WorldWideScience

Sample records for candidate vllw disposal

  1. Disposal of very low level radioactive wastes (VLLW) in conventional industry - case of landfill for municipal or industrial refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an investigation of waste acceptance criteria for municipal or industrial refuse disposal facilities, in application of the radiological protection principles defined by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). Results for two methods of approach are presented and compared with results obtained for systematic VLLW exemption and for waste acceptance in a near surface disposal center for radiotoxic waste. (au)

  2. Clearance, Reuse, Recycle, disposal as VLLW. A role for all of these options in the optimisation of rad waste management in decommissioning - more work needed on optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudio Pescatore of the OECD/NEA looked at the options available for treatment and disposal of waste from a decommissioning operation and the national variations with which these options are applied. By comparing three national strategies (France, Sweden, Germany), several conclusions were reached. The key message from the presentation was that a choice of treatment and disposal options is vital to optimising a national waste management strategy, including clearance and VLLW disposal which can also offer cost benefits. Claudio finished with a review of some of the work already completed by the NEA and their future programme of work looking at optimisation of waste management approaches

  3. Disposal of VLLW at the Grand View, Idaho, hazardous waste site, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex provides a case study of the Grand View, Idaho, hazardous waste site's experience obtaining permit approvals and disposing of very low activity radioactive waste. To date, the Idaho facility has accepted more than 1.3 million t of low activity material. While rare earth processors and other industry facilities have utilized the Grand View site for low activity waste, most waste has been shipped from federal government remediation projects involving large volumes of contaminated soil and debris

  4. Application of VLLW management principles to the CEA research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the content of a CEA policy relating to very low level waste management elaborated in application of the waste management principles defined in France. The policy deals with very low level waste, subject to recycling, incineration or landfill disposal. It does not deal with reuse. The following principles are applicable to waste streams produced by CEA nuclear installations either during operating or dismantling activities. The policy deals only with very low level wastes (VLLW) (order of magnitude: <100 Bq/g for high energy emitters). It does not deal with low, intermediate or high level waste, which are either recycled or incinerated in nuclear industry or disposed of in the Aube surface disposal (CSA) or kept in intermediate storage, before geological disposal or any alternative final solution

  5. Radiological impact of co-location of the VLLW and LILW repository at Mochovce site - 59152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAVYS, the Nuclear Decommissioning Company owner and operator of National Radioactive Waste Repository (NRR) at Mochovce, is planning the enlargement of the existing NRR. The enlargement consists of the construction of new structures (double rows) like the ones existing for LILW and of the new facility for the disposal of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW). A VLLW disposal site is being planned in Mochovce where a LILW disposal site is already located. As a part of ongoing licensing process for this change in utilization of the NRR we have updated the already existing assessment of potential radiological impact to members of the public after closure of the site, both from the migration of leachate in groundwater from the site and from possible inadvertent intrusion into the site, including future residence on the material excavated for the construction of the road. The radionuclides from the ground water reach the biosphere through a spring flowing into the lake. It is conservatively assumed that individual in the critical group uses biosphere of the lake (for irrigations, fishing and recreation). In the case of unintentional intrusion into the repository, the exposed group consists of a small number of workers who excavate or examine repository materials. The assessment is based on preliminary conceptual design for VLLW module, estimation of future volumes for the different waste classes and their radiological inventories and considers some common aspects and potential interactions between both disposal systems, such as radiological criteria, critical group definition, institutional period, site environment, total activity inventory. (authors)

  6. Proposal for a method of identification, quantification and characterization of VLLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are treated:(i) Identification and quantification of very low level radioactive waste in the Czech Republic (proposal for limiting levels for VLLW in the Czech Republic; quantification of VLLW in the Czech Republic); and Proposal for characterization of VLLW (difficult nature of radionuclide detection; description of suitable measuring methods; available measuring techniques). (P.A.)

