their burnup in the reactor. Previous studies of actinides recycling in thermal reactors show that would be possible reduce the amounts of actinides at least in 50% of the recycled amounts. in this work, the amounts of actinides that can be burned in a fast reactor is calculated, very interesting results surge from the calculations, first, the amounts of actinides generated by the fuel is higher than for thermal fuel and the composition of the actinides vector is different as in fuel for thermal reactor the main isotope is the {sup 237}Np in the fuel for fast reactor the main isotope is the {sup 241}Am, finally it is concluded that the fast reactor, also generates important amounts of waste. (Author)

  4. ABB PWR fuel design for high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Jourdain, P.; Limback, M.; Garde, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion, hydriding and irradiation induced growth of a based materials are important factors for the high burnup performance of PWR fuel. ABB has developed a number of Zr based alloys to meet the need for fuel that enables operation to elevated burnups. The materials include composition and processing optimised Zircaloy 4 (OPTIN TM ) and Zircaloy 2 (Zircaloy 2P), as well as advanced Zr based alloys with chemical compositions outside the composition specified for Zircaloy. The advanced alloys are either used as Duplex or as single component claddings. The Duplex claddings have an inner component of Zircaloy and an outer layer of Zr with small additions of alloying elements. ABB has furthermore improved the dimensional stability of the fuel assembly by developing stiffer and more bow resistant guide tubes while debris related fuel failures have been eliminated from ABB fuel by introducing the Guardian TM grid. Intermediate flow mixers that improve the thermal hydraulic performance and the dimensional stability of the fuel has also been developed within ABB. (author)

  5. Revised SWAT. The integrated burnup calculation code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki [Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kiyosumi, Takehide [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    SWAT is an integrated burnup code system developed for analysis of post irradiation examination, transmutation of radioactive waste, and burnup credit problem. This report shows an outline and a user's manual of revised SWAT. This revised SWAT includes expansion of functions, increasing supported machines, and correction of several bugs reported from users of previous SWAT. (author)

  6. Benchmarking burnup reconstruction methods for dynamically operated research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternat, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Charlton, William S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). National Strategic Research Institute; Nichols, Theodore F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The burnup of an HEU fueled dynamically operated research reactor, the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, was experimentally reconstructed using two different analytic methodologies and a suite of signature isotopes to evaluate techniques for estimating burnup for research reactor fuel. The methods studied include using individual signature isotopes and the complete mass spectrometry spectrum to recover the sample’s burnup. The individual, or sets of, isotopes include 148Nd, 137Cs+137Ba, 139La, and 145Nd+146Nd. The storage documentation from the analyzed fuel material provided two different measures of burnup: burnup percentage and the total power generated from the assembly in MWd. When normalized to conventional units, these two references differed by 7.8% (395.42GWd/MTHM and 426.27GWd/MTHM) in the resulting burnup for the spent fuel element used in the benchmark. Among all methods being evaluated, the results were within 11.3% of either reference burnup. The results were mixed in closeness to both reference burnups; however, consistent results were achieved from all three experimental samples.

  7. Revised SWAT. The integrated burnup calculation code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Kiyosumi, Takehide

    2000-07-01

    SWAT is an integrated burnup code system developed for analysis of post irradiation examination, transmutation of radioactive waste, and burnup credit problem. This report shows an outline and a user's manual of revised SWAT. This revised SWAT includes expansion of functions, increasing supported machines, and correction of several bugs reported from users of previous SWAT. (author)

  8. Burn-up measurements coupling gamma spectrometry and neutron measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toubon, H.; Pin, P. [AREVA/CANBERRA, 1 rue des Herons, 78182 St Quentin-en-Yvelines Cedex (France); Lebrun, A. [IAEA, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Oriol, L.; Saurel, N. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Gain, T. [AREVA/COGEMA Reprocessing Business Unit, La Hague, 50444 Beaumont Hague Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    The need to apply for burn-up credit arises with the increase of the initial enrichment of nuclear fuel. When burn-up credit is used in criticality safety studies, it is often necessary to confirm it by measurement. For the last 10 years, CANBERRA has manufactured the PYTHON system for such measurements. However, the method used in the PYTHON itself uses certain reactor data to arrive at burn-up estimates. Based on R and D led by CEA and COGEMA in the framework of burn-up measurement for burn-up credit and safeguards applications, CANBERRA is developing the next generation of burn-up measurement device. This new product, named SMOPY, is able to measure burn-up of any kind of irradiated fuel assembly with a combination of gamma spectrometry and passive neutron measurements. The measurement data is used as input to the CESAR depletion code, which has been developed and qualified by CEA and COGEMA for burn-up credit determinations. In this paper, we explain the complementary nature of the gamma and neutron measurements. In addition, we draw on our previous experience from PYTHON system and from COGEMA La Hague to show what types of evaluations are required to qualify the SMOPY system, to estimate its uncertainties, and to detect discrepancies in the fuel data given by the reactor plant to characterize the irradiated fuel assembly. (authors)

  9. Burn-up measurements coupling gamma spectrometry and neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubon, H.; Pin, P.; Lebrun, A.; Oriol, L.; Saurel, N.; Gain, T.

    2006-01-01

    The need to apply for burn-up credit arises with the increase of the initial enrichment of nuclear fuel. When burn-up credit is used in criticality safety studies, it is often necessary to confirm it by measurement. For the last 10 years, CANBERRA has manufactured the PYTHON system for such measurements. However, the method used in the PYTHON itself uses certain reactor data to arrive at burn-up estimates. Based on R and D led by CEA and COGEMA in the framework of burn-up measurement for burn-up credit and safeguards applications, CANBERRA is developing the next generation of burn-up measurement device. This new product, named SMOPY, is able to measure burn-up of any kind of irradiated fuel assembly with a combination of gamma spectrometry and passive neutron measurements. The measurement data is used as input to the CESAR depletion code, which has been developed and qualified by CEA and COGEMA for burn-up credit determinations. In this paper, we explain the complementary nature of the gamma and neutron measurements. In addition, we draw on our previous experience from PYTHON system and from COGEMA La Hague to show what types of evaluations are required to qualify the SMOPY system, to estimate its uncertainties, and to detect discrepancies in the fuel data given by the reactor plant to characterize the irradiated fuel assembly. (authors)

  10. REFLOS, Fuel Loading and Cost from Burnup and Heavy Atomic Mass Flow Calculation in HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1969-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: REFLOS is a programme for the evaluation of fuel-loading schemes in heavy water moderated reactors. The problems involved in this study are: a) Burn-up calculation for the reactor cell. b) Determination of reactivity behaviour, power distribution, attainable burn-up for both the running-in period and the equilibrium of a 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model; investigation of radial fuel movement schemes. c) Evaluation of mass flows of heavy atoms through the reactor and fuel cycle costs for the running-in, the equilibrium, and the shut down of a power reactor. If the subroutine for treating the reactor cell were replaced by a suitable routine, other reactors with weakly absorbing moderators could be analyzed. 2 - Method of solution: Nuclear constants and isotopic compositions of the different fuels in the reactor are calculated by the cell-burn-up programme and tabulated as functions of the burn-up rate (MWD/T). Starting from a known state of the reactor, the 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor programme (applying an extension of the technique of Feinberg and Galanin) calculates reactivity and neutron flux distribution using one thermal and one or two fast neutron groups. After a given irradiation time, the new state of the reactor is determined, and new nuclear constants are assigned to the various defined locations in the reactor. Reloading of fuel may occur if the prescribed life of the reactor is reached or if the effective multiplication factor or the power form factor falls below a specified level. The scheme of reloading to be carried out is specified by a load vector, giving the number of channels to be discharged, the kind of movement from one to another channel and the type of fresh fuel to be charged for each single reloading event. After having determined the core states characterizing the equilibrium period, and having decided the fuel reloading scheme for the running-in period of the reactor life, the fuel

  11. Spatially dependent burnup implementation into the nodal program based on the finite element response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoriyaz, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this work a spatial burnup scheme and feedback effects has been implemented into the FERM ( 'Finite Element Response Matrix' )program. The spatially dependent neutronic parameters have been considered in three levels: zonewise calculation, assembly wise calculation and pointwise calculation. Flux and power distributions and the multiplication factor were calculated and compared with the results obtained by CITATIOn program. These comparisons showed that processing time in the Ferm code has been hundred of times shorter and no significant difference has been observed in the assembly average power distribution. (Author) [pt

  12. Evaluation of burnup credit for fuel storage analysis -- Experience in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several Spanish light water reactor commercial nuclear power plants are close to maximum spent-fuel pool storage capacity. The utilities are working on the implementation of state-of-the-art methods to increase the storage capacity, including both changes in the pool design (recracking) and the implementation of new analysis approaches with reduced conservation (burnup credit). Burnup credit criticality safety analyses have been approved for two pressurized water reactor plants (four units) and one boiling water reactor (BWR); an other BWR storage analysis is being developed at this moment. The elimination of the ''fresh fuel assumption'' increases the complexity of the criticality analysis to be performed, sometimes putting into question the capability of the analytic tools to properly describe this new situation and increasing the scope of the scenarios to be analyzed. From a regulatory perspective, the reactivity reduction associated with burnup of the fuel can be given credit only if the exposure of each fuel bundle can be known with enough accuracy. Subcriticality of spent-fuel storage depends mainly on the initial fuel enrichment, storage geometry, fuel exposure history, and cooling time. The last two aspects introduced new uncertainties in the criticality analysis that should be quantified in an adequate way. In addition, each and every fuel bundle has its own specific exposure history, so that strong assumptions and simplified calculational schemes have to be developed to undertake the analysis. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Spanish regulatory authority on the matter of nuclear safety and radiation protection, plays an active role in the development of analysis methods to support burnup credit, making proposals that may be beneficial in terms of risk and cost while keeping the widest safety margins possible

  13. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Viet Phu; Tran Hoai Nam; Akio Yamamoto; Tomohiro Endo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of a new burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. The JENDL FP Decay Data File 2011 and Fission Yields Data File 2011 were used as the data sources. The nuclides in the new chain are determined by restrictions of the half-life and cumulative yield of fission products or from a given list. Then, decay modes, branching ratios and fission yields are recalculated taking into account intermediate reactions. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Further development and applications are being planned with the burnup chain code. (author)

  14. Probabilistic assessment of dry transport with burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The general concept of probabilistic analysis and its application to the use of burnup credit in spent fuel transport is explored. Discussion of the probabilistic analysis method is presented. The concepts of risk and its perception are introduced, and models are suggested for performing probability and risk estimates. The general probabilistic models are used for evaluating the application of burnup credit for dry spent nuclear fuel transport. Two basic cases are considered. The first addresses the question of the relative likelihood of exceeding an established criticality safety limit with and without burnup credit. The second examines the effect of using burnup credit on the overall risk for dry spent fuel transport. Using reasoned arguments and related failure probability and consequence data analysis is performed to estimate the risks of using burnup credit for dry transport of spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  15. Burnup credit applications in a high-capacity truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    General Atomics (GA) has designed two legal weight truck (LWT) casks, the GA-4 and GA-9, to carry four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) and nine boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies, respectively. GA plans to submit applications for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the two casks in mid-1993. GA will include burnup credit analysis in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the GA-4 Cask. By including burnup credit in the criticality safety analysis for PWR fuels with initial enrichments above 3% U-235, public and occupation risks are reduced and cost savings are realized. The GA approach to burnup credit analysis incorporates the information produced in the US Department of Energy Burnup Credit Program. This paper describes the application of burnup credit to the criticality control design of the GA-4 Cask

  16. A Monte Carlo burnup code linking MCNP and REBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Olson, A.P.; Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The REBUS-3 burnup code, used in the anl RERTR Program, is a very general code that uses diffusion theory (DIF3D) to obtain the fluxes required for reactor burnup analyses. Diffusion theory works well for most reactors. However, to include the effects of exact geometry and strong absorbers that are difficult to model using diffusion theory, a Monte Carlo method is required. MCNP, a general-purpose, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, Monte Carlo transport code, is the most widely used Monte Carlo code. This paper presents a linking of the MCNP code and the REBUS burnup code to perform these difficult analyses. The linked code will permit the use of the full capabilities of REBUS which include non-equilibrium and equilibrium burnup analyses. Results of burnup analyses using this new linked code are also presented. (author)

  17. The Candle and the Mirror: One Author's Journey as an Outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Chronicles the author's journey as an outsider who authored a book for children about the harvest traditions of the Tohono O'odham people. Describes how her concern about the lack of literature to serve as a mirror and a candle to reflect and illuminate the lives of Tohono O'odham children led her on a journey that was both painful and affirming.…

  18. Pulse cleaning flow models and numerical computation of candle ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gui-shan; Ma, Zhen-ji; Zhang, Xin-yi; Xu, Ting-xiang

    2002-04-01

    Analytical and numerical computed models are developed for reverse pulse cleaning system of candle ceramic filters. A standard turbulent model is demonstrated suitably to the designing computation of reverse pulse cleaning system from the experimental and one-dimensional computational result. The computed results can be used to guide the designing of reverse pulse cleaning system, which is optimum Venturi geometry. From the computed results, the general conclusions and the designing methods are obtained.

  19. The Histological and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S.; Ramot, Yuval; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous and often annular, cutaneous eruption. While the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 CANDLE syndrome patients by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder as well as further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe, life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  20. Lung inflammation and genotoxicity in mice lungs after pulmonary exposure to candle light combustion particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Damiao Gouveia, Ana Cecilia; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi

    2017-01-01

    Candle burning produces a large amount of particles that contribute substantially to the exposure to indoor particulate matter. The exposures to various types of combustion particles, such as diesel exhaust particles, have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer by mechanisms that invo......Candle burning produces a large amount of particles that contribute substantially to the exposure to indoor particulate matter. The exposures to various types of combustion particles, such as diesel exhaust particles, have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer by mechanisms...... that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to compare pulmonary effects of candle light combustion particles (CP) with two benchmark diesel exhaust particles (A-DEP and SRM2975). Intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of CP (5mg/kg bodyweight) in C57BL/6n mice produced......-DEP or SRM2975. The i.t. instillation of CP did not generate oxidative damage to DNA in lung tissue, measured as DNA strand breaks and human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase-sensitive sites by the comet assay. The lack of genotoxic response was confirmed in lung epithelial (A549) cells, although the exposure to CP...

  1. Benefits of actinide-only burnup credit for shutdown PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, C.; Rivard, D.

    1998-02-01

    Owners of PWRs that are shutdown prior to resolution of interim storage or permanent disposal issues have to make difficult decisions on what to do with their spent fuel. Maine Yankee is currently evaluating multiple options for spent fuel storage. Their spent fuel pool has 1,434 assemblies. In order to evaluate the value to a utility of actinide-only burnup credit, analysis of the number of canisters required with and without burnup credit was made. In order to perform the analysis, loading curves were developed for the Holtec Hi-Star 100/MPC-32. The MPC-32 is hoped to be representative of future burnup credit designs from many vendors. The loading curves were generated using the actinide-only burnup credit currently under NRC review. The canister was analyzed for full loading (32 assemblies) and with partial loadings of 30 and 28 assemblies. If no burnup credit is used the maximum capacity was assumed to be 24 assemblies. this reduced capacity is due to the space required for flux traps which are needed to sufficiently reduce the canister reactivity for the fresh fuel assumption. Without burnup credit the 1,343 assemblies would require 60 canisters. If all the fuel could be loaded into the 32 assembly canisters only 45 canisters would be required. Although the actinide-only burnup credit approach is very conservative, the total number of canisters required is only 47 which is only two short of the minimum possible number of canisters. The utility is expected to buy the canister and the storage overpack. A reasonable cost estimate for the canister plus overpack is $500,000. Actinide-only burnup credit would save 13 canisters and overpacks which is a savings of about $6.5 million. This savings is somewhat reduced since burnup credit requires a verification measurement of burnup. The measurement costs for these assemblies can be estimated as about $1 million. The net savings would be $5.5 million

  2. Full MOX high burn-up PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Shimada, Shoichiro; Araya, Fumimasa; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    As a part of conceptual investigation on advanced light water reactors for the future, a light water reactor with the high burn-up of 100 GWd/t, the long cycle operation of 3 years and the full MOX core is being studied, aiming at the improvement on economical aspects, the reduction of the spent fuel production, the utilization of Plutonium and so forth. The present report summarizes investigation on PWR-type reactors. The core with the increased moderation of the moderator-to-fuel volume ratio of 2.6 {approx} 3.0 has been proposed be such a core that accomplishes requirements mentioned above. Through the neutronic and the thermo-hydrodynamic evaluation, the performances of the core have been evaluated. Also, the safety designing is underway considering the reactor system with the passive safety features. (author)

  3. HAMCIND, Cell Burnup with Fission Products Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Alfredo Y.; Dos Santos, Adimir

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HAMCIND is a cell burnup code based in a coupling between HAMMER-TECHNION and CINDER. The fission product poisoning is taken into account in an explicit fashion. 2 - Method of solution: The nonlinear coupled set of equations for the neutron transport and nuclide transmutation equations and nuclide transmutation equations in a unit cell is solved by HAMCIND in a quasi-static approach. The spectral transport equation is solved by HAMMER-TECHNION at the beginning of each time-step while the nuclide transmutation equations are solved by CINDER for every time-step. The HAMMER-TECHNION spectral calculations are performed taking into account the fission product contribution to the macroscopic cross sections (fast and thermal), in the inelastic scattering matrix and even in the thermal scattering matrices. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Restrictions and/or limitations for HAMCIND depend upon the local operating system

  4. The commercial impact of burnup increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzlein, C.; Schricker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation has a dramatic effect on competition in the electricity markets. This will lead to a continued pressure on the prices in virtually all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle and will encourage further optimization, technical and technological progress and innovations with respect to further cost reductions of power production. The permission of direct disposal, in Germany legally granted in 1994 as an alternative to the reprocessing path, made possible cost savings and has consequently resulted in a decline of reprocessing prices. In addition, suppliers as well as operators are making considerable efforts to reduce the disposal costs fraction by optimizing disposal technologies and concepts. The increase of discharge has essentially contributed to the reduction the disposal cost fraction. Compared to former scenarios, the economic potential of burn-up increase is decreasing

  5. Measurement of burnup in FBR MOX fuel irradiated to high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Sekine, Takashi; Morozumi, Katsufumi; Namekawa, Takashi; Itoh, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    The burnup of fuel pins in the subassemblies irradiated at the range from 0.003 to 13.28% FIMA in the JOYO MK-II core were measured by the isotope dilution analysis. For the measurement, 75 and 51 specimens were taken from the fuel pins of driver fuel and irradiation test subassemblies, respectively. The data of burnup could be obtained within an experimental error of 4%, and were compared with the ones calculated by 3-dimensional neutron diffusion codes MAGI and ESPRIT-J, which are used for JOYO core management system. Both data of burnup almost agree with each other within an error of 5%. For the fuel pins loaded at the outer region of the subassembly in the 4th row, which was adjacent to reflectors, however, some of the calculation results were 15% less at most than the measured values. It is suggested from the calculation by a Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A that this difference between the calculated and the measured data attribute from the softening of neutron flux in the region adjacent to the reflector. (author)

  6. Experimental programmes related to high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Vidhya, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Nagarajan, K.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental programmes undertaken at IGCAR with regard to high burn-up fuels fall under the following categories: a) studies on fuel behaviour, b) development of extractants for aqueous reprocessing and c) development of non-aqueous reprocessing techniques. An experimental programme to measure the carbon potential in U/Pu-FP-C systems by methane-hydrogen gas equilibration technique has been initiated at IGCAR in order to understand the evolution of fuel and fission product phases in carbide fuel at high burn-up. The carbon potentials in U-Mo-C system have been measured by this technique. The free energies and enthalpies of formation of LaC 2 , NdC 2 and SmC 2 have been measured by measuring the vapor pressures of CO over the region Ln 2 O 3 -LnC 2 -C during the carbothermic reduction of Ln 2 O 3 by C. The decontamination from fission products achieved in fuel reprocessing depends strongly on the actinide loading of the extractant phase. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), presently used as the extractant, does not allow high loadings due to its propensity for third phase formation in the extraction of Pu(IV). A detailed study of the allowable Pu loadings in TBP and other extractants has been undertaken in IGCAR, the results of which are presented in this paper. The paper also describes the status of our programme to develop a non-aqueous route for the reprocessing of fast reactor fuels. (author)

  7. High burnup models in computer code fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, B K; Swami Prasad, P; Kushwaha, H S; Mahajan, S C; Kakodar, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-08-01

    An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ``Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation`` and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs.

  8. High burnup models in computer code fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.; Swami Prasad, P.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodar, A.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ''Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation'' and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  9. SOURCE OF BURNUP VALUES FOR COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BSC

    2004-01-01

    Waste packages are loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that satisfies the minimum burnup requirements of a criticality loading curve. The burnup value assigned by the originating nuclear utility to each SNF assembly (assigned burnup) is used to load waste packages in compliance with a criticality loading curve. The burnup provided by a nuclear utility has uncertainties, so conservative calculation methods are used to characterize those uncertainties for incorporation into the criticality loading curves. Procedural safety controls ensure that the correct assembly is loaded into each waste package to prevent a misload that could create a condition affecting the safety margins. Probabilistic analyses show that procedural safety controls can minimize the chance of a misload but can not completely eliminate the possibility. Physical measurements of burnup with instrumentation in the surface facility are not necessary due to the conservative calculation methods used to produce the criticality loading curves. The reactor records assigned burnup of a commercial SNF assembly contains about two percent uncertainty, which is increased to five-percent to ensure conservatism. This five-percent uncertainty is accommodated by adjusting the criticality loading curve. Also, the record keeping methods of nuclear utilities are not uniform and the level of detail required by the NRC has varied over the last several decades. Thus, some SNF assemblies may have assigned burnups that are averages for a batch of assemblies with similar characteristics. Utilities typically have access to more detailed core-follow records that allow the batch average burnup to be changed to an assembly specific burnup. Alternatively, an additional safety margin is incorporated into the criticality loading curve to accommodate SNF assemblies with batch average burnups or greater uncertainties due to the methodology used by the nuclear utility. The utility records provide the assembly identifier

  10. Development of methods for burn-up calculations for LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaschik, W.

    1978-01-01

    This method is based on all burn-up depending data, namely particle densities and neutron spectra, being available in a burn-up library. This one is created by means of a small number of cell burn-up calculations which can easily be carried out and in which the heterogeneous cell structure and self-shielding effects can explicitly be accounted for. Then the cluster burn-up is simulated by adequate correlation of the burn-up data. The advantage of this method is given by - an exact determination of the real spectrum distribution in the individual fuel element clusters; - an exact determination of the burn-up related spectrum variations for each fuel rod and for each burn-up value obtained; - accounting for heterogeneity of the fuel rod cells and the self-shielding in the fuel; high accuracy of the results of a comparably low effort and - simple handling by largely automating the process of computation. Programed realization was achieved by establishing the RSYST modules ABRAJA, MITHOM, and SIMABB and their implementation within the code system. (orig./HP) [de

  11. BNFL assessment of methods of attaining high burnup MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Hesketh, K.W.; Palmer, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    It is clear that in order to maintain competitiveness with UO 2 fuel, the burnups achievable in MOX fuel must be enhanced beyond the levels attainable today. There are two aspects which require attention when studying methods of increased burnups - cladding integrity and fuel performance. Current irradiation experience indicates that one of the main performance issues for MOX fuel is fission gas retention. MOX, with its lower thermal conductivity, runs at higher temperatures than UO 2 fuel; this can result in enhanced fission gas release. This paper explores methods of effectively reducing gas release and thereby improving MOX burnup potential. (author)

  12. A guide to introducing burnup credit, preliminary version (English translation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Ryufuku, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    There is an ongoing discussion on the application of burnup credit to the criticality safety controls of facilities that treat spent fuels. With regard to such application of burnup credit in Japan, this document summarizes the current technical status of the prediction of the isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuels, as well as safety evaluation concerns and the current status of legal affairs. This report is an English translation of A Guide to Introducing Burnup Credit, Preliminary Version, originally published in Japanese as JAERI-Tech 2001-055 by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility Safety Research Committee. (author)

  13. Burnup credit demands for spent fuel management in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medun, V.

    2001-01-01

    In fact, till now, burnup credit has not be applied in Ukrainian nuclear power for spent fuel management systems (storage and transport). However, application of advanced fuel at VVER reactors, arising spent fuel amounts, represent burnup credit as an important resource to decrease spent fuel management costs. The paper describes spent fuel management status in Ukraine from viewpoint of subcriticality assurance under spent fuel storage and transport. It also considers: 1. Regulation basis concerning subcriticality assurance, 2. Basic spent fuel and transport casks characteristics, 3. Possibilities and demands for burnup credit application at spent fuel management systems in Ukraine. (author)

  14. Burnup calculation methodology in the serpent 2 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppaenen, J.; Isotalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two topics related to the burnup calculation capabilities in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code: advanced time-integration methods and improved memory management, accomplished by the use of different optimization modes. The development of the introduced methods is an important part of re-writing the Serpent source code, carried out for the purpose of extending the burnup calculation capabilities from 2D assembly-level calculations to large 3D reactor-scale problems. The progress is demonstrated by repeating a PWR test case, originally carried out in 2009 for the validation of the newly-implemented burnup calculation routines in Serpent 1. (authors)

  15. A microcomputer program for coupled cycle burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Downar, T.J.; Taylor, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    A program, designated BRACC (Burnup, Reactivity, And Cycle Coupling), has been developed for fuel management scoping calculations, and coded in the BASIC language in an interactive format for use with microcomputers. BRACC estimates batch and cycle burnups for sequential reloads for a variety of initial core conditions, and permits the user to specify either reload batch properties (enrichment, burnable poison reactivity) or the target cycle burnup. Most important fuel management tactics (out-in or low-leakage loading, coastdown, variation in number of assemblies charged) can be simulated

  16. Safety aspects related to burnup increase and mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1992-01-01

    The dominant factor presently limiting the fuel burnup is the response of the cladding hulls. To maintain the excellent record of very low fuel failure rates for increased burnups further technical development is underway and necessary. In the nuclear fuel cycle increased burnups lead to a remarkable reduction of spent fuel arisings and corresponding economic savings. Thermal recycling of plutonium presently provides an opportunity to reduce the rising accumulation of plutunium in a situation where there is no demand for this fissile material in Fast Breeder Reactors. (orig.) [de

  17. Two dimensional burn-up calculation of TRIGA core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, A.; Ravnik, M.; Slavic, S.

    1996-01-01

    TRIGLAV is a new computer program for burn-up calculation of mixed core of research reactors. The code is based on diffusion model in two dimensions and iterative procedure is applied for its solution. The material data used in the model are calculated with the transport program WIMS. In regard to fission density distribution and energy produced by the reactor the burn-up increment of fuel elements is determined. In this paper the calculation model of diffusion constants and burn-up calculation are described and some results of calculations for TRIGA MARK II reactor are presented. (author)

  18. Measurement and interpretation of triton burnup in Jet deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Kallne, J.; Sadler, G.; van Belle, P.; Gorini, G.; Conroy, S.; Verschuur, K.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement and slowing down of fast tritons in JET deuterium plasmas is investigated. The ratio of 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutron production rates is measured. This ratio is equal to the fraction of tritons which burnup. The 2.5 MeV neutron emission is obtained from a set of fission chambers for which the calibration uncertainty is about 10%. The absolute calibration of the activation technique is calculated. The comparison between experimental and theoretical burnup ratios, for JET 1987 data, is shown. The range of conditions over which measurements of triton burnup fraction were obtained, is illustrated

  19. An empirical formulation to describe the evolution of the high burnup structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Martín; Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia

    2015-01-15

    In the present work the behavior of fuel pellets for LWR power reactors in the high burnup range (average burnup higher than about 45 MWd/kgU) is analyzed. For extended irradiation periods, a considerable Pu concentration is reached in the pellet periphery (rim zone), that contributes to local burnup. Gradually, a new microstructure develops in that ring, characterized by small grains and large pores as compared with those of the original material. In this region Xe is absent from the solid lattice (although it continues to be dissolved in the rest of the pellet). The porous microstructure in the pellet edge causes local changes in the mechanical and thermal properties, thus affecting the overall fuel behavior. It is generally accepted that the evolution of porosity in the high burnup structure (HBS) is determinant of the retention capacity of the fission gases rejected from the fuel matrix. This is the reason why, during the latest years a considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the parameters that influence porosity. Although the mechanisms governing the microstructural transformation have not been completely elucidated yet, some empirical expressions can be given, and this is the intention of the present work, for representing the main physical parameters. Starting from several works published in the open literature, some mathematical expressions were developed to describe the behavior and progress of porosity at local burnup values ranging from 60 to 300 MWd/kgU. The analysis includes the interactions of different orders between pores, the growth of the pore radius by capturing vacancies, the evolution of porosity, pore number density and overpressure within the closed pores, the inventory of fission gas dissolved in the matrix and retained in the pores. The model is mathematically expressed by a system of non-linear differential equations. In the present work, results of this calculation scheme are compared with experimental data available in

  20. 3D core burnup studies in 500 MWe Indian prototype fast breeder reactor to attain enhanced core burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhry, Nakul; Riyas, A.; Devan, K.; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Enhanced burnup potential of existing prototype fast breeder reactor core is studied. ► By increasing the Pu enrichment, fuel burnup can be increased in existing PFBR core. ► Enhanced burnup increase economy and reduce load of fuel fabrication and reprocessing. ► Beginning of life reactivity is suppressed by increasing the number of diluents. ► Absorber rod worth requirements can be achieved by increasing 10 B enrichment. -- Abstract: Fast breeder reactors are capable of producing high fuel burnup because of higher internal breeding of fissile material and lesser parasitic capture of neutrons in the core. As these reactors need high fissile enrichment, high fuel burnup is desirable to be cost effective and to reduce the load on fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants. A pool type, liquid sodium cooled, mixed (Pu–U) oxide fueled 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), under construction at Kalpakkam is designed for a peak burnup of 100 GWd/t. This limitation on burnup is purely due to metallurgical properties of structural materials like clad and hexcan to withstand high neutron fluence, and not by the limitation on the excess reactivity available in the core. The 3D core burnup studies performed earlier for approach to equilibrium core of PFBR is continued to demonstrate the burnup potential of existing PFBR core. To increase the fuel burnup of PFBR, plutonium oxide enrichment is increased from 20.7%/27.7% to 22.1%/29.4% of core-1/core-2 which resulted in cycle length increase from 180 to 250 effective full power days (efpd), so that the peak fuel burnup increases from 100 to 134 GWd/t, keeping all the core parameters under allowed safety limits. Number of diluents subassemblies is increased from eight to twelve at beginning of life core to bring down the initial core excess reactivity. PFBR refueling is revised to accommodate twelve diluents. Increase of 10 B enrichment in control safety rods (CSRs) and diverse safety rods (DSRs

  1. The use of burnup credit for spent fuel cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    A new generation of high capacity spent fuel transport casks is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). Burnup credit, which recognizes the reduced reactivity of spent fuel is being used for these casks. Two cask designs being developed for DOE by Babcock and Wilcox and General Atomics use burnup credit. The cask designs must be certified by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) if they are to be used in the FWMS. Certification of these casks by the NRC would not require any change in the NRC's transport regulations, and would be consistent with past practices. Furthermore, use of burnup credit casks appears to be consistent with current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) rules and regulations. To support NRC certification, DOE has identified the technical issues related to burnup credit, and embarked on a development program to resolve them. (J.P.N.)

  2. Burn-up measurement in the HTR-module-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhards, E.

    1993-05-01

    The burn-up status of spherical HTR-fuel elements is determined by a γ-spectrometric analysis of Cs-137 activity. The γ-spectrum recorded by a semiconductor detector up to now is analyzed by complex mathematical and time-consuming methods. For the operation of the HTR-Module-Reactor, however, a fast evaluation of the burn-up status is necessary. It is shown that this can be ensured by a comparison between the measured spectra and simulation results. Using the computer-program HTROGEN and the program system SPECCALC especially developed for this problem the γ-spectra are evaluated as a function of the burn-up status. The method is applied to results available from the operation of the AVR-reactor. The burn-up status determined with different methods corresponds very well within the limits of accuracy. (orig.)

  3. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jungmin; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.k; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, MunSeong; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young [Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki-shi (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a {sup 3}He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%–0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  4. Parametric neutronic analyses related to burnup credit cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    The consideration of spent fuel histories (burnup credit) in the design of spent fuel shipping casks will result in cost savings and public risk benefits in the overall fuel transportation system. The purpose of this paper is to describe the depletion and criticality analyses performed in conjunction with and supplemental to the referenced analysis. Specifically, the objectives are to indicate trends in spent fuel isotopic composition with burnup and decay time; provide spent fuel pin lattice values as a function of burnup, decay time, and initial enrichment; demonstrate the variation of k eff for infinite arrays of spent fuel assemblies separated by generic cask basket designs (borated and unborated) of varying thicknesses; and verify the potential cask reactivity margin available with burnup credit via analysis with generic cask models

  5. Features of fuel performance at high fuel burnups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proselkov, V.N.; Scheglov, A.S.; Smirnov, A.V.; Smirnov, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Some features of fuel behavior at high fuel burnups, in particular, initiation and development of rim-layer, increase in the rate of fission gas release from the fuel and increase in the inner gas pressure in the fuel rod are briefly described. Basing on the analysis of the data of post-irradiation examinations of fuel rods of WWER-440 working FA and CR fuel followers, that have been operated for five fuel cycles and got the average fuel burnup or varies as 50MW-day/kgU, a conclusion is made that the WWER-440 fuel burnup can be increased at least to average burnups of 55-58 MW-day/kgU per fuel assembly (Authors)

  6. Influence of FIMA burnup on actinides concentrations in PWR reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present the study on the dependence of actinides concentrations in the spent nuclear fuel on FIMA burnup. The concentrations of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes obtained in numerical simulation are compared with the result of the post irradiation assay of two spent fuel samples. The samples were cut from the fuel rod irradiated during two reactor cycles in the Japanese Ohi-2 Pressurized Water Reactor. The performed comparative analysis assesses the reliability of the developed numerical set-up, especially in terms of the system normalization to the measured FIMA burnup. The numerical simulations were preformed using the burnup and radiation transport mode of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB, developed at the Department of Nuclear Energy, Faculty of Energy and Fuels of AGH University of Science and Technology.

  7. TRIGA criticality experiment for testing burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz

    1999-01-01

    A criticality experiment with partly burned TRIGA fuel is described. 20 wt % enriched standard TRIGA fuel elements initially containing 12 wt % U are used. Their average burn-up is 1.4 MWd. Fuel element burn-up is calculated in 2-D four group diffusion approximation using TRIGLAV code. The burn-up of several fuel elements is also measured by reactivity method. The excess reactivity of several critical and subcritical core configurations is measured. Two core configurations contain the same fuel elements in the same arrangement as were used in the fresh TRIGA fuel criticality experiment performed in 1991. The results of the experiment may be applied for testing the computer codes used for fuel burn-up calculations. (author)

  8. An optimal model for fuel burnup in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1979-05-01

    An approach to minimize the number of the burnup equations taking into account the introduction of an appropriate number of fission products is given. The corresponding number of fission pseudo-products is defined. (author)

  9. Impact of extended burnup on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Advisory Group Meeting was held in Vienna from 2 to 5 December 1991, to review, analyse, and discuss the effects of burnup extension in both light and heavy water reactors on all aspects of the fuel cycle. Twenty experts from thirteen countries participated in this meeting. There was consensus that both economic and environmental benefits are driving forces toward the achievement of higher burnups and that the present trend of burnup extension may be expected to continue. The extended burnup has been considered for the three main stages of the fuel cycle: the front end, in-reactor issues and the back end. Thirteen papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Sophistication of burnup analysis system for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Hirai, Yasushi; Hyoudou, Hideaki; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2010-02-01

    Improvement on prediction accuracy for neutronics property of fast reactor cores is one of the most important study domains in terms of both achievement of high economical plant efficiency based on reasonably advanced designs and increased reliability and safety margins. In former study, considerable improvement on prediction accuracy in neutronics design has been achieved in the development of the unified constants library as a fruit of a series of critical experiments such as JUPITER in application of the reactor constant adjustments. For design of fast reactor cores, however, improvement of not only static properties but also burnup properties is very important. For such purpose, it is necessary to improve the prediction accuracy on burnup properties using actual burnup data of 'JOYO' and 'MONJU', experimental and prototype fast reactors. Recently, study on effective burnup method for minor actinides becomes important theme. However, there is a problem that analysis work tends to become inefficient for lack of functionality suitable for analysis of composition change due to burnup since the conventional analysis system is targeted to critical assembly systems. Therefore development of burnup analysis system for fast reactors with modularity and flexibility is being done that would contribute to actual core design work and improvement of prediction accuracy. In the previous research, we have developed a prototype system which has functions of performing core and burnup calculations using given constant files (PDS files) and information based on simple and easy user input data. It has also functions of fuel shuffling which is indispensable for production systems. In the present study, we implemented functions for cell calculations and burnup calculations. With this, whole steps in analysis can be carried out with only this system. In addition, we modified the specification of user input to improve the convenience of this system. Since implementations being done so

  11. A guide introducing burnup credit, preliminary version. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    It is examined to take burnup credit into account for criticality safety control of facility treating spent fuel. This work is a collection of current technical status of predicting isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuel, points to be specially considered for safety evaluation, and current status of legal affairs for the purpose of applying burnup credit to the criticality safety evaluation of the facility treating spent fuel in Japan. (author)

  12. A burn-up module coupling to an AMPX system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore Duque, M.; Gomez, S.E.; Patino, N.E.; Abbate, M.J.; Sbaffoni, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactors and Neutrons Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center uses the AMPX system for the study of high conversion reactors (HCR). Such system allows to make neutronic calculations from the nuclear data library (ENDF/B-IV). The Nuclear Engineering career of the Balseiro Institute developed and implemented a burn-up module at a μ-cell level (BUM: Burn-up Module) which agrees with the requirement to be coupled to the AMPX system. (Author) [es

  13. Monte Carlo burnup simulation of the TAKAHAMA-3 benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle, Hugo M.

    2009-01-01

    High burnup PWR fuel is currently being studied at CDTN/CNEN-MG. Monte Carlo burnup code system MONTEBURNS is used to characterize the neutronic behavior of the fuel. In order to validate the code system and calculation methodology to be used in this study the Japanese Takahama-3 Benchmark was chosen, as it is the single burnup benchmark experimental data set freely available that partially reproduces the conditions of the fuel under evaluation. The burnup of the three PWR fuel rods of the Takahama-3 burnup benchmark was calculated by MONTEBURNS using the simplest infinite fuel pin cell model and also a more complex representation of an infinite heterogeneous fuel pin cells lattice. Calculations results for the mass of most isotopes of Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium, Curium and some fission products, commonly used as burnup monitors, were compared with the Post Irradiation Examinations (PIE) values for all the three fuel rods. Results have shown some sensitivity to the MCNP neutron cross-section data libraries, particularly affected by the temperature in which the evaluated nuclear data files were processed. (author)

  14. Modelling the high burnup UO2 structure in LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, K.; Walker, C.T.; Laar, J. van de; Lindstroem, F.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of a burnup threshold for the formation of the high burnup UO 2 structure (HBS) is supported by experimental data, which also reveal that a transition zone exists between the normal UO 2 structure and the fully developed HBS. From the analysis of radial xenon profiles measured by EPMA a threshold burnup is obtained in the range 60-75 GW d/t U. The lower value is considered to be the threshold for the onset of the HBS and the higher value the threshold for the fully developed HBS. Xenon depletion in the transition zone and the fully developed HBS can be described by a simple model. At local burnups above 120 GW d/t U the xenon generated is in equilibrium with the xenon lost to the fission gas pores and the concentration does not fall below 0.25 wt%. The TRANSURANUS burnup model TUBRNP predicts reasonably well the penetration of the HBS and the associated xenon depletion up to a cross section average burnup of approximately 70 GW d/t U. (orig.)

  15. EVOLUT - a computer program for fast burnup evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Dobrin, R.; Stamatescu, L.; Alexa, A.

    1999-01-01

    EVOLUT is a computer program for burnup evaluation. The input data consist on the one hand of axial and radial gamma-scanning profiles (for the experimental evaluation of the number of nuclei of a fission product - the burnup monitor - at the end of irradiation) and on the other hand of the history of irradiation (the time length and values proportional to the neutron flux for each step of irradiation). Using the equation of evolution of the burnup monitor the flux values are iteratively adjusted, by a multiplier factor, until the calculated number of nuclei is equal to the experimental one. The flux values are used in the equation of evolution of the fissile and fertile nuclei to determine the fission number and consequently the burnup. EVOLUT was successfully used in the analysis of several hundreds of CANDU and TRIGA-type fuel rods. We appreciate that EVOLUT is a useful tool in the burnup evaluation based on gamma spectrometry measurements. EVOLUT can be used on an usual AT computer and in this case the results are obtained in a few minutes. It has an original and user-friendly graphical interface and it provides also output in script MATLAB files for graphical representation and further numerical analysis. The computer program needs simple data and it is valuable especially when a large number of burnup analyses are required quickly. (authors)

  16. Optimum Discharge Burnup and Cycle Length for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secker, Jeffrey R.; Johansen, Baard J.; Stucker, David L.; Ozer, Odelli; Ivanov, Kostadin; Yilmaz, Serkan; Young, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a pressurized water reactor fuel management study determining the optimum discharge burnup and cycle length. A comprehensive study was performed considering 12-, 18-, and 24-month fuel cycles over a wide range of discharge burnups. A neutronic study was performed followed by an economic evaluation. The first phase of the study limited the fuel enrichments used in the study to 235 U consistent with constraints today. The second phase extended the range of discharge burnups for 18-month cycles by using fuel enriched in excess of 5 wt%. The neutronic study used state-of-the-art reactor physics methods to accurately determine enrichment requirements. Energy requirements were consistent with today's high capacity factors (>98%) and short (15-day) refueling outages. The economic evaluation method considers various component costs including uranium, conversion, enrichment, fabrication and spent-fuel storage costs as well as the effect of discounting of the revenue stream. The resulting fuel cycle costs as a function of cycle length and discharge burnup are presented and discussed. Fuel costs decline with increasing discharge burnup for all cycle lengths up to the maximum discharge burnup considered. The choice of optimum cycle length depends on assumptions for outage costs

  17. Burnup degree measuring device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideo; Imaizumi, Hideki; Endo, Yasumi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a small-sized and convenient device for measuring a burnup degree of spent fuels, which can be installed without remodelling an existent fuel storage pool. Namely, a gamma-ray detecting portion incorporates a Cd-Te detector for measuring intensity ratio of gamma-rays. A neutron detecting portion incorporates a fission counter tube. The Cd-Te detector comprises a neutron shielding member for reducing radiation damages and a background controlling plate for reducing low energy gamma-rays entering from a collimator. Since the Cd-Td detector for use in a gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used at a normal temperature and can measure even a relatively strong radiation field, it can measure the intensity of gamma-rays from Cs-137 and Cs-134 in spent fuels accurately at a resolving power of less than 10 keV. Further, in a case where a cooling period is less than one year, gamma-rays from Rh-106 and Nb-95 can also be measured. (I.S.)

  18. Analysis of high burnup pressurized water reactor fuel using uranium, plutonium, neodymium, and cesium isotope correlations with burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Suk; Jeon, Young Shin; Park, Soon Dal; Ha, Yeong Keong; Song, Kyu Seok

    2015-01-01

    The correlation of the isotopic composition of uranium, plutonium, neodymium, and cesium with the burnup for high burnup pressurized water reactor fuels irradiated in nuclear power reactors has been experimentally investigated. The total burnup was determined by Nd-148 and the fractional 235 U burnup was determined by U and Pu mass spectrometric methods. The isotopic compositions of U, Pu, Nd, and Cs after their separation from the irradiated fuel samples were measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The contents of these elements in the irradiated fuel were determined through an isotope dilution mass spectrometric method using 233 U, 242 Pu, 150 Nd, and 133 Cs as spikes. The activity ratios of Cs isotopes in the fuel samples were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The content of each element and its isotopic compositions in the irradiated fuel were expressed by their correlation with the total and fractional burnup, burnup parameters, and the isotopic compositions of different elements. The results obtained from the experimental methods were compared with those calculated using the ORIGEN-S code

  19. Systemization of burnup sensitivity analysis code (2) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Masahiro; Hyoudou, Hideaki

    2008-08-01

    Towards the practical use of fast reactors, it is a very important subject to improve prediction accuracy for neutronic properties in LMFBR cores from the viewpoint of improvements on plant economic efficiency with rationally high performance cores and that on reliability and safety margins. A distinct improvement on accuracy in nuclear core design has been accomplished by the development of adjusted nuclear library using the cross-section adjustment method, in which the results of critical experiments of JUPITER and so on are reflected. In the design of large LMFBR cores, however, it is important to accurately estimate not only neutronic characteristics, for example, reaction rate distribution and control rod worth but also burnup characteristics, for example, burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio and so on. For this purpose, it is desired to improve prediction accuracy of burnup characteristics using the data widely obtained in actual core such as the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. The analysis of burnup characteristic is needed to effectively use burnup characteristics data in the actual cores based on the cross-section adjustment method. So far, a burnup sensitivity analysis code, SAGEP-BURN, has been developed and confirmed its effectiveness. However, there is a problem that analysis sequence become inefficient because of a big burden to users due to complexity of the theory of burnup sensitivity and limitation of the system. It is also desired to rearrange the system for future revision since it is becoming difficult to implement new functions in the existing large system. It is not sufficient to unify each computational component for the following reasons: the computational sequence may be changed for each item being analyzed or for purpose such as interpretation of physical meaning. Therefore, it is needed to systemize the current code for burnup sensitivity analysis with component blocks of functionality that can be divided or constructed on occasion

  20. A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare Observed by SDO and STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, T.; Liu, R.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.; Zhuang, B.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate an M1.4 flare occurring on 2011 January 28 near the northwest solar limb. The flare loop system exhibits a double candle-flame configuration in SDO/AIA's hot passbands, sharing a much larger cusp-shaped structure. The results of DEM analysis show that each candle flame has a similar temperature distribution as the famous Tsuneta flare. STEREO-A provides us a view from directly above the flare, and in SECCHI/EUVI 195 Å the post-flare loops are observed to propagate eastward. We performed a 3D reconstruction of the pos-flare loops with AIA and EUVI data. With the aid of the squashing factor Q based on a potential extrapolation of the photospheric field, we recognized that the footpoints of the post-flare loops were slipping along high-Q lines on the photosphere, and the reconstructed loops share similarity with the filed lines that are traced starting from the high-Q lines. The heights of the loops increase as they slip horizontally eastward, giving the loop-top a velocity of about 10 km/s. An extremely large EUV late phase in Fe XVI 33.5 nm observed by SDO/EVE is suggested to be related to the slipping magnetic reconnection occurring in the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) whose photosheric footprints are featured by the high-Q lines.

  1. Achieving High Burnup Targets With Mox Fuels: Techno Economic Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement Ravi Chandar, S.; Sivayya, D.N.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    For a typical MOX fuelled SFR of power reactor size, Implications due to higher burnup have been quantified. Advantages: – Improvement in the economy is seen upto 200 GWd/ t; Disadvantages: – Design changes > 150 GWd/ t bu; – Need for 8/ 16 more fuel SA at 150/ 200 GWd/ t bu; – Higher enrichment of B 4 C in CSR/ DSR at higher bu; – Reduction in LHR may be required at higher bu; – Structural material changes beyond 150 GWd/ t bu; – Reprocessing point of view-Sp Activity & Decay heat increase. Need for R & D is a must before increasing burnup. bu- refers burnup. Efforts to increase MOX fuel burnup beyond 200 GWd/ t may not be highly lucrative; • MOX fuelled FBR would be restricted to two or four further reactors; • Imported MOX fuelled FBRs may be considered; • India looks towards launching metal fuel FBRs in the future. – Due to high Breeding Ratio; – High burnup capability

  2. Use of burnup credit for transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ewing, R.I.; Lake, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Burnup credit is the application of the effects of fuel burnup to nuclear criticality design. When burnup credit is considered in the design of storage facilities and transportation casks for spent fuel, the objectives are to reduce the requirements for storage space and to increase the payload of casks with acceptable nuclear criticality safety margins. The spent-fuel carrying capacities of previous-generation transport casks have been limited primarily by requirements to remove heat and/or to provide shielding. Shielding and heat transfer requirements for casks designed to transport older spent fuel with longer decay times are reduced significantly. Thus a considerable weight margin is available to the designer for increasing the payload capacity. One method to achieve an increase in capacity is to reduce fuel assembly spacing. The amount of reduction in assembly spacing is limited by criticality and fuel support structural concerns. The optimum fuel assembly spacing provides the maximum cask loading within a basket that has adequate criticality control and sufficient structural integrity for regulatory accident scenarios. The incorporation of burnup credit in cask designs could result in considerable benefits in the transport of spent fuel. The acceptance of burnup credit for the design of transport casks depends on the resolution of system safety issues and the uncertainties that affect the determination of criticality safety margins. The remainder of this report will examine these issues and the integrated approach under way to resolve them. 20 refs., 2 figs

  3. Status of burnup credit implementation and research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    2001-01-01

    Burnup credit has recently been approved by the Swiss licensing authority for the spent-fuel storage pool of a PWR plant for fuel exceeding the originally licensed initial enrichment. The criticality safety assessment is based on a configuration consisting of a small number (approximately a reload batch) of fresh assemblies surrounded by assemblies having a burnup corresponding to the minimum value in the top 1 m section after one cycle of irradiation. The allowable initial enrichment in this configuration is about 0.5% higher than for all fresh fuel. A central storage facility for all types of radioactive wastes from Switzerland, including cask storage of spent fuel assemblies is being commissioned presently. The first applications for licenses for casks to be used in this facility have been submitted. Credit for burnup has not been requested in these applications (conforming to the original licenses of the casks in their countries of origin), but utilities are interested in burnup credit for fuel with higher initial enrichments. Reactivity worth measurements as well as chemical assays of spent fuel samples in the LWR-PROTEUS facility at PSI are in detailed planning currently. The experiments, scheduled to start in 2001, will be performed in cooperation with the Swiss utilities and their fuel vendors. Although the focus of interest of these partners is on validation of in-core fuel management tools, the same experiments are also applicable to burnup credit, and contacts with further potential partners interested in this field are underway. (author)

  4. Advances in Metallic Fuels for High Burnup and Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S. L.; Harp, J. M.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Fielding, R. S.; Mariani, R. D.; Carmack, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels in the US are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. A number of metallic fuel design innovations are under investigation with a view toward significantly increasing the burnup potential of metallic fuels, since higher discharge burnups equate to lower potential actinide losses during recycle. Promising innovations under investigation include: 1) lowering the fuel smeared density in order to accommodate the additional swelling expected as burnups increase, 2) utilizing an annular fuel geometry for better geometrical stability at low smeared densities, as well as the potential to eliminate the need for a sodium bond, and 3) minor alloy additions to immobilize lanthanide fission products inside the metallic fuel matrix and prevent their transport to the cladding resulting in fuel-cladding chemical interaction. This paper presents results from these efforts to advance metallic fuel technology in support of high burnup and actinide transmutation objectives. Highlights include examples of fabrication of low smeared density annular metallic fuels, experiments to identify alloy additions effective in immobilizing lanthanide fission products, and early postirradiation examinations of annular metallic fuels having low smeared densities and palladium additions for fission product immobilization.

  5. Disposal criticality analysis methodology's principal isotope burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, T.W.; Thomas, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the burnup credit aspects of the United States Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project's methodology for performing criticality analyses for commercial light-water-reactor fuel. The disposal burnup credit methodology uses a 'principal isotope' model, which takes credit for the reduced reactivity associated with the build-up of the primary principal actinides and fission products in irradiated fuel. Burnup credit is important to the disposal criticality analysis methodology and to the design of commercial fuel waste packages. The burnup credit methodology developed for disposal of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel can also be applied to storage and transportation of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel. For all applications a series of loading curves are developed using a best estimate methodology and depending on the application, an additional administrative safety margin may be applied. The burnup credit methodology better represents the 'true' reactivity of the irradiated fuel configuration, and hence the real safety margin, than do evaluations using the 'fresh fuel' assumption. (author)

  6. Burnup code for fuel assembly by Monte Carlo code. MKENO-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Suyama, Kenya; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Kaneko, Toshiyuki.

    1996-12-01

    The evaluation of neutron spectrum is so important for burnup calculation of the heterogeneous geometry like recent BWR fuel assembly. MKENO-BURN is a multi dimensional burnup code that based on the three dimensional monte carlo neutron transport code 'MULTI-KENO' and the routine for the burnup calculation of the one dimensional burnup code 'UNITBURN'. MKENO-BURN analyzes the burnup problem of arbitrary regions after evaluating the neutron spectrum and making one group cross section in three dimensional geometry with MULTI-KENO. It enables us to do three dimensional burnup calculation. This report consists of general description of MKENO-BURN and the input data. (author)

  7. Burnup code for fuel assembly by Monte Carlo code. MKENO-BURN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Suyama, Kenya; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kurosawa, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Toshiyuki

    1996-12-01

    The evaluation of neutron spectrum is so important for burnup calculation of the heterogeneous geometry like recent BWR fuel assembly. MKENO-BURN is a multi dimensional burnup code that based on the three dimensional monte carlo neutron transport code `MULTI-KENO` and the routine for the burnup calculation of the one dimensional burnup code `UNITBURN`. MKENO-BURN analyzes the burnup problem of arbitrary regions after evaluating the neutron spectrum and making one group cross section in three dimensional geometry with MULTI-KENO. It enables us to do three dimensional burnup calculation. This report consists of general description of MKENO-BURN and the input data. (author)

  8. MODRIB - a zero dimensional code for criticality and burn-up of LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, M.A.; El-Cherif, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program MODRIB is a zero-dimensional code for calculating criticality and burn-up of light water reactors (LWR's). It is a version of an Italian code RIBOT-2 with an updated cross-section data library. The nuclear constants of MODRIB-code are calculated with a two group scheme (fast and thermal), where the fast group is an average of three fast groups. The code requires as input data essential extensive reactor parameters such as fuel rod radius, clad thickness, fuel enrichment, lattice pitch, water density and temperature etc. A summary of the physical model description and the input-output procedures are given in this report. Selected results of two sample problems are also given for the purpose of checking the validity and reliability of the code. The first is BWR and the second is PWR. The calculation time for a criticality problem with burn-up is about 8 seconds for the first time step and about 3 seconds for each subsequent time step on the ICL-1906 computer facility. The requirements on the memory size is less than 32 K-word. (author)

  9. Fabrication of Water Jet Resistant and Thermally Stable Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Spray Coating of Candle Soot Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahtan, Talal F; Gondal, Mohammed A; Alade, Ibrahim O; Dastageer, Mohammed A

    2017-08-08

    A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m 2 g -1 . As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle fabricated from direct candle flame soot deposition (candle-based coating). This study proved that water jet resistant and thermally stable superhydrophobic surfaces can be easily fabricated by simple spray coating of CNP dispersion gathered from incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame and this technique can be used for different applications with the potential for the large scale fabrication.

  10. TRIGA fuel element burnup determination by measurement and calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Persic, A.; Jeraj, R.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the accuracy of the fuel element burnup calculation different factors influencing the calculation were studied. To cover different aspects of burnup calculations, two in-house developed computer codes were used in calculations. The first (TRIGAP) is based on a one-dimensional two-group diffusion approximation, and the second (TRIGLAV) is based on a two-dimensional four-group diffusion equation. Both codes use WIMSD program with different libraries forunit-cell cross section data calculation. The burnup accumulated during the operating history of the TRIGA reactor at Josef Stefan Institute was calculated for all fuel elements. Elements used in the core during this period were standard SS 8.5% fuel elements, standard SS 12% fuel elements and highly enriched FLIP fuel elements. During the considerable period of operational history, FLIP and standard fuel elements were used simultaneously in mixed cores. (authors)

  11. Modelling of some high burnup phenomena in nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, K; Lindstroem, F; Massih, A R [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the results of some modelling efforts carried out by ABB Atom to describe certain light water reactor fuel high burnup effects are presented. In particular the degradation of fuel thermal conductivity with burnup and its impact on fuel temperature is briefly discussed. The formation of a porous rim and its effect on a thermal fission gas release has been modelled and the model has been used to predict the release of pressurized water reactor fuel rods that were operated at low power densities. Furthermore, a mathematical model which combines the diffusion and re-solution controlled thermal release with grain boundary movement has been briefly described. The model is used to compare release with diffusion only and release caused by diffusion and grain boundary sweeping (due to grain growth). Finally, analytical expressions are obtained for the calculation of fuel stoichiometry as a function of burnup. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab.

  12. End effects in the criticality analysis of burnup credit casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.C.; Parks, C.V.

    1990-01-01

    A study to evaluate the effect of axially dependent burnup on k eff has been performed as part of an effort to qualify procedures to be used in establishing burnup credit in shipping cask design and certification. This study was performed using a generic 31-element modular cast-iron cask (wall thickness 33.1 cm) with a 1-cm-thick borated stainless-steel basket for reactivity control. Fuel isotopics used here are those of the 17 x 17 Westinghouse assemblies from the North Anna Unit 1 reactor. Virginia Power (VP) provided detailed spatial isotopics for the fuel assemblies in-core at beginning-of-cycle 5 (BOC-5) as generated from their PDQ analyses. Twenty-two axial planes were defined in the original VP data. The isotopics used in this study were for a 3.41 initial wt % 235 U and an average burnup of 31.5 GWd/MTU

  13. Fuel cycle cost considerations of increased discharge burnups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpereel, L.R.; Frank, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluations are presented that indicate the attainment of increased discharge burnups in light water reactors will depend on economic factors particular to individual operators. In addition to pure resource conserving effects and assuming continued reliable fuel performance, a substantial economic incentive must exist to justify the longer operating times necessary to achieve higher burnups. Whether such incentive will exist or not will depend on relative price levels of all fuel cycle cost components, utility operating practices, and resolution of uncertainties associated with the back-end of the fuel cycle. It is concluded that implementation of increased burnups will continue at a graduated pace similar to past experience, rather than finding universal acceptance of particular increased levels at any particular time

  14. Validation issues for depletion and criticality analysis in burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Dehart, M.D.; Gauld, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews validation issues associated with implementation of burnup credit in transport, dry storage, and disposal. The issues discussed are ones that have been identified by one or more constituents of the United States technical community (national laboratories, licensees, and regulators) that have been exploring the use of burnup credit. There is not necessarily agreement on the importance of the various issues, which sometimes is what creates the issue. The broad issues relate to the paucity of available experimental data (radiochemical assays and critical experiments) covering the full range and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel in away-from-reactor systems. The paper will also introduce recent efforts initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide technical information that can help better assess the value of different experiments. The focus of the paper is on experience with validation issues related to use of burnup credit for transport and dry storage applications. (author)

  15. Preparation of higher-actinide burnup and cross section samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Thomas, D.K.; Dailey, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was instigated about four years ago for the purpose of studying burnup of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the burnup and cross section samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the burnup study were 241 Am and 244 Cm in the forms of Am 2 O 3 , Cm 2 O 3 , and Am 6 Cm(RE) 7 O 21 , where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanide sesquioxides. It is the purpose of this paper to describe technology development and its application in the preparation of the fuel specimens and the cross section specimens that are being used in this cooperative program

  16. Fission gas release from fuels at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Yves; Pointud, M.L.; Vignesoult, Nicole; Atabek, Rosemarie; Baron, Daniel.

    1982-04-01

    Determinations of residual gas concentrations by heating and by X microanalysis were respectively carried out on particles (TANGO program) and on sections of fuel rods, perfectly characterized as to fabrication and irradiation history. A threshold release temperature of 1250 0 C+-100 0 C was determined irrespective of the type of oxide and the irradiation history in the 18,000-45,000 MWdt -1 (U) specific burnup field. The overall analyses of gas released from the fuel rods show that, in the PWR operating conditions, the fraction released remains less than 1% up to a mean specific burnup of 35000 MWdt -1 (U). The release of gases should not be a limiting factor in the increase of specific burnups [fr

  17. Increased fuel burn-up and fuel cycle equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, M.

    2001-01-01

    Improvement of nuclear competitiveness will rely mainly on increased fuel performance, with higher burn-up, and reactors sustained life. Regarding spent fuel management, the EDF current policy relies on UO 2 fuel reprocessing (around 850 MTHM/year at La Hague) and MOX recycling to ensure plutonium flux adequacy (around 100 MTHM/year, with an electricity production equivalent to 30 TWh). This policy enables to reuse fuel material, while maintaining global kWh economy with existing facilities. It goes along with current perspective to increase fuel burn-up up to 57 GWday/t mean in 2010. The following presentation describes the consequences of higher fuel burn-up on fuel cycle and waste management and implementation of a long term and global equilibrium for decades in spent fuel management resulting from this strategy. (author)

  18. COMRAD96, Nuclear Fuel Burnup and Depletion Calculation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, K.; Masukawa, F.; Ido, M.; Enomoto, M.; Takyu, S.; Hara, T.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Burn-up calculation of nuclear fuel. 2 - Methods: Matrix exponential method, Bateman Equation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: a) One-grouped cross section library should be prepared for the fuel system to be analyzed using UNITBURN. However, UNITBURN is not available now for UNIX systems. b) Gamma ray spectrometry calculation will fail using the attached piflib routine. This problem has already been rectified in the internal version. 4 - Typical running time: Two minutes for standard burn-up calculation on Sun ULTRA 30. 5 - Unusual features - a) Selection of Matrix exponential method, or Bateman Equation. b) JDDL, a detailed decay chain data based on ENSDF. 6 - Related or auxiliary programs: UNITBURN: Burnup calculation code unit cell system

  19. Role of measurement systems in burnup credit operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.I.; Sanders, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Spent fuel transport casks designed using burnup credit have increased payloads that may greatly reduce the number of shipments required to transport spent fuel from reactor sites to repositories. Burnup credit is obtained by applying the reduced reactivity of spent fuel to considerations of nuclear criticality in the design of transport casks. Although it does not appear to be possible to directly measure the criticality of spent fuel assemblies, measurements can be employed to ensure that the only assemblies loaded into a cask have the characteristics appropriate to that cask design. An effective on-site measurement system must be matched to the characteristics of the spent fuel cask design and to the inventory of spent fuel. For operation reasons the system should be simple, accurate, efficient, and easily calibrated. This paper is part of a study to examine the effects of the spent fuel inventory in the U.S. on the selection of measurement systems useful in burnup credit operations

  20. On the influence of spatial discretization in LWR steady state and burnup calculations with HELIOS 1.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Weiss, F. P.

    2009-01-01

    Cell and burnup calculations are fundamental to all deterministic static and transient 3D full core calculations for different operational states of the reactor. The spatial discretization used for the cell and burnup calculations influences significantly the results of full integral transport solutions. The influence of the discretization on k inf is shown for the steady state case and the influence on the neutron spectrum is analyzed. Moreover, the differences in k inf are presented for different spatial discretization strategies in the burnup calculation of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuel. The resulting different flux distributions cause significant changes in the isotopic densities. The influence of the discretization strategies on the calculation of homogenized few group cross-sections is investigated. This detailed discretization study demonstrates the need for sufficiently fine discretization to produce reliable and accurate results when using integral transport methods. In contrast to the currently used discretization schemes, refined discretization is especially important in the moderator region of the unit cell to reproduce the influence on the thermal neutron spectrum. Additionally, the need for sufficient discretization affects the idea of full core calculations based on integral transport methods since it has to be discussed whether it is worth to do full core calculations with reduced discretization when facing this strong discretization effect. The computer resources required for full core calculations with fine discretization are currently not available. (authors)

  1. Burnup credit implementation plan and preparation work at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Itahara, K.

    2001-01-01

    Application of the burnup credit concept is considered to be very effective to the design of spent fuel transport and storage facilities. This technology is all the more important when considering construction of the intermediate spent fuel storage facility, which is to be commissioned by 2010 due to increasing amount of accumulated spent fuel in Japan. Until reprocessing and recycling all the spent fuel arising, they will be stored as an energy stockpile until such time as they can be reprocessed. On the other hand, the burnup credit has been partly taken into account for the spent fuel management at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, which is to be commissioned in 2005. They have just finished the calibration tests for their burnup monitor with initially accepted several spent fuel assemblies. Because this monitoring system is employed with highly conservative safety margin, it is considered necessary to develop the more rational and simplified method to confirm burnup of spent fuel. A research program has been instituted to improve the present method employed at the spent fuel management system for the Spent Fuel Receiving and Storage Pool of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. This program is jointly performed by Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) and JAERI.This presentation describes the current status of spent fuel accumulation discharged from PWR and BWR in Japan and the recent incentive to introduce burnup credit into design of spent fuel storage and transport facilities. This also includes the content of the joint research program initiated by JNFL and JAERI. The relevant study has been continued at JAERI. The results by these research programs will be included in the Burnup Credit Guide Original Version compiled by JAERI. (author)

  2. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consequences of the increase of burnup on the fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, P.; Lavoine, O.; Houdaille, B.

    1986-04-01

    The examinations carried out on the FRAGEMA fuel of EDF reactors show its good behavior in service. The results of research and development programs developed by EDF, FGA and the CEA show that this fuel can be irradiated up to a high burnup, and allow to point out the axies of research to improve still the performance of the product in a more and more soliciting environment (increase of power and burnup coupled with load following). Among the solutions considered, there are the design and fabrication adjustments (geometry, initial pressurization), more fundamental changes concerning fuel cans and fuel pellets, which need still research and development programs [fr

  4. Fission gas release from fuel at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.; Beyer, C.E.; Voglewede, J.C.

    1978-03-01

    The release of fission gas from fuel pellets at high burnup is reviewed in the context of the safety analysis performed for reactor license applications. Licensing actions are described that were taken to correct deficient gas release models used in these safety analyses. A correction function, which was developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its consultants, is presented. Related information, which includes some previously unpublished data, is also summarized. The report thus provides guidance for the analysis of high burnup gas release in licensing situations

  5. Simulation of integral local tests with high-burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyori, G.

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of nuclear fuel under LOCA conditions may strongly depend on the burnup-dependent fuel characteristics, as it has been indicated by recent integral experiments. Fuel fragmentation and the associated fission gas release can influence the integral fuel behaviour, the rod rupture and the radiological release. The TRANSURANUS fuel performance code is a proper tool for the consistent simulation of burnup-dependent phenomena during normal operation and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod in a subsequent accident. The code has been extended with an empirical model for micro-cracking induced FGR and fuel fragmentation and verified against integral LOCA tests of international projects. (author)

  6. Burnup measurements with the Los Alamos fork detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The fork detector system can determine the burnup of spent-fuel assemblies. It is a transportable instrument that can be mounted permanently in a spent-fuel pond near a loading area for shipping casks, or be attached to the storage pond bridge for measurements on partially raised spent-fuel assemblies. The accuracy of the predicted burnup has been demonstrated to be as good as 2% from measurements on assemblies in the United States and other countries. Instruments have also been developed at other facilities throughout the world using the same or different techniques, but with similar accuracies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Isotopic biases for actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, M.; Lancaster, D.; Hoeffer, B.; Nichols, M.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to present the new methodology for establishing bias and uncertainty associated with isotopic prediction in spent fuel assemblies for burnup credit analysis. The analysis applies to the design of criticality control systems for spent fuel casks. A total of 54 spent fuel samples were modeled and analyzed using the Shielding Analyses Sequence (SAS2H). Multiple regression analysis and a trending test were performed to develop isotopic correction factors for 10 actinide burnup credit isotopes. 5 refs., 1 tab

  8. Tag gas burnup based on three-dimensional FTR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux spectra from a three-dimensional diffusion theory analysis of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) are used to predict gas tag ratio changes, as a function of exposure, for each FTR fuel and absorber subassembly plenum. These flux spectra are also used to predict Xe-125 equilibrium activities in absorber plena in order to assess the feasibility of using Xe-125 gamma rays to detect and distinguish control rod failures from fuel rod failures. Worst case tag burnup changes are used in conjunction with burnup and mass spectrometer uncertainties to establish the minimum spacing of tags which allows the tags to be unambiguously identified

  9. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy; Ekonomija izgaranja nuklearnog goriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matausek, M [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  10. Findings of an international study on burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.C.; Takano, M.; Okuno, H.; DeHart, M.D.; Nouri, A.

    1996-01-01

    Findings from a four year study by an international benchmarking group in the comparison of computational methods for evaluating burnup credit in criticality safety analyses are presented in this paper. Approximately 20 participants from 11 countries have provided results for most problems. Four detailed benchmark problems for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel have been completed and are summarized in this paper. Preliminary results from current work addressing burnup credit for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel will also be discussed as well as planned activities for additional benchmarks including Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels, subcritical benchmarks, international databases, and other activities

  11. Isotopic and criticality validation for actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, E.; Lancaster, D.; Rahimi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used for actinide-only burnup credit isotopic validation and criticality validation are presented and discussed. Trending analyses have been incorporated into both methodologies, requiring biases and uncertainties to be treated as a function of the trending parameters. The isotopic validation is demonstrated using the SAS2H module of SCALE 4.2, with the 27BURNUPLIB cross section library; correction factors are presented for each of the actinides in the burnup credit methodology. For the criticality validation, the demonstration is performed with the CSAS module of SCALE 4.2 and the 27BURNUPLIB, resulting in a validated upper safety limit

  12. A regime showing anomalous triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Pillon, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of triton burnup made at JET in 1989 are in good agreement with a simple classical model of the triton slowing down, for the majority of discharges. For discharges with a long slowing down time (greater than 2 seconds), a much reduced burnup has been observed, suggesting that the tritons undergo diffusion with a diffusion constant of 0.10 m 2 s -1 . Also, the experimental 14 MeV neutron yield is 30% lower than expected for Beryllium limiter discharges. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. AUS - the Australian modular scheme for reactor neutronics computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1975-12-01

    A general description is given of the AUS modular scheme for reactor neutronics calculations. The scheme currently includes modules which provide the capacity for lattice calculations, 1D transport calculations, 1 and 2D diffusion calculations (with feedback-free kinetics), and burnup calculations. Details are provided of all system aspects of AUS, but individual modules are only outlined. A complete specification is given of that part of user input which controls the calculation sequence. The report also provides sufficient details of the supervisor program and of the interface data sets to enable additional modules to be incorporated in the scheme. (author)

  14. Development of CANDLES low background HPGe detector and half-life measurement of 180Tam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. M.; Kishimoto, T.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Suzuki, K.; Yoshida, S.; Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Fushimi, K.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Tamagawa, Y.; Hazama, R.; Takemoto, Y.; Nakatani, N.; Takihira, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Kakubata, H.; Trang, V. T. T.; Ohata, T.; Tetsuno, K.; Maeda, T.; Khai, B. T.; Li, X. L.; Batpurev, T.

    2018-01-01

    A low background HPGe detector system was developed at CANDLES Experimental Hall for multipurpose use. Various low background techniques were employed, including hermatic shield design, radon gas suppression, and background reduction analysis. A new pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method was specially created for coaxial Ge detector. Using this PSD method, microphonics noise and background event at low energy region less than 200 keV can be rejected effectively. Monte Carlo simulation by GEANT4 was performed to acquire the detection efficiency and study the interaction of gamma-rays with detector system. For rare decay measurement, the detector was utilized to detect the nature's most stable isomer tantalum-180m (180Tam) decay. Two phases of tantalum physics run were completed with total livetime of 358.2 days, which Phase II has upgraded shield configuration. The world most stringent half-life limit of 180Tam has been successfully achieved.