  7. VLLW management: new standards and new approach in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most complicated issues of the operating nuclear plant safety and further development of nuclear power engineering and industry is a solid radioactive waste (SRW) management at the all stages of its generation. The issue is specifically important for Russia because of its great number of military-industrial complexes, nuclear power plants (NPP), nuclear fuel cycle companies and previously contaminated territories. The considered problem has both social and economic aspects, and it is important for NPPs and nuclear industry plants, including nuclear energy operation and development both in Russia and in other countries with nuclear industry and/or economy. As a rule, new approaches and new standards allow to tackle the previously 'non-decidable' issues. Presented standard and technologies could change, for example, relation to VLLW (very low level waste) storing and, at the same time, to decommissioning of NPP units and NPS. Presented technological diagrams for radioactive waste management are based on the taking into account of all radwaste and of its treatment. Such treatment permits to transfer the largest part of such waste, up to 90 per cent and more, from nuclear and radiation installations, facilities and sites, into a slightly contaminated and low activity solid waste sub-category of limited usefulness waste (VLLW). VLLW can be placed in an industrial landfill, according to the available standard of Russia, with the necessary radiation control. The performed conservative assessment of such industrial landfills personals' exposure dose, its near-leaving population radiation safety and an environmental protection in the area proved both feasibility and undoubted practicability of such industrial landfills for operation and decommissioning of NPPs and other nuclear plants

  8. VLLW/Exempt Waste Assay at AWE Using Cronos - 12001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have indicated that waste bag photon monitors, such as the CANBERRA Cronos-11, have the potential to assay photon emitting uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) contaminated wastes at the new UK VLLW/exempt waste thresholds of 1 Bq/g U and 0.15 Bq/g Pu. However, the technique has limitations associated with the operation of its plastic scintillation photon detectors. These include the absence of isotopic information and a variable detector background that is modified by the chemical and physical composition of the waste as well as the presence of any naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Hence, it is vital to operate Cronos in a low/non-fluctuating background environment and segregate wastes according to isotopic fingerprint, NORM concentration and waste composition. This paper presents results from subsequent Cronos measurements on a range of uncontaminated waste materials, contaminated wastes from Pu and U facilities and a National Physical Laboratory (NPL) waste package standard. The results were consistent with other assay techniques and show that Cronos can be used for exempt waste assay provided that it is operated in a low/non-fluctuating background area and the waste is well segregated before monitoring. (author)

  9. Characteristics study of bentonite as candidate of buffer materials for radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature studies on bentonite characteristic of, as candidate for radioactive waste disposal system, have been conducted. Several information have been obtained from references, which would be contributed on performance assessment of engineered barrier. The functions bentonite includes the buffering of chemical and physical behavior, i.e. swelling property, self sealing, hydraulic conductivities and gas permeability. This paper also presented long-term stability of bentonite in natural condition related to the illitisazation, which could change its buffering capacities. These information, showed that bentonite was satisfied to be used for candidate of buffer materials in radioactive waste disposal system. (author)

  10. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  11. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Weiss, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel ∼ Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials [CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)], which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr+ ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10−2 g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred

  20. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Localized corrosion of a candidate container material for high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized corrosion is one of the important considerations in the design of metallic containers used for the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. This paper addresses the effect of environmental factors on the localized corrosion behavior of alloy 825, one of the candidate alloys for containers in the Yucca Mountain repository site. A two-level, full factorial experimental design was used to examine the main effects and interactions of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, and temperature. This was augmented by additional experiments involving chloride and temperature at several levels. Cyclic, potentiodynamic polarization tests were used to determine the relative susceptibility of the alloy to localized corrosion. Crevice corrosion was detected at chloride levels as low as 20 ppm, and both pitting and crevice corrosion were observed at higher chloride levels. Among the environmental factors, chloride and sulfate were found to be promoters of localized corrosion, while nitrate and fluoride were inhibitors of localized corrosion. The experiments indicated that the electrochemical parameters (e.g., pitting potential, repassivation potential, or the difference between them) were not sufficient indicators of localized corrosion. Instead, the visual observation and electrochemical parameters were combined into an index, termed localized corrosion index (LCI), to quantify the extent of localized corrosion

  2. Study of Clay Materials as Host Rock for Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally some rock types such as crystalline, volcanic and clay materials have been using as host rock for radwaste disposal site. Objective of the paper is to completing the clays study for radwaste disposal through literature study which has related to information of clay. The characteristic of clay rocks, both physically and chemically has good potential for radwaste disposal site, due to this reason the clay rocks has been used for radwaste disposal in another countries. (author)

  3. The future supply of and demand for candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of a literature survey carried out to assess the future world supply of and demand for titanium, copper and lead. These metals are candidate materials for the fabrication of containers for the immobilization and disposal of Canada's nuclear used-fuel waste for a reference Used-fuel Disposal Centre. Such a facility may begin operation by approximately 2020, and continue for about 40 years. The survey shows that the world has abundant supplies of titanium minerals (mostly in the form of ilmenite), which are expected to last up to at least 2110. However, for copper and lead the balance between supply and demand may warrant increased monitoring beyond the year 2000. A number of factors that can influence future supply and demand are discussed in the report

  4. Geological evaluation of spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal in the site of NPP candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the consideration of techno-economy and environmental safety, the radioactive waste treatment installation (RWI), interim storage of spen fuel (ISSF) and low-intermediate level disposal shall be sited in the surrounding of NPP area. The land suitability of NPP's site candidate at Muria Peninsula as spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal need to be studied. Site selection was conducted by overlay method and scoring method, and based on safety criteria which include geological and environmental aspects. Land evaluation by overlay method has given result a potential site which have highest suitable land at surrounding of borehole L-15 about 17.5 hectares. Land evaluation by scoring method has given result two land suitability classes, i.e. moderate suitability class (includes 14 borehole) and high suitability class, include borehole L-2, L-14 and L-15 (author)

  5. Preliminary safety studies on a French candidate granite site for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general orientations for ANDRA have been defined by the law of 1991. It is specified that ANDRA has to assess, by the year 2006, the feasibility of deep geological disposal of long-lived waste. This will be performed on the basis of research and development work using at least two underground research laboratories, on different sites, to be built starting in 1998. Granite under sedimentary cover is one of the two types of geological medium which is under consideration at the present time. Several phases have been set up. The first one, until 1997, concerns the defining of a draft disposal concept. Efforts are being developed within this phase to determine the roles of each barrier within the disposal system. The second phase will include several iterative safety assessments using the results obtained from underground laboratories. This paper will deal with two major subjects: the preliminary description of the reference scenario for the normal evolution on a French granite site; and an application of the performance allocation method, using OASIS, which is a simplified safety computational tool developed for this purpose. (author)

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Compatibility of candidate overpack materials with deep argillaceous HLW disposal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian R and D programme on the disposal of high level radioactive waste has been focused on the qualification of deep argillaceous formations for HLW disposal, because they have a number of inherent attractive characteristics and also because they are sufficiently abundant to cover the Belgian needs. A large number of corrosion resistant materials as well as some corrosion allowance materials have been tested. The laboratory test program included accelerated tests as well as exposure tests in simulated repository conditions. Initial ''field'' experiments have been performed in a near surface clay quarry. However, in order to obtain realistic corrosion rate estimates corrosion experiments with simultaneous monitoring of the clay environment parameters have been started in a 230 meters deep underground laboratory constructed in the Boom clay formation at Mol. Two types of experimental devices have been designed. In the first type coupons are mounted on an internally heated tubular holder and are directly exposed to the solid clay. In a second type of test a purge gas is used to extract corrosive products from the clay and circulate them subsequently over a number of metal coupons. Relevant parameters such as pH and Eh are continuously monitored for evaluating the evolution of soil agressivity after the initial chemical and mechanical disturbance of the clay, caused by the operations required for the introduction of the experimental devices. (author)

  9. Geomorphologic characteristic of low-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal land candidate at Lemahabang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geomorphological aspect is a factor should be considered on land evaluation for radioactive wastes disposal purpose. The aspect is important because geomorphological factors contribute on hydrological and erosion condition of the land. The objective of the study is to characterize the geomorphological condition of the land, i.e. land form, geomorphological processes, rock type, soil, surface water, ground water, vegetation and land use. The study was conducted by descriptive analyses from literature study and field geomorphological method, with evaluation as well as developed for terrain analyses. The study area can be divided industry for land from units, I.e. tuff undulating unit (land use: plantation), coastal deposits plain unit, silty sand fluvial plain unit (land use: wet rice field) and unconsolidated sand beach deposits plain unit (opened land without vegetation). Hydrologically, the study area can be divided indus tri three small river stream area (RSA). Detailed description of geomorfological condition is showed by table and geomorphological map. (author)