  15. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin-electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  17. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  18. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidoni, S. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/CUA, Code 674, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Yoshimura, K. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Plowman, J. E., E-mail: silvina.e.guidoni@nasa.gov [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  19. Burnup measurements at the RECH-1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, C.; Navarro, G.; Pereda, C.; Torres, H.; Pena, L.; Klein, J.; Calderon, D.; Kestelman, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission has decided to produce LEU fuel elements for the RECH-1 research reactor. During December 1998, the Fuel Fabrication Plant delivered the first four fuel elements, called leaders, to the RECH-1 reactor. The set was introduced into the reactor's core, following the normal routine, but performing a special follow-up on their behavior inside and outside the core. In order to measure the burn-up of the leader fuel elements, it was decided to develop a burn-up measurements system to be installed into the RECH-1 reactor pool, and to decline the use of a similar system, which operates in a hot cell. The main reason to build this facility was to have the capability to measure the burn-up of fuel elements without waiting for long decay period. This paper gives a brief description of the facility to measure the burn-up of spent fuel elements installed into the reactor pool, showing the preliminary obtained spectra and briefly discussing them. (author)

  20. The Gd-isotopic fuel for high burnup in PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio Soares; Mattos, João Roberto L. de; Andrade, Edison Pereira de

    2017-01-01

    Today, the discussion about the high burnup fuel is beyond the current fuel enrichment licensing and burnup limits. Licensing issues and material/design developments are again key features in further development of the LWR fuel design. Nevertheless, technological and economical solutions are already available or will be available in a short time. In order to prevent the growth of the technological gap, Brazil's nuclear sector needs to invest in the training of new human resources, in the access to international databases, and in the upgrading existing infrastructure. Experimental database and R&D infrastructure are essential components to support the autonomous development of Brazilian Nuclear Reactors, promoting the development of national technologies. The (U,Gd)O_2 isotopic fuel proposed by the CDTN's staff solve two main issues in the high burnup fuel, which are (1) the peak of reactivity resulting from the Gd-157 fast burnup, and (2) the peak of temperature in the (U,Gd)O_2 nuclear fuel resulting from detrimental effects in the thermal properties for gadolinia additions higher than 2%. A sustainable future can be envisaged for the nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Burnup credit feasibility for BWR spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Considerable interest in the allowance of reactivity credit for the exposure history of power reactor fuel currently exists. This ''burnup credit'' issue has the potential to greatly reduce risk and cost when applied to the design and certification of spent of fuel casks used for transportation and storage. Analyses 1 have shown the feasibility estimated the risk and economic incentives for allowing burnup credit in pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel shipping cask applications. This paper summarizes the extension of the previous PWR feasibility assessments to boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel. As with the PWR analysis, the purpose was not verification of burnup credit (see ref. 2 for ongoing work in this area) but a reasonable assessment of the feasibility and potential gains from its use in BWR applications. This feasibility analysis aims to apply simple methods that adequately characterize the time-dependent isotopic compositions of typical BWR fuel. An initial analysis objective was to identify a simple and reliable method for characterizing BWR spent fuel. The method includes characterization of a typical pin-cell spectrum, using a one-dimensional (1-D) model of a BWR assembly. The calculated spectrum allows burnup-dependent few-group material constants to be generated. Point depletion methods were then used to obtain the time-varying characteristics of the fuel. These simple methods were validated, where practical, with multidimensional methods. 6 refs., 1 tab

  2. Ultrasonic measurement of high burn-up fuel elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, D.; Despaux, G.; Augereau, F.; Attal, J.; Gatt, J.; Basini, V.

    2006-01-01

    The ultrasonic method developed for the evaluation of high burn-up fuel elastic properties is presented hereafter. The objective of the method is to provide data for fuel thermo-mechanical calculation codes in order to improve industrial nuclear fuel and materials or to design new reactor components. The need for data is especially crucial for high burn-up fuel modelling for which the fuel mechanical properties are essential and for which a wide range of experiments in MTR reactors and high burn-up commercial reactor fuel examinations have been included in programmes worldwide. To contribute to the acquisition of this knowledge the LAIN activity is developing in two directions. First one is development of an ultrasonic focused technique adapted to active materials study. This technique was used few years ago in the EdF laboratory in Chinon to assess the ageing of materials under irradiation. It is now used in a hot cell at ITU Karlsruhe to determine the elastic moduli of high burnup fuels from 0 to 110 GWd/tU. Some of this work is presented here. The second on going programme is related to the qualification of acoustic sensors in nuclear environments, which is of a great interest for all the methods, which work, in a hostile nuclear environment

  3. Determination of reactor fuel burnup using passive neutron assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Trkov, A.; Najzer, M.; Ertek, C.

    1988-01-01

    Passive neutron assay (PNA) method was developed to verify the fissile inventory of the irradiated reactor fuels. The characteristics of the method were studied at 'Jozef Stefan' Institute. The dependence of neutron source in the fuel on burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment and specific power were investigated and the accuracy of the method, using available computer codes was estimated. (author)

  4. Extended burnup with SEU fuel in Atucha-1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.; Casario, J.; Fink, J.; Perez, R.; Higa, M.

    2002-01-01

    Atucha-1 is a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor originally fuelled with natural uranium. Fuel Assemblies consist of 36 fuel rods and the active length is 5300 mm. The total length of the fuel assembly is about 6 m. The average discharge burnup of natural UO 2 fuel is 5900 MWd/tU. After the deregulation of the Argentine electricity market there was an important incentive to reduce the impact of fuel cost on the cost of generation. To keep the competitiveness of the nuclear energy against another sources of electricity it was necessary to reduce the cost of the nuclear fuel. With this objective a program to introduce SEU (0.85 % 235 U) fuel in Atucha-1 was launched in 1993. As a result of this program the average SEU fuel discharge burnup increased to more than 11000 MWd/tU. The first SEU fuels were introduced in Atucha-1 in 1995 and, in the present stage of the program, 71% of core positions are loaded with this type of fuel. This paper describes key aspects of Atucha-1 fuel design and their relevance limiting the burnup extension and shows relevant data regarding the SEU in-reactor performance. At the present time 125 SEU Fuel Assemblies have been irradiated without failures associated with the extended burnup or unfavorable influences on the operation of the power station. (author)

  5. Sophistication of burnup analysis system for fast reactor (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Hirai, Yasushi; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Improvement on prediction accuracy for neutronics characteristics of fast reactor cores is one of the most important study domains in terms of both achievement of high economical plant efficiency based on reasonably advanced designs and increased reliability and safety margins. In former study, considerable improvement on prediction accuracy in neutronics design has been achieved in the development of the unified cross-section set as a fruit of a series of critical experiments such as JUPITER in application of the reactor constant adjustments. For design of fast reactor cores improvement of not only static characteristics but also burnup characteristics is very important. For such purpose, it is necessary to improve the prediction accuracy on burnup characteristics using actual burnup data of 'JOYO' and 'MONJU', experimental and prototype fast reactors. Recently, study on effective burnup method for minor actinides becomes important theme. However, there is a problem that analysis work tends to become inefficient for lack of functionality suitable for analysis of composition change due to burnup since the conventional analysis system is targeted to critical assembly systems. Therefore development of burnup analysis system for fast reactors with modularity and flexibility is being done that would contribute to actual core design work and improvement of prediction accuracy. In the previous study, we have developed a prototype system which has functions of performing core and burnup calculations using given constant files (PDS files) and information based on simple and easy user input data. It has also functions of fuel shuffling which is indispensable for power reactor analysis systems. In the present study, by extending the prototype system, features for handling of control rods and energy collapse of group constants have been designed and implemented. Computational results from the present analysis system are stored into restart files which can be accessible by

  6. M5TM alloy high burnup behavior and worldwide licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, J.P.; Hoffmann, P.B.; Garner, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    The in-reactor behavior of advanced PWR Zirconium alloys at burnups equal to or below licensing limits has been widely reported. Specifically, the advanced alloy M5 has demonstrated impressive improvements over Zircaloy-4 for fuel rod cladding and fuel assembly structural components. To demonstrate superiority of the alloy at burnups beyond current licensing limits, M5 has been operated in PWR at burnups exceeding 71 GWd/tU in the United States and 78 GWd/tU in Europe. Two extensive irradiation programs have been performed in the United States to demonstrate alloy M5 performance beyond current licensing limits. Four M5 TM fuel rods were exposed to four 24-month cycles in a 15x15 reactor beginning in 1995. Additionally, one 17x17 lead assembly containing M5 fuel rods and guide tubes was operated for four 18-month cycles beginning from 1997. Post-irradiation examinations (PIE) performed after all four cycles in the 15x15 demonstration program revealed excellent performance in the licensed burnup and in the high burnup stages of the experience. Examination of the 4th cycle 17x17 assembly will be accomplished in two stages the first of which is scheduled for June 2005. Moreover, several irradiation campaigns have been performed in Europe in order to confirm the excellent M5 in-pile behavior in demanding PWRs irradiation conditions with regard to void fraction, heat flux, lithium content and temperature. Results from the high burnup fuel examinations verify that the excellent performance achieved up to 62 GWd/tU was continued into higher burnup. The results of high burnup PIE campaigns for European and American PWR's are presented in this paper. Measured performance indicators include fuel assembly dimensional stability parameters (assembly length, fuel rod length, assembly bow, fuel rod bow, fuel rod radial creep and spacer grid width), oxidation measurements (fuel rod and guide tube) and hydrogen pick-up data (fuel rod). In the framework of PCI studies, power ramp

  7. 3-DB, 3-D Multigroup Diffusion, X-Y-Z, R-Theta-Z, Triangular-Z Geometry, Fast Reactor Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.; Little, W.W. Jr.; Mroz, W.

    1974-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: 3DB is a three-dimensional (x-y-z, r-theta-z, triangular-z) multigroup diffusion code for use in detailed fast-reactor criticality and burnup analysis. The code can be used to - (a) compute k eff and perform criticality searches on time absorption, reactor composition, and reactor dimensions by means of either a flux or an adjoint model, (b) compute material burnup using a flexible material shuffling scheme, and (c) compute flux distributions for an arbitrary extraneous source. 2 - Method of solution: Eigenvalues are computed by standard source- iteration techniques. Group re-balancing and successive over-relaxation with line inversion are used to accelerate convergence. Adjoint solutions are obtained by inverting the input data and redefining the source terms. Material burnup is by reactor zone. The burnup rate is determined by the zone and energy-averaged cross sections which are recomputed after each time-step. The isotopic chains, which can contain any number of isotopes are formed by the user. The code does not contain built- in or internal chains. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Since variable dimensioning is employed, no simple bounds can be stated

  8. Comparison of analysis methods for burnup credit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Brady, M.C.; Renier, J.P.; Parks, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    The current approach used for the development and certification of spent fuel storage and transport casks requires an assumption of fresh fuel isotopics in the criticality safety analysis. However, it has been shown that there is a considerable reactivity reduction when the isotopics representative of the depleted (or burned) fuel are used in a criticality analysis. Thus, by taking credit for the burned state of the fuel (i.e., burnup credit), a cask designer could achieve a significant increase in payload. Accurate prediction of k eff for spent fuel arrays depends both on the criticality safety analysis and the prediction of the spent fuel isotopics via a depletion analysis. Spent fuel isotopics can be obtained from detailed multidimensional reactor analyses, e.g. the code PDQ, or from point reactor burnup models. These reactor calculations will help verify the adequacy of the isotopics and determine Δk eff biases for various analysis assumptions (with and without fission products, actinide absorbers, burnable poison rods, etc.). New software developed to interface PDQ multidimensional isotopics with KENO V.a reactor and cask models is described. Analyses similar to those performed for the reactor cases are carried out with a representative burnup credit cask model using the North Anna fuel. This paper presents the analysis methodology that has been developed for evaluating the physics issues associated with burnup credit. It is applicable in the validation and characterization of fuel isotopics as well as in determining the influence of various analysis assumptions in terms of δk eff . The methodology is used in the calculation of reactor restart criticals and analysis of a typical burnup credit cask

  9. Reactivity effect of spent fuel due to spatial distributions for coolant temperature and burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Yamane, Y. [Nagoya Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Suyama, K. [OECD/NEA, Paris (France); Mochizuki, H. [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the reactivity effect of spent fuel caused by the spatial distributions of coolant temperature and burnup by using the integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT. The reactivity effect which arises from taking account of the spatial coolant temperature distribution increases as the average burnup increases, and reaches the maximum value of 0.69%{delta}k/k at 50 GWd/tU when the burnup distribution is concurrently considered. When the burnup distribution is ignored, the reactivity effect decreases by approximately one-third. (author)

  10. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  11. Effect of error propagation of nuclide number densities on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohjoh, Masayuki; Endo, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masato; Yamamoto, Akio

    2006-01-01

    As a result of improvements in computer technology, the continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation has received attention as a good candidate for an assembly calculation method. However, the results of Monte Carlo calculations contain the statistical errors. The results of Monte Carlo burn-up calculations, in particular, include propagated statistical errors through the variance of the nuclide number densities. Therefore, if statistical error alone is evaluated, the errors in Monte Carlo burn-up calculations may be underestimated. To make clear this effect of error propagation on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations, we here proposed an equation that can predict the variance of nuclide number densities after burn-up calculations, and we verified this equation using enormous numbers of the Monte Carlo burn-up calculations by changing only the initial random numbers. We also verified the effect of the number of burn-up calculation points on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations. From these verifications, we estimated the errors in Monte Carlo burn-up calculations including both statistical and propagated errors. Finally, we made clear the effects of error propagation on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations by comparing statistical errors alone versus both statistical and propagated errors. The results revealed that the effects of error propagation on the Monte Carlo burn-up calculations of 8 x 8 BWR fuel assembly are low up to 60 GWd/t

  12. The impact of candle burning during All Saints' Day ceremonies on ambient alkyl-substituted benzene concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Kłos, Andrzej

    2013-11-01

    Research findings concerning benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylene as well as styrene (BTEXS) emission at public cemeteries during All Saints' Day are presented here. Tests were carried out at town-located cemeteries in Opole and Grodków (southern Poland) and, as a benchmark, at the centres of those same towns. The purpose of the study was to estimate BTEXS emissions caused by the candle burning and, equally important to examine, whether emissions generated by the tested sources were similar to the BTEXS emissions generated by road transport. During the festive period, significant increases in benzene concentrations, by 200 % and 144 %, were noted at the cemeteries in Opole and Grodków, as well as in toluene, by 366 % and 342 %, respectively. Styrene concentrations also increased. It was demonstrated that the ratio of toluene to benzene concentrations from emissions caused by the burning candles are comparable to the ratio established for transportation emissions.

  13. An economic evaluation of a storage system for casks with burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Masahiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki; Yamada, Nobuyuki; O-iwa, Akio.

    1993-01-01

    It is generally recognized that casks designed with burnup credit are more economical than those without burnup credit. To estimate how much more economical they are, we made conceptual designs of transport/storage casks with and without burnup credit for PWR and BWR fuels of various uranium enrichment. The casks were designed to contain the maximum number of fuel assemblies under the necessary weight and dimensional limitations as well as the criticality and shielding criteria. The results showed that approximately 8 % to 44 % more fuel assemblies could be contained in casks with burnup credit. We then evaluated the economy of cask storage system incorporating the cask designs obtained above both with and without burnup credit. The results showed that the cost of storing casks with burnup credit is approximately 7 % to 30 % less expensive than storing casks without burnup credit. (J.P.N.)

  14. Power ramp tests of high burnup BWR segment rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, H.; Etoh, Y.; Tsukuda, Y.; Shimada, S.; Sakurai, H.

    2002-01-01

    Lead use assemblies (LUAs) of high burnup 8x8 fuel design for Japanese BWRs were irradiated up to 5 cycles in Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station No. 2 Unit. Segment rods were installed in LUAs and used for power ramp tests in Japanese Material Test Reactor (JMTR). Post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of segment rods were carried out at Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. before and after ramp tests. Maximum linear heat rates of LUAs were kept above 300 W/cm in the first cycle, above 250 W/cm in the second and third cycles and decreased to 200 W/cm in the fourth cycle and 80 W/cm in the fifth cycle. The integrity of high burnup 8x8 fuel was confirmed up to the bundle burnup of 48 GWd/t after 5 cycles of irradiation. Systematic and high quality data were collected through detailed PIEs. The main results are as follows. The oxide on the outer surface of cladding tubes was uniform and its thickness was less than 20 micro-meter after 5 cycles of irradiation and was almost independent of burnup. Hydrogen contents in cladding tubes were less than 150 ppm after 5 cycles of irradiation, although hydrogen contents increased during the fourth and fifth irradiation cycles. Mechanical properties of cladding tubes were on the extrapolated line of previous data up to 5 cycles of irradiation. Fission gas release rates were in the low level (mainly less than 6%) up to 5 cycles of irradiation due to the design to decrease pellet temperature. Pellet-cladding bonding layers were observed after the third cycle and almost full bonding was observed after the fifth cycle. Pellet volume increased with burnup in proportion to solid swelling rate up to the forth cycle. After the fifth cycle, slightly higher pellet swelling was confirmed. Power ramp tests were carried out and satisfactory performance of Zr-lined cladding tube was confirmed up to 60 GWd/t (segment average burnup). One segment rod irradiated for 3 cycles failed by a single step ramp test at terminal ramp power of 614 W

  15. Configuration of LWR fuel enrichment or burnup yielding maximum power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosek, V.; Zalesky, K.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis is given of the spatial distribution of fuel burnup and enrichment in a light-water lattice of given dimensions with slightly enriched uranium, at which the maximum output is achieved. It is based on the spatial solution of neutron flux using a one-group diffusion model in which linear dependence may be expected of the fission cross section and the material buckling parameter on the fuel burnup and enrichment. Two problem constraints are considered, i.e., the neutron flux value and the specific output value. For the former the optimum core configuration remains qualitatively unchanged for any reflector thickness, for the latter the cases of a reactor with and without reflector must be distinguished. (Z.M.)

  16. MCB. A continuous energy Monte Carlo burnup simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetnar, J.; Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.

    1999-01-01

    A code for integrated simulation of neutrinos and burnup based upon continuous energy Monte Carlo techniques and transmutation trajectory analysis has been developed. Being especially well suited for studies of nuclear waste transmutation systems, the code is an extension of the well validated MCNP transport program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Among the advantages of the code (named MCB) is a fully integrated data treatment combined with a time-stepping routine that automatically corrects for burnup dependent changes in reaction rates, neutron multiplication, material composition and self-shielding. Fission product yields are treated as continuous functions of incident neutron energy, using a non-equilibrium thermodynamical model of the fission process. In the present paper a brief description of the code and applied methods are given. (author)

  17. OREST, LWR Burnup Simulation Using Program HAMMER and ORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Ulrich; Sieberer, Johann

    2006-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: In OREST, the 1-dimensional lattice code HAMMER and the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN are directly coupled for burnup simulation in light-water reactor fuels (GRS recommended). Additionally heavy water and graphite moderated systems can be calculated. New version differs from the previous version in the following features: An 84-group-library LIB84 for up to 200 isotopes is used to update the 3-group -POISON-XS. LIB84 uses the same energy boundaries as THERMOS and HAMLET in . In this way, high flexibility is achieved in very different reactor models. The coupling factor between THERMOS and HAMLET is now directly transferred from HAMMER to THERES and omits the equation 4 (see page 6 of the manual). Sandwich-reactor fuel reactivity and burnup calculations can be started with NGEOM = 1. Thorium graphite reactivity and burnup calculations can be started with NLIBE = 1. High enriched U-235 heavy water moderated reactivity and burnup calculations can be started. HAMLET libraries in for U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243 and Zirconium are updated using resonance parameters. NEA-1324/04: A new version of the module hamme97.f has replaced the old one. 2 - Method of solution: For the user-defined irradiation history, an input data processor generates program loops over small burnup steps for the main codes HAMMER and ORIGEN. The user defined assembly description is transformed to an equivalent HAMMER fuel cell. HAMMER solves the integral neutron transport equation in a four-region cylindrical or sandwiched model with reflecting boundaries and runs with fuel power calculated rod temperatures. ORIGEN runs with HAMMER-calculated cross sections and neutron spectra and calculates isotope concentrations during burnup by solving the buildup-, depletion- and decay-chain equations. An output data processor samples the outputs of the program modules and generates tabular works for the

  18. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  19. CARA design criteria for HWR fuel burnup extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P.C.; Cirimello, R.O.; Bergallo, J.E.; Marino, A.C.; Delmastro, D.F.; Brasnarof, D.O.; Gonzalez, J.H.; Juanico, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new concept for HWR fuel bundles, namely CARA, is presented. The CARA design allows to improve all the major performances in the PHWR fuel technology. Among others, it reaches higher burnup and thermohydraulic safety margins, together with lower fuel pellet temperatures and Zry/HM mass ratio. Moreover, it keeps the fuel mass content per unit length and the channel pressure drop by using a single diameter of fuel rods. (author)

  20. Effect of fuel burnup on the mechanical safety coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyashkevich, V.Ju.; Sidorenko, V.D.; Shishkov, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    )In the paper the results of studies of changes in the process of campaign 'disturbances' of local heat flux and local fuel burnup, resulting from the 'mechanical' deviations in the composition and geometrical characteristics of fuel rods from the nominal are given. As example, the WWER-440 fuel assembly with burnable poisons used in the five-year fuel cycle is considered. The effect of deviations in fuel enrichment, fuel content, gadolinium content and geometrical size was studied (Authors)

  1. Validation of SCALE-4 for burnup credit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the past, a criticality analysis of PWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. If credit is allowed for fuel burnup in the design of casks that are used in the transport of spent light water reactor fuel to a repository, the increase in payload can lead to a significant reduction in the cost of transport and a potential reduction in the risk to the public. A portion of the work has been performed at ORNL in support of the US DOE efforts to demonstrate a validation approach for criticality safety methods to be used in burnup credit cask design. To date, the SCALE code system developed at ORNL has been the primary computational tool used by DOE to investigate technical issues related to burnup credit. The ANSI/ANS-8.1 criticality safety standard requires validation and benchmarking of the calculational methods used in evaluating criticality safety limits for applications outside reactors by correlation against critical experiments that are applicable. Numerous critical experiments for fresh PWR-type fuel in storage and transport configurations exist and can be used as part of a validation database. However, there are no critical experiments with burned PWR-type fuel in storage and transport configurations. As an alternative, commercial reactors offer an excellent source of measured critical configurations. The results reported demonstrate the ability of the ORNL SCALE-4 methodology to predict a value of k eff very close to the known value of 1.0, both for fresh fuel criticals and for the more complex reactor criticals. Beyond these results, additional work in the determination of biases and uncertainties is necessary prior to use in burnup credit applications

  2. Burnup calculations for cadmium. A case study for HFR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Sciolla, C.M

    2000-09-11

    This report describes the pre-design burnup calculations performed for a cadmium shielded high fluence irradiation experiment in the HFR. The very high absorption cross section in cadmium causes problems in the calculations for two different reasons. Firstly, because of the large reaction rates the assumption that the flux and the cross sections remain piecewise constant is no longer true. Therefore the correct solution can only be obtained when using extremely small time steps which leads to excessive computing times. Secondly, the self-shielding in the cadmium becomes complete (black absorber) causing the depletion to progress in a shell-wise manner. As a consequence the depletion evolves nearly linear instead of exponential with time. Because of this the depletion codes are used in a regime for which these have not been designed leading to a systematic error. The analysis shows however that a good estimate for the burnup time can be obtained by extrapolation from calculations with practically sized time steps and a correction is derived to compensate the systematic error. The calculations were done using the OCTOPUS burnup code system, including the 3-D Monte-Carlo spectrum code MCNP-4B and the depletion code FISPACT-4.2. Verifications were performed with the WIMS code system. The first part of the report describes the study of the cadmium burnup calculations for a shielded steel sample with the emphasis on analyzing the requirements for obtaining the correct solution. The second part describes the time-dependent power production calculations with the steel replaced by lithium containing ceramic material such as to be used in the 'High Fluence Irradiation of Ceramics for Fusion' (HICU) experiment. 12 refs.

  3. Application of depletion perturbation theory to fuel cycle burnup analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Over the past several years static perturbation theory methods have been increasingly used for reactor analysis in lieu of more detailed and costly direct computations. Recently, perturbation methods incorporating time dependence have also received attention, and several authors have demonstrated their applicability to fuel burnup analysis. The objective of the work described here is to demonstrate that a time-dependent perturbation method can be easily and accurately applied to realistic depletion problems

  4. Calculation of triton confinement and burn-up in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Battistoni, P.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the confinement and subsequent burn-up of fusion produced tritons in a deuterium Tokamak plasma. Explicit approximations are obtained for the triton confinement factor, clearly displaying the scaling with physical parameters. The importance of pitch angle scattering losses during the triton slowing down is also estimated. A comparison with experiments and numerical calculations on the FT Tokamak slows good qualitative agreement. (authors)

  5. Z boson as ''the standard candle'' for high-precision W boson physics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasny, M.W.; Fayette, F.; Placzek, W.; Siodmok, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a strategy for measuring the inclusive W boson production processes at LHC. This strategy exploits simultaneously the unique flexibility of the LHC collider in running variable beam particle species at variable beam energies, and the configuration flexibility of the LHC detectors. We propose their concrete settings for a precision measurement of the standard model parameters. These dedicated settings optimise the use of the Z boson and Drell-Yan-pair production processes as ''the standard reference candles''. The presented strategy allows one to factorise and to directly measure those of the QCD effects that affect differently the W and Z production processes. It reduces to a level of O(10 -4 ) the impact of uncertainties in the partonic distribution functions (PDFs) and in the transverse momentum of the quarks on the measurement precision. Last but not the least, it reduces by a factor of 10 the impact of systematic measurement errors, such as the energy scale and the measurement resolution, on the W boson production observables. (orig.)

  6. Background studies of high energy γ rays from (n,γ) reactions in the CANDLES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Akutagawa, K.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Dokaku, F.; Fushimi, K.; Kakubata, H.; Kanagawa, K.; Katagiri, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Khai, B. T.; Kino, H.; Kinoshita, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Hazama, R.; Hiraoka, H.; Hiyama, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Moser, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Sato, H.; Shamoto, K.; Shimada, M.; Shokati, M.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Takihira, Y.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Teranishi, K.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Tsuzuki, M.; Umehara, S.; Wang, W.; Yoshida, S.; Yotsunaga, N.

    2018-07-01

    High energy γ rays with several MeV produced by (n,γ) reactions can be a trouble for low background measurements in the underground laboratories such as double beta decay experiments. In the CANDLES project, which aimed to observe the neutrino-less double beta decay from 48Ca, γ rays caused by (n,γ) reactions were found to be the most significant background. The profile of the background was studied by measurements with a neutron source and a simulation with a validity check of neutron processes in Geant4. The observed spectrum of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions was well reproduced by the simulated spectra, which were originated from the surrounding rock and a detector tank made of stainless steel. The environmental neutron flux was derived by the observed event rate of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions using the simulation. The thermal and non-thermal neutron flux were found to be (1.3 ± 0.6) ×10-6 cm-2s-1 and (1.1 ± 0.5) ×10-5 cm-2s-1 , respectively. It is necessary to install an additional shield to reduce the background from (n,γ) reaction to the required level.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE PCFBC-EXPOSED AND ACCELERATED LIFE-TESTED CANDLE FILTERS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Alvin

    1999-01-01

    Development of the hot gas filtration technology has been the focus of DOE/FETC and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation during the past twenty years. Systems development during this time has successfully lead to the generation and implementation of high temperature Siemens Westinghouse particulate filtration systems that are currently installed and are operational at Demonstration Plant sites, and which are ready for installation at commercial plant sites. Concurrently, materials development has advanced the use of commercially available oxide- and nonoxide-based monoliths, and has fostered the manufacture and use of second generation, oxide-based, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites and filament wound materials. This report summarizes the material characterization results for commercially available and second generation filter materials tested in Siemens Westinghouse's advanced, high temperature, particulate removal system at the Foster Wheeler, pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion, pilot-scale test facility in Karhula, Finland, and subsequent extended accelerated life testing of aged elements in Siemens Westinghouse pressurized fluidized-bed combustion simulator test facility in Pittsburgh, PA. The viability of operating candle filters successfully for over 1 year of service life has been shown in these efforts. Continued testing to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring three years of service operation on aged filter elements is recommended

  8. Investigation of Burnup Credit Issues in BWR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; DeHart, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Calculations for long-term-disposal criticality safety of spent nuclear fuel requires the application of burnup credit because of the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents, followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of keff for a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models used to characterize spent fuel. Most effort in the United States this decade has focused on burnup issues related to pressurized-water reactors. However, requirements for the permanent disposal of fuel from boiling-water reactors has necessitated development of methods for prediction of spent fuel contents for such fuels. Concomitant with such analyses, validation is also necessary. This paper provides a summary of initial efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to better understand and validate spent fuel analyses for boiling-water-reactor fuel

  9. Application of burnup credit for PWR spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Sung; Ro, Seung-Gy; Bae, Kang Mok; Kim, Ik Soo; Shin, Young Joon

    1999-01-01

    A study on the application of burnup credit for a PWR spent fuel storage pool has been investigated using a computer code system such as CSAS6 module of SCALE 4.3 in association with 44-group SCALE cross-section library. The calculation bias of the code system at a 95% probability with a 95% confidence level seems to be 0.00951 by benchmarking the system for forty six experimental data. With the aid of this computer code system, criticality analysis has been performed for the PWR spent fuel storage pool. Uncertainties due to postulated abnormal and accidental conditions, and manufacturing tolerance such as stainless steel thickness of storage rack, fuel enrichment, fuel density and box size have statistically been combined and resulted in 0.00674. Also, isotopic correction factor which was based on the calculated and measured concentration of 43 isotopes for both selected actinides and fission products important in burnup credit application has been taken into account in the criticality analysis. It is revealed that the minimum burnup with the corrected isotopic concentrations as required for the safe storage is 5,730 MWd/tU in enriched fuel of 5.0 wt%. (author)

  10. Three dimensional Burn-up program parallelization using socket programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haliyati R, Evi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2002-01-01

    A computer parallelization process was built with a purpose to decrease execution time of a physics program. In this case, a multi computer system was built to be used to analyze burn-up process of a nuclear reactor. This multi computer system was design need using a protocol communication among sockets, i.e. TCP/IP. This system consists of computer as a server and the rest as clients. The server has a main control to all its clients. The server also divides the reactor core geometrically to in parts in accordance with the number of clients, each computer including the server has a task to conduct burn-up analysis of 1/n part of the total reactor core measure. This burn-up analysis was conducted simultaneously and in a parallel way by all computers, so a faster program execution time was achieved close to 1/n times that of one computer. Then an analysis was carried out and states that in order to calculate the density of atoms in a reactor of 91 cm x 91 cm x 116 cm, the usage of a parallel system of 2 computers has the highest efficiency

  11. Fuel rod behaviour at high burnup WWER fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, A.; Bogatyr, S.; Kouznetsov, V.; Khvostov, G.; Lagovsky; Korystin, L.; Poudov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The modernisation of WWER fuel cycles is carried out on the base of complete modelling and experimental justification of fuel rods up to 70 MWd/kgU. The modelling justification of the reliability of fuel rod and fuel rod with gadolinium is carried out with the use of certified START-3 code. START-3 code has a continuous experimental support. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-440 fuel is justified for fuel rod and pellet burnups 65 MWd/kgU and 74 MWd/U, accordingly. Results of analysis are demonstrated by the example of uranium-gadolinium fuel assemblies of second generation under 5-year cycle with a portion of 6-year assemblies and by the example of successfully completed pilot operation of 5-year cycle fuel assemblies during 6 years at unit 3 of Kolskaja NPP. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-1000 fuel is justified for a fuel rod burnup 66 MWd/kgU by the example of fuel operation under 4-year cycles and 6-year test operation of fuel assemblies at unit 1 of Kalininskaya NPP. By the example of 5-year cycle at Dukovany NPP Unit 2 it was demonstrated that WWER fuel rod of a burnup 58 MWd/kgU ensure reliable operation under load following conditions. The analysis has confirmed sufficient reserves of Russian fuel to implement program of JSC 'TVEL' in order to improve technical and economical parameters of WWER fuel cycles

  12. New burnup calculation of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Campolina, Daniel de A.M.; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2015-01-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, operates since 1960.The reactor is operating for more than fifty years and has a long history of operation. Determining the current composition of the fuel is very important to calculate various parameters. The reactor burnup calculation has been performed before, however, new techniques, methods, software and increase of the processing capacity of the new computers motivates new investigations to be performed. This work presents the evolution of effective multiplication constant and the results of burnup. This new model has a more detailed geometry with the introduction of the new devices, like the control rods and the samarium discs. This increase of materials in the simulation in burnup calculation was very important for results. For these series of simulations a more recently cross section library, ENDF/B-VII, was used. To perform the calculations two Monte Carlo particle transport code were used: Serpent and MCNPX. The results obtained from two codes are presented and compared with previous studies in the literature. (author)

  13. CEA contribution to power plant operation with high burnup level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    High level burnup in PWR leads to investigate again the choices carried out in the field of fuel management. French CEA has studied the economic importance of reshuffling technique, cycle length, discharge burnup, and non-operation period between two cycles. Power plants operators wish to work with increased length cycles of 18 months instead of 12. That leads to control problems because the core reactivity cannot be controlled with the only soluble boron: moderator temperature coefficient must be negative. With such cycles, it is necessary to use burnable poisons and for economic reasons with a low penalty in end of cycle. CEA has studied the use of Gd 2 O 3 mixed with fuel or with inert element like Al 2 O 3 . Parametric studies of specific weights, efficacities relatively to the fuel burnup and the fuel enrichment have been carried out. Particular studies of 1 month cycles with Gd 2 O 3 have shown the possibility to control power distribution with a very low reactivity penalty in EOC. In the same time, in the 100 MW PWR-CAP, control reactivity has been made with large use of gadolinia in parallel with soluble boron for the two first cycles

  14. Advanced fuel cycles and burnup increase of WWER-440 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proselkov, V.; Saprykin, V.; Scheglov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of operational experience of 4.4% enriched fuel in the 5-year fuel cycle at Kola NPP Unit 3 and fuel assemblies with Uranium-Gadolinium fuel at Kola NPP Unit 4 are made. The operability of WWER-440 fuel under high burnup is studied. The obtained results indicate that the fuel rods of WWER-440 assemblies intended for operation within six years of the reviewed fuel cycle totally preserve their operability. Performed analyses have demonstrated the possibility of the fuel rod operability during the fuel cycle. 12 assemblies were loaded into the reactor unit of Kola 3 in 2001. The predicted burnup in six assemblies was 59.2 MWd/kgU. Calculated values of the burnup after operation for working fuel assemblies were ∼57 MWd/kgU, for fuel rods - up to ∼61 MWd/kgU. Data on the coolant activity, specific activity of the benchmark iodine radionuclides of the reactor primary circuit, control of the integrity of fuel rods of the assemblies that were operated for six years indicate that not a single assembly has reached the criterion for the early discharge

  15. Models for fuel rod behaviour at high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernkvist, Lars O.; Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    This report deals with release of fission product gases and irradiation-induced restructuring in uranium dioxide nuclear fuel. Waterside corrosion of zirconium alloy clad tubes to light water reactor fuel rods is also discussed. Computational models, suitable for implementation in the FRAPCON-3.2 computer code, are proposed for these potentially life-limiting phenomena. Hence, an integrated model for the calculation or thermal fission gas release by intragranular diffusion, gas trapping in grain boundaries, irradiation-induced re-solution, grain boundary saturation, and grain boundary sweeping in UO{sub 2} fuel, under time varying temperature loads, is formulated. After a brief review of the status of thermal fission gas release modelling, we delineate the governing equations for the aforementioned processes. Grain growth kinetic modelling is briefly reviewed and pertinent data on grain growth of high burnup fuel obtained during power ramps in the Third Risoe Fission Gas Release Project are evaluated. Sample computations are performed, which clearly show the connection between fission gas release and gram growth as a function of time at different isotherms. Models are also proposed for the restructuring of uranium dioxide fuel at high burnup, the so-called rim formation, and its effect on fuel porosity build-up, fuel thermal conductivity and fission gas release. These models are assessed by use of recent experimental data from the High Burnup Rim Project, as well as from post irradiation examinations of high-burnup fuel, irradiated in power reactors. Moreover, models for clad oxide growth and hydrogen pickup in PWRs, applicable to Zircaloy-4, ZIRLO or M5 cladding, are formulated, based on recent in-reactor corrosion data for high-burnup fuel rods. Our evaluation of these data indicates that the oxidation rate of ZIRLO-type materials is about 20% lower than for standard Zircaloy-4 cladding under typical PWR conditions. Likewise, the oxidation rate of M5 seems to be

  16. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmarks phase IIIB: Burnup calculations of BWR fuel assemblies for storage and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Suyama, Kenya

    2002-02-01

    The report describes the final results of the Phase IIIB Benchmark conducted by the Expert Group on Burnup Credit Criticality Safety under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The Benchmark was intended to compare the predictability of current computer code and data library combinations for the atomic number densities of an irradiated PWR fuel assembly model. The fuel assembly was irradiated under specific power of 25.6 MW/tHM up to 40 GWd/tHM and cooled for five years. The void fraction was assumed to be uniform throughout the channel box and constant, at 0, 40 and 70%, during burnup. In total, 16 results were submitted from 13 institutes of 7 countries. The calculated atomic number densities of 12 actinides and 20 fission product nuclides were found to be for the most part within a range of ±10% relative to the average, although some results, esp. 155 Eu and gadolinium isotopes, exceeded the band, which will require further investigation. Pin-wise burnup results agreed well among the participants. The results in the infinite neutron multiplication factor k ∞ also accorded well with each other for void fractions of 0 and 40%; however some results deviated from the averaged value noticeably for the void fraction of 70%. (author)

  17. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmarks phase IIIB. Burnup calculations of BWR fuel assemblies for storage and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    The report describes the final results of the Phase IIIB Benchmark conducted by the Expert Group on Burnup Credit Criticality Safety under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The Benchmark was intended to compare the predictability of current computer code and data library combinations for the atomic number densities of an irradiated PWR fuel assembly model. The fuel assembly was irradiated under specific power of 25.6 MW/tHM up to 40 GWd/tHM and cooled for five years. The void fraction was assumed to be uniform throughout the channel box and constant, at 0, 40 and 70%, during burnup. In total, 16 results were submitted from 13 institutes of 7 countries. The calculated atomic number densities of 12 actinides and 20 fission product nuclides were found to be for the most part within a range of {+-}10% relative to the average, although some results, esp. {sup 155}Eu and gadolinium isotopes, exceeded the band, which will require further investigation. Pin-wise burnup results agreed well among the participants. The results in the infinite neutron multiplication factor k{sub {infinity}} also accorded well with each other for void fractions of 0 and 40%; however some results deviated from the averaged value noticeably for the void fraction of 70%. (author)

  18. Fundamental burn-up mode in a pebble-bed type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xue-Nong; Kiefhaber, Edgar; Maschek, Werner

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a pebble-bed type reactor, in which the fuel is loaded from one side (top) and discharged from the other side (bottom). A boundary value problem of a single group diffusion equation coupled with simplified burn-up equations is studied, where the natural radioactive decay processes are neglected in the burn-up modelling. An asymptotic burning wave solution is found analytically in the one-dimensional case, which is called as fundamental burn-up mode. Among this solution family there are two particular cases, namely, a classic fundamental solution with a zero burn-up and a partial solitary burn-up wave solution with a highest burn-up. An example of Th-U conversion is considered and the solutions are presented in order to show the mechanism of the burning wave. (author)

  19. Fuel element burnup determination in HEU-LEU mixed TRIGA research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a burnup calculations and burnup measurements for TRIGA FLIP HEU fuel elements and standard TRIGA LEU fuel elements used simultaneously in small TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenija. The fuel element burnup for approximately 15 years of operation was calculated with two different in house computer codes TRIGAP and TRIGLAV (both codes are available at OECD NEA Data Bank). The calculation is performed in one-dimensional radial geometry in TRIGAP and in two-dimensional (r,φ) geometry in TRIGLAV. Inter-comparison of results shows important influence of in-core water gaps, irradiation channels and mixed rings on burnup calculation accuracy. Burnup of 5 HEU and 27 LEU fuel elements was also measured with reactivity method. Measured and calculated burnup values are inter-compared for these elements (author)

  20. Polynomial expansion methodology for microscopic cross sections to use in spatial burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti Filho, P.; Oliveira Barroso, A.C. de

    1985-01-01

    It was developed a computer code to generate polynomial coefficients which represent homogenized microscopic cross sections in function of the local accumulated burnup and concentration of soluble boron, presented in fuel element, for each step of burnup reactor. Afterward, it was developed a coupling between LEOPARD-GERADOR DE POLINOMIOS - CITATION computer codes to interpret and build homogenized microscopic cross sections according with local characteristics of each fuel element during the burnup calculation of reactor core. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Comparison of measured and calculated burn-up of AVR-Fuel-Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, R.