  10. Inner material requirements and candidates screening for spent fuel disposal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the present Spanish 'once-through' nuclear fuel cycle, the need arises to complete the geological repository reference concept with a spent fuel canister final design. One of the main issues in its design is selecting the inner material to be placed inside the canister, between the steel walls and the spent fuel assemblies. The primary purpose of this material will be to avoid the possibility of a criticality event once the canister walls have been finally breached by corrosion and the spent fuel is flooded with groundwater. That is an important role because the increase in heat generation from such an event would act against spent fuel stability and compromise bentonite barrier functions, negatively affecting overall repository performance. To prevent this possibility a detailed set of requirements for a material to fulfil this role in the repository environment have been devised and presented in this paper. With these requirements in view, eight potentially interesting candidates were selected and evaluated: cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, haematite, phosphates, and olivine. Among these, the first four materials or material families are found promising for this application. In addition, other relevant non-performance-related aspects of candidate materials, which could help on decision making, are also considered and evaluated. (authors)

  11. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27

  14. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  15. In situ corrosion studies on candidate container materials for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK·CEN has developed in the early 1980's, with the support of NIRAS/ONDRAF and EC, an extensive in situ corrosion program to evaluate the long-term corrosion behavior of various candidate container materials for the disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. The in situ corrosion experiments were performed in the underground research facility, HADES, situated in the Boom Clay formation at a depth of 225 meters below ground level. These experiments place the samples either in direct contact with clay (type I), in a humid clay atmosphere (type 2), or in a concrete saturated clay atmosphere (type 3). During the period 1985--1994, twelve in situ corrosion experiments were installed in the underground laboratory. The exploitation of these experiments ended in 1996. All samples were recuperated and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the type 1 corrosion experiments (samples in direct contact with Boom Clay). Surface analyses tend to indicate that the so-called corrosion-resistant materials, e.g. stainless steels, Ni- and Ti-alloys, remain intact after exposure to Boom Clay between 16 and 170 C, whereas carbon steel presents significant pitting corrosion. Carbon steel seems to be unsuitable for the Belgian repository concept (pits up to 240microm deep are detected after direct exposure to the argillaceous environment for 2 years at 90 C). The stainless steels look very promising candidate container materials

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys --- CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni) --- are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement. The three copper-based alloys discussed here are being considered in addition to the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials discussed in Volume 3. The decay of radionuclides will result in substantial heat generation and in fluxes of gamma radiation. In this environment, container materials may degrade by atmospheric oxidation, uniform aqueous phase corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in tarnishing environments, or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in nontarnishing environments. This report is a critical survey of available data on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three copper-based alloys. The requisite conditions for TGSCC and IGSCC include combinations of stress, oxygen, ammonia or nitrite, and water. Note that nitrite is generated by gamma radiolysis of moisture films in air but that ammonia is not. TGSCC has been observed in CDA 102 and CDA 613 exposed to moist ammonia-containing environments whereas SCC has not been documented for CDA 715 under similar conditions. SCC is also promoted in copper by nitrite ions. Furthermore, phosphorus-deoxidized copper is unusually susceptible to embrittlement in such environments. The presence of tin in CDA 613 prevents IGSCC. It is believed that tin segregates to grain boundaries, where it oxidizes very slowly, thereby inhibiting the oxidation of aluminum. 117 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs

  17. The Legal and Policy Framework for Waste Disposition - Legal and policy framework for low level waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK policy and strategy for the management of LLW has changed significantly in recent years, not least through development and implementation of the 'UK Strategy for the Management of Solid Low Level Radioactive Waste from the Nuclear Industry' as part of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's mission. This has influenced all aspects of LLW management in the UK, including metals recycling and VLLW disposal. The paper will outline the legal context for these changes in the UK and highlight how international conventions and legal frameworks have influenced these developments. In particular, the paper will look at the following important influences on choices for recycling and disposal of LLW and VLLW. - The Paris and Brussels Conventions on third party liabilities for nuclear damage; - on-going work to implement the 2004 Protocols to those conventions, including the impact on disposal sites and proposals to exclude VLLW disposal sites from liabilities regimes; - The Revised Waste Framework Directive and Waste Hierarchy; - Relevant European pollution prevention and control legislation and Best Available Techniques. (author)