    1974-03-15

    Burn-up comparisons are made for small batches of three types of AVR fuel elements using a coupled EREBUS-MUPO neutronic analysis compared against test results from both nondestructive gamma-ray measurements of cesium-137 activity and destructive mass spectrometry measurements of the ratio of U-233 to U-235. The comparisons are relatively good for average burn-up and reasonably good for burn-up distributions.

  2. Effect of local burn-up variation on computed mean nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1982-01-01

    Mean concentrations of U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 in some volume areas of WWER-440 fuel assemblies have been calculated from corresponding burn-up microdistribution data and compared with those calculated from burn-up mean values. Differences occurring were below 3% for the uranium nuclides but, at low burn-ups, considerable for Pu-241 and Pu-242. (author)

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Candle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Candle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  4. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  5. Calculation of effect of burnup history on spent fuel reactivity based on CASMO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaobo; Xia Zhaodong; Zhu Qingfu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the burnup credit of actinides + fission products (APU-2) which are usually considered in spent fuel package, the effect of power density and operating history on k_∞ was studied. All the burnup calculations are based on the two-dimensional fuel assembly burnup program CASMO5. The results show that taking the core average power density of specified power plus a bounding margin of 0.0023 to k_∞, and taking the operating history of specified power without shutdown during cycle and between cycles plus a bounding margin of 0.0045 to k_∞ can meet the bounding principle of burnup credit. (authors)

  6. CHAR and BURNMAC - burnup modules of the AUS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    In the AUS neutronics code system, the burnup module CHAR solves the nuclide depletion equations by an analytic technique in a number of spatial zones. CHAR is usually used as one component of a lattice burnup calculation but contains features which also make it suitable for some global burnup calculations. BURNMAC is a simple accounting module based on the assumption that cross sections for a rector zone depend only on irradiation. BURNMAC is used as one component of a global calculation in which burnup is achieved by interpolation in the cross sections produced from a previous lattice calculation

  7. Application of radiochemical-and direct gamma ray spectrometry methods for the determination of the burnup of irradiated uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Nastasi, M.J.C.; Lima, F.W. de

    1979-01-01

    The burn-up of U 3 O 8 (natural uranium) samples was determined by using both destructive and non-destructive methods, and comparing the results obtained. The radioisotopes 144 Ce, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 137 Cs and 95 Zr were chosen as monitors. In order to isolate the radioisotopes chosen as monitors, a separation scheme has been established in which the solvent extraction technic is used to separate cerium, cesium, and ruthenium one from the other and from uranium. The separation between zirconium and niobium and of both from the others was accomplished by means of adsorption on a silica-gel column. When the non-destructive method was used, the radioactivity of each nuclide of interest was measured in the presence of all others. For this purpose, use was made of gamma-ray spectrometry and a Ge-Li detector. The comparison of burn-up values obtained by both destructive and non-destructive methods was made by means of Student's 't' test, and it has shown that the averages of results obtained in each case are equal. (Author) [pt

  8. Calculation of isotope burn-up and change in efficiency of absorbing elements of WWER-1000 control and protection system during burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, O.A.; Kurakin, K.U.

    2006-01-01

    The report deals with fast and thermal neutron flows distribution in structural elements of WWER-1000 fuel assembly and absorbing rods, determination of absorbing isotope burn-up and worth variation in WWER reactor control and protection system rods. Simulation of absorber rod burn-up is provided using code package SAPPHIRE 9 5 end RC W WER allowing detailed description of the core segment spatial model. Maximum burn-up of absorbing rods and respective worth variation of control and protection system rods is determined on the basis of a number of calculations considering known characteristics of fuel cycles (Authors)

  9. Burnup dependence of coolant void reactivity for ACR-1000 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Marleau, G.; Hebert, A.; Roubstov, D.; Altiparmakov, D.; Irish, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR-1000) is light water cooled, fueled with enriched uranium and has a smaller lattice pitch than the Candu-6. As a result, the neutronic behavior of the ACR-1000 cell is expected to be somewhat different from that of the Candu-6 leading to a negative coolant void reactivity (CVR). Here we evaluate the CVR for the ACR-1000 cell using the lattice code DRAGON and compare our results with those obtained using the code WIMS-AECL. The differences observed between these two codes for the burnup dependence of the CVR is mainly explained in terms of the specific cell leakage model used by both codes. (authors)

  10. Development and verification of Monte Carlo burnup calculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Sakurada, Koichi; Sakurai, Shungo

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo burnup calculation code system has been developed to evaluate accurate various quantities required in the backend field. From the Actinide Research in a Nuclear Element (ARIANE) program, by using, the measured nuclide compositions of fuel rods in the fuel assemblies irradiated in the commercial Netherlands BWR, the analyses have been performed for the code system verification. The code system developed in this paper has been verified through analysis for MOX and UO2 fuel rods. This system enables to reduce large margin assumed in the present criticality analysis for LWR spent fuels. (J.P.N.)

  11. Burn-up TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zagar, T.

    1998-01-01

    Different reactor codes are used for calculations of reactor parameters. The accuracy of the programs is tested through comparison of the calculated values with the experimental results. Well-defined and accurately measured benchmarks are required. The experimental results of reactivity measurements, fuel element reactivity worth distribution and fuel-up measurements are presented in this paper. The experiments were performed with partly burnt reactor core. The experimental conditions were well defined, so that the results can be used as a burn-up benchmark test case for a TRIGA Mark II reactor calculations.(author)

  12. CANDLE reactor: an option for simple, safe, high nuclear proliferation resistant , small waste and efficient fuel use reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    The innovative nuclear energy systems have been investigated intensively for long period in COE-INES program and CRINES activities in Tokyo Institute of Technology. Five requirements; sustainability, safety, waste, nuclear-proliferation, and economy; are considered as inevitable requirements for nuclear energy. Characteristics of small LBE cooled CANDLE fast reactor developed in this Institute are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies clearly four requirements; safety, nonproliferation and safeguard, less wastes and sustainability. For the remaining requirement, economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown

  13. Implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The criticality safety analysis of spent fuel systems has traditionally assumed that the fuel is fresh. This results in significant conservatism in the calculated value of the system's reactivity. Improved calculational methods allows one to take credit for the reactivity reduction associated with fuel burnup, hence reducing the analysis conservatism while maintaining an adequate criticality safety margin. Motivation for using burnup credit in criticality safety applications is generally based on economic considerations. Although economics may be a primary factor in deciding to use burnup credit, other benefits may be realized. Many of the additional benefits of burnup credit that are not strictly economic, may be considered to contribute to public health and safety, and resource conservation and environmental quality. Interest in the implementation of burnup credit has been shown by many countries. A summary of the information gathered by the IAEA about ongoing activities and regulatory status of burnup credit in different countries is included. Burnup credit implementation introduces new parameters and effects that should be addressed in the criticality analysis (e.g., axial and radial burnup shapes, fuel irradiation history, and others). Analysis of these parameters introduces new variations as well as the uncertainties, that should be considered in the safety assessment of the system. Also, the need arises to validate the isotopic composition that results from a depletion calculation, as well as to extend the current validation range of criticality codes to cover spent fuel. The use of burnup credit implies a verification of the fuel burnup before loading for transport, storage, disposal, or reprocessing each assembly, to make sure that the burnup level achieved complies with the criteria established. Methods and procedures used in different countries are described in this report

  14. Preparation of computer codes for analyzing sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics (2) (Contract research, translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaki, Hiroshi; Sanda, Toshio; Ohashi, Masahisa

    2008-10-01

    To develop nuclear design of LMFBR cores, they are important subjects of research and development to improve the accuracy in nuclear design of large LMFBR cores and to design highly efficient core more rationally. The adjusted nuclear cross-sections library has been made by being reflected the result of critical experiment of the JUPITER, etc. effectively as much as possible. And the distinct improvement of the accuracy in nuclear design of large LMFBR cores has been achieved. In the design of large LMFBR cores, however, it is important to accurately estimate not only nuclear characteristics, for example, reaction rate distribution and control rod worth but also burnup characteristics, for example, burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio and so on. Therefore, it is thought to improve the prediction accuracy for burnup characteristics using many burnup data of 'Joyo' effectively. It is thought the best way to adjust cross sections using sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics to utilize burnup data of 'Joyo'. It is able to know the accuracy quantitatively for burnup characteristics of large LMFBR by analyzing the sensitivity coefficients. Therefore in this work computer codes for analyzing sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics had been prepared since 1992. In 1992 cross-section adjustment was done by using the data of 'Joyo' and the effect was studied. In this year the adequacy of the codes was studied with a view of applying of design of large LMFBR cores. The results are as follows: (1) The computer codes which could analyze sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics taking into consideration plural cycles and refueling were prepared, therefore it came of be able to adjust cross sections using burnup data and to estimate the accuracy for design of large LMFBR cores. The characteristics are not only burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio but also number density, criticality, reactivity worth, reaction rate ratio, and reaction rate

  15. Implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The criticality safety analysis of spent fuel systems has traditionally assumed that the fuel is fresh. This results in significant conservatism in the calculated value of the system`s reactivity. Improved calculational methods allows one to take credit for the reactivity reduction associated with fuel burnup, hence reducing the analysis conservatism while maintaining an adequate criticality safety margin. Motivation for using burnup credit in criticality safety applications is generally based on economic considerations. Although economics may be a primary factor in deciding to use burnup credit, other benefits may be realized. Many of the additional benefits of burnup credit that are not strictly economic, may be considered to contribute to public health and safety, and resource conservation and environmental quality. Interest in the implementation of burnup credit has been shown by many countries. A summary of the information gathered by the IAEA about ongoing activities and regulatory status of burnup credit in different countries is included. Burnup credit implementation introduces new parameters and effects that should be addressed in the criticality analysis (e.g., axial and radial burnup shapes, fuel irradiation history, and others). Analysis of these parameters introduces new variations as well as the uncertainties, that should be considered in the safety assessment of the system. Also, the need arises to validate the isotopic composition that results from a depletion calculation, as well as to extend the current validation range of criticality codes to cover spent fuel. The use of burnup credit implies a verification of the fuel burnup before loading for transport, storage, disposal, or reprocessing each assembly, to make sure that the burnup level achieved complies with the criteria established. Methods and procedures used in different countries are described in this report. Refs, figs, tabs.

  16. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  17. MTR core loading pattern optimization using burnup dependent group constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Masood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A diffusion theory based MTR fuel management methodology has been developed for finding superior core loading patterns at any stage for MTR systems, keeping track of burnup of individual fuel assemblies throughout their history. It is based on using burnup dependent group constants obtained by the WIMS-D/4 computer code for standard fuel elements and control fuel elements. This methodology has been implemented in a computer program named BFMTR, which carries out detailed five group diffusion theory calculations using the CITATION code as a subroutine. The core-wide spatial flux and power profiles thus obtained are used for calculating the peak-to-average power and flux-ratios along with the available excess reactivity of the system. The fuel manager can use the BFMTR code for loading pattern optimization for maximizing the excess reactivity, keeping the peak-to-average power as well as flux-ratio within constraints. The results obtained by the BFMTR code have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values for the equilibrium core of the Pakistan Research Reactor-1.

  18. Computer programs for TRIGA calibration, burnup evaluation, and bookkeeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Several computer programs have been developed at the University of Arizona to assist the direction and operation of the TRIGA Reactor Laboratory. The programs fall into the following three categories: 1. Programs for calculation of burnup of each fuel element in the reactor core, for maintaining an inventory of fuel element location and fissile content at any time, and for evaluation of the reactivity effects of burnup or proposed fuel element rearrangement in the core. 2. Programs for evaluation, function fitting, and tabulation of control rod measurements. 3. Bookkeeping programs to summarize and tabulate reactor runs and irradiations according to time, energy release, purpose, responsible party, etc. These summarized data are reported in an annual operating report for the facility. The use of these programs has saved innumerable hours of repetitious work, assuring more accurate, objective results, and requiring a minimum of effort to repeat calculations when input data are modified. The programs are written in FORTRAN-IV, and have been used on a CDC-6400 computer. (author)

  19. chemical determination of burnup ratio in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guereli, L.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the extent of fission are important to determine the irradiation performance of a nuclear fuel. The energy released per unit mass of uranium (burnup) can be determined from measurement of the percent of heavy atoms that have fissioned during irradiation.The preferred method for this determination is choosing a suitable fission monitor (usually ''1''4''8Nd) and its determination after separation from the fuel matrix. In thermal reactor fuels where the only heavy element in the starting material is uranium, uranium depletion can be used for burnup determination. ''2''3''5U depletion method requires measurement of uranium isotopic ratios of both irradiated and unirradiated fuel. Isotopic ratios can be determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometer following separation of uranium from the fuel matrix. Separation procedures include solvent extraction, ion exchange and anion exchange chromatography. Another fission monitor used is ''1''3''9La determination by HPLC. Because La is monoisotopic (''1''3''9La) in the fuel, it can be determined by chemical analysis techniques

  20. Higher order methods for burnup calculations with Bateman solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Aarnio, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Average microscopic reaction rates need to be estimated at each step. → Traditional predictor-corrector methods use zeroth and first order predictions. → Increasing predictor order greatly improves results. → Increasing corrector order does not improve results. - Abstract: A group of methods for burnup calculations solves the changes in material compositions by evaluating an explicit solution to the Bateman equations with constant microscopic reaction rates. This requires predicting representative averages for the one-group cross-sections and flux during each step, which is usually done using zeroth and first order predictions for their time development in a predictor-corrector calculation. In this paper we present the results of using linear, rather than constant, extrapolation on the predictor and quadratic, rather than linear, interpolation on the corrector. Both of these are done by using data from the previous step, and thus do not affect the stepwise running time. The methods were tested by implementing them into the reactor physics code Serpent and comparing the results from four test cases to accurate reference results obtained with very short steps. Linear extrapolation greatly improved results for thermal spectra and should be preferred over the constant one currently used in all Bateman solution based burnup calculations. The effects of using quadratic interpolation on the corrector were, on the other hand, predominantly negative, although not enough so to conclusively decide between the linear and quadratic variants.

  1. BASHAN: A few-group three-dimensional diffusion code with burnup and fuel management features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.F.

    1970-12-01

    The diffusion equation for a two or three-dimensional, two-group or multi-group downscatter problem is solved by conventional finite difference techniques. An x-y-z geometry is assumed with an 'in-channel' mesh point representation. Options are available which allow representation of a soluble poison dispersed throughout the reactor, and also absorber rods in specified channels. The power distribution and multiplication factor k eff are calculated and a point rating map is used to advance the irradiation at each mesh point by a specified time-step so that burnup is followed. Fuel changes may be made so that radial shuffling and axial shuffling fuel management schemes can be studies. The code has been written in FORTRAN S2 for an IBM 7030 (STRETCH) computer which, with a fast store of 80,000 locations, allows problems of up to 15,000 mesh points to be dealt with. Conversion to FORTRAN IV for IBM 360 has now been completed. (author)

  2. Experimental modeling of high burn-up structure in SIMFUEL with ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.; Isaenkova, M.; Lunev, A.; Tenishev, A.; Khlunov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments are conducted to simulate high burn-up structure in accelerator conditions. Three ion irradiation schemes are used: 1. Xe 27+ 160 MeV up to 5x10 15 cm -2 (thermal spikes). 2. Xe 16+ 320 keV up to 1x10 17 cm -2 (collision cascades). 3. He + 20 keV up to 5,5x10 17 cm -2 (implantation stage). Structural characterization performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed prominent grain refinement in case of Xe 27+ irradiation. Artificial energy variation for incident ions showed varying size of subgrains. At maximum energy of incident ions, subgrain size amounts ∼ 320 nm. Moving to the edge of irradiated region changes the size to ∼ 170 nm. Typical size of coherent scattering regions matches subgrain size for high-energy irradiation. Low-energy irradiation results in less significant structural changes: flaky structure at random sites for samples irradiated with low-energy xenon ions and bubble nucleation for helium irradiation. Dislocation density increases significantly, and it is shown that a single fluence dependence exists for low- and high-energy irradiation. (authors)

  3. Superluminous supernovae as standardizable candles and high-redshift distance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J., E-mail: c.inserra@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = –21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM {sub 20} decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  4. Determination of the burn-up of TRIGA fuel elements by calculation with new TRIGLAV program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.

    1996-01-01

    The results of fuel element burn-up calculations with new TRIGLAV program are presented. TRIGLAV program uses two dimensional model. Results of calculation are compared to results calculated with program, which uses one dimensional model. The results of fuel element burn-up measurements with reactivity method are presented and compared with the calculated results. (author)

  5. Application of reactivity method to MTR fuel burn-up measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga, A.; Ravnik, M.; Cuya, R.

    2001-01-01

    Fuel element burn-up has been measured for the first time by reactivity method in a MTR reactor. The measurement was performed in RP-10 reactor of Peruvian Institute for Nuclear Energy (IPEN) in Lima. It is a pool type 10MW material testing reactor using standard 20% enriched uranium plate type fuel elements. A fresh element and an element with well defined burn-up were selected as reference elements. Several elements in the core were selected for burn-up measurement. Each of them was replaced in its original position by both reference elements. Change in excess reactivity was measured using control rod calibration curve. The burn-up reactivity worth of fuel elements was plotted as a function of their calculated burnup. Corrected burn-up values of the measured fuel elements were calculated using the fitting function at experimental reactivity for all elements. Good agreement between measured and calculated burn-up values was observed indicating that the reactivity method can be successfully applied also to MTR fuel element burn-up determination.(author)

  6. Analysis on burn-up behaviors for accelerator-driven sub-critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng; Zhao Zhixiang; Zhang Baocheng; Shen Qinbiao; Ding Dazhao

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is performed on burn-up behaviors for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor by means of the code PASC-1 for neutronics calculation, the code CBURN for burn-up calculation and 44 group constants is processed by CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6 using NJOY-91.91

  7. Determination of axial profit performed burnup credit by SCALE 4.3-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    SCALE 4.3 is a modular code system designed for realizing standard computational analysis for licensing evaluation. Since now, spent fuel storage pools criticality analysis have been done considering this fuel as fresh, with its maximum enrichment. With burnup credit we can obtain cheaper and compact configurations. The procedure for calculating a spent fuel storage consists of a burnup calculation plus a criticality calculation. We can perform a conservative approximation for the burnup calculations using 1-D results, but, besides the geometry configurations for the 3-D criticality calculation. we need an appropriate approximation to model the burnup axial variation. We assume that for a burnup profile set, the most conservative profile is between the lower and the upper range of this profile, set. We consider only combinations of the maximum and minimum burnup in each axial region, for each burnup range. This gives an estimation of the different burnup shapes effect and the general characteristics of the most conservative shape. (Author) 6 refs

  8. Evaluation of Isotopic Measurements and Burn-up Value of Sample GU3 of ARIANE Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore, C.; Rodriguez Rivada, A.

    2014-07-01

    Estimation of the burn-up value of irradiated fuel and its isotopic composition are important for criticality analysis, spent fuel management and source term estimation. The practical way to estimate the irradiated fuel composition and burn.up value is calculation with validated code and nuclear data. Such validation of the neutronic codes and nuclear data requires the benchmarking with measured values. (Author)

  9. Determination of nuclear fuel burn-up using mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.; Bagyalakshmi, R.; Periaswami, G.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Chitambar, S.A.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Determination of burn-up using a stable fission product monitor such as 148 Nd and heavy elements, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry gives the most accurate data. This report describes the work carried out to standardise the conditions for burn-up determination. Some typical results are given. (author)

  10. The application of burnup credit for spent fuel operations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper begins by outlining the structure of the nuclear industry in the United Kingdom. It then sets out the methodology of burnup credit, and provides a brief discussion of the validation and robustness of the calculational route. This leads to a description of both the current and intended applications of burnup credit in the United Kingdom. (author)

  11. Microstructural change and its influence on fission gas release in high burnup UO 2 fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, K.; Nogita, K.; Kashibe, S.; Imamura, M.

    1992-06-01

    The microstructural change of UO 2 fuel pellets (burnup: 6-83 GWd/t), base irradiated under LWR conditions, has been studied by detailed postirradiation examinations. The lattice parameter near the fuel rim in the irradiated UO 2 increased with burnup and appeared to become constant beyond about 50 GWd/t. This lattice dilation was mainly due to the accumulation of radiation induced point defects. Moreover, the dislocation density in the UO 2 matrix developed progressively with burnup, and eventually the tangled dislocations organized many sub-grain boundaries in the highest burnup fuel of 83 GWd/t. This sub-grain structure induced by accumulated radiation damage was compatible in appearance with SEM fractography results which revealed sub-divided grains of sub-micron size in as-fabricated grains. The influence of burnup on 85Kr release from the UO 2 fuels has been examined by means of a postirradiation annealing technique. The higher fractional release of high burnup fuels was mainly due to the burnup dependence of the fractional burst release evolved on temperature ramp. The fractional burst release was represented in terms of the square root of burnup from 6 to 83 GWd/t.

  12. The Width of High Burnup Structure in LWR UO2 Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Oh, Jae-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2007-01-01

    The measured data available in the open literature on the width of high burnup structure (HBS) in LWR UO 2 fuel were analyzed in terms of pellet average burnup, enrichment, and grain size. Dependence of the HBS width on pellet average burnup was shown to be divided into three regions; while the HBS width is governed by accumulation of fission damage (i.e., burnup) for burnup below 60 GWd/tU, it seems to be restricted to some limiting value of around 1.5 mm for burnup above 75 GWd/tU due to high temperature which might have caused extensive annealing of irradiation damage. As for intermediate burnup between 60 and 75 GWd/tU, although temperature would not have been so high as to induce extensive annealing, the microstructural damage could have been partly annealed, resulting in the reduction of the HBS width. It was found that both enrichment and grain size also affects the HBS width. However, as long as the pellet average burnup is lower than about 75 GWd/tU, the effect does not appear to be significant for the enrichment and grain size that are typically used in current LWR fuel. (authors)

  13. Simulation of High Burnup Structure in UO2 Using Potts Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Byung Ho

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of a high burnup structure (HBS) in a light water reactor (LWR) UO 2 fuel was simulated using the Potts model. A simulation system for the Potts model was defined as a two-dimensional triangular lattice, for which the stored energy was calculated from both the irradiation damage of the UO 2 matrix and the formation of a grain boundary in the newly recrystallized small HBS grains. In the simulation, the evolution probability of the HBS is calculated by the system energy difference between before and after the Monte Carlo simulation step. The simulated local threshold burnup for the HBS formation was 62 MWd/kgU, consistent with the observed threshold burnup range of 60-80 MWd/kgU. The simulation revealed that the HBS was heterogeneously nucleated on the intergranular bubbles in the proximity of the threshold burnup and then additionally on the intragranular bubbles for a burnup above 86 MWd/kgU. In addition, the simulation carried out under a condition of no bubbles indicated that the bubbles played an important role in lowering the threshold burnup for the HBS formation, thereby enabling the HBS to be observed in the burnup range of conventional high burnup fuels

  14. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  15. Preparation of data relevant to ''Equivalent Uniform Burnup'' and Equivalent Initial Enrichment'' for burnup credit evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Okuno, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murazaki, Minoru [Tokyo Nuclear Service Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Based on the PWR spent fuel composition data measured at JAERI, two kinds of simplified methods such as ''Equivalent Uniform Burnup'' and ''Equivalent Initial Enrichment'' have been introduced. And relevant evaluation curves have been prepared for criticality safety evaluation of spent fuel storage pool and transport casks, taking burnup of spent fuel into consideration. These simplified methods can be used to obtain an effective neutron multiplication factor for a spent fuel storage/transportation system by using the ORIGEN2.1 burnup code and the KENO-Va criticality code without considering axial burnup profile in spent fuel and other various factors introducing calculated errors. ''Equivalent Uniform Burnup'' is set up for its criticality analysis to be reactivity equivalent with the detailed analysis, in which the experimentally obtained isotopic composition together with a typical axial burnup profile and various factors such as irradiation history are considered on the conservative side. On the other hand, Equivalent Initial Enrichment'' is set up for its criticality analysis to be reactivity equivalent with the detailed analysis such as above when it is used in the so called fresh fuel assumption. (author)

  16. Effect of Core Configurations on Burn-Up Calculations For MTR Type Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.; Sakr, A.M.; Amin, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional burn-up calculations of MTR-type research reactor were performed using different patterns of control rods , to examine their effect on power density and neutron flux distributions throughout the entire core and on the local burn-up distribution. Calculations were performed using the computer codes' package M TR P C system , using the cell calculation transport code WIMS-D4 and the core calculation diffusion code CITVAP. A depletion study was done and the effects on the reactor fuel were studied, then an empirical formula was generated for every fuel element type, to correlate irradiation to burn-up percentage. Keywords: Neutronic Calculations, Burn-Up, MTR-Type Research Reactors, MTR P C Package, Empirical Formula For Fuel Burn-Up.

  17. Improvements on burnup chain model and group cross section library in the SRAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akie, Hiroshi; Okumura, Keisuke; Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1992-01-01

    Data and functions of the cell burnup calculation of the SRAC system were revised to improve mainly the accuracy of the burnup calculation of high conversion light water reactors (HCLWRs). New burnup chain models were developed in order to treat fission products (FPs) and actinide nuclides in detail. Group cross section library, SRACLIB-JENDL2, was generated based on JENDL-2 nuclear data file. In generating this library, emphasis was placed on FPs and actinides. Also revised were the data such as the average energy release per fission for various actinides. These improved data were verified by performing the burnup analysis of PWR spent fuels. Some new functions were added to the SRAC system for the convenience to yield macroscopic cross sections used in the core burnup process. (author)

  18. A survey of previous and current industry-wide efforts regarding burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Sandia has examined the matter of burnup credit from the perspective of physics, logistics, risk, and economics. A limited survey of the nuclear industry has been conducted to get a feeling for the actual application of burnup credit. Based on this survey, it can be concluded that the suppliers of spent fuel storage and transport casks are in general agreement that burnup credit offers the potential for improvements in cask efficiency without increasing the risk of accidental criticality. The actual improvement is design-specific but limited applications have demonstrated that capacity increases in the neighborhood of 20 percent are not unrealistic. A number of these vendors acknowledge that burnup credit has not been reduced to practice in cask applications and suggest that operational considerations may be more important to regulatory acceptance than to the physics. Nevertheless, the importance of burnup credit to the nuclear industry as a cask design and analysis tool has been confirmed by this survey

  19. Regulatory status of burnup credit for storage and transport of spent fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuber, J.C.; Schweer, H.H.; Johann, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the regulatory status of burnup credit applications to pond storage and dry-cask transport and storage of spent fuel in Germany. Burnup credit for wet storage of LWR fuel at nuclear power plants has to comply with the newly developed safety standard DIN 25471. This standard establishes the safety requirements for burnup credit criticality safety analysis of LWR fuel storage ponds and gives guidance on meeting these requirements. Licensing evaluations of dry transport systems are based on the application of the IAEA Safety Standards Series No.ST-1. However, because of the fact that burnup credit for dry-cask transport becomes more and more inevitable due to increasing initial enrichment of the fuel, and because of the increasing importance of dry-cask storage in Germany, the necessity of giving regulatory guidance on applying burnup credit to dry-cask transport and storage is seen. (author)

  20. Assessment of US NRC fuel rod behavior codes to extended burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Croucher, D.W.; Haggag, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the status of assessing the capabilities of the NRC fuel rod performance codes for calculating extended burnup rod behavior. As part of this effort, a large spectrum of fuel rod behavior phenomena was examined, and the phenomena deemed as being influential during extended burnup operation were identified. Then, the experiment data base addressing these identified phenomena was examined for availability and completeness at extended burnups. Calculational capabilities of the NRC's steady state FRAPCON-2 and transient FRAP-T6 fuel rod behavior codes were examined for each of the identified phenomenon. Parameters calculated by the codes were compared with the available data base, and judgments were made regarding model performance. Overall, the FRAPCON-2 code was found to be moderately well assessed to extended burnups, but the FRAP-T6 code cannot be adequately assessed until more transient high burnup data are available

  1. Cell verification of parallel burnup calculation program MCBMPI based on MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wankui; Liu Yaoguang; Ma Jimin; Wang Guanbo; Yang Xin; She Ding

    2014-01-01

    The parallel burnup calculation program MCBMPI was developed. The program was modularized. The parallel MCNP5 program MCNP5MPI was employed as neutron transport calculation module. And a composite of three solution methods was used to solve burnup equation, i.e. matrix exponential technique, TTA analytical solution, and Gauss Seidel iteration. MPI parallel zone decomposition strategy was concluded in the program. The program system only consists of MCNP5MPI and burnup subroutine. The latter achieves three main functions, i.e. zone decomposition, nuclide transferring and decaying, and data exchanging with MCNP5MPI. Also, the program was verified with the pressurized water reactor (PWR) cell burnup benchmark. The results show that it,s capable to apply the program to burnup calculation of multiple zones, and the computation efficiency could be significantly improved with the development of computer hardware. (authors)

  2. Detailed description and user`s manual of high burnup fuel analysis code EXBURN-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

    1997-11-01

    EXBURN-I has been developed for the analysis of LWR high burnup fuel behavior in normal operation and power transient conditions. In the high burnup region, phenomena occur which are different in quality from those expected for the extension of behaviors in the mid-burnup region. To analyze these phenomena, EXBURN-I has been formed by the incorporation of such new models as pellet thermal conductivity change, burnup-dependent FP gas release rate, and cladding oxide layer growth to the basic structure of low- and mid-burnup fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV. The present report describes in detail the whole structure of the code, models, and materials properties. Also, it includes a detailed input manual and sample output, etc. (author). 55 refs.

  3. End effect Keff bias curve for actinide-only burnup credit casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.H.; Lancaster, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    A conservative end effect k eff bias curve for actinide-only burnup credit for spent fuel casks is presented in this paper. The k eff bias values can be added to the uniform axial burnup analysis to conservatively bound the actinide-only end effect. A normalized axial burnup distribution for the standard Westinghouse 17 x 17 assembly design is used for calculating k eff . The end effect calculated is a strong function of burnup, and increases as cask size size decreases. The presence of poison plates increases the end effect. The bias curve presented is based on the most limiting cask configuration of a single PWR assembly with completely black poison plates. Therefore, axially uniform criticality calculations with application of the proposed k eff could eliminate the need for axially burnup dependent analyses. 7 refs., 1 fig

  4. Determination of burn-up of irradiated nuclear fuels using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadish Kumar, S.; Telmore, V.M.; Shah, R.V.; Sasi Bhushan, K.; Paul, Sumana; Kumar, Pranaw; Rao, Radhika M.; Jaison, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Burn-up defined as the atom percent fission, is a vital parameter used for assessing the performance of nuclear fuel during its irradiation in the reactor. Accurate data on the actinide isotopes are also essential for the reliable accountability of nuclear materials and for nuclear safeguards. Both destructive and non-destructive methods are employed in the post-irradiation analysis for the burn-up measurements. Though non-destructive methods are preferred from the point view of remote handling of irradiated fuels with high radioactivity, they do not provide the high accuracy as achieved by the chemical analysis methods. Thus destructive radiochemical and chemical analyses are still the established reference methods for accurate and reliable burn-up determination of irradiated nuclear fuels. In the destructive method, burn-up of irradiated nuclear fuel is determined by correlating the amount of a fission product formed during irradiation with that of heavy elements. Thus the destructive experimental determination of burn-up involves the dissolution of irradiated fuel samples followed by the separation and determination of heavy elements and fission product(s) to be used as burn-up monitor(s). Another approach for the experimental determination of burn-up is based on the changes in the abundances of the heavy element isotopes. A widely accepted method for burn-up determination is based on stable "1"4"8Nd and "1"3"9La as burn-up monitors. Several properties such as non-volatility, nearly same yields for thermal fissions of "2"3"5U and "2"3"9Pu etc justifies the selection of "1"4"8Nd as a burn-up monitor

  5. Development of burnup methods and capabilities in Monte Carlo code RMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Ding; Liu, Yuxuan; Wang, Kan; Yu, Ganglin; Forget, Benoit; Romano, Paul K.; Smith, Kord

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The RMC code has been developed aiming at large-scale burnup calculations. ► Matrix exponential methods are employed to solve the depletion equations. ► The Energy-Bin method reduces the time expense of treating ACE libraries. ► The Cell-Mapping method is efficient to handle massive amounts of tally cells. ► Parallelized depletion is necessary for massive amounts of burnup regions. -- Abstract: The Monte Carlo burnup calculation has always been a challenging problem because of its large time consumption when applied to full-scale assembly or core calculations, and thus its application in routine analysis is limited. Most existing MC burnup codes are usually external wrappers between a MC code, e.g. MCNP, and a depletion code, e.g. ORIGEN. The code RMC is a newly developed MC code with an embedded depletion module aimed at performing burnup calculations of large-scale problems with high efficiency. Several measures have been taken to strengthen the burnup capabilities of RMC. Firstly, an accurate and efficient depletion module called DEPTH has been developed and built in, which employs the rational approximation and polynomial approximation methods. Secondly, the Energy-Bin method and the Cell-Mapping method are implemented to speed up the transport calculations with large numbers of nuclides and tally cells. Thirdly, the batch tally method and the parallelized depletion module have been utilized to better handle cases with massive amounts of burnup regions in parallel calculations. Burnup cases including a PWR pin and a 5 × 5 assembly group are calculated, thereby demonstrating the burnup capabilities of the RMC code. In addition, the computational time and memory requirements of RMC are compared with other MC burnup codes.

  6. Review of Technical Studies in the United States in Support of Burnup Credit Regulatory Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Parks, Cecil V.; Mueller, Don; Gauld, Ian C.

    2010-01-01

    Taking credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transport, disposal, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining sufficient subcritical margin to establish an adequate safety basis. Consequently, there continues to be considerable interest in the United States (U.S.), as well as internationally, in the increased use of burnup credit in SNF operations, particularly related to storage, transport, and disposal of commercial SNF. This interest has motivated numerous technical studies related to the application of burnup credit, both domestically and internationally, as well as the design of SNF storage, transport and disposal systems that rely on burnup credit for maintaining subcriticality. Responding to industry requests and needs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a burnup credit research program in 1999, with support from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to develop regulatory guidance and the supporting technical bases for allowing and expanding the use of burnup credit in pressurized-water reactor SNF storage and transport applications. Although this NRC research program has not been continuous since its inception, considerable progress has been achieved in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues, availability of relevant information and data, and subsequently updated regulatory guidance for expanded use of burnup credit. This paper reviews technical studies performed by ORNL for the U.S. NRC burnup credit research program. Examples of topics include reactivity effects associated with reactor operating characteristics, fuel assembly characteristics, burnable absorbers, control rods, spatial burnup distributions, cooling time, and assembly misloading; methods and data for validation of isotopic composition predictions; methods and data for validation of criticality calculations; and

  7. Fission-gas release in fuel performing to extended burnups in Ontario Hydro nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, M.R.; Novak, J.; Truant, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    The average discharge burnup of CANDU fuel is about 200 MWh/kgU. A significant number of 37-element bundles have achieved burnups in excess of 400 MWh/kgU. Some of these bundles have experienced failures related to their extended operation. To date, hot-cell examinations have been performed on fuel elements from nine 37-element bundles irradiated in Bruce NGS-A that have burnups in the range of 300-800 MWh/kgU. 1 Most of these have declining power histories from peak powers of up to 59 kW/m. Fission-gas releases of up to 26% have been observed and exhibit a strong dependence on fuel power. This obscures any dependence on burnup. The extent of fission-gas release at extended burnups was not predicted by low-burnup code extrapolations. This is attributed primarily to a reduction in fuel thermal conductivity which results in elevated operating temperatures. Reduced conductivity is due, at least in part, to the buildup of fission products in the fuel matrix. Some evidence of hyperstoichiometry exists, although this needs to be further investigated along with any possible relation to CANLUB graphite coating behaviour and sheath oxidation. Residual tensile sheath strains of up to 2% have been observed and can be correlated with fuel power/fission-gas release. SCC 2 -related defects have been observed in the sheath and endcaps of elements from bundles experiencing declining power histories to burnups in excess of 500 MWh/kgU. This indicates that the current recommended burnup limit of 450 MWh/kgU is justified. SCC-related defects have also been observed in ramped bundles having burnups < 450 MWh/kgU. Hence, additional guidelines are in place for power ramping extended-burnup fuel

  8. New Burnup Calculation System for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isao Murata; Shoichi Shido; Masayuki Matsunaka; Keitaro Kondo; Hiroyuki Miyamaru

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear waste incineration has positively been carried out worldwide from the standpoint of environmental issues. Some candidates such as ADS, FBR are under discussion for possible incineration technology. Fusion reactor is one of such technologies, because it supplies a neutron-rich and volumetric irradiation field, and in addition the energy is higher than nuclear reactor. However, it is still hard to realize fusion reactor right now, as well known. An idea of combination of fusion and fission concepts, so-called fusion-fission hybrid system, was thus proposed for the nuclear waste incineration. Even for a relatively lower plasma condition, neutrons can be well multiplied by fission in the nuclear fuel, tritium is thus bred so as to attain its self-sufficiency, enough energy multiplication is then expected and moreover nuclear waste incineration is possible. In the present study, to realize it as soon as possible with the presently proven technology, i.e., using ITER model with the achieved plasma condition of JT60 in JAEA, Japan, a new calculation system for fusion-fission hybrid reactor including transport by MCNP and burnup by ORIGEN has been developed for the precise prediction of the neutronics performance. The author's group already has such a calculation system developed by them. But it had a problem that the cross section libraries in ORIGEN did not have a cross section library, which is suitable specifically for fusion-fission hybrid reactors. So far, those for FBR were approximately used instead in the analysis. In the present study, exact derivation of the collapsed cross section for ORIGEN has been investigated, which means it is directly evaluated from calculated track length by MCNP and point-wise nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data file like JENDL-3.3. The system realizes several-cycle calculation one time, each of which consists of MCNP criticality calculation, MCNP fixed source calculation with a 3-dimensional precise

  9. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO 2 is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO 2 to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO 2 has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO 2 oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO 2 to UO 2.4 was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO 2.4 to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO 2 oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO 2 and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies associated with spent fuel oxidation (Section 5)

  10. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M J; Balet, B; Jarvis, O N; Stubberfield, P M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  12. Visualization of fuel rod burnup analysis by Scilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chiung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this technical note is to provide an alternative, the freeware Scilab, by which means we may construct custom GUIs and distribute them without extra constrains and cost. A post-processor has been constructed by Scilab to visualize the fuel rod burnup analysis data calculated by FRAPCON-3.4. This post-processor incorporates a graphical user interface (GUI), providing users a rapid overview of the characteristics of the numerical results with 2-D and 3-D graphs, as well as the animations of fuel temperature distribution. An assessment case input file provided by FRAPCON user group was applied to demonstrate the construction of a post-processor with GUI by object-oriented GUI tool, as well as the capability of visualization functions of Scilab

  13. Visualization of fuel rod burnup analysis by Scilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chiung-Wen, E-mail: d937121@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this technical note is to provide an alternative, the freeware Scilab, by which means we may construct custom GUIs and distribute them without extra constrains and cost. A post-processor has been constructed by Scilab to visualize the fuel rod burnup analysis data calculated by FRAPCON-3.4. This post-processor incorporates a graphical user interface (GUI), providing users a rapid overview of the characteristics of the numerical results with 2-D and 3-D graphs, as well as the animations of fuel temperature distribution. An assessment case input file provided by FRAPCON user group was applied to demonstrate the construction of a post-processor with GUI by object-oriented GUI tool, as well as the capability of visualization functions of Scilab.

  14. Manufacturing Data Uncertainties Propagation Method in Burn-Up Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frosio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A nuclear data-based uncertainty propagation methodology is extended to enable propagation of manufacturing/technological data (TD uncertainties in a burn-up calculation problem, taking into account correlation terms between Boltzmann and Bateman terms. The methodology is applied to reactivity and power distributions in a Material Testing Reactor benchmark. Due to the inherent statistical behavior of manufacturing tolerances, Monte Carlo sampling method is used for determining output perturbations on integral quantities. A global sensitivity analysis (GSA is performed for each manufacturing parameter and allows identifying and ranking the influential parameters whose tolerances need to be better controlled. We show that the overall impact of some TD uncertainties, such as uranium enrichment, or fuel plate thickness, on the reactivity is negligible because the different core areas induce compensating effects on the global quantity. However, local quantities, such as power distributions, are strongly impacted by TD uncertainty propagations. For isotopic concentrations, no clear trends appear on the results.

  15. Validating analysis methodologies used in burnup credit criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.C.; Napolitano, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of allowing reactivity credit for the depleted (or burned) state of pressurized water reactor fuel in the licensing of spent fuel facilities introduces a new challenge to members of the nuclear criticality community. The primary difference in this analysis approach is the technical ability to calculate spent fuel compositions (or inventories) and to predict their effect on the system multiplication factor. Isotopic prediction codes are used routinely for in-core physics calculations and the prediction of radiation source terms for both thermal and shielding analyses, but represent an innovation for criticality specialists. This paper discusses two methodologies currently being developed to specifically evaluate isotopic composition and reactivity for the burnup credit concept. A comprehensive approach to benchmarking and validating the methods is also presented. This approach involves the analysis of commercial reactor critical data, fuel storage critical experiments, chemical assay isotopic data, and numerical benchmark calculations

  16. Oxide thickness measurement for monitoring fuel performance at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, M.A.; Van Swam, L.F.P.; Brueck-Neufeld, K.

    1991-01-01

    For on-site monitoring of the fuel performance at high burnup, Advanced Nuclear Fuels uses the linear scan eddy current method to determine the oxide thickness of irradiated Zircaloy fuel cans. Direct digital data acquisition methods are employed to collect the data on magnetic storage media. This field-proven methodology allows oxide thickness measurements and rapid interpretation of the data during the reactor outages and makes it possible to immediately reinsert the assemblies for the next operating cycle. The accuracy of the poolside measurements and data acquisition/interpretation techniques have been verified through hot cell metallographic measurements of rods previously measured in the fuel pool. The accumulated data provide a valuable database against which oxide growth models have been benchmarked and allow for effective monitoring of fuel performance. (orig.) [de

  17. Technical description of the burn-up software system MOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, C.K.

    1991-05-01

    The burn-up software system MOP is a research tool primary intended to study the behaviour of fission products in any reactor composition. Input data are multi-group cross-sections and data concerning the nuclide chains. An option is available to calculate a fundamental mode neutron spectrum for the specified reactor composition. A separate program can test the consistency of the specified nuclide chains. Options are available to calculate time-dependent cross-sections of lumped fission products and to take account of the leakage of gaseous fission products from the reactor core. The system is written in FORTRAN77 for a CYBER computer, using the operating system NOS/BE. The report gives a detailed technical description of the applied algorithms and the flow and storage of data. Information is provided for adapting the system to other computer configurations. (author). 5 refs.; 11 figs

  18. Fuel performance at high burnup for water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The present meeting was scheduled by the International Atomic Energy Agency, upon proposal of the Members of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology. The purpose of this meeting was to review the ''state-of-the-art'' in the area of Fuel Performance at High Burnup for Water Reactors. Previous IAEA meetings on this topic were held in Mol in 1981 and 1984 and on related topics in Stockholm and Lyon in 1987. Fifty-five participants from 16 countries and two international organizations attended the meeting and 28 papers were presented and discussed. The papers were presented in five sub-sessions and during the meeting, working groups composed of the session chairmen and paper authors prepared the summary of each session with conclusions and recommendations for future work. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Approach to lithium burn-up effect in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasneur, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lithium burn-up in Li 2 ZrO 3 is simulated by removing lithium under Li 2 O form and trapping it in high specific surface area powder while heating during 15 days or 1 month at moderate temperature so that lithium mobility be large enough without causing any sintering neither of the specimens nor of the powder. In a first treatment at 775 deg C during 1 month. 30% of the lithium content could be removed inducing a lithium concentration gradient in the specimen and the formation of a lithium-free monoclinic ZrO 2 skin. Improvements led to similar results at 650 deg C and 600 deg C, the latter temperatures are closer to the operating temperature of the ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Time resolved measurements of triton burnup in JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Huxtable, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Triton production from one branch of the deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction is routinely measured at 6 ms time intervals in JET plasma discharges by recording the 2.5 MeV neutrons produced in the other branch using a set of calibrated fission chambers. The burnup of the tritons is measured by detecting the 14 MeV t-d neutrons with a 0.2 cm 3 Si(Li) diode. The 2.5 MeV neutron flux can be used in a simple time dependent calculation based on classical slowing-down theory to predict the 14 MeV neutron flux. The measured flux and the triton slowing-down time are systematically lower than the values estimated from the key plasma parameters but the differences are within the experimental errors. (author). 19 refs, 8 figs

  1. Restructuring of burnup sensitivity analysis code system by using an object-oriented design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenji, Yokoyama; Makoto, Ishikawa; Masahiro, Tatsumi; Hideaki, Hyoudou

    2005-01-01

    A new burnup sensitivity analysis code system was developed with help from the object-oriented technique and written in Python language. It was confirmed that they are powerful to support complex numerical calculation procedure such as reactor burnup sensitivity analysis. The new burnup sensitivity analysis code system PSAGEP was restructured from a complicated old code system and reborn as a user-friendly code system which can calculate the sensitivity coefficients of the nuclear characteristics considering multicycle burnup effect based on the generalized perturbation theory (GPT). A new encapsulation framework for conventional codes written in Fortran was developed. This framework supported to restructure the software architecture of the old code system by hiding implementation details and allowed users of the new code system to easily calculate the burnup sensitivity coefficients. The framework can be applied to the other development projects since it is carefully designed to be independent from PSAGEP. Numerical results of the burnup sensitivity coefficient of a typical fast breeder reactor were given with components based on GPT and the multicycle burnup effects on the sensitivity coefficient were discussed. (authors)

  2. Full Core Burn-up Calculation at JRR-3 with MVP-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeda, Masao; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Research reactors use a burnable poison to suppress an excess reactivity in the beginning of reactor lifetime. The JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) has used cadmium wires of radius 0.02 cm as a burnable poison. This report describes burn-up calculations of plate fuel models and full core models with MVP-BURN, which is a burn-up calculation code using Monte Carlo method and has been developed in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As the results of calculations of plate models, between a model composed of one burn-up region along the radius direction and a model composed of a few burn-up regions along the radius direction, the effective absorption cross section of 113 Cd has had different tendency on reaching approximate 40. day (10000 MWd/t). And as results of calculations of full core model, it has been indicated that k eff is almost same till approximate 80. day (22000 MWd/t) between a model composed of one burn-up region along the vertical direction and a model composed of a few burn-up regions along the vertical direction. However difference of 113 Cd burn-up becomes pronounced and each k eff makes a difference after 80. day. (authors)

  3. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided

  4. Analyzing the BWR rod drop accident in high-burnup cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.; Neymotin, L.; Kohut, P.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the fuel enthalpy during a rod drop accident (RDA) for cores with high burnup fuel. The calculations were done with the RAMONA-4B code which models the core with 3-dimensional neutron kinetics and multiple parallel coolant channels. The calculations were done with a model for a BWR/4 with fuel bundles having burnups up to 30 GWd/t and also with a model with bundle burnups to 60 GWd/t. This paper also discusses potential sources of uncertainty in calculations with high burnup fuel. One source is the ''rim'' effect which is the extra large peaking of the power distribution at the surface of the pellet. This increases the uncertainty in reactor physics and heat conduction models that assume that the energy deposition has a less peaked spatial distribution. Two other sources of uncertainty are the result of the delayed neutron fraction decreasing with burnup and the positive moderator temperature feedback increasing with burnup. Since these effects tend to increase the severity of the event, an RDA calculation for high burnup fuel will underpredict the fuel enthalpy if the effects are not properly taken into account. Other sources of uncertainty that are important come from the initial conditions chosen for the RDA. This includes the initial control rod pattern as well as the initial thermal-hydraulic conditions

  5. Development and Applications of a Prototypic SCALE Control Module for Automated Burnup Credit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Consideration of the depletion phenomena and isotopic uncertainties in burnup-credit criticality analysis places an increasing reliance on computational tools and significantly increases the overall complexity of the calculations. An automated analysis and data management capability is essential for practical implementation of large-scale burnup credit analyses that can be performed in a reasonable amount of time. STARBUCS is a new prototypic analysis sequence being developed for the SCALE code system to perform automated criticality calculations of spent fuel systems employing burnup credit. STARBUCS is designed to help analyze the dominant burnup credit phenomena including spatial burnup gradients and isotopic uncertainties. A search capability also allows STARBUCS to iterate to determine the spent fuel parameters (e.g., enrichment and burnup combinations) that result in a desired k eff for a storage configuration. Although STARBUCS was developed to address the analysis needs for spent fuel transport and storage systems, it provides sufficient flexibility to allow virtually any configuration of spent fuel to be analyzed, such as storage pools and reprocessing operations. STARBUCS has been used extensively at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study burnup credit phenomena in support of the NRC Research program

  6. PENBURN - A 3-D Zone-Based Depletion/Burnup Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manalo, Kevin; Plower, Thomas; Rowe, Mireille; Mock, Travis; Sjoden, Glenn E.

    2008-01-01

    PENBURN (Parallel Environment Burnup) is a general depletion/burnup solver which, when provided with zone-based reaction rates, computes time-dependent isotope concentrations for a set of actinides and fission products. Burnup analysis in PENBURN is performed with a direct Bateman-solver chain solution technique. Specifically, in tandem with PENBURN is the use of PENTRAN, a parallel multi-group anisotropic Sn code for 3-D Cartesian geometries. In PENBURN, the linear chain method is actively used to solve individual isotope chains which are then fully attributed by the burnup code to yield integrated isotope concentrations for each nuclide specified. Included with the discussion of code features, a single PWR fuel pin calculation with the burnup code is performed and detailed with a benchmark comparison to PIE (Post-Irradiation Examination) data within the SFCOMPO (Spent Fuel Composition / NEA) database, and also with burnup codes in SCALE5.1. Conclusions within the paper detail, in PENBURN, the accuracy of major actinides, flux profile behavior as a function of burnup, and criticality calculations for the PWR fuel pin model. (authors)

  7. Burnup effect on nuclear fuel cycle cost using an equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, S. R.; Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.

    2014-01-01

    The degree of fuel burnup is an important technical parameter to the nuclear fuel cycle, being sensitive and progressive to reduce the total volume of process flow materials and eventually cut the nuclear fuel cycle costs. This paper performed the sensitivity analysis of the total nuclear fuel cycle costs to changes in the technical parameter by varying the degree of burnups in each of the three nuclear fuel cycles using an equilibrium model. Important as burnup does, burnup effect was used among the cost drivers of fuel cycle, as the technical parameter. The fuel cycle options analyzed in this paper are three different fuel cycle options as follows: PWR-Once Through Cycle(PWR-OT), PWR-MOX Recycle, Pyro-SFR Recycle. These fuel cycles are most likely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. As a result of the sensitivity analysis on burnup effect of each three different nuclear fuel cycle costs, PWR-MOX turned out to be the most influenced by burnup changes. Next to PWR-MOX cycle, in the order of Pyro-SFR and PWR-OT cycle turned out to be influenced by the degree of burnup. In conclusion, the degree of burnup in the three nuclear fuel cycles can act as the controlling driver of nuclear fuel cycle costs due to a reduction in the volume of spent fuel leading better availability and capacity factors. However, the equilibrium model used in this paper has a limit that time-dependent material flow and cost calculation is impossible. Hence, comparative analysis of the results calculated by dynamic model hereafter and the calculation results using an equilibrium model should be proceed. Moving forward to the foreseeable future with increasing burnups, further studies regarding alternative material of high corrosion resistance fuel cladding for the overall

  8. Actinide-only and full burn-up credit in criticality assessment of RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel storage cask using axial burn-up profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkauskas, V., E-mail: vytenis.barkauskas@ftmc.lt; Plukiene, R., E-mail: rita.plukiene@ftmc.lt; Plukis, A., E-mail: arturas.plukis@ftmc.lt

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • RBMK-1500 fuel burn-up impact on k{sub eff} in the SNF cask was calculated using SCALE 6.1. • Positive end effect was noticed at certain burn-up for the RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel. • The non-uniform uranium depletion is responsible for the end effect in RBMK-1500 SNF. • k{sub eff} in the SNF cask does not exceed a value of 0.95 which is set in the safety requirements. - Abstract: Safe long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the main issues in the field of nuclear safety. Burn-up credit application in criticality analysis of SNF reduces conservatism of usually used fresh fuel assumption and implies a positive economic impact for the SNF storage. Criticality calculations of spent nuclear fuel in the CONSTOR® RBMK-1500/M2 cask were performed using pre-generated ORIGEN-ARP spent nuclear fuel composition libraries, and the results of the RBMK-1500 burn-up credit impact on the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) have been obtained and are presented in the paper. SCALE 6.1 code package with the STARBUCKS burn-up credit evaluation tool was used for modeling. Pre-generated ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) crosssection libraries based on ENDF/B-VII cross section library were used for fast burn-up inventory modeling. Different conditions in the SNF cask were modeled: 2.0% and 2.8% initial enrichment fuel of various burn-up and water density inside cavities of the SNF cask. The fuel composition for the criticality analysis was chosen taking into account main actinides and most important fission products used in burn-up calculations. A significant positive end effect is noticed from 15 GWd/tU burn-up for 2.8% enrichment fuel and from 9 GWd/tU for 2.0% enrichment fuel applying the actinide-only approach. The obtained results may be applied in further evaluations of the RBMK type reactor SNF storage as well as help to optimize the SNF storage volume inside the CONSTOR® RBMK-1500/M2 cask without compromising criticality

  9. Actinide-only and full burn-up credit in criticality assessment of RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel storage cask using axial burn-up profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkauskas, V.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • RBMK-1500 fuel burn-up impact on k_e_f_f in the SNF cask was calculated using SCALE 6.1. • Positive end effect was noticed at certain burn-up for the RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel. • The non-uniform uranium depletion is responsible for the end effect in RBMK-1500 SNF. • k_e_f_f in the SNF cask does not exceed a value of 0.95 which is set in the safety requirements. - Abstract: Safe long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the main issues in the field of nuclear safety. Burn-up credit application in criticality analysis of SNF reduces conservatism of usually used fresh fuel assumption and implies a positive economic impact for the SNF storage. Criticality calculations of spent nuclear fuel in the CONSTOR® RBMK-1500/M2 cask were performed using pre-generated ORIGEN-ARP spent nuclear fuel composition libraries, and the results of the RBMK-1500 burn-up credit impact on the effective neutron multiplication factor (k_e_f_f) have been obtained and are presented in the paper. SCALE 6.1 code package with the STARBUCKS burn-up credit evaluation tool was used for modeling. Pre-generated ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) crosssection libraries based on ENDF/B-VII cross section library were used for fast burn-up inventory modeling. Different conditions in the SNF cask were modeled: 2.0% and 2.8% initial enrichment fuel of various burn-up and water density inside cavities of the SNF cask. The fuel composition for the criticality analysis was chosen taking into account main actinides and most important fission products used in burn-up calculations. A significant positive end effect is noticed from 15 GWd/tU burn-up for 2.8% enrichment fuel and from 9 GWd/tU for 2.0% enrichment fuel applying the actinide-only approach. The obtained results may be applied in further evaluations of the RBMK type reactor SNF storage as well as help to optimize the SNF storage volume inside the CONSTOR® RBMK-1500/M2 cask without compromising criticality safety.

  10. Construction and tests of a gamma device for experimental measurements of burnup of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Junior, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The gamma-scanning method is an important tool for the measurement of burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. The adequate knowledge of burnup allows for a better inventory of 'sensitive' fissile materials, better fuel management and provides insight on fuel behaviour and safety margins. This paper is related to the description, construction and operation of a first gamma scanning device, tested by irradiation of prototype PWR fuel pins, 14 cm long, in a Triga Mark-I reactor at very low power. Despite the limitations imposed by the low burnup, the experiment permitted a good checking of the main physical concepts and devices involved in the method. (Author) [pt

  11. Burnup credit implementation in WWER spent fuel management systems: Status and future aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the motivation for possible burnup credit implementation in WWER spent fuel management systems in Bulgaria. The activities being done are described, namely: the development and verification of a 3D few-group diffusion burnup model; the application of the KORIGEN code for evaluation of WWER fuel nuclear inventory during reactor core lifetime and after spent fuel discharge; using the SCALE modular system (PC Version 4.1) for criticality safety analyses of spent fuel storage facilities. Future plans involving such important tasks as validation and verification of computer systems and libraries for WWER burnup credit analysis are shown. (author)

  12. SRAC-95, Cell Calculation with Burnup, Fuel Management for Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, K.; Ishiguro, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Ido, M.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: General neutronics calculation including cell calculation with burn-up, core calculation for any type of thermal reactor. Core burn-up calculation and fuel management by an auxiliary code. 2 - Method of solution: Collision probability method, 1D and 2D Sn for cell calculation; 1D, 2D and 3D diffusion for core calculation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: 20 regions for a continuous energy resonance absorption calculation and 16 steps for cell burn-up

  13. Burnup measurements on spent fuel elements of the RP-10 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela Mora, Mariano; Gallardo Padilla, Alberto; Palomino, Jose Luis Castro

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the measurement, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, of the average burnup attained by Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the RP-10 research reactor. Measurements were performed at the reactor storage pool area using 137 Cs as the only burnup monitor, even for spent fuel elements with cooling times much shorter than two years. The experimental apparatus was previously calibrated in efficiency to obtain absolute average burnup values, which were compared against corresponding ones furnished by reactor physics calculations. The mean deviation between both values amounts to 6%. (author)

  14. Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)

  15. Discharge Burnup Evaluation of Natural Uranium Loaded CANFLEX-43 Fuel Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Won Young; Park, Joo Hwan

    2009-11-01

    Using WIMS-AECL code, which is 2-dimensional lattice core used in CANDU physics calculation, the discharge burnup of the natural uranium loaded CANFLEX-43 fuel bundle was evaluated by comparing the discharge burnup of standard 37 element fuel bundle. When the discharge burnup of the standard 37 element fuel is 7,200 MWd/MTU, that of the CANFLEX 43 fuel bundle was evaluated as 7,077 MWd/MTU, by applying the same lattice conditions for both fuel bundles

  16. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    It is possible to develop an optimal strategy for implementing burnup credit in spent fuel transport casks. For transport, the relative risk is rapidly reduced if additional pre-transport controls such as a cavity dryness verifications are conducted prior to transport. Some other operational and design features that could be incorporated into a burnup credit cask strategy are listed. These examples represent many of the system features and alternatives already available for use in developing a broadly based criticality safety strategy for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks. 4 refs., 1 tab

  17. The radial distribution of plutonium in high burnup UO2 fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, K.; O'Carroll, C.; Laar, J. van de; Walker, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (TUBRNP) is described which predicts the radial power density distribution as a function of burnup (and hence the radial burnup profile as a function of time) together with the radial profile of uranium and plutonium isotopes. Comparisons between measurements and the predictions of the TUBRNP model are made on fuels with enrichments in the range 2.9 to 8.25% and with burnups between 21 000 and 64 000 MWd/t. It is shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements and is a marked improvement on earlier versions. (orig.)

  18. Burnup measurements on spent fuel elements of the RP-10 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela Mora, Mariano; Gallardo Padilla, Alberto; Palomino, Jose Luis Castro, E-mail: mvela@ipen.gob.p [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN/Peru), Lima (Peru). Grupo de Calculo, Analisis y Seguridad de Reactores; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac, E-mail: laaterre@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the measurement, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, of the average burnup attained by Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the RP-10 research reactor. Measurements were performed at the reactor storage pool area using {sup 137}Cs as the only burnup monitor, even for spent fuel elements with cooling times much shorter than two years. The experimental apparatus was previously calibrated in efficiency to obtain absolute average burnup values, which were compared against corresponding ones furnished by reactor physics calculations. The mean deviation between both values amounts to 6%. (author)

  19. Approach for implementing burnup credit in high-capacity truck casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.; Hopf, J.; Su, S.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) will be submitting an application for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the GA-4 and GA-9 Casks in 1992. To maintain a capacity of four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies, the GA-4 Cask uses burnup credit as part of the criticality control for the higher enrichments. Using the US Department of Energy (DOE) Burnup Credit Program as a basis, GA presents here an approach to burnup credit analysis to be included in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  20. High Burnup Fuel: Implications and Operational Experience. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    This publication reports on the outcome of a technical meeting on high burnup fuel experience and economics, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2013. The purpose of the meeting was to revisit and update the current operational experience and economic conditions associated with high burnup fuel. International experts with significant experience in experimental programmes on high burnup fuel discussed and evaluated physical limitations at pellet, cladding and structural component levels, with a wide focus including fabrication, core behaviour, transport and intermediate storage for most types of commercial nuclear power plants

  1. Criterion for burn-up conditions in gas-cooled cryogenic current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, A.; Cluss, E.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are energized through helium vapour-cooled cryogenic current leads operating at high ratios of current to mass flow. The high current operation where lead temperature, runaway, and eventual burn-up are likely to occur is investigated. A simple criterion for estimating the burn-up operation conditions (current, mass flow) for a given lead geometry (cross-sectional area, length, heat exchanger area) is presented. This article stresses the role played by the available heat exchanger area in avoiding burn-up at high ratios of current to mass flow. (author)

  2. The research on burnup characteristic of doping burnable poison in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Shenglong; Qin Dong; Chai Xiaoming; Yao Dong

    2014-01-01

    In PWR core design, burnable poisons are usually used for reactive compensation and power flatten. The choice of burnable poisons and how to match burnup would be the key-points for a long-life core design. We study the burnup character of doping burnable poisons (such as natural element, manual nuclide and soluble boron) in the PWR by the core burnup code MOI based on Monte Carlo method. The results show that Hf, Er and Eu doping burnable poison would be applicable for the nuclear design research on the long-life PWR core. (authors)

  3. Fuel element burnup measurements for the equilibrium LEU silicide RSG GAS (MPR-30) core under a new fuel management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinem, Surian; Liem, Peng Hong; Sembiring, Tagor Malem; Surbakti, Tukiran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Burnup measurement of fuel elements comprising the new equilibrium LEU silicide core of RSG GAS. • The burnup measurement method is based on a linear relationship between reactivity and burnup. • Burnup verification was conducted using an in-house, in-core fuel management code BATAN-FUEL. • A good agreement between the measured and calculated burnup was confirmed. • The new fuel management strategy was confirmed and validated. - Abstract: After the equilibrium LEU silicide core of RSG GAS was achieved, there was a strong need to validate the new fuel management strategy by measuring burnup of fuel elements comprising the core. Since the regulatory body had a great concern on the safety limit of the silicide fuel element burnup, amongst the 35 burnt fuel elements we selected 22 fuel elements with high burnup classes i.e. from 20 to 53% loss of U-235 (declared values) for the present measurements. The burnup measurement method was based on a linear relationship between reactivity and burnup where the measurements were conducted under subcritical conditions using two fission counters of the reactor startup channel. The measurement results were compared with the declared burnup evaluated by an in-house in-core fuel management code, BATAN-FUEL. A good agreement between the measured burnup values and the calculated ones was found within 8% uncertainties. Possible major sources of differences were identified, i.e. large statistical errors (i.e. low fission counters’ count rates), variation of initial U-235 loading per fuel element and accuracy of control rod indicators. The measured burnup of the 22 fuel elements provided the confirmation of the core burnup distribution planned for the equilibrium LEU silicide core under the new fuel management strategy.

  4. Development and benchmark verification of a parallelized Monte Carlo burnup calculation program MCBMPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wankui; Liu Yaoguang; Ma Jimin; Yang Xin; Wang Guanbo

    2014-01-01

    MCBMPI, a parallelized burnup calculation program, was developed. The program is modularized. Neutron transport calculation module employs the parallelized MCNP5 program MCNP5MPI, and burnup calculation module employs ORIGEN2, with the MPI parallel zone decomposition strategy. The program system only consists of MCNP5MPI and an interface subroutine. The interface subroutine achieves three main functions, i.e. zone decomposition, nuclide transferring and decaying, data exchanging with MCNP5MPI. Also, the program was verified with the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cell burnup benchmark, the results showed that it's capable to apply the program to burnup calculation of multiple zones, and the computation efficiency could be significantly improved with the development of computer hardware. (authors)

  5. Fission gas release and fuel rod chemistry related to extended burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review the state of the art in fission gas release and fuel rod chemistry related to extended burnup. The meeting was held in a time when national and international programmes on water reactor fuel irradiated in experimental reactors were still ongoing or had reached their conclusion, and when lead test assemblies had reached high burnup in power reactors and been examined. At the same time, several out-of-pile experiments on high burnup fuel or with simulated fuel were being carried out. As a result, significant progress has been registered since the last meeting, particularly in the evaluation of fuel temperature, the degradation of the global thermal conductivity with burnup and in the understanding of the impact on fission gas release. Fifty five participants from 16 countries and one international organization attended the meeting. 28 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers. Refs, figs, tabs and photos

  6. Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Suyama, Kenya; Suzaki, Takenori

    2000-10-01

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled 'Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels'. Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burn-up and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report. (author)

  7. Conservatism in the actinide-only burnup credit for PWR spent nuclear fuel packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.B.; Rahimi, M.; Thornton, J.

    1996-01-01

    In May 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) submitted a topical report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to gain actinide-only burnup credit for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage, transportation, or disposal packages. After approval of this topical report, DOE intends further submittals to the NRC to acquire additional burnup credit (e.g., the topical does not use fission products and is limited to only the first 100 yr of disposal). The NRC has responded to the topical with its preliminary questions. To aid in evaluation of the method, a review of the conservatism in the actinide-only burnup credit methodology was performed. An overview of the actinide-only burnup credit methodology is presented followed by a summary of the conservatism

  8. Technical Development on Burn-up Credit for Spent LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-12-26

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled ''Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels.'' Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burnup and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report.

  9. Proceedings of a workshop on the use of burnup credit in spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy sponsored a workshop on the use of burnup credit in the criticality design of spent fuel shipping casks on February 21 and 22, 1988. Twenty-five different presentations on many related topics were conducted, including the effects of burnup credit on the design and operation of spent fuel storage pools, casks and modules, and shipping casks; analysis and physics issues related to burnup credit; regulatory issues and criticality safety; economic incentives and risks associated with burnup credit; and methods for verifying spent fuel characteristics. An abbreviated version of the DOE workshop was repeated as a special session at the November 1988 American Nuclear Society Meeting in Washington, DC. Each of the invited speakers prepared detailed papers on his or her respective topic. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  10. Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Suyama, Kenya; Suzaki, Takenori [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled 'Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels'. Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burn-up and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report. (author)

  11. Taking burnup credit for interim storage and transportation system for BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ken-ichi; Ando, Y.; Kumanomido, H.; Sasaki, T.; Mitsuhashi, I.; Ueda, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to establish a realistic burnup credit design system, a calculation system has been developed for determining isotope compositions, burnup, and criticality. The calculation system consists of several modules such as TGBLA, ORIGEN, CITATION, MCNP, and KENO. The TGBLA code is a fuel design code for LWR fuels developed in TOSHIBA Corporation. A compact measurement system for a fuel assembly has been being developed to meet requirements for the burnup determination, the neutron emission-rate evaluation, and the nuclear materials management. For a spent MOX fuel, a neutron emission rate measurement method has been being developed. The system consists of Cd-Te detectors and / or fission chambers. Some model calculations were carried out for the latest design BWR fuels. The effect of taking burnup credit for a transportation cask is shown. (authors)

  12. Implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this Technical Committee Meeting was to explore the status of international activities related to the use of burnup credit for spent fuel applications. This was the second major meeting on the issues of burnup credit for spent fuel management systems held since the IAEA began to monitor the uses of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems in 1997. Burnup credit for wet and dry storage systems is needed in many Member States to allow for increased initial fuel enrichment, and to increase the storage capacity and thus to avoid the need for extensive modifications of the spent fuel management systems involved. This document contains 31 individual papers presented at the Meeting; each of the papers was indexed separately.