  18. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7.5 double

  19. Safety Assessment of the New Very Low-Level Waste Disposal Installation at El Cabril, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish government in 2006, foresees important volumes of wastes with a very low content of radioactivity mainly coming from the dismantling of nuclear power plants, along with the occurrence of some radiological industrial incidents in the past. This fact has boosted the construction of a new disposal installation, specifically designed for this category of waste. This new installation is part of the existing low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility at El Cabril, and includes four cells with a total capacity of around 130,000 m3. The design of the cells is consistent with the European Directive for the disposal of hazardous waste and fulfils the same basic safety criteria as the present facility for LILW. The safety assessment methodology applied for the very low level waste (VLLW) installation is fully coherent with the approach adopted for the existing disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (concrete vaults disposal system) and takes into account the potential impact of the new installation during both the operational and long-term periods. The license for the VLLW installation was granted by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce (MITYC) in July 2008, following technical approval by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), and the first disposal operation occurred in October 2008. (authors)

  20. Quantitative mineralogy and preliminary pore-water chemistry of candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative mineralogy of seven candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is presented. Two of the materials were coarse grained: one a blended very pure silica sand, and the other a crushed plagioclase-rich granite or granodiorite. Five materials were fine-grained soils containing abundant clay minerals. Of these, three were fairly pure, Cretaceous, ash-derived bentonites that contained up to 3 percent of soluble sulphates; one was a freshwater glacial clay containing 59 percent interlayered smectite-illite; and one was a crushed Paleozoic shale containing abundant illite and chlorite. The adsorbed cation regimes and the pore-water chemistry of the clays are discussed

  1. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys

  2. Seismic Characterization of Basalt Topography at Two Candidate Sites for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Sondrup; Gail Heath; Trent Armstrong; Annette Shafer; Jesse Bennett; Clark Scott

    2011-04-01

    This report presents the seismic refraction results from the depth to bed rock surveys for two areas being considered for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH-LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. The first area (Site 5) surveyed is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the second (Site 34) is located west of Lincoln Boulevard near the southwest corner of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). At Site 5, large area and smaller-scale detailed surveys were performed. At Site 34, a large area survey was performed. The purpose of the surveys was to define the topography of the interface between the surficial alluvium and underlying basalt. Seismic data were first collected and processed using seismic refraction tomographic inversion. Three-dimensional images for both sites were rendered from the data to image the depth and velocities of the subsurface layers. Based on the interpreted top of basalt data at Site 5, a more detailed survey was conducted to refine depth to basalt. This report briefly covers relevant issues in the collection, processing and inversion of the seismic refraction data and in the imaging process. Included are the parameters for inversion and result rendering and visualization such as the inclusion of physical features. Results from the processing effort presented in this report include fence diagrams of the earth model, for the large area surveys and iso-velocity surfaces and cross sections from the detailed survey.

  3. Localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers in the US: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1988-11-04

    Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including: undesirable phase transformations due to lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This paper is an analysis of data from the literature relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of these alloys. Though all three austenitic candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these forms of localized attack. Both types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented for Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma irradiation has been found to enhance SCC of Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while microbiologically induced corrosion effects have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. Of the copper-based alloys, CDA 715 has the best overall resistance to localized attack. Its resistance to pitting is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. Observed rates of dealloying in CDA 715 are less than those observed in CDA 613 by orders of magnitude. The resistance of CDA 715 to SCC in tarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 102 and superior to that of CDA 613. Its resistance to SCC in nontarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. 22 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers in the US: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including: undesirable phase transformations due to lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This paper is an analysis of data from the literature relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of these alloys. Though all three austenitic candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these forms of localized attack. Both types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented for Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma irradiation has been found to enhance SCC of Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while microbiologically induced corrosion effects have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. Of the copper-based alloys, CDA 715 has the best overall resistance to localized attack. Its resistance to pitting is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. Observed rates of dealloying in CDA 715 are less than those observed in CDA 613 by orders of magnitude. The resistance of CDA 715 to SCC in tarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 102 and superior to that of CDA 613. Its resistance to SCC in nontarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. 22 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  6. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950 000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  7. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M [Atkins Environment, Woodcote Grove, Ashley Road, Epsom KT18 5BW (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950 000 m{sup 3}). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the