  13. Implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this Technical Committee Meeting was to explore the status of international activities related to the use of burnup credit for spent fuel applications. This was the second major meeting on the issues of burnup credit for spent fuel management systems held since the IAEA began to monitor the uses of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems in 1997. Burnup credit for wet and dry storage systems is needed in many Member States to allow for increased initial fuel enrichment, and to increase the storage capacity and thus to avoid the need for extensive modifications of the spent fuel management systems involved. This document contains 31 individual papers presented at the Meeting; each of the papers was indexed separately

  14. Burnup simulations of an inert matrix fuel using a two region, multigroup reactor physics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Texas at Austin, 1 Univ. Place C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Deinert, M.; Bingham Cady, K. [Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes in a nuclear reactor core is of fundamental importance to analysis of nuclear fuel cycles and the impact of spent fuels on long term storage facilities. We present a fast, conceptually simple tool for performing burnup calculations applicable to obtaining isotopic balances as a function of fuel burnup. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to determine the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. The model has been tested against benchmarked results for LWRs burning UOX and MOX, as well as MONTEBURNS simulations of zirconium oxide based IMF, all with strong fidelity. As an illustrative example, VBUDS burnup calculation results for an IMF fuel are presented in this paper. (authors)

  15. Calculation of heat rating and burn-up for test fuel pins irradiated in DR 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, C.; Carlsen, H.; Hansen, K.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the DR 3 reactor and HP1 rig design is given followed by a detailed description of the calculation procedure for obtaining linear heat rating and burn-up values of fuel pins irradiated in HP1 rigs. The calculations are carried out rather detailed, especially regarding features like end pellet contribution to power as a function of burn-up, gamma heat contributions, and evaluation of local values of heat rating and burn-up. Included in the report is also a description of the fast flux- and cladding temperature calculation techniques currently used. A good agreement between measured and calculated local burn-up values is found. This gives confidence to the detailed treatment of the data. (author)

  16. Fission gas and iodine release measured up to 15 GWd/t UO2 burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelhans, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is presented of the measured release of xenon, krypton and iodine up to 15 GWd/t UO 2 burnup for fuel centerline temperatures ranging from 950 to 1800 K, at average linear heat ratings of 15 to 35 kW/m. The IFA-430 is composed of four 1.28-m-long fuel rods containing 10% enriched UO 2 pellet fuel. Two of the fuel rods are connected, top and bottom, to a gas flow system that permits the fission gases released from the fuel pellets to be swept out of the rods during irradiation and measured via gamma spectrometry. The release/burnup increased significantly between 10 and 15 GWd/t burnup. Fuel temperature did not change. Increased releases were due to physical changes in the fuel-surface area. Changes appeared to be due to higher power operation and burnup

  17. Thermal conductivity evaluation of high burnup mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, Masaki; Nakamura, Jinichi; Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The thermal conductivity formula of fuel pellet which contains the effects of burnup and plutonium (Pu) addition was proposed based on the Klemens' theory and reported thermal conductivities of unirradiated (U, Pu) O 2 and irradiated UO 2 pellets. The thermal conductivity of high burnup MOX pellet was formulated by applying a summation rule between phonon scattering parameters which show the effects of plutonium addition and burnup. Temperature of high burnup MOX fuel was evaluated based on the thermal conductivity integral which was calculated from the above-mentioned thermal conductivity formula. Calculated fuel temperatures were plotted against the linear heat rates of the fuel rods, and were compared with the fuel temperatures measured in a test reactor. Since both values agreed well, it was confirmed that the proposed thermal conductivity formula of MOX pellets is adequate.

  18. Experimental studies of spent fuel burn-up in WWR-SM reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikulov, Sh. A.; Baytelesov, S.A.; Boltaboev, A.F.; Kungurov, F.R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ulughbek township, 100214, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Menlove, H.O.; O’Connor, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Osmanov, B.S., E-mail: bari_osmanov@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Applied Physics, Vuzgorodok, 100174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Salikhbaev, U.S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ulughbek township, 100214, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Uranium burn-up measurement from {sup 137}Cs activity in spent reactor fuel. • Comparison to reference sample with known burn-up value (ratio method). • Cross-check of the approach with neutron-based measurement technique. - Abstract: The article reports the results of {sup 235}U burn-up measurements using {sup 137}Cs activity technique for 12 nuclear fuel assemblies of WWR-SM research reactor after 3-year cooling time. The discrepancy between the measured and the calculated burn-up values was about 3%. To increase the reliability of the data and for cross-check purposes, neutron measurement approach was also used. Average discrepancy between two methods was around 12%.

  19. The build-up and characterization of nuclear burn-up wave in a fast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Anoop

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... evaluating the quality of the wave by the researchers working in the field of nuclear burn-up wave build-up and propagation. Keywords. ... However, there are concerns relating to the nuclear safety, ... Simulation studies have.

  20. Technical Issues in the development of high burnup and long cycle fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Yang, Jae Ho; Oh, Jang Soo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Nam, Ik Hui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Over the last half century, a nuclear fuel cycle, a fuel discharged burnup and a uranium enrichment of the LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuel have continuously increased. It was the efforts to reduce the LWR fuel cycle cost, and to make reactor operation more efficiently. Improved fuel and reactor performance contribute further to the reduction and management efficiency of spent fuels. The primary incentive for operating nuclear reactor fuel to higher burnup and longer cycle is the economic benefits. The fuel cycle costs could be reduced by extending fuel discharged burnup and fuel cycle length. The higher discharged burnup can increase the energy production per unit fuel mass or fuel assembly. The longer fuel cycle can increase reactor operation flexibility and reduce the fuel changing operation and the spent fuel management burden. The margin to storage capacity limits would be also increased because high burnup and long cycle fuel reduces the mass of spent fuels. However, increment of fuel burnup and cycle length might result in the acceleration of material aging consisting fuel assembly. Then, the safety and integrity of nuclear fuel will be degraded. Therefore, to simultaneously enhance the safety and economics of the LWR fuel through the fuel burnup and cycle extension, it is indispensable to develop the innovative nuclear fuel material concepts and technologies which can overcome degradation of fuel safety. New fuel research project to extend fuel discharged burnup and cycle length has been launched in KAERI. Main subject is to develop innovative LWR fuel pellets which can provide required fuel performance and safety at extended fuel burnup and cycle length. In order to achieve the mission, we need to know that what the impediments are and how to break through current limit of fuel pellet properties. In this study, the technical issues related to fuel pellets at high burnup were surveyed and summarized. We have collected the technical issues in the literatures

  1. Technical Issues in the development of high burnup and long cycle fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Yang, Jae Ho; Oh, Jang Soo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Nam, Ik Hui

    2012-01-01

    Over the last half century, a nuclear fuel cycle, a fuel discharged burnup and a uranium enrichment of the LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuel have continuously increased. It was the efforts to reduce the LWR fuel cycle cost, and to make reactor operation more efficiently. Improved fuel and reactor performance contribute further to the reduction and management efficiency of spent fuels. The primary incentive for operating nuclear reactor fuel to higher burnup and longer cycle is the economic benefits. The fuel cycle costs could be reduced by extending fuel discharged burnup and fuel cycle length. The higher discharged burnup can increase the energy production per unit fuel mass or fuel assembly. The longer fuel cycle can increase reactor operation flexibility and reduce the fuel changing operation and the spent fuel management burden. The margin to storage capacity limits would be also increased because high burnup and long cycle fuel reduces the mass of spent fuels. However, increment of fuel burnup and cycle length might result in the acceleration of material aging consisting fuel assembly. Then, the safety and integrity of nuclear fuel will be degraded. Therefore, to simultaneously enhance the safety and economics of the LWR fuel through the fuel burnup and cycle extension, it is indispensable to develop the innovative nuclear fuel material concepts and technologies which can overcome degradation of fuel safety. New fuel research project to extend fuel discharged burnup and cycle length has been launched in KAERI. Main subject is to develop innovative LWR fuel pellets which can provide required fuel performance and safety at extended fuel burnup and cycle length. In order to achieve the mission, we need to know that what the impediments are and how to break through current limit of fuel pellet properties. In this study, the technical issues related to fuel pellets at high burnup were surveyed and summarized. We have collected the technical issues in the literatures

  2. Calculation of pellet radial power distributions with a Monte Carlo burnup code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motomu; Yamamoto, Toru; Nakata, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has been working on an irradiation test program of high-burnup MOX fuel at Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). MOX and UO 2 fuel rods had been irradiated up to about 64 GWd/t (rod avg.) as a Japanese utilities research program (1st phase), and using those fuel rods, in-situ measurement of fuel pellet centerline temperature was done during the 2nd phase of irradiation as the JNES test program. As part of analysis of the temperature data, power distributions in a pellet radial direction were analyzed by using a Monte Carlo burnup code MVP-BURN. In addition, the calculated results of deterministic burnup codes SRAC and PLUTON for the same problem were compared with those of MVP-BURN to evaluate their accuracy. Burnup calculations with an assembly model were performed by using MVP-BURN and those with a pin cell model by using SRAC and PLUTON. The cell pitch and, therefore, fuel to moderator ratio in the pin cell calculation was determined from the comparison of neutron energy spectra with those of MVP-BURN. The fuel pellet radial distributions of burnup and fission reaction rates at the end of the 1st phase irradiation were compared between the three codes. The MVP-BURN calculation results show a large peaking in the burnup and fission rates in the pellet outer region for the UO 2 and MOX pellets. The SRAC calculations give very close results to those of the MVP-BURN. On the other hand, the PLUTON calculations show larger burnup for the UO 2 and lower burnup for the MOX pellets in the pellet outer region than those of MVP-BURN, which lead to larger fission rates for the UO 2 and lower fission rates for the MOX pellets, respectively. (author)

  3. BEAVRS full core burnup calculation in hot full power condition by RMC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Liang, Jingang; Wu, Qu; Guo, JuanJuan; Huang, Shanfang; Tang, Xiao; Li, Zeguang; Wang, Kan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TMS and thermal scattering interpolation were developed to treat cross sections OTF. • Hybrid coupling system was developed for HFP burnup calculation of BEAVRS benchmark. • Domain decomposition was applied to handle memory problem of full core burnup. • Critical boron concentration with burnup by RMC agrees with the benchmark results. • RMC is capable of multi-physics coupling for simulations of nuclear reactors in HFP. - Abstract: Monte Carlo method can provide high fidelity neutronics analysis of different types of nuclear reactors, owing to its advantages of the flexible geometry modeling and the use of continuous-energy nuclear cross sections. However, nuclear reactors are complex systems with multi-physics interacting and coupling. MC codes can couple with depletion solver and thermal-hydraulics (T/H) codes simultaneously for the “transport-burnup-thermal-hydraulics” coupling calculations. MIT BEAVRS is a typical “transport-burnup-thermal-hydraulics” coupling benchmark. In this paper, RMC was coupled with sub-channel code COBRA, equipped with on-the-fly temperature-dependent cross section treatment and large-scale detailed burnup calculation based on domain decomposition. Then RMC was applied to the full core burnup calculations of BEAVRS benchmark in hot full power (HFP) condition. The numerical tests show that domain decomposition method can achieve the consistent results compared with original version of RMC while enlarging the computational burnup regions. The results of HFP by RMC agree well with the reference values of BEAVRS benchmark and also agree well with those of MC21. This work proves the feasibility and accuracy of RMC in multi-physics coupling and lifecycle simulations of nuclear reactors.

  4. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Development of a Stabilized Light Water Reactor Fuel Matrix for Extended Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BD Hanson; J Abrefah; SC Marschman; SG Prussin

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop an advanced fuel matrix capable of achieving extended burnup while improving safety margins and reliability for present operations. In the course of this project, the authors improve understanding of the mechanism for high burnup structure (HBS) formation and attempt to design a fuel to minimize its formation. The use of soluble dopants in the UO 2 matrix to stabilize the matrix and minimize fuel-side corrosion of the cladding is the main focus

  5. Calculational prediction of fuel burn-up for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Phuoc Lan; Do Quang Binh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the method of expanding operators and functions in the neutron diffusion equations as chains of time variable is used for calculation of fuel burn-up of the Dalat nuclear reactors. A computer code, named BURREF, programmed in language Fortran-77 running on IBM PC-AT, has been developed based on this method to predict the fuel burn-up of the Dalat reactor. Some results will be presented here. (author)

  6. Plutonium isotopic composition of high burnup spent fuel discharged from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pu isotopic composition of fuel affects FBR core nuclear characteristics very much. → Spent fuel compositions of next generation LWRs with burnup of 70 GWd/t were obtained. → Pu isotopic composition and amount in the spent fuel with 70 GWd/t were evaluated. → Spectral shift rods of high burnup BWR increases the fissile Pu fraction of spent fuel. → Wide fuel rod pitch of high burnup PWR lowers the fissile Pu fraction of spent fuel. - Abstract: The isotopic composition and amount of plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel from a high burnup boiling water reactor (HB-BWR) and a high burnup pressurized water reactor (HB-PWR), each with an average discharge burnup of 70 GWd/t, were estimated, in order to evaluate fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel composition in the transition period from LWRs to FBRs. The HB-BWR employs spectral shift rods and the neutron spectrum is shifted through the operation cycle. The weight fraction of fissile plutonium (Puf) isotopes to the total plutonium in HB-BWR spent fuel after 5 years cooling is 62%, which is larger than that of conventional BWRs with average burnup of 45 GWd/t, because of the spectral shift operation. The amount of Pu produced in the HB-BWR is also larger than that produced in a conventional BWR. The HB-PWR uses a wider pitch 17 x 17 fuel rod assembly to optimize neutron slowing down. The Puf fraction of HB-PWR spent fuel after 5 years cooling is 56%, which is smaller than that of conventional PWRs with average burnup of 49 GWd/t, mainly because of the wider pitch. The amount of Pu produced in the HB-PWR is also smaller than that in conventional PWRs.

  7. Review of high burn-up RIA and LOCA database and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, C.; Hrehor, M.

    2006-01-01

    This document is intended to provide regulators, their technical support organizations and industry with a concise review of existing fuel experimental data at RIA and LOCA conditions and considerations on how these data affect fuel safety criteria at increasing burn-up. It mostly addresses experimental results relevant to BWR and PWR fuel and it encompasses several contributions from the various experts that participated in the CSNI SEGFSM activities. It also covers the information presented at the joint CSNI/CNRA Topical Discussion on high burn-up fuel issues that took place on this subject in December 2004. The report is organized in the following way: the CABRI RIA database (14 tests), the NSRR database (26 tests) and other databases, RIA failure thresholds, comparison of failure thresholds for the HZP case, LOCA database ductility tests and quench tests, LOCA safety limit, provisional burn-up dependent criterion for Zr-4. The conclusions are as follows. On RIA, there is a well-established testing method and a significant and relatively consistent database from NSRR and Cabri tests, especially on high burn-up Zr-2 and Zr-4 cladding. It is encouraging that several correlations have been proposed for the RIA fuel failure threshold. Their predictions are compared and discussed in this paper for a representative PWR case. On LOCA, there are two different test methods, one based on ductility determinations and the other based on 'integral' quench tests. The LOCA database at high burn-up is limited to both testing methods. Ductility tests carried out with pre-hydrided non-irradiated cladding show a pronounced hydrogen effect. Data for actual high burn-up specimens are being gathered in various laboratories and will form the basis for a burn-up dependent LOCA limit. A provisional burn-up dependent criterion is discussed in the paper

  8. A Criticality Evaluation of the GBC-32 Dry Storage Cask in PWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyoungju; Park, Kwangheon; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The current criticality safety evaluation assumes the only unirradiated fresh fuels with the maximum enrichment in a dry storage cask (DSC) for conservatism without consideration of the depletion of fissile nuclides and the generation of neutron-absorbing fission products. However, the large conservatism leads to the significant increase of the storage casks required. Thus, the application of burnup credit which takes credit for the reduction of reactivity resulted from fuel depletion can increase the capacity in storage casks. On the other hand, the burnup credit application introduces lots of complexity into a criticality safety analysis such as the accurate estimation of the isotopic inventories and the burnup of UNFs and the validation of the criticality calculation. The criticality evaluation with an effect of burnup credit was performed for the DSC of GBC-32 by using SCALE 6.1/STARBUCS. keff values were calculated as a function of burnup and cooling time for four initial enrichments of 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt. % 235U. The values were calculated for the burnup range of 0 to 60,000 MWD/MTU, in increments of 10,000 MWD/MTU, and for five cooling times of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 years.

  9. Development of a set of benchmark problems to verify numerical methods for solving burnup equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Daniel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Description transmutation chain benchmark problems. • Problems for validating numerical methods for solving burnup equations. • Analytical solutions for the burnup equations. • Numerical solutions for the burnup equations. - Abstract: A comprehensive set of transmutation chain benchmark problems for numerically validating methods for solving burnup equations was created. These benchmark problems were designed to challenge both traditional and modern numerical methods used to solve the complex set of ordinary differential equations used for tracking the change in nuclide concentrations over time due to nuclear phenomena. Given the development of most burnup solvers is done for the purpose of coupling with an established transport solution method, these problems provide a useful resource in testing and validating the burnup equation solver before coupling for use in a lattice or core depletion code. All the relevant parameters for each benchmark problem are described. Results are also provided in the form of reference solutions generated by the Mathematica tool, as well as additional numerical results from MATLAB.

  10. PIE and separate effect test of high burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, S.K.; Kim, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the performance of a high burnup UO 2 fuel, the highest burnup fuel assembly in KOREA was transported to the PIE facility in KAERI. It was a 17·17 fuel assembly irradiated at the Ulchin Unit 2 PWR. The peak fuel rod average burnup was about 57MWd/kgU and locally 65MWd/kgU. The general PIE was performed to investigate the fuel rod irradiation performance. Fission gas release, burnup, oxide thickness, hydrogen pickup, CRUD, and density change were measured by destructive of non-destructive test. Microstructure change, bubble and pore size distributions were observed by optical microscopy, SEM and EPMA. All generated and available PIE results were used to verify high burnup fuel performance code INFRA. Several rods were cut for additional separate effect test. For the high burnup fission gas release behaviour analysis, annealing apparatus were developed and installed in hot cell and preliminary test was performed. In addition to current apparatus new induction furnace will be installed in hot cell to investigate the high temperature and transient fission gas release behaviour. Ring tensile test was performed to analyze the material property degradation which caused by the oxidation and hydride, and additional mechanical tests will be performed. (Author)

  11. Numerical solution of stiff burnup equation with short half lived nuclides by the Krylov subspace method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Tatsumi, Masahiro; Sugimura, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The Krylov subspace method is applied to solve nuclide burnup equations used for lattice physics calculations. The Krylov method is an efficient approach for solving ordinary differential equations with stiff nature such as the nuclide burnup with short lived nuclides. Some mathematical fundamentals of the Krylov subspace method and its application to burnup equations are discussed. Verification calculations are carried out in a PWR pin-cell geometry with UO 2 fuel. A detailed burnup chain that includes 193 fission products and 28 heavy nuclides is used in the verification calculations. Shortest half life found in the present burnup chain is approximately 30 s ( 106 Rh). Therefore, conventional methods (e.g., the Taylor series expansion with scaling and squaring) tend to require longer computation time due to numerical stiffness. Comparison with other numerical methods (e.g., the 4-th order Runge-Kutta-Gill) reveals that the Krylov subspace method can provide accurate solution for a detailed burnup chain used in the present study with short computation time. (author)

  12. MTR fuel element burn-up measurements by the reactivity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga, A.; Cuya, T.R.; Ravnik, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel element burn-up was measured by the reactivity method in the 10 MW Peruvian MTR reactor RP-10. The main purpose of the experiment was testing the reactivity method for an MTR reactor as the reactivity method was originally developed for TRIGA reactors. The reactivity worth of each measured fuel element was measured in its original core position in order to measure the burn-up of the fuel elements that were part of the experimental core. The burn-up of each measured fuel element was derived by interpolating its reactivity worth from the reactivity worth of two reference fuel elements of known burn-up, whose reactivity worth was measured in the position of the measured fuel element. The accuracy of the method was improved by separating the reactivity effect of burn-up from the effect of the position in the core. The results of the experiment showed that the modified reactivity method for fuel element burn-up determination could be applied also to MTR reactors. (orig.)

  13. Substep methods for burnup calculations with Bateman solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Aarnio, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bateman solution based depletion requires constant microscopic reaction rates. → Traditionally constant approximation is used for each depletion step. → Here depletion steps are divided to substeps which are solved sequentially. → This allows piecewise constant, rather than constant, approximation for each step. → Discretization errors are almost completely removed with only minor slowdown. - Abstract: When material changes in burnup calculations are solved by evaluating an explicit solution to the Bateman equations with constant microscopic reaction rates, one has to first predict the development of the reaction rates during the step and then further approximate these predictions with their averages in the depletion calculation. Representing the continuously changing reaction rates with their averages results in some error regardless of how accurately their development was predicted. Since neutronics solutions tend to be computationally expensive, steps in typical calculations are long and the resulting discretization errors significant. In this paper we present a simple solution to reducing these errors: the depletion steps are divided to substeps that are solved sequentially, allowing finer discretization of the reaction rates without additional neutronics solutions. This greatly reduces the discretization errors and, at least when combined with Monte Carlo neutronics, causes only minor slowdown as neutronics dominates the total running time.

  14. Fuel removing method for high burnup fuel and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terakado, Shogo; Owada, Isao; Kanno, Yoshio; Aizawa, Sakue; Yamahara, Takeshi.

    1993-01-01

    A through hole is perforated at the center of a fuel rod in a cladding tube by a diamond drill in a water vessel. Further, the through hole is enlarged by the diamond drill. A pellet removing tool is attached to a drill chuck instead of the diamond drill. Then, the thin cylindrical fuel pellet remaining on the inner surface of the cladding tube is removed by using a pellet removing tool while applying vibrations. Subsequently, a wire brush having a slightly larger diameter than that of the inner diameter of the cladding tube is attached to the drill chuck and rotated to finish the inner surface, so that a small amount of pellets remained on the inner surface of the cladding tube is removed. Pellet powders in the water vessel are collected and recovered to the water container. This can remove high burnup fuels which are firmly sticked to the cladding tube, without giving thermal or mechanical influences on the cladding tube. (I.N.)

  15. Nondestructive, fast methods for burn-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaechter, L.; Hacman, D.; Mot, O.

    1977-01-01

    Nondestructive methods, based on high resolution-spectrometry successfully applied at Institute for Atomic Physics are presented. These methods are preferred to destructive chemical methods; the latter being costly and lengthy and not suitable for statistical prediction of nuclear fuel behaviour. The following methods are developed: methods for determining the burn up of fuel elements and fuel assemblies; a method for determining the U 235 and Pu 239 contributions to the burn up and a code written in FORTRAN IV for numerical calculation of Pu 239 fission vs. burn up; a high precision method for burnup determination by adding burnable poison; a method for prediction of specific power distribution in the fuel elements of a research or power reactors; a method for determining the power output of the fuel element in an operating power reactor; a method for determining the content of Pu 239 of the fuel element irradiated in a reactor. The results which were obtained by these methods improved the fuel management at the VVR-S reactor at Institute for Atomic Physics, Bucharest and may be applied to other reactor types [fr

  16. Test of calorimetry for high burn-up plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beets, C.; Carchon, R.; Fettweis, P.

    1984-01-01

    In recent times, the interest of applying calorimetry for safeguards purpose is steadily increasing. Calorimetric measurements have been performed on a set of high burn-up (25000 MWd/t) Pu samples, ranging in mass between 60 g and 2.5 kg Pu, distributed as PuO 2 powder embedded in stainless steel containers. The powers produced by these containers ranged between 0.8 W and 36 W. The calorimeter used was the Mound 150 type, and the isotopics and the Am content have been determined earlier by mass spectroscopy, completed with α and γ counting, and were later verified by the same methods. Watts/gram measurements were made on twelve 60 g samples of the same plutonium lot to demonstrate the Pu elemental and isotopic homogeneity, and hence, its suitability for subsequent NDA experiments. These samples were also measured in a stacked way to fill up the mass and wattage gaps between 60 g (0.8W) and 1 kg (14W). Calorimetric assay values, obtained with both isotopic measurements are discussed

  17. Technical Data to Justify Full Burnup Credit in Criticality Safety Licensing Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enercon Services, Inc. (ENERCON) was requested under Task Order No.2 to identify scientific and technical data needed to benchmark and justify Full Burnup Credit, which adds 16 fission products and 4 minor actinides1 to Actinide-Only burnup credit. The historical perspective for Full Burnup Credit is discussed, and interviews of organizations participating in burnup credit activities are summarized as a basis for identifying additional data needs and making recommendation. Input from burnup credit participants representing two segments of the commercial nuclear industry is provided. First, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been very active in the development of Full Burnup Credit, representing the interests of nuclear utilities in achieving capacity gains for storage and transport casks. EPRI and its utility customers are interested in a swift resolution of the validation issues that are delaying the implementation of Full Burnup Credit [EPRI 2010b]. Second, used nuclear fuel storage and transportation Cask Vendors favor improving burnup credit beyond Actinide-Only burnup credit, although their discussion of specific burnup credit achievements and data needs was limited citing business sensitive and technical proprietary concerns. While Cask Vendor proprietary items are not specifically identified in this report, the needs of all nuclear industry participants are reflected in the conclusions and recommendations of this report. In addition, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) were interviewed for their input into additional data needs to achieve Full Burnup Credit. ORNL was very open to discussions of Full Burnup Credit, with several telecoms and a visit by ENERCON to ORNL. For many years, ORNL has provided extensive support to the NRC regarding burnup credit in all of its forms. Discussions with ORNL focused on potential resolutions to the validation issues for the use of fission products. SNL was helpful in

  18. Technical Data to Justify Full Burnup Credit in Criticality Safety Licensing Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enercon Services, Inc.

    2011-03-14

    Enercon Services, Inc. (ENERCON) was requested under Task Order No.2 to identify scientific and technical data needed to benchmark and justify Full Burnup Credit, which adds 16 fission products and 4 minor actinides1 to Actinide-Only burnup credit. The historical perspective for Full Burnup Credit is discussed, and interviews of organizations participating in burnup credit activities are summarized as a basis for identifying additional data needs and making recommendation. Input from burnup credit participants representing two segments of the commercial nuclear industry is provided. First, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been very active in the development of Full Burnup Credit, representing the interests of nuclear utilities in achieving capacity gains for storage and transport casks. EPRI and its utility customers are interested in a swift resolution of the validation issues that are delaying the implementation of Full Burnup Credit [EPRI 2010b]. Second, used nuclear fuel storage and transportation Cask Vendors favor improving burnup credit beyond Actinide-Only burnup credit, although their discussion of specific burnup credit achievements and data needs was limited citing business sensitive and technical proprietary concerns. While Cask Vendor proprietary items are not specifically identified in this report, the needs of all nuclear industry participants are reflected in the conclusions and recommendations of this report. In addition, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) were interviewed for their input into additional data needs to achieve Full Burnup Credit. ORNL was very open to discussions of Full Burnup Credit, with several telecoms and a visit by ENERCON to ORNL. For many years, ORNL has provided extensive support to the NRC regarding burnup credit in all of its forms. Discussions with ORNL focused on potential resolutions to the validation issues for the use of fission products. SNL was helpful in

  19. Three-batch reloading scheme for IRIS reactor extended cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2004-01-01

    To fully exploit the IRIS reactor optimized maintenance, and at the same time improve fuel utilization, a core design enabling a 4-year operating cycle together with a three-batch reloading scheme is desirable. However, this requires not only the increased allowed burnup but also use of fuel with uranium oxide enriched beyond 5%. This paper considers three-batch reloading scheme for a 4-year operating cycle with the assumptions of increased discharge burnup and fuel enrichment beyond 5%. Calculational model of IRIS reactor core has been developed based on FER FA2D code for group constants generation and NRC's PARCS nodal code for global core analysis. Studies have been performed resulting in a preliminary design of a three-batch core configuration for the first cycle. It must be emphasized that this study is outside the current IRIS licensing efforts, which rely on the present fuel technology (enrichment below 5%), but it is of long-term interest for potential future IRIS design upgrades. (author)

  20. TOPICAL REPORT ON ACTINIDE-ONLY BURNUP CREDIT FOR PWR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE

    1997-01-01

    A methodology for performing and applying nuclear criticality safety calculations, for PWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packages with actinide-only burnup credit, is described. The changes in the U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241 concentration with burnup are used in burnup credit criticality analyses. No credit for fission product neutron absorbers is taken. The methodology consists of five major steps. (1) Validate a computer code system to calculate isotopic concentrations of SNF created during burnup in the reactor core and subsequent decay. A set of chemical assay benchmarks is presented for this purpose as well as a method for assessing the calculational bias and uncertainty, and conservative correction factors for each isotope. (2) Validate a computer code system to predict the subcritical multiplication factor, k eff , of a spent nuclear fuel package. Fifty-seven UO 2 , UO 2 /Gd 2 O 3 , and UO 2 /PuO 2 critical experiments have been selected to cover anticipated conditions of SNF. The method uses an upper safety limit on k eff (which can be a function of the trending parameters) such that the biased k eff , when increased for the uncertainty is less than 0.95. (3) Establish bounding conditions for the isotopic concentration and criticality calculations. Three bounding axial profiles have been established to assure the ''end effect'' is accounted for conservatively. (4) Use the validated codes and bounding conditions to generate package loading criteria (burnup credit loading curves). Burnup credit loading curves show the minimum burnup required for a given initial enrichment. The utility burnup record is compared to this requirement after the utility accounts for the uncertainty in its record. Separate curves may be generated for each assembly design, various minimum cooling times and burnable absorber histories. (5) Verify that SNF assemblies meet the package loading criteria and confirm proper assembly selection

  1. Topical report on actinide-only burnup credit for PWR spent nuclear fuel packages. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-04-01

    A methodology for performing and applying nuclear criticality safety calculations, for PWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packages with actinide-only burnup credit, is described. The changes in the U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241 concentration with burnup are used in burnup credit criticality analyses. No credit for fission product neutron absorbers is taken. The methodology consists of five major steps. (1) Validate a computer code system to calculate isotopic concentrations of SNF created during burnup in the reactor core and subsequent decay. A set of chemical assay benchmarks is presented for this purpose as well as a method for assessing the calculational bias and uncertainty, and conservative correction factors for each isotope. (2) Validate a computer code system to predict the subcritical multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, of a spent nuclear fuel package. Fifty-seven UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} critical experiments have been selected to cover anticipated conditions of SNF. The method uses an upper safety limit on k{sub eff} (which can be a function of the trending parameters) such that the biased k{sub eff}, when increased for the uncertainty is less than 0.95. (3) Establish bounding conditions for the isotopic concentration and criticality calculations. Three bounding axial profiles have been established to assure the ''end effect'' is accounted for conservatively. (4) Use the validated codes and bounding conditions to generate package loading criteria (burnup credit loading curves). Burnup credit loading curves show the minimum burnup required for a given initial enrichment. The utility burnup record is compared to this requirement after the utility accounts for the uncertainty in its record. Separate curves may be generated for each assembly design, various minimum cooling times and burnable absorber histories. (5) Verify that SNF assemblies meet the package

  2. Tritium release from EXOTIC-7 orthosilicate pebbles. Effect of burnup and contact with beryllium during irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-03-01

    EXOTIC-7 was the first in-pile test with {sup 6}Li-enriched (50%) lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) pebbles and with DEMO representative Li-burnup. Post irradiation examinations of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} have been performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), mainly to investigate the tritium release kinetics as well as the effect of Li-burnup and/or contact with beryllium during irradiation. The release rate of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from pure Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} bed of capsule 28.1-1 is characterized by a broad main peak at about 400degC and by a smaller peak at about 800degC, and that from the mixed beds of capsule 28.2 and 26.2-1 shows again these two peaks, but most of the tritium is now released from the 800degC peak. This shift of release from low to high temperature may be due to the higher Li-burnup and/or due to contact with Be during irradiation. Due to the very difficult interpretation of the in-situ tritium release data, residence times have been estimated on the basis of the out-of-pile tests. The residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 28.1-1 irradiated at 10% Li-burnup agrees quite well with that of the same material irradiated at Li-burnup lower than 3% in the EXOTIC-6 experiment. In spite of the observed shift in the release peaks from low to high temperature, also the residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 26.2-1 irradiated at 13% Li-burnup agrees quite well with the data from EXOTIC-6 experiment. On the other hand, the residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 28.2 (Li-burnup 18%) is about a factor 1.7-3.8 higher than that for caps. 26.2-1. Based on these data on can conclude that up to 13% Li-burnup neither the contact with beryllium nor the Li-burnup have a detrimental effect on the tritium release of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles, but at 18% Li-burnup the residence time is increased by about a factor three. (J.P.N.)

  3. Isolation of bacteria from diabetic foot ulcers with special reference to anaerobe isolation by simple two-step combustion technique in candle jar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Haldar

    2017-01-01

    Results: All the 43 samples were culture positive, of which aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB predominated, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and diphtheroids. Anaerobes isolated from 21 samples were Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Veillonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens by both GasPak and in-house developed and modified candle jar techniques. Imipenem and metronidazole were most sensitive while clindamycin, penicillin and cefoxitin were least sensitive drugs for anaerobes. Aerobic GNB were found to be multidrug resistant, especially to penicillin and cephalosporins. The most sensitive drug was piperacillin-tazobactam. Interpretation & conclusions: For isolation of anaerobes from clinical specimens such as diabetic foot ulcers, modified candle jar technique was found to be as reliable as GasPak system. This modified technique needs to be tested for many other clinical materials which are not yet evaluated.

  4. Development of an extended-burnup Mark B design. Second semiannual progress report, January-June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The immediate goal of the DOE/AP and L/B and W project is to extend the burnup of light water reactor fuel assemblies beyond present limits to 50,000 MWd/mtU batch average burnup. Fuel management plans and fuel designs are being directed to attain the increased burnup limits. Lead-test assemblies of extended-burnup designs will be manufactured, irradiated in a commercial pressurized water reactor, and examined to support extended-burnup fuel cycles. This report, covering the period from January through June 1979, is the second semiannual progress report for the program. Efforts have included analyses of extended-burnup fuel cycles, developed of both annular fuel pellet and segmented rod designs, and design of a nondestructive post-irradiation examination system

  5. DELIGHT-B/REDEL, point reactivity burnup code for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Ryuiti; Watanabe, Takashi.

    1977-03-01

    Code DELIGHT-2 was previously developed to analyze cell burnup characteristics and to produce few-group constants for core burnup calculation in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. In the code, burnup dependency of the burnable poison, boron-10, is considered with the homogeneous model of space. In actuality, however, the burnable poison is used as homogeneous rods or uniform rods of small granular poison and graphite, to control the reactivity and power distribution. Precise analysis of the burnup characteristics is thus difficult because of the heterogeneity due to the configuration of poison rods. In cell burnup calculation, the DELIGHT-B, which is a modification of DELIGHT-2, takes into consideration this heterogeneous effect. The auxiliary code REDEL, a reduction of DELIGHT-B, used in combination with 3 dimensional diffusion code CITATION, is for core burnup calculation with the macro-scopic cross section model. (auth.)

  6. Mesoscopic approach to describe high burn-up fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, M.

    1999-01-01

    The grain sub-division and the rim structure formation are new phenomena for LWR fuel engineering. The consequence of these are now under investigation in several international programs such as HBRP (High Burnup Rim Project) of CRIEPI, NFIR of EPRI, and EdF/CEA program in France. The theoretical understanding of this phenomenon is underway. Here, the process is peculiar in the following points; (1) majority of the domain of the material are changed to a new morphology after the restructuring, (2) the final size of the new grains is around 0.1 μm which is neither atomic scale nor macroscopic scale. (3) the morphology of the restructured domain indicates fractal like feature which indicates complex process is under-taken. From the first feature, the process is similar to phase transitions or metallographic transformations. However, as the crystallographic structure has no change before and after the restructuring, it is not the phase transition nor the transformation of atomic scale instability. The focus could be put on the material transport of mesoscopic scale which create the peculiar morphology. Indeed there are flows of energy and disturbances in crystallographic structure in nuclear materials on duty. Although the fission energy is 10 4 larger than the formation energy of the defects, thanks to the stability of the selected material, most of energy is thermalized without crystallographic instability. Little remained energy creates flows of disturbances and the new structure is a consequence of ordering process driven by these flows of disturbances. Therefore this phenomenon is a good example to study cooperative ordering process in physics of materials. This paper presents some of present understandings of the rim structure formation based on the mesoscopic mechanistic theories. Possible future development is also proposed (author) (ml)

  7. Fission gas release and pellet microstructure change of high burnup BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, N.; Ohira, K.; Tsuda, K.; Fischer, G.; Ota, T.

    1998-01-01

    UO 2 fuel, with and without Gadolinium, irradiated for three, five, and six irradiation cycles up to about 60 GWd/t pellet burnup in a commercial BWR were studied. The fission gas release and the rim effect were investigated by the puncture test and gas analysis method, OM (optical microscope), SEM (scanning electron microscope), and EPMA (electron probe microanalyzer). The fission gas release rate of the fuel rods irradiated up to six cycles was below a few percent; there was no tendency for the fission gas release to increase abruptly with burnup. On the other hand, microstructure changes were revealed by OM and SEM examination at the rim position with burnup increase. Fission gas was found depleted at both the rim position and the pellet center region using EPMA. There was no correlation between the fission gas release measured by the puncture test and the fission gas depletion at the rim position using EPMA. However, the depletion of fission gas in the center region had good correlation with the fission gas release rate determined by the puncture test. In addition, because the burnup is very large at the rim position of high burnup fuel and also due to the fission rate of the produced Pu, the Xe/Kr ratio at the rim position of high burnup fuel is close to the value of the fission yield of Pu. The Xe/Kr ratio determined by the gas analysis after the puncture test was equivalent to the fuel average but not to the pellet rim position. From the results, it was concluded that fission gas at the rim position was released from the UO 2 matrix in high burnup, however, most of this released fission gas was held in the porous structure and not released from the pellet to the free volume. (author)

  8. First steps towards modelling high burnup effect in UO{sub 2} fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O` Carroll, C; Lassmann, K; Laar, J Van De; Walker, C T [CEC Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    High burnup initiates a process that can lead to major microstructural changes near the edge of the fuel: formation of subgrains, the loss of matrix fission gas and an increase in porosity. A consequence of this, is a decrease of thermal conductivity near the edge of the fuel which may be major implications for the performance of LWR fuels at higher burnup. The mechanism for the changes in grain structure, the apparent depletion of Xe and increase in porosity is associated with the high fission density at the fuel periphery. This is in turn due to the preferential capture of epithermal neutrons in the resonances of {sup 238}U. The new model TUBRNP predicts the radial burnup profile as a function of time together with the radial profile of plutonium. The model has been validated with data from LWR UO{sub 2} fuels with enrichments in the range 2 to 8.25% and burnups between 21 to 75 Gwd/t. It has been reported that at high burnup EPMA measures a sharp decrease in the concentration of Xe near the fuel surface. This loss of Xe is interpreted as a signal that the gas has been swept out of the original grains into pores: this ``missing`` Xe has been measured by XRF. It has been noted experimentally that the restructuring (Xe depletion and changes in grain structure) have an onset threshold local burnup in the region of 70 to 80 GWd/t: a specific value was taken for use in the model. For a given fuel TUBRNP predicts the local burnup profile, and the depth corresponding to the threshold value is taken to be the thickness of the Xe depleted region. The theoretical predictions have been compared with experimental data. The results are presented and should be seen as a first step in the development of a more detailed model of this phenomenon. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makmal, T. [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Nuclear Physics and Engineering Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Radiation Safety Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-10-21

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections. - Highlights: • Simple, inexpensive, safe and flexible experimental setup that can be quickly deployed. • Experimental results are thoroughly corroborated against ORIGEN2 burnup code. • Experimental uncertainty of 9% and 5% deviation between measurements and simulations. • Very high burnup MTR fuel element is examined, with 60% depletion of {sup 235}U. • Impact of highly irregular irradiation regime on burnup evaluation is studied.

  10. Non destructive assay of nuclear LEU spent fuels for burnup credit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, A.; Bignan, G.

    2001-01-01

    Criticality safety analysis devoted to spent fuel storage and transportation has to be conservative in order to be sure no accident will ever happen. In the spent fuel storage field, the assumption of freshness has been used to achieve the conservative aspect of criticality safety procedures. Nevertheless, after being irradiated in a reactor core, the fuel elements have obviously lost part of their original reactivity. The concept of taking into account this reactivity loss in criticality safety analysis is known as Burnup credit. To be used, Burnup credit involves obtaining evidence of the reactivity loss with a Burnup measurement. Many non destructive assays (NDA) based on neutron as well as on gamma ray emissions are devoted to spent fuel characterization. Heavy nuclei that compose the fuels are modified during irradiation and cooling. Some of them emit neutrons spontaneously and the link to Burnup is a power link. As a result, burn-up determination with passive neutron measurement is extremely accurate. Some gamma emitters also have interesting properties in order to characterize spent fuels but the convenience of the gamma spectrometric methods is very dependent on characteristics of spent fuel. In addition, contrary to the neutron emission, the gamma signal is mostly representative of the peripheral rods of the fuels. Two devices based on neutron methods but combining different NDA methods which have been studied in the past are described in detail: 1. The PYTHON device is a combination of a passive neutron measurement, a collimated total gamma measurement, and an online depletion code. This device, which has been used in several Nuclear Power Plants in western Europe, gives the average Burnup within a 5% uncertainty and also the extremity Burnup, 2. The NAJA device is an automatic device that involves three nuclear methods and an online depletion code. It is designed to cover the whole fuel assembly panel (Active Neutron Interrogation, Passive Neutron

  11. The measurement of abundance and content of 148Nd monitor for the determination of burnup with mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shuqin; Li Silin

    1992-09-01

    The abundance and content of nuclide 148 Nd, which is used as monitor to determine reactor element burnup, were measured by mass spectrometry, and the burnup can be calculated from measured results. The distribution of 148 Nd abundance and content in the axial direction are consistent with the theoretical calculation. The burnup values agree with the data obtained from heavy isotope ratio and radiochemistry methods within the errors of 4.0% and 2.8% respectively

  12. BOLD/VENTURE-4, Reactor Analysis System with Sensitivity and Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    cross section variation or correlation on nuclide concentrations is provided, but a temperature dependence is coded. Steady state condition with continuous fueling is established by a global iterative scheme that applies the criticality search scheme in the neutronics and models fuel movement directly in the exposure code. Time-dependent sensitivity data applies the forward march, reverse importance approach. The codes do not process data from the user input data stream allowing flexible task assignment along selected calculational paths. Multigroup cross section data are produced locally using the PSR-0063/AMPX II or CCC-0450/SCALE-2 code systems to produce resonance shielding (NITAWL) and cell weighted (XSDRN) microscopic cross sections. Locally, each code is compiled and loaded, and only one version is maintained in a quality assurance state in load module form. An on-line catalog procedure, installed with system support, provides job control instructions with nominal default of space allocation to files. Executing the catalog procedure makes the driver memory resident. The first user input data line must be the control module name used for the run. VENTURE-PC: The VENTURE module applies the finite-difference diffusion or a simple P1 approximation. VENTURE uses an outer-inner iteration scheme with several different data handling methods. Over-relaxation is applied to the inner and outer iterations, and succeeding flux iterates may be accelerated with the Chebychev process. - The BURNER code (module EXPOSURE) uses a difference formulation based on average generation rates; or a matrix exponential formulation to approximate the solution of the coupled burnup differential equations; or an explicit solution for simply coupled nuclide chains. Space dependence is included by working with zone averaged fluxes

  13. VENTURE-PC 1.1, Reactor Analysis System with Sensitivity and Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    the addition of several sample problems, a new Windows executable, and a new Linux version. 2 - Methods:The VENTURE module applies the finite-difference diffusion or a simple P1 approximation. VENTURE uses an outer-inner iteration scheme with several different data handling methods. Over-relaxation is applied to the inner and outer iterations, and succeeding flux iterates may be accelerated with the Chebychev process. The BURNER code uses a difference formulation based on average generation rates, or a matrix exponential formulation, to approximate the solution of the coupled burnup differential equations, or an explicit solution for simply coupled nuclide chains. Space-dependence is included by working with zone averaged fluxes. The first user input data line must be the control module name used for the run. Venture-PC reads these data in CCCC ISOTXS format. AMPX working format libraries can be translated to ISOTXS format using the CONTAC module of AMPX-77. Alternately PSR-286/COMBINE-PC can be used to process ISOTXS data. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The executable is limited to a core container of 3,000,000 words, but it can be recompiled for much larger sizes due to the flat memory model of the Lahey Fortran 90 32-bit compiler. Prior versions of the code were unable to solve large mesh problems because of LF90 compiler limits on binary record lengths (<32,767 bytes). These records now are blocked, eliminating this restriction on problem size. Binary records created by the Fortran 95 compiler have a revised format from that created by the Fortran 90 compiler, in order to address a much larger record size limit. Pre-existing binary files written by any code compiled under Fortran 90 cannot be read by the code compiled under Fortran 95. Such files must be converted from 90 to 95 and vice-versa using Lahey-supplied tools that come with the compiler

  14. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  15. AUS burnup module CHAR and the associated data pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1975-12-01

    The CHAR module of the AUS reactor neutronics scheme solves the multiregion nuclide depletion equations using an analytic method. The module obtains cross section, flux and geometry data from AUS data pools, and uses the STATUS data pool which has been designed for the storage of nuclide compositions, spatial smearing factors and other miscellaneous information. (author)

  16. CARMEN-SYSTEM, Programs System for Thermal Neutron Diffusion and Burnup with Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnert, Carol; Aragones, Jose M.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: CARMEN is a system of programs developed for the neutronic calculation of PWR cycles. It includes the whole chain of analysis from cell calculations to core calculations with burnup. The core calculations are based on diffusion theory with cross sections depending on the relevant space-dependent feedback effects which are present at each moment along the cycles. The diffusion calculations are in one, two or three dimensions and in two energy groups. The feedback effects which are treated locally are: burnup, water density, power density and fission products. In order to study in detail these parameters the core should be divided into as many zones as different cross section sets are expected to be required in order to reproduce reality correctly. A relevant difference in any feedback parameter between zones produces different cross section sets for the corresponding zones. CARMEN is also capable to perform the following calculations: - Multiplication factor by burnup step with fixed boron concentration - Buckling and control rod insertion - Buckling search by burnup step - Boron search by burnup step - Control rod insertion search by burnup step. 2 - Method of solution: The cell code (LEOPARD-TRACA) generates the fuel assembly cross sections versus burnup. This is the basic library to be used in the CARMEN code proper. With a planar distribution guess for power density, water density and fluxes, the macroscopic cross sections by zone are calculated by CARMEN, and then a diffusion calculation is done in the whole geometry. With the distribution of power density, heat accumulated in the coolant and the thermal and fast fluxes determined in the diffusion calculation, CARMEN calculates the values of the most relevant parameters that influence the macroscopic cross sections by zone: burnup, water density, effective fuel temperature and fission product concentrations. If these parameters by zone are different from the reference

  17. Effect of core configuration on the burnup calculations of MTR research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.; Amin, E.H.; Sakr, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D burn-up calculations of MTR-type research reactor were performed. Examination of the effect of control rod pattern on power density and neutron flux distributions is presented. • The calculations are performed using the MTR P C package and the programs (WIMS and CITVAP). • An empirical formula was generated for every fuel element type, to correlate irradiation to burn-up. - Abstract: In the present paper, three-dimensional burn-up calculations were performed using different patterns of control rods, in order to examine their effect on power density and neutron flux distributions through out the entire core and hence on the local burn-up distribution. These different cores burn-up calculations are carried out for an operating cycle equivalent to 15 Full Power Days (FPDs), with a power rating of 22 MW. Calculations were performed using an example of a typical research reactor of MTR-type using the internationally known computer codes’ package “MTR P C system”, using the cell calculation transport code WIMS-D4 with 12 energy groups and the core calculation diffusion code CITVAP with 5 energy groups. A depletion study was done and the effects on the research reactor fuel (U-235) were performed. The burn-up percentage (B.U.%) curves for every fuel element type were drawn versus irradiation (MWD/TE). Then an empirical formula was generated for every fuel element type, to correlate irradiation to burn-up percentage. Charts of power density and neutron flux distribution for each core were plotted at different sections of each fuel element of the reactor core. Then a complete discussion and analysis of these curves are performed with comparison between the different core configurations, illustrating the effect of insertion or extraction of either of the four control rods directly on the neutron flux and consequently on the power distribution and burn-up. A detailed study of fuel burn-up gives detailed insight on the different B.U.% calculations

  18. Estimation of the impact of manufacturing tolerances on burn-up calculations using Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, M.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Garching (Germany). Forschungszentrum

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, the availability of computing resources has increased enormously. There are two ways to take advantage of this increase in analyses in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as burn-up calculations or criticality safety calculations. The first possible way is to improve the accuracy of the models that are analyzed. For burn-up calculations this means, that the goal to model and to calculate the burn-up of a full reactor core is getting more and more into reach. The second way to utilize the resources is to run state-of-the-art programs with simplified models several times, but with varied input parameters. This second way opens the applicability of the assessment of uncertainties and sensitivities based on the Monte Carlo method for fields of research that rely heavily on either high CPU usage or high memory consumption. In the context of the nuclear fuel cycle, applications that belong to these types of demanding analyses are again burn-up and criticality safety calculations. The assessment of uncertainties in burn-up analyses can complement traditional analysis techniques such as best estimate or bounding case analyses and can support the safety analysis in future design decisions, e.g. by analyzing the uncertainty of the decay heat power of the nuclear inventory stored in the spent fuel pool of a nuclear power plant. This contribution concentrates on the uncertainty analysis in burn-up calculations of PWR fuel assemblies. The uncertainties in the results arise from the variation of the input parameters. In this case, the focus is on the one hand on the variation of manufacturing tolerances that are present in the different production stages of the fuel assemblies. On the other hand, uncertainties that describe the conditions during the reactor operation are taken into account. They also affect the results of burn-up calculations. In order to perform uncertainty analyses in burn-up calculations, GRS has improved the capabilities of its general

  19. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  20. Identification of predominant odorants in thai desserts flavored by smoking with "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa

    2009-02-11

    "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.

  1. Facile Fabrication and Characterization of a PDMS-Derived Candle Soot Coated Stable Biocompatible Superhydrophobic and Superhemophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Majhy, B; Sen, A K

    2017-09-13

    We report a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and one-step method for the fabrication of a stable and biocompatible superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface. The proposed surface comprises candle soot particles embedded in a mixture of PDMS+n-hexane serving as the base material. The mechanism responsible for the superhydrophobic behavior of the surface is explained, and the surface is characterized based on its morphology and elemental composition, wetting properties, mechanical and chemical stability, and biocompatibility. The effect of %n-hexane in PDMS, the thickness of the PDMS+n-hexane layer (in terms of spin coating speed) and sooting time on the wetting property of the surface is studied. The proposed surface exhibits nanoscale surface asperities (average roughness of 187 nm), chemical compositions of soot particles, very high water and blood repellency along with excellent mechanical and chemical stability and excellent biocompatibility against blood sample and biological cells. The water contact angle and roll-off angle is measured as 160° ± 1° and 2°, respectively, and the blood contact angle is found to be 154° ± 1°, which indicates that the surface is superhydrophobic and superhemophobic. The proposed superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface offers significantly improved (>40%) cell viability as compared to glass and PDMS surfaces.

  2. SN 2016jhj at redshift 0.34: extending the Type II supernova Hubble diagram using the standard candle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; Galbany, L.; Filippenko, A. V.; González-Gaitán, S.; Yasuda, N.; Maeda, K.; Tanaka, M.; Morokuma, T.; Moriya, T. J.; Tominaga, N.; Nomoto, K.; Komiyama, Y.; Anderson, J. P.; Brink, T. G.; Carlberg, R. G.; Folatelli, G.; Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Zheng, W.

    2017-12-01

    Although Type Ia supernova cosmology has now reached a mature state, it is important to develop as many independent methods as possible to understand the true nature of dark energy. Recent studies have shown that Type II supernovae (SNe II) offer such a path and could be used as alternative distance indicators. However, the majority of these studies were unable to extend the Hubble diagram above redshift z = 0.3 because of observational limitations. Here, we show that we are now ready to move beyond low redshifts and attempt high-redshift (z ≳ 0.3) SN II cosmology as a result of new-generation deep surveys such as the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. Applying the 'standard candle method' to SN 2016jhj (z = 0.3398 ± 0.0002; discovered by HSC) together with a low-redshift sample, we are able to construct the highest-redshift SN II Hubble diagram to date with an observed dispersion of 0.27 mag (i.e. 12-13 per cent in distance). This work demonstrates the bright future of SN II cosmology in the coming era of large, wide-field surveys like that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  3. Modelling of phenomena associated with high burnup fuel behaviour during overpower transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, H.E.; Langman, V.J.; Iglesias, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    Phenomena of importance to the behaviour of high burnup fuel subjected to conditions of rapid overpower (i.e., LWR RIAs) include the change in cladding material properties due to irradiation, pellet-clad interaction (PCI) and 'rim' effects associated with the periphery of high burnup fuel. 'Rim' effects are postulated to be caused by changes in fuel morphology at high burnup. Typical discharge burnups for CANDU fuel are low compared to LWRs. Maximum linear ratings for CANDU fuel are higher than those for LWRs. However, under normal operating conditions, the Zircaloy-4 clad of the CANDU fuel is collapsed onto the fuel stack. Thus, the CANDU fuel performance codes model the transient behaviour of the fuel-to-clad interface and are capable of assessing the potential for pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) failures for a wide range of overpower conditions. This report provides a discussion of the modelling of the phenomena of importance to high burnup fuel behaviour during rapid overpower transients. (author)

  4. Criticality reference benchmark calculations for burnup credit using spent fuel isotopics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    To date, criticality analyses performed in support of the certification of spent fuel casks in the United States do not take credit for the reactivity reduction that results from burnup. By taking credit for the fuel burnup, commonly referred to as ''burnup credit,'' the fuel loading capacity of these casks can be increased. One of the difficulties in implementing burnup credit in criticality analyses is that there have been no critical experiments performed with spent fuel which can be used for computer code validation. In lieu of that, a reference problem set of fresh fuel critical experiments which model various conditions typical of light water reactor (LWR) transportation and storage casks has been identified and used in the validation of SCALE-4. This report documents the use of this same problem set to perform spent fuel criticality benchmark calculations by replacing the actual fresh fuel isotopics from the experiments with six different sets of calculated spent fuel isotopics. The SCALE-4 modules SAS2H and CSAS4 were used to perform the analyses. These calculations do not model actual critical experiments. The calculated k-effectives are not supposed to equal unity and will vary depending on the initial enrichment and burnup of the calculated spent fuel isotopics. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  5. A simplified burnup calculation strategy with refueling in static molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Gupta, Anurag; Krishnani, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors, by nature can be refuelled and reprocessed online. Thus, a simulation methodology has to be developed which can consider online refueling and reprocessing aspect of the reactor. To cater such needs a simplified burnup calculation strategy to account for refueling and removal of molten salt fuel at any desired burnup has been identified in static molten salt reactor in batch mode as a first step of way forward. The features of in-house code ITRAN has been explored for such calculations. The code also enables us to estimate the reactivity introduced in the system due to removal of any number of considered nuclides at any burnup. The effect of refueling fresh fuel and removal of burned fuel has been studied in batch mode with in-house code ITRAN. The effect of refueling and burnup on change in reactivity per day has been analyzed. The analysis of removal of 233 Pa at a particular burnup has been carried out. The similar analysis has been performed for some other nuclides also. (author)

  6. MCNPX and MCB coupled methodology for the burnup calculation of the KIPT accelerator driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.; Gohar, Y.; Talamo, A.

    2009-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an electron accelerator driven subcritical facility (ADS). The facility will be utilized for basic research, medical isotopes production, and training young nuclear specialists. The burnup methodology and analysis of the KIPT ADS are presented in this paper. MCNPX and MCB Monte Carlo computer codes have been utilized. MCNPX has the capability of performing electron, photon and neutron coupled transport problems, but it lacks the burnup capability for driven subcritical systems. MCB has the capability for performing the burnup calculation of driven subcritical systems, while it cannot transport electrons. A calculational methodology coupling MCNPX and MCB has been developed, which can exploit the electrons transport capability of MCNPX for neutron production and the burnup capability of MCB for driven subcritical systems. In this procedure, a neutron source file is generated using MCNPX transport calculation, preserving the neutrons yield from photonuclear reactions initiated by electrons, and this source file is utilized by MCB for the burnup analyses with the same geometrical model. In this way, the ADS depletion calculation can be accurately. (authors)

  7. Burnup verification measurements on spent fuel assemblies at Arkansas Nuclear One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.I.

    1995-01-01

    Burnup verification measurements have been performed using the Fork system at Arkansas Nuclear One, Units 1 and 2, operated by Energy Operations, Inc. Passive neutron and gamma-ray measurements on individual spent fuel assemblies were correlated with the reactor records for burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment. The correlation generates an internal calibration for the system in the form of a power law determined by a least squares fit to the neutron data. The values of the exponent in the power laws were 3.83 and 4.35 for Units 1 and 2, respectively. The average deviation of the reactor burnup records from the calibration determined from the measurements is a measure of the random error in the burnup records. The observed average deviations were 2.7% and 3.5% for assemblies at Units 1 and 2, respectively, indicating a high degree of consistency in the reactor records. Two non-standard assemblies containing neutron sources were studied at Unit 2. No anomalous measurements were observed among the standard assemblies at either Unit. The effectiveness of the Fork system for verification of reactor records is due to the sensitivity of the neutron yield to burnup, the self-calibration generated by a series of measurements, the redundancy provided by three independent detection systems, and the operational simplicity and flexibility of the design

  8. Past experience and future needs for the use of burnup credit in LWR fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Wrights, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve improved fuel economics and reduce the amount of fuel discharged annually, utilities are engaging in fuel management strategies that will achieve higher discharge burnups for their fuel assemblies. Although burnup credit methodologies have been developed and spent-fuel racks have been licensed, burnup credit fuel storage racks are not the answer for all utilities. Off-site and out-of-pool spent-fuel storage may be more appropriate. This is leading to the development of dry spent-fuel storage and shipping casks. Cask designs with spent-fuel storage capability between 20 and 32 assemblies are being developed by several vendors. The US Dept. of Energy is also funding work by VEPCO. Westinghouse is currently licensing its dry storage cask, developing a shipping cask for the domestic market, and is involved in a joint venture to develop a cask for the international market. Although methods of taking credit for fuel burnup in spent-fuel storage racks have been developed and licensed, use of these methods on dry spent-fuel storage and shipping casks can lead to new issues. These issues arise because the excess reactivity margin that is inherent in a burnup credit spent-fuel storage rack criticality analysis will not be available in a dry cask analysis

  9. Design and analytic evaluation of a rim effect reduction type LWR fuel for extending burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo; Kameyama, Takanori; Kinoshita, Motoyasu

    1991-01-01

    We have designed a new concept fuel design 'Rim effect reduction type fuel' which has thin natural UO 2 layer on surface of a UO2 pellet. Our neutronic analyses with ANRB code show this fuel design can reduce rim effect (burnup at plelet rim) by about 30 GWd/t comparing a normal fuel. It is known that a high burnup fuel has different microstructure from as-fabricated one at fuel rim (which is called as rim region) due to rim effect. Therefore this fuel design can expect smaller rim region than a normal fuel. Our fuel performance analyses with EIMUS code show this fuel design can reduce fuel center temperature at high burnup if thermal conductivity of fuel pellet decreases with burnup in inverse proportion. However, this fuel design increases fuel center temperature at low and middle burnup than a normal fuel due to increase of thermal power density at pellet center. Additionally Irradiation experiment of this fuel design can be considered to offer important data which make clear the relation between rim effect and fuel performance. (author)

  10. Review of the effects of burnup on the thermal conductivity of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Courtright, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    The general trends which relate changes in thermal conductivity of UO 2 fuel as a function of temperature and burnup can be summarized as follows: (1) At temperatures below 500 0 C, reductions in UO 2 thermal conductivity relative to the unirradiated values can be expected up to a saturation level of approximately 10 19 fissions/cc. (2) At temperatures above 500 0 C, the thermal conductivity will undergo little change at low burnups, (less than 10 19 fissions/cc) but at higher exposures some decrease can be expected which should, in turn, diminish with increasing temperature. (3) A review of the data reported by Berman on the ThO 2 --UO 2 fuel indicates that the basic behavior is the same as for UO 2 in the temperature range of major interest. The applicability of this data to LWR UO 2 fuel is somewhat questionable because of basic physical property differences, and limited data on irradiation effects, and would not seem to support concerns that the effects of burnup on thermal conductivity for LWR fuel may be of more significance than currently believed. (4) A mathematical expression of the type proposed by Daniel and Cohen seems to provide a reasonable approximation for the behavioral trends reported in the literature which relate changes in thermal conductivity to increasing burnup in certain temperature regimes. Calculations indicate that only small incremental increases in the fuel centerline temperature might be expected if burnup effects are taken into account

  11. Experimental and theoretical burnup investigations on model arrangements with solid burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Anders, D.; Greim, L.; Knoth, J.; Kolb, M.; Mittelstaedt, B.; Mueller, A.; Schwenke, H.

    1975-01-01

    It is the scope of the two experiments here to improve the methods for computation and measurement as well as the experimental technique appropriate to predict the burnable poison rod burn-up with sufficient accuracy. In the first experiment two nine-rod bundles in a 3 x 3 arrangement are irradiated during several irradiation periods in the research reactor Geesthacht. Each bundle consists of eight outer rods containing fuel and one inner rod containing poison (B 10 or Cd 113). The burn-up of the fuel and the burnable poison is measured by non-destructive methods after each irradiation period and then compared with results of a burn-up calculation. In the second experiment two poison rods with different cadmium concentrations and one rod containing boron are irradiated during several irradiation periods in the research reactor Geesthacht. The burn-up is determined after each irradiation period by reactivity measurements and its result compared to computed effective absorption cross-sections of the rods by aid of a calibration curve. For both experiments the experimental and theoretical results for the poison burn-up are found to be within the error limits of the measurements. (orig.) [de

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigations on solid burnable poison burnup of model arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Anders, D.; Greim, L.; Knoth, J.; Kolb, M.; Mittelstaedt, B.; Mueller, A.; Schwenke, H.

    1975-01-01

    It is the scope of the two experiments reported here to improve the methods for computation and measurement as well as the experimental technique appropriate to predict the burnable poison rod burn-up with sufficient accuracy. In the first experiment two nine-rod bundles in a 3 x 3 arrangement are irradiated during several irradiation periods in the research reactor Geesthacht. Each bundle consists of eight outer rods containing fuel and one inner rod containing poison (B 10 or Cd 113). The burn-up of the fuel and the burnable poison is measured by non-destructive methods after each irradiation period and then compared with results of a burn-up calculation. In the second experiment two poison rods with different cadmium concentrations and one rod containing boron are irradiated during several irradiation periods in the research reactor Geesthacht. The burn-up is determined after each irradiation period by reactivity measurements and its result compared to computed effective absorption cross-sections of the rods by aid of a calibration curve. For both experiments the experimental and theoretical results for the poison burn-up are found to be within the error limits of the measurements. (orig.) [de

  13. Advanced burnup calculation code system in a subcritical state with continuous-energy Monte Carlo code for fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaka, Masayuki; Ohta, Masayuki; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Murata, Isao

    2009-01-01

    The fusion-fission (FF) hybrid reactor is a promising energy source that is thought to act as a bridge between the existing fission reactor and the genuine fusion reactor in the future. The burnup calculation system that aims at precise burnup calculations of a subcritical system was developed for the detailed design of the FF hybrid reactor, and the system consists of MCNP, ORIGEN, and postprocess codes. In the present study, the calculation system was substantially modified to improve the calculation accuracy and at the same time the calculation speed as well. The reaction rate estimation can be carried out accurately with the present system that uses track-length (TL) data in the continuous-energy treatment. As for the speed-up of the reaction rate calculation, a new TL data bunching scheme was developed so that only necessary TL data are used as long as the accuracy of the point-wise nuclear data is conserved. With the present system, an example analysis result for our proposed FF hybrid reactor is described, showing that the computation time could really be saved with the same accuracy as before. (author)

  14. Automatic determination of pressurized water reactor core loading patterns that maximize beginning-of-cycle reactivity within power-peaking and burnup constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.H.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to automatically determine a good estimate of the core loading pattern, which minimizes fuel cycle costs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Equating fuel cycle cost minimization with core reactivity maximization, the objective is to determine the loading pattern that maximizes core reactivity while satisfying power peaking, discharge burnup, and other constraints. The method utilizes a two-dimensional, coarse-mesh, finite difference scheme to evaluate core reactivity and fluxes for an initial reference loading pattern. First-order perturbation theory is applied to determine the effects of assembly shuffling on reactivity, power distribution, end-of-cycle burnup. Monte Carlo integer programming is then used to determine a near-optimal loading pattern within a range of loading patterns near the reference pattern. The process then repeats with the new loading pattern as the reference loading pattern and terminates when no better loading pattern can be determined. The process was applied with both reactivity maximization and radial power-peaking minimization as objectives. Results on a typical large PWR indicate that the cost of obtaining an 8% improvement in radial power-peaking margin is ≅2% in fuel cycle costs, for the reload core loaded without burnable poisons that was studied

  15. Some implications of batch average burnup calculations on predicted spent fuel compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of using batch-averaged burnups to determine spent fuel characteristics (such as isotopic composition, activity, etc.) was examined for a typical pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel discharge batch by comparing characteristics computed by (a) performing a single depletion calculation using the average burnup of the spent fuel and (b) performing separate depletion calculations based on the relative amounts of spent fuel in each of twelve burnup ranges and summing the results. The computations were done using ORIGEN 2. Procedure (b) showed a significant shift toward a greater quantity of the heavier transuranics, which derive from multiple neutron captures, and a corresponding decrease in the amounts of lower transuranics. Those characteristics which derive primarily from fission products, such as total radioactivity and total thermal power, are essentially identical for the two procedures. Those characteristics that derive primarily from the heavier transuranics, such as spontaneous fission neutrons, are underestimated by procedure (a)

  16. Impacts of SNF burnup credit on the shipment capability of the GA-4 cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheran, A.S.; Lake, W.; Richardson, J.

    1996-01-01

    Scoping analyses were performed to determine the impacts of two different levels of burnup credit and two different spent fuel pickup rates on the shipment capability and the minimum fleet size of the GA-4 cask. The analyses involved developing loading curves for the GA-4 cask based on the actinide-only and principal-isotope burnup credit considerations. The analyses also involved examination of the spent nuclear fuel assembly population at nine reactor sites and categorization of the assemblies in accordance with the loading restrictions imposed. The results revealed that for the nine sites considered, depending on the level of burnup credit and the pickup rate assumed, the total savings in shipment and cask fleet costs (1994 dollars) can range from $55 million to $74 million

  17. Burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1, reference operating core, has been carried out utilizing standard computer codes WIMS/D4, CITATION, and RELAP5/MOD3.4. Reactor codes WIMS/D4 and CITATION have been used for the calculations of neutronic parameters including peaking factors and power profiles at different burn-up considering a xenon free core and also the equilibrium xenon values. RELAP5/MOD3.4 code was utilized for the determination of peak fuel centerline, clad and coolant temperatures to ensure the safety of the reactor throughout the cycle. The calculations reveal that the reactor is safe and no nucleate boiling will commence at any part of the core throughout the cycle and that the safety margin increases with burnup as peaking factors decrease.

  18. EPRI/DOE High-Burnup Fuel Sister Rod Test Plan Simplification and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanson, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shimskey, R. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, N. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, P. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacFarlan, P. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billone, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Rose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The EPRI/DOE High-Burnup Confirmatory Data Project (herein called the “Demo”) is a multi-year, multi-entity test with the purpose of providing quantitative and qualitative data to show if high-burnup fuel mechanical properties change in dry storage over a ten-year period. The Demo involves obtaining 32 assemblies of high-burnup PWR fuel of common cladding alloys from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant, loading them in an NRC-licensed TN-32B cask, drying them according to standard plant procedures, and then storing them on the North Anna dry storage pad for ten years. After the ten-year storage time, the cask will be opened and the mechanical properties of the rods will be tested and analyzed.

  19. Steady-state irradiation testing of U-Pu-Zr fuel to >18% burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Wisner, R.S.; Billone, M.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Tests of austenitic stainless steel clad U-xP-10Zr fuel (x=o, 8, 19 wt. %) to peak burnups as high as 18.4 at. % have been completed in the EBR-II. Fuel swelling and fractional fission gas release are slowly increasing functions of burnup beyond 2 at. % burnup. Increasing plutonium content in the fuel reduces swelling and decreases the amount of fission gas which diffuses from fuel to plenum. LIFE-METAL code modelling of cladding strains is consistent with creep by fission gas loading and irradiation-induced swelling mechanisms. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction involves the ingress of rare-earth fission products. Constituent redistribution in the fuel had not limited steady-state performance. Cladding breach behavior at closure welds, in the gas plenum, and in the fuel column region have been benign events. 3 refs., 5 figs

  20. Burn-up determination of irradiated thoria samples by isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.; Telmore, V.M.; Shah, R.V.; Sant, V.L.; Sasibhushan, K.; Parab, A.R.; Alamelu, D.

    2010-03-01

    Burn-up was determined experimentally using thermal ionization mass spectrometry for two samples from ThO 2 bundles irradiated in KAPS-2. This involved quantitative dissolution of the irradiated fuel samples followed by separation and determination of Th, U and a stable fission product burn-up monitor in the dissolved fuel solution. Stable fission product 148 Nd was used as a burn-up monitor for determining the number of fissions. Isotope Dilution-Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ID-TIMS) using natural U, 229 Th and enriched 142 Nd as spikes was employed for the determination of U, Th and Nd, respectively. Atom % fission values of 1.25 ± 0.03 were obtained for both the samples. 232 U content in 233 U determined by alpha spectrometry was about 500 ppm and this was higher by a factor of 5 compared to the theoretically predicted value by ORIGEN-2 code. (author)

  1. Analysis of collective life-cycle dose for burnup credit shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brentlinger, L.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Hofmann, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, several studies were conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to investigate the feasibility of and the incentive to justify the consideration of spent fuel histories in the design of spent fuel shipping casks. Taking credit for reduction in fissile content of fuel elements resulting from burnup credit is not current practice in the design and certification of shipping casks. The general argument can be made, however, that if this were done cask capacities could be increased over the current shipping cask designs which do not take the benefit of such burnup credit. This paper deals specifically with the question of occupational and public dose reduction via the use of a series of postulated burnup-credit cask designs

  2. Reconstruction of pin burnup characteristics from nodal calculations in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Finck, P.J.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    A reconstruction method has been developed for recovering pin burnup characteristics from fuel cycle calculations performed in hexagonal-z geometry using the nodal diffusion option of the DIF3D/REBUS-3 code system. Intra-modal distributions of group fluxes, nuclide densities, power density, burnup, and fluence are efficiently computed using polynomial shapes constrained to satisfy nodal information. The accuracy of the method has been tested by performing several numerical benchmark calculations and by comparing predicted local burnups to values measured for experimental assemblies in EBR-11. The results indicate that the reconstruction methods are quite accurate, yielding maximum errors in power and nuclide densities that are less than 2% for driver assemblies and typically less than 5% for blanket assemblies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Fission product model for BWR analysis with improved accuracy in high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Munenari; Ando, Yoshihira

    1998-01-01

    A new fission product (FP) chain model has been studied to be used in a BWR lattice calculation. In attempting to establish the model, two requirements, i.e. the accuracy in predicting burnup reactivity and the easiness in practical application, are simultaneously considered. The resultant FP model consists of 81 explicit FP nuclides and two lumped pseudo nuclides having the absorption cross sections independent of burnup history and fuel composition. For the verification, extensive numerical tests covering over a wide range of operational conditions and fuel compositions have been carried out. The results indicate that the estimated errors in burnup reactivity are within 0.1%Δk for exposures up to 100GWd/t. It is concluded that the present model can offer a high degree of accuracy for FP representation in BWR lattice calculation. (author)

  4. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Fission Product Migration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H; Ronqvist, N

    1967-04-15

    The migration of solid fission products, in particular caesium and ruthenium, in high temperature oxide fuel can create a severe problem during the application of non-destructive burn-up methods employing gamma spectrometry, since caesium-137 is otherwise the most convenient long-lived burn-up monitor and ruthenium-106 can be used to distinguish between fissions in U-235 and Pu-239. As part of an experimental programme to develop burn-up methods, gamma scanning experiments have been performed on slices of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets using a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The usefulness of the technique for migration studies has been demonstrated by comparing the fission product distribution curves across the specimen diameters with the microstructure of the specimens after polishing and etching.