  8. Policy on management and disposal of low level waste in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, under the national policy of limiting the use of nuclear energy to peaceful purposes, research, development and utilization of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity have proceeded with priority being given to ensuring safety. The producers of waste have the prime responsibility for disposing of radioactive waste and the regulatory body is responsible for establishing the necessary safety regulations. The basic policy for the disposal of radioactive waste is to develop disposal methods commensurate with the characteristics of the radionuclides in the waste (physical and chemical nature, half-life and activity concentration). For low level radioactive waste (LLW) and very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) arising from nuclear power plants, systems for safety regulation have already been established under the Nuclear Reactor Regulations Law and disposal activities have started. Discussions on institutionalizing a system for the clearance of materials from regulatory control in 2005 are under way. In the near future, it will be necessary to give consideration to the safe disposal of uranium waste and transuranic (TRU) waste. (author)

  9. The Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, John C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The Candidate is an attempt to marry elements of journalism and gaming into a format that both entertains and educates the player. The Google-AP Scholarship, a new scholarship award that is given to several journalists a year to work on projects at the threshold of technology and journalism, funded the project. The objective in this prototype version of the game is to put the player in the shoes of a congressional candidate during an off-year election, specificall...

  10. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  11. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  12. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  13. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  14. VLLW: Characterization and Recycling for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is the regulation in France concerning for the separation of nuclear and non nuclear metals? No clearance level authorized in France to determine: • Which waste is conventional; • Which waste is nuclear. But • To ensure a maximal safety level and to absolutely avoid that a radioactive waste goes to a conventional field, the two following barriers are set up: • An a priori waste zoning; • Radiological controls on the wastes before their evacuation

  15. Selecting a land disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents procedures needed to plan for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The basic planning objective is to develop facilities for disposal of LLW that will provide adequate protection of public health and safety by: (1) ensuring compliance with basic radiation protection criteria, and (2) reducing detrimental effects from waste disposal to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Compliance with applicable basic radiation dose limits for individual members of the general public and for radiation workers is the primary performance objective, which must be achieved without regard to cost. The ALARA requirement represents a secondary performance objective intended to accomplish further reduction of detrimental effects. Cost becomes a consideration that is taken into account in judging what further reduction of detrimental effects is reasonably achievable. Selection of a disposal site and selection of a disposal technology are the major planning decisions for realizing the basic performance objectives. The focus of this report is, therefore, on presenting a quantitative methodology for selecting a site, technology, and facility design that can accept the candidate waste streams and reduce detrimental effects to levels that are ALARA

  16. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.)

  17. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  18. Possibility of high level waste underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that the high level wastes disposed underground return to the biosphere again is the dissolution and transport of radioactive nuclides by underground water. As the strata suitable to underground disposal, rock salt strata without underground water, and granite or shale strata in which the movement of underground water is slight are enumerated as the candidates. Wastes are formed into solidified bodies like glass, moreover the technical measures such as canisters and overpacks are applied, therefore even if underground water intrudes into the places of disposal, radioactive nuclides can be contained for considerable time. At the time of selecting the most suitable stratum and designing and evaluating the place of disposal to construct the underground disposal system with high potential for high level wastes, it is necessary to predict the movement of radioactive nuclides from the dissolution into underground water to the return to the biosphere. The potential danger of high level wastes, the danger of high level wastes disposed underground, the effect of isolation distance (the thickness of strata), and the comparison of the danger due to uranium ore and slag and the places of underground disposal are explained. The danger due to uranium ore and slag occurs early and lasts long, and is 1000 times as dangerous as the high level wastes disposed underground. (Kako, I.)

  19. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity

  20. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  1. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of keff for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes

  2. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  3. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  4. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  5. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  6. Construction of Basic Evaluation Criteria for Candidate HLW Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final objectives of the research are to study basically site selection criteria and methods for high level radioactive wastes disposal. In order to accomplish the final objectives, this study proposes basic concept of site evaluation and selection for HLW disposal and develops a geologic database system for management of geologic data which will be used for site selection. This study performed the following contents such as i) development of a technical guide for geologic evaluation system for candidate sites selection; ii) construction of geological evaluation factors and selection methods for candidate sites; iii) development of geologic information system for evaluation and selection of candidate sites. The results are expected to be applied for basic research results for setting up further research foundation for site selection, development of systematic site evaluation process considered with geologic conditions of candidate sites, and utilization of the research result for public acceptance

  7. Shallow land disposal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillette-Cousin, L. [Nuclear Environment Technology Insitute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of Korea )