  5. Development of high performance liquid chromatography for rapid determination of burn-up of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Karunasagar, D.; Saha, B.

    1996-01-01

    Burn-up an important parameter during evaluation of the performance of any nuclear fuel. Among the various techniques available, the preferred one for its determination is based on accurate measurement of a suitable fission product monitor and the residual heavy elements. Since isotopes of rare earth elements are generally used as burn-up monitors, conditions were standardized for rapid separation (within 15 minutes) of light rare earths using high performance liquid chromatography based on either anion exchange (Partisil 10 SAX) in methanol-nitric acid medium or by cation exchange on a reverse phase column (Spherisorb 5-ODS-2 or Supelcosil LC-18) dynamically modified with 1-octane sulfonate or camphor-10-sulfonic acid (β). Both these methods were assessed for separation of individual fission product rare earths from their mixtures. A new approach has been examined in detail for rapid assay of neodymium, which appears promising for faster and accurate measurement of burn-up. (author)

  6. Burnup dependent core neutronic calculations for research and training reactors via SCALE4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombakoglu, M.; Cecen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the full core modelling is performed to improve neutronic analyses capability for nuclear research reactors using SCALE4.4 code system. KENOV.a module of SCALE4.4 code system is utilized for full core neutronic analysis. The ORIGEN-S module is coupled with the KENOV.a module to perform burnup dependent neutronic analyses. Results of neutronic calculations for 1 st cycle of Cekmece TR-2 research reactor are presented. In particular, coupling of KENOV.a and ORIGEN-S modules of SCALE4.4 is discussed. The preliminary results of 2-D burnup dependent neutronic calculations are also given. These results are extended to burnup dependent core calculations of TRIGA Mark-II research reactors. The code system developed here is similar to the code system that couples MCNP and ORIGEN2.(author)

  7. Burn-up credit applications for UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies in AREVA/COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubon, H.; Riffard, C.; Batifol, M.; Pelletier, S.

    2003-01-01

    For the last seven years, AREVA/COGEMA has been implementing the second phase of its burn-up credit program (the incorporation of fission products). Since the early nineties, major actinides have been taken into account in criticality analyses first for reprocessing applications, then for transport and storage of fuel assemblies Next year (2004) COGEMA will take into account the six main fission products (Rh103, Cs133, Nd143, Sm149, Sm152 and Gd155) that make up 50% of the anti-reactivity of all fission products. The experimental program will soon be finished. The new burn-up credit methodology is in progress. After a brief overview of BUC R and D program and COGEMA's application of the BUC, this paper will focus on the new burn-up measurement for UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies. It details the measurement instrumentation and the measurement experiments on MOX fuels performed at La Hague in January 2003. (author)

  8. Calculation of fuel burn-up and fuel reloading for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Ngo Quang [Centre for Nuclear Technique Application, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Thong, Ha Van; Binh, Do Quang [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    Calculation of fuel burnup and fuel reloading for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor was carried out by using a new programme named HEXA-BURNUP, realized in a PC. The programme is used to calculate the following parameters of the Dalat reactor: a/Critical configurations of the core loaded with 69, 72, 74, 86, 88, 89 and 92 fuel elements. The effective multiplication coefficients equal 1 within the error ranges of less than 0.38%. b/ The thermal neutron flux distribution in the reactor. The calculated results agree with the experimental data measured at 11 typical positions. c/The average fuel burn-up for the period from Feb. 1984 to Sep. 1992. The difference between calculation and experiment is only about 1.9%. 10 fuel reloading versions are calculated, from which an optimal version is proposed. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. New approach to derive linear power/burnup history input for CANDU fuel codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lac Tang, T.; Richards, M.; Parent, G.

    2003-01-01

    The fuel element linear power / burnup history is a required input for the ELESTRES code in order to simulate CANDU fuel behavior during normal operating conditions and also to provide input for the accident analysis codes ELOCA and SOURCE. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to derive 'true', or at least more realistic linear power / burnup histories. Such an approach can be used to recreate any typical bundle power history if only a single pair of instantaneous values of bundle power and burnup, together with the position in the channel, are known. The histories obtained could be useful to perform more realistic simulations for safety analyses for cases where the reference (overpower) history is not appropriate. (author)

  10. Isocrit: a burnup credit tool for spent fuel pool storage calculations - 333

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukboyaci, V.N.; Marshall, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to conservatively apply burnup credit in spent fuel pool criticality safety analyses, Westinghouse has developed a software tool, ISOCRIT, for generating depletion isotopics. This tool is used to create isotopics data based on specific reactor input parameters, such as design basis assembly type; bounding power/burnup profiles; reactor specific moderator temperature profiles; pellet percent theoretical density; burnable absorbers, axial blanket regions, and bounding ppm boron concentration. ISOCRIT generates burnup dependent isotopics using PARAGON; Westinghouse's state-of-the-art and licensed lattice physics code. Generation of isotopics and passing the data to the subsequent 3D KENO calculations are performed in an automated fashion, thus reducing the chance for human error. Furthermore, ISOCRIT provides the means for responding to any customer request regarding re-analysis due to changed parameters (e.g., power up-rate, exit temperature changes, etc) with a quick turnaround. (authors)

  11. Studies on validation possibilities for computational codes for criticality and burnup calculations of boiling water reactor fuel; Untersuchungen zu Validierungsmoeglichkeiten von Rechencodes fuer Kritikalitaets- und Abbrandrechnungen von Siedewasserreaktor-Brennstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, Matthais; Hannstein, Volker; Kilger, Robert; Sommer, Fabian; Stuke, Maik

    2017-06-15

    The Application of the method of Burn-up Credit on Boiling Water Reactor fuel is much more complex than in the case of Pressurized Water Reactors due to the increased heterogeneity and complexity of the fuel assemblies. Strongly varying enrichments, complex fuel assembly geometries, partial length fuel rods, and strong axial variations of the moderator density make the verification of conservative irradiation conditions difficult. In this Report, it was investigated whether it is possible to take into account the burn-up in criticality analyses for systems with irradiated Boiling Water Reactor fuel on the basis of freely available experimental data and by additionally applying stochastic methods. In order to achieve this goal, existing methods for stochastic analysis were adapted and further developed in order to being applicable to the specific conditions needed in Boiling Water Reactor analysis. The aim was to gain first insight whether a workable scheme for using burn-up credit in Boiling Water Reactor applications can be derived. Due to the fact that the different relevant quantities, like e.g. moderator density and the axial power profile, are strongly correlated, the GRS-tool SUnCISTT for Monte-Carlo uncertainty quantification was used in the analysis. This tool was coupled to a simplified, consistent model for the irradiation conditions. In contrast to conventional methods, this approach allows to simultaneously analyze all involved effects.

  12. Review of Halden Reactor Project high burnup fuel data that can be used in safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, W.

    1996-01-01

    The fuels and materials testing programmes carried out at the OECD Halden Reactor Project are aimed at providing data in support of a mechanistic understanding of phenomena, especially as related to high burnup fuel. The investigations are focused on identifying long term property changes, and irradiation techniques and instrumentation have been developed over the years which enable to assess fuel behaviour and properties in-pile. The fuel-cladding gap has an influence on both thermal and mechanical behaviour. Improved gap conductance due to gap closure at high exposure is observed even in the case of a strong contamination with released fission gas. On the other hand, pellet-cladding mechanical interaction, which is measured with cladding elongation detectors and diameter gauges, is re-established after a phase with less interaction and is increasing. These developments are exemplified with data showing changes of fuel temperature, hydraulic diameter and cladding elongation with burnup. Fuel swelling and cladding primary and secondary creep have been successfully measured in-pile. They provide data for, e.g., the possible cladding lift-off to be accounted for at high burnup. Fuel conductivity degradation is observed as a gradual temperature increase with burnup. This affects stored heat, fission gas release and temperature dependent fuel behaviour in general. The Halden Project's data base on fission gas release shows that the phenomenon is associated with an accumulation of gas atoms at the grain boundaries to a critical concentration before appreciable release occurs. This is accompanied by an increase of the surface-to-volume ratio measured in-pile in gas flow experiments. A typical observation at high burnup is also that a burst release of fission gas may occur during a power decrease. Gas flow and pressure equilibration experiments have shown that axial communication is severely restricted at high burnup

  13. High Burnup Fuel Behaviour under LOCA Conditions as Observed in Halden Reactor Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, E.; Wiesenack, W.; Oberlander, B.; Tverberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of assessing the validity of safety criteria for loss of coolant accidents with high burnup fuel, the OECD Halden Reactor Project has implemented an integral in-pile LOCA test series. In this series, fuel fragmentation and relocation, axial gas communication in high burnup rods as affected by gap closure and fuel- clad bonding, and secondary cladding oxidation and hydriding are of major interest. In addition, the data are being used for code validation as well as model development and verification. So far, nine tests with irradiated fuel segments (burnup 40-92 MW.d.kg -1 ) from PWR, BWR and VVER commercial nuclear power plants have been carried out. The in-pile measurements and the PIE results show a good repeatability of the experiments. The paper describes the experimental setup as well as the principal features and main results of these tests. Fuel fragmentation and relocation have occurred to varying degrees in these tests. The paper compares the conditions leading to the presence or absence of fuel fragmentation, e.g., burnup and loss of constraint. Axial gas flow is an important driving force for clad ballooning, fuel relocation and fuel expulsion. The experiments have provided evidence that such gas flow can be impeded in high burnup fuel with a potential impact on the ballooning and fuel dispersal. Although the results of the Halden LOCA tests are, to some extent, amplified by conditions and features deliberately introduced into the test series, the fuel behaviour identified in the Halden tests has an impact on the safety assessment of high burnup fuel and should give rise to improvements of the predictive capabilities of LOCA modelling codes. (author)

  14. Effect of fissile isotope burnup on criticality safety for stored disintegrated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Selby, G.P.

    1978-09-01

    If the fuel rods were to disintegrate and water added, a criticality could occur in a 13-in. PWR canister with fresh fuel enriched to 3.5 wt % 235 U. The question is, ''If credit could be taken for burnup, could this indicate a subcritical condition.'' In attempting to answer this question, a series of calculations were performed. A set of isotopic concentrations were generated for 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, and 20,000 MWD/MTU burnup levels. Four reflector materials, water, concrete and two types of soil, were considered. Results indicate that allowing credit for fissile isotope burnup does not completely remove the concern for criticality safety in the event of rod disintegration. Reactivities which are ''subcritical'' (k/sub eff/ = 0.95) would not occur for three of the four reflector materials at even the 20,000 MWD/MTU burnup level in the 13-in. canister. The water reflected canister would achieve the k/sub eff/ = 0.95 level near 18,000 MWD/MTU. A smaller canister could be postulated. If a quarter inch gap is allowed, a Westinghouse 17 x 17 PWR assembly requires a 12 1 / 4 inch diameter canister. For such a canister with water reflection the ''subcritical'' (k/sub eff/ = 0.95) level would be reached near 15,000 MWD/MTU. The soil reflected canisters would reach this level between 18,000 and 19,000 MWD/MTU. Considering the difficulties in taking credit for burnup, such modest gains in apparent safety are not encouraging. This situation might be improved, however, if credit were also taken for neutron absorption by fission product poisons produced during burnup. It is strongly recommended that other approaches to a solution of the criticality safety problem be considered

  15. Determination of fissile fraction in MOX (mixed U + Pu oxides) fuels for different burnup values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Levent; Acar, Banu Bulut; Zabunoglu, Okan H.

    2011-01-01

    When spent Light Water Reactor fuels are processed by the standard Purex method of reprocessing, plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) in spent fuel are obtained as pure and separate streams. The recovered Pu has a fissile content (consisting of 239 Pu and 241 Pu) greater than 60% typically (although it mainly depends on discharge burnup of spent fuel). The recovered Pu can be recycled as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel after being blended with a fertile U makeup in a MOX fabrication plant. The burnup that can be obtained from MOX fuel depends on: (1) isotopic composition of Pu, which is closely related to the discharge burnup of spent fuel from which Pu is recovered; (2) the type of fertile U makeup material used (depleted U, natural U, or recovered U); and (3) fraction of makeup material in the mix (blending ratio), which in turn determines the total fissile fraction of MOX. Using the Non-linear Reactivity Model and the code MONTEBURNS, a step-by-step procedure for computing the total fissile content of MOX is introduced. As was intended, the resulting expression is simple enough for quick/hand calculations of total fissile content of MOX required to reach a desired burnup for a given discharge burnup of spent fuel and for a specified fertile U makeup. In any case, due to non-fissile (parasitic) content of recovered Pu, a greater fissile fraction in MOX than that in fresh U is required to obtain the same burnup as can be obtained by the fresh U fuel.

  16. Current studies related to the use of burnup credit in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, Jerome; Lavarenne, Caroline; Barreau, Anne; Riffard, Cecile; Roque, Benedicte; Bioux, Philippe; Doucet, Michel; Guillou, Eric; Leka, Georges; Toubon, Herve

    2003-01-01

    In order to avoid criticality risks, a large number of facilities using spent fuels have been designed considering the fuel as fresh. This choice has obviously led to considerable safety margins. In the early 80's, a method was accepted by the French Safety Authorities allowing to consider the changes in the fuel composition during the depletion with some very pessimistic hypothesis: only actinides were considered and the amount of burnup used in the studies was equal to the mean burnup in the 50-least-irradiated centimeters. As many facilities still want to optimize their processes (e.g. transportation, storage, fuel reprocessing), the main companies involved in the French nuclear industry, researchers and IRSN set up a Working Group in order to study the way burnup could be taken into account in the criticality calculations, considering some fission products and a more realistic axial profile of burnup. The first of this article introduces the current French method used to take burnup into account in the criticality studies. The second part is devoted to the studies achieved by the Working Group to improve this method, especially concerning the consideration of the neutron absorption of some fission products and of an axial profile of burnup: for that purpose, some results are presented related to the steps of the process like the depletion calculations, the definition of an axial profile and the criticality calculation. In the third part, some results (keff) obtained with fission products and an axial profile are compared to those obtained with the current one. The conclusions presented are related to the present state of knowledge and may differ from the final conclusions of the Working Group. (author)

  17. Isotopic validation for PWR actinide-only burnup credit using Yankee Rowe data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Safety analyses of criticality control systems for transportation packages include an assumption that the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) loaded into the package is fresh or unirradiated. In other words, the spent fuel is assumed to have its original, as-manufactured U-235 isotopic content. The ''fresh fuel'' assumption is very conservative since the potential reactivity of the nuclear fuel is substantially reduced after being irradiated in the reactor core. The concept of taking credit for this reduction in nuclear fuel reactivity due to burnup of the fuel, instead of using the fresh fuel assumption in the criticality safety analysis, is referred to as ''Burnup Credit.'' Burnup credit uses the actual physical composition of the fuel and accounts for the net reduction of fissile material and the buildup of neutron absorbers in the fuel as it is irradiated. Neutron absorbers include actinides and other isotopes generated as a result of the fission process. Using only the change in actinide isotopes in the burnup credit criticality analysis is referred to as ''Actinide-Only Burnup Credit.'' The use of burnup credit in the design of criticality control systems enables more spent fuel to be placed in a package. Increased package capacity results in a reduced number of storage, shipping and disposal containers for a given number of SNF assemblies. Fewer shipments result in a lower risk of accidents associated with the handling and transportation of spent fuel, thus reducing both radiological and nonradiological risk to the public. This paper describes the modeling and the results of comparison between measured and calculated isotopic inventories for a selected number of samples taken from a Yankee Rowe spent fuel assembly

  18. K-infinite trends with burnup, enrichment, and cooling time for BWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1998-08-01

    This report documents the work performed by ORNL for the Yucca Mountain project (YMP) M and O contractor, Framatome Cogema Fuels. The goal of this work was to obtain k inf values for infinite arrays of flooded boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies as a function of various burnup/enrichment and cooling-time combinations. These scenarios simulate expected limiting criticality loading conditions (for a given assembly type) for drift emplacements in a repository. Upon consultation with the YMP staff, a Quad Cities BWR fuel assembly was selected as a baseline assembly. This design consists of seven axial enrichment zones, three of which contain natural uranium oxide. No attempt was made to find a bounding or even typical assembly design due to the wide variety in fuel assembly designs necessary for consideration. The current work concentrates on establishing a baseline analysis, along with a small number of sensitivity studies which can be expected later if desired. As a result of similar studies of this nature, several effects are known to be important in the determination of the final k inf for spent fuel in a cask-like geometry. For a given enrichment there is an optimal burnup: for lower burnups, excess energy (and corresponding excess reactivity) is present in the fuel assembly; for larger burnups, the assembly is overburned and essentially driven by neighboring fuel assemblies. The majority of the burnup/enrichment scenarios included in this study were for some near-optimum burnup/enrichment combinations as determined from Energy Information Administration (EIA) data. Several calculations were performed for under- and over-burned fuel to show these effects

  19. A new approach to make collapsed cross section for burnup calculation of subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaka, Masayuki; Kondo, Keitaro; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Murata, Isao

    2008-01-01

    A general-purpose transport and burnup code system for precise analysis of subcritical reactors like a fusion-fission (FF) hybrid reactor was developed and used for analyzing their performance. The FF hybrid reactor is a subcritical system, which has a concept of fusion reactor with a blanket region containing nuclear fuel and has been under discussion by author's group for years because the present burnup calculation system mainly consists of a general-purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B, a point burnup code ORIGEN2. JENDL-3.3 pointwise cross section library and JENDL Activation Cross Section File 96 were used as base cross section libraries to make group constant for burnup calculation. A new method has been proposed to make group constant for the burnup calculation as accurate as possible directly using output data of the neutron transport calculation by MCNP and evaluated nuclear data libraries. This method is strict and a general procedure to make one group cross sections in Monte Carlo calculations, while it takes very long computation time. Some speed-up techniques were discussed for the present group constant making process so as to decrease calculation time. Adoption of postprocessing to make group constant improved the calculation accuracy because of increasing number of cross sections to be updated in each burnup cycle. The present calculation system is capable of performing neutronics analysis of subcritical reactors more precise than our previous one. However, at the moment, it still takes long computation time to make group constants. Further speed-up techniques are now under investigation so as to apply the present system to neutronics design analysis for various subcritical systems. (author)

  20. Preliminary neutronic design of high burnup OTTO cycle pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiadipura, T.; Zuhair; Irwanto, D.

    2015-01-01

    The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR) which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO) cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor design in general, is improving the nuclear fuel utilization which is shown by attaining a higher burnup value. This study performed a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt OTTO cycle PBR with high burnup while fulfilling the safety criteria of the PBR design.The safety criteria of the design was represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. The maximum burnup value was also limited by the tested maximum burnup value which maintained the integrity of the pebble fuel. Parametric surveys were performed to obtain the optimized parameters used in this study, which are the fuel enrichment, per-pebble heavy metal (HM) loading, and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum design with burnup value of 131.1 MWd/Kg-HM was achieved in this study which is much higher compare to the burnup of the reference design HTR-MODUL and a previously proposed OTTO-cycle PBR design. This optimum design uses 17% U-235 enrichment with 4 g HM-loading per fuel pebble. (author)

  1. Impact on burnup performance of coated particle fuel design in pebble bed reactor with ROX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hai Quan; Obara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The pebble bed reactor (PBR), a kind of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is expected to be among the next generation of nuclear reactors as it has excellent passive safety features, as well as online refueling and high thermal efficiency. Rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel has been studied at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a new once-through type fuel concept. Rock-like oxide used as fuel in a PBR can be expected to achieve high burnup and improve chemical stabilities. In the once-through fuel concept, the main challenge is to achieve as high a burnup as possible without failure of the spent fuel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on burnup performance of different coated fuel particle (CFP) designs in a PBR with ROX fuel. In the study, the AGR-1 Coated Particle design and Deep-Burn Coated Particle design were used to make the burnup performance comparison. Criticality and core burnup calculations were performed by MCPBR code using the JENDL-4.0 library. Results at equilibrium showed that the two reactors utilizing AGR-1 Coated Particle and Deep-Burn Coated Particle designs could be critical with almost the same multiplication factor k eff . However, the power peaking factor and maximum power per fuel ball in the AGR-1 coated particle design was lower than that of Deep-Burn coated particle design. The AGR-1 design also showed an advantage in fissions per initial fissile atoms (FIFA); the AGR-1 coated particle design produced a higher FIFA than the Deep-Burn coated particle design. These results suggest that the difference in coated particle fuel design can have an effect on the burnup performance in ROX fuel. (author)

  2. Preliminary Neutronic Design of High Burnup OTTO Cycle Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Setiadipura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor design in general, is improving the nuclear fuel utilization which is shown by attaining a higher burnup value. This study performed a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt OTTO cycle PBR with high burnup while fulfilling the safety criteria of the PBR design.The safety criteria of the design was represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. The maximum burnup value was also limited by the tested maximum burnup value which maintained the integrity of the pebble fuel. Parametric surveys were performed to obtain the optimized parameters used in this study, which are the fuel enrichment, per-pebble heavy metal (HM loading, and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum design with burnup value of 131.1 MWd/Kg-HM was achieved in this study which is much higher compare to the burnup of the reference design HTR-MODUL and a previously proposed OTTO-cycle PBR design. This optimum design uses 17% U-235 enrichment with 4 g HM-loading per fuel pebble

  3. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L.; Saito, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 231 Pa, 232 U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations

  4. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 232}U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations.

  5. Sensitivity and parametric evaluations of significant aspects of burnup credit for PWR spent fuel packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    Spent fuel transportation and storage cask designs based on a burnup credit approach must consider issues that are not relevant in casks designed under a fresh-fuel loading assumption. For example, the spent fuel composition must be adequately characterized and the criticality analysis model can be complicated by the need to consider axial burnup variations. Parametric analyses are needed to characterize the importance of fuel assembly and fuel cycle parameters on spent fuel composition and reactivity. Numerical models must be evaluated to determine the sensitivity of criticality safety calculations to modeling assumptions. The purpose of this report is to describe analyses and evaluations performed in order to demonstrate the effect physical parameters and modeling assumptions have on the criticality analysis of spent fuel. The analyses in this report include determination and ranking of the most important actinides and fission products; study of the effect of various depletion scenarios on subsequent criticality calculations; establishment of trends in neutron multiplication as a function of fuel enrichment, burnup, cooling time- and a parametric and modeling evaluation of three-dimensional effects (e.g., axially varying burnup and temperature/density effects) in a conceptual cask design. The sensitivity and parametric evaluations were performed with the consideration of two different burnup credit approaches: (1) only actinides in the fuel are considered in the criticality analysis, and (2) both actinides and fission products are considered. Calculations described in this report were performed using the criticality and depletion sequences available in the SCALE code system and the SCALE 27-group burnup library. Although the results described herein do not constitute a validation of SCALE for use in spent fuel analysis, independent validation efforts have been completed and are described in other reports

  6. Sensitivity and parametric evaluations of significant aspects of burnup credit for PWR spent fuel packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    Spent fuel transportation and storage cask designs based on a burnup credit approach must consider issues that are not relevant in casks designed under a fresh-fuel loading assumption. For example, the spent fuel composition must be adequately characterized and the criticality analysis model can be complicated by the need to consider axial burnup variations. Parametric analyses are needed to characterize the importance of fuel assembly and fuel cycle parameters on spent fuel composition and reactivity. Numerical models must be evaluated to determine the sensitivity of criticality safety calculations to modeling assumptions. The purpose of this report is to describe analyses and evaluations performed in order to demonstrate the effect physical parameters and modeling assumptions have on the criticality analysis of spent fuel. The analyses in this report include determination and ranking of the most important actinides and fission products; study of the effect of various depletion scenarios on subsequent criticality calculations; establishment of trends in neutron multiplication as a function of fuel enrichment, burnup, cooling time- and a parametric and modeling evaluation of three-dimensional effects (e.g., axially varying burnup and temperature/density effects) in a conceptual cask design. The sensitivity and parametric evaluations were performed with the consideration of two different burnup credit approaches: (1) only actinides in the fuel are considered in the criticality analysis, and (2) both actinides and fission products are considered. Calculations described in this report were performed using the criticality and depletion sequences available in the SCALE code system and the SCALE 27-group burnup library. Although the results described herein do not constitute a validation of SCALE for use in spent fuel analysis, independent validation efforts have been completed and are described in other reports.

  7. Schemes for fuel conservation for PHWRs due for complete fuel discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Ravi; Kumar, Deepak; Tejram

    2009-01-01

    Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) consists of twin units of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR) using natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator and coolant. On-power bi-directional refueling is employed at NAPS. En Masse Coolant Channel Replacement (EMCCR) necessitates the low burn-up bundles present in core to be utilized. The different schemes of In-core fuel management viz. internal, total internal and external recycling were worked out to utilize these low burn-up bundles. This led to saving of: (a) 2011 natural uranium bundles at NAPS and (b) 4 and half months in NAPS-1 and 3 and half months in case of NAPS-2 in core de-fueling time. (author)

  8. Study of the influence of slab perturbation in the cell on the fuel local burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takac, S.; Kocic, A.; Dimitrijevic, Z.; Markovic, H.; Dimitrijevic, V.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of construction material or voids in the fuel element on the fuel burnup was the objective of this study. Experiments were done by cell perturbation method. Theoretical method was developed for calculating the effect of reactor cell perturbation. Obtained results both experimental and theoretical clearly indicate that the minimum quantity of construction material or void cause local increase of neutron flux in the mentioned regions. This increase of flux which amounts to nearly ten percent, and can reach the value of a few tens percent leads to the local increase of fuel burnup [sr

  9. New Fuel Alloys Seeking Optimal Solidus and Phase Behavior for High Burnup and TRU Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, V.S.; Jones, Z.S.; Olson, D.L.; Mishra, B.; Mariani, R.D.; Porter, D.L.; Kennedy, J.R.; Hayes, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • Pd will bind lanthanide fission products. • 2 wt% Pd in alloy is expected to allow 20 at% Heavy Metal burnup, 4 wt% Pd possibly 30-40 at% HM burnup. • For recycled fuel with some lanthanide carryover, palladium additive will also prevent premature FCCI. • Novel uranium alloy systems suitable for burning transuranics were identified. • U-Mo-Ti-Zr and U-W-Mo irradiations may perform comparably to U-10Zr, but the real tests needed must include Pu and Np for TRU burning. – Diffusion couples with alloys and Fe or cladding; – Irradiations

  10. VAMPIR - A two-group two-dimensional diffusion computer code for burnup calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmijarevic, I.; Petrovic, I.

    1985-01-01

    VAMPIR is a computer code which simulates the burnup within a reactor coe. It computes the neutron flux, power distribution and burnup taking into account spatial variations of temperature and xenon poisoning. Its overall reactor calculation uses diffusion theory with finite differences approximation in X-Y or R-Z geometry. Two-group macroscopic cross section data are prepared by the lattice cell code WIMS-D4 and stored in the library form of multi entry tabulation against the various parameters that significantly affect the physical conditions in the reactor core. herein, the main features of the program are presented. (author)

  11. The use of burnup credit in criticality control for the Korean spent fuel management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Duck Joon; Chon, Je Keun; Park, Chung Ryul; Ji, Pyung Kuk; Kim, Byung Tae; Jo, Chang Keun; Cho, Nam Zin

    1997-01-01

    More than 25% k-eff saving effect is observed in this burnup credit analysis. This mainly comes from the adoption of actinide nuclides and fission products in the criticality analysis. By taking burnup credit, the high capacity of the storage and transportation can be more fully utilized, reducing the space of storage and the number of shipments. Larger storage and fewer shipments for a given inventory of spent fuel result should in remarkable cost savings and more importantly reduce the risks to the public and occupational workers for the Korean Spent Fuel Management Program

  12. International studies on burnup credit criticality safety by an OECD/NEA working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.C.; Okuno, H.; DeHart, M.D.; Nouri, A.; Sartori, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results and conclusions from a six-year study by an international benchmarking group in the comparison of computational methods for evaluating burnup credit in criticality safety analyses is presented. Approximately 20 participants from 12 countries have provided results for most problems. Four detailed benchmark problems for pressurized-water-reactor fuel have been completed. Results from work being finalized, addressing burnup credit for boiling-water-reactor fuel, are discussed, as well as planned activities for additional benchmarks, including mixed-oxide fuels, and other activities

  13. Post Irradiation Examination Plan for High-Burnup Demonstration Project Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Rose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This test plan describes the experimental work to be implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) to characterize high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in conjunction with the High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project and serves to coordinate and integrate the multi-year experimental program to collect and develop data regarding the continued storage and eventual transport of HBU (i.e., >45 GWd/MTU) SNF. The work scope involves the development, performance, technical integration, and oversight of measurements and collection of relevant data, guided by analyses and demonstration of need.

  14. Recent developments of the TRANSURANUS code with emphasis on high burnup phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, K.; Schubert, A.; Laar, J. van de; Vennix, C.W.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    TRANSURANUS is a computer program for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods in nuclear reactors, which is developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The code is in use in several European organisations, both in research and industry. In the paper the recent developments are summarised: the burnup degradation of the fuel thermal conductivity as well as the effects of gadolinium on the radial power distribution and thermal conductivity. Fission gas release from the High Burnup Structure is discussed. Finally, a new numerical method is outlined that is able to treat the highly non-linear mechanical equations in transients (RIAs and LOCAs). (author)

  15. Technical and economic limits to fuel burnup extension. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    For many years, the increase of efficiency in the production of nuclear electricity has been an economic challenge in many countries which have developed this kind of energy. The increase of fuel burnup leads to a reduction in the volume of spent fuel discharged to longer fuel cycles in the reactor, which means bigger availability and capacity factors. After having increased the authorized burnup in plants, developing new alloys capable of resisting high burnup, and having accumulated data on fuel evolution with burnup, it has become necessary to establish the limitations which could be imposed by the physical evolution of the fuel, influencing fuel management, neutron properties, reprocessing or, more generally, the management of waste and irradiated fuels. It is also necessary to verify whether the benefits of lower electricity costs would not be offset by an increase in fuel management costs. The main questions are: Are technical and economic limits to the increasing of fuel burnup in parallel? Can we envisage nowadays the hardest limitation in some of these areas? Which are the main points to be solved from the technical point of view? Is this effort worthwhile considering the economy of the cycle? To which extent? For these reasons, the IAEA, following a recommendation by the International Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology, held a Technical Committee Meeting on Technical and Economic Limits to Fuel Burnup Extension. The purpose of this meeting was to provide an international forum to review the evolution of fuel properties at increased burnup in order to estimate the limitations both from a physical and an economic point of view. The meeting was therefore divided into two parts. The first part, focusing on technical limits, was devoted to the improvement of the fuel element, such as fission gas release (FGR), RIM effect, cladding, etc. and the fabrication, core management, spent fuel and reprocessing. Eighteen related papers were presented which

  16. Benefits of cycle stretchout in pressurized water reactor extended-burnup fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Leung, D.C.; Liu, Y.; Beekmann, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are inherently capable of operating for a substantial period beyond their nominal end of cycle (EOC) as a result of negative moderator and fuel temperature coefficients and the decrease in xenon poisoning with lower core power levels. This inherent capability can be used to advantage to reduce annual uranium makeup requirements and cycle energy costs by the use of planned EOC stretchout. This paper discusses the fuel utilization efficiency and economics of both the five-batch, extended-burnup cycle and the three-batch, standard-burnup cycle, which can be improved by employing planned EOC (end of cycle) stretchout. 11 refs

  17. Fission gas release from UO2 pellet fuel at high burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, C.; Kolstad, E.; Graziani, U.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of in-reactor measurements of fuel center temperature and rod internal pressure at the OECD Halden Reactor Project has led to the development of an empirical fission gas release model, which is described. The model originally derived from data obtained in the low and intermediate burn-up range, appears to give good predictions for rods irradiated to high exposures as well. PIE puncturing data from seven fuel rods, operated at relatively constant powers and peak center temperatures between 1900 and 2000 0 C up to approx. 40,000 MWd/t UO 2 , did not exhibit any burn-up enhancement on the fission gas release rate

  18. Extended burnup demonstration: reactor fuel program. Pre-irradiation characterization and summary of pre-program poolside examinations. Big Rock Point extended burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exarhos, C.A.; Van Swam, L.F.; Wahlquist, F.P.

    1981-12-01

    This report is a resource document characterizing the 64 fuel rods being irradiated at the Big Rock Point reactor as part of the Extended Burnup Demonstration being sponsored jointly by the US Department of Energy, Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, and General Public Utilities. The program entails extending the exposure of standard BWR fuel to a discharge average of 38,000 MWD/MTU to demonstrate the feasibility of operating fuel of standard design to levels significantly above current limits. The fabrication characteristics of the Big Rock Point EBD fuel are presented along with measurement of rod length, rod diameter, pellet stack height, and fuel rod withdrawal force taken at poolside at burnups up to 26,200 MWD/MTU. A review of the fuel examination data indicates no performance characteristics which might restrict the continued irradiation of the fuel

  19. Effect of high burn-up and MOX fuel on reprocessing, vitrification and disposal of PWR and BWR spent fuels based on accurate burn-up calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Iwasaki, T.; Wada, K. [Tohoku Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Suyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    To examine the procedures of the reprocessing, the vitrification and the geologic disposal, precise burn-up calculation for high burn-up and MOX fuels has been performed for not only PWR but also BWR by using SWAT and SWAT2 codes which are the integrated bum-up calculation code systems combined with the bum-up calculation code, ORIGEN2, and the transport calculation code, SRAC (the collision probability method) or MVP (the continuous energy Monte Carlo method), respectively. The calculation results shows that all of the evaluated items (heat generation and concentrations of Mo and Pt) largely increase and those significantly effect to the current procedures of the vitrification and the geologic disposal. The calculation result by SWAT2 confirms that the bundle calculation is required for BWR to be discussed about those effects in details, especially for the MOX fuel. (authors)

  20. The burn-up credit physics and the 40. Minerve anniversary; La physique du credit Burn-Up et le 40. anniversaire de Minerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamarina, A [CEA/Cadarache, Departement d' Etudes des Reacteurs, DER/SPRC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Toubon, H [Cogema, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Trakas, C [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris La Defense (France); and others

    2000-03-21

    The technical meeting organized by the SFEN on the burn-up credit (CBU) physics, took place the 23 november 1999 at Cadarache. the first presentation dealt with the economic interest and the neutronic problems of the CBU. Then two papers presented how taking into account the CBU in the industry in matter of transport, storage in pool, reprocessing and criticality calculation (MCNP4/Apollo2-F benchmark). An experimental method for the reactivity measurement through oscillations in the Minerve reactor, has been presented with an analysis of the possible errors. The future research program OSMOSE, taking into account the minor actinides in the CBU, was also developed. The last paper presented the national and international research programs in the CBU domain, in particular experiments realized in CEA/Valduc and the OECD Burn-up Criticality Benchmark Group activities. (A.L.B.)