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L`Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  10. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Execution techniques and approach for high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan: Demonstration of geological disposal techniques and implementation approach of HLW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal project is expected to start fully after establishment of the implementing organization, which is planned around the year 2000 and to dispose the wastes in the 2030s to at latest in the middle of 2040s. Considering each step in the implementation of the HLW disposal project in Japan, this paper discusses the execution procedure for HLW disposal project, such as the selection of candidate/planned disposal sites, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of facilities, and the institutional control and monitoring after the closure of disposal facility, from a technical viewpoint for the rational execution of the project. Furthermore, we investigate and propose some ideas for the concept of the design of geological disposal facility, the validation and demonstration of the reliability on the disposal techniques and performance assessment methods at a candidate/planned site. Based on these investigation results, we made clear a milestone for the execution of the HLW disposal project in Japan. (author)

  12. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  13. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  14. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is to dispose of the waste in an underground vault, nominally at 500 m to 1000 m depth, at a suitable site in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The feasibility of this concept and assessments of its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented by AECL in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. It describes the approach and methods that would be used during the siting stage of the disposal project to identify a preferred candidate disposal site and to confirm its suitability for constructing a disposal facility. The siting stage is divided into two distinct but closely related substages, site screening and site evaluation. Site screening would mainly involve reconnaissance investigations of siting regions of the Shield to identify potential candidate areas where suitable vault locations are likely to exist. Site screening would identify a small number of candidate areas where further detailed investigations were warranted. Site evaluation would involve progressively more detailed surface and subsurface investigations of the candidate areas to first identify potentially suitable vault locations within the candidate areas, and then characterize these potential disposal sites to identify the preferred candidate location for constructing the disposal vault. Site evaluation would conclude with the construction of exploratory shafts and tunnels at the preferred vault location, and underground characterization would be done to confirm the suitability of the preferred candidate site. An integrated program of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical investigations would be implemented to obtain the geoscience information needed to assess the suitability of the candidate siting areas and candidate sites for locating a disposal vault. The candidate siting areas and candidate disposal vault sites would be

  15. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used

  16. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  17. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  19. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  20. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  1. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  2. History of geological disposal concept, (1). The predawn phase of geological disposal (1950s to mid.1980s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive waste can be a threat to the environment over the distant future. Therefore, research and development has been proceeding up to the present in the direction that the generations that generated waste should clarify basic concept, establish methods for realizing it, and start the disposal based on the social consensus. Among disposal methods, geological disposal is being recognized as a concept that can be attained most reliably in terms of safety and feasibility. While the outcome of the research and development stage to support the safety and feasibility of geological disposal have been accumulated, the insufficient formation of social consensus has come to the surface in many countries, as the points of contact with society increase, such as the selection of disposal site candidate in the implementation phase. This paper explains the study history of geological disposal, which began from the United States in 1955, and the progress of research and development on waste disposal from the study start until the mid-1980s in Japan. (A.O.)

  3. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  4. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified heat generating radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible. (author)

  5. Security of geological disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste with high radioactivity that cannot be reused in the reprocessing of uranium or plutonium is converted to vitrified waste with a stable form. The vitrified waste as high-level radioactive waste is planned to be stored on the ground for 30 to 50 years, and then delivered to the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), which will store it at deep underground. For vitrified waste, measures are required not to give impact on the living environment of human for more than tens of thousands years. The overpack encapsulating vitrified waste completely cut off the vitrified waste from groundwater. The outside of the overpack is surrounded by bentonite hard to penetrate water. For geological disposal, a simulation has been obtained that even though an active fault directly attacks the vitrified waste 1000 years later and the radioactive materials contained in it reach the ground surface together with groundwater, exposure level would remain at about 10 μSv/year. The safety during operation and transport would meet the standards of IAEA and the Nuclear Regulation Authority. As for the disposal site, surveys to dig tunnels up to the disposal depth are scheduled to be carefully carried out in about 20 years. Even after the promising candidate sites have been disclosed, the reasons and site selection process that respects the wishes of the municipalities will be explained. (A.O.)

  6. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat-generating radioactive waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The study was sub-divided into the following major sections: manufacturing feasibility; stress analysis; integrity in accidents; cost benefit review. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarised as follows: (A) a thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. (B) an unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. (C) an unfilled carbon steel shell planted externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design Types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used. (author)

  7. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  8. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  9. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G

    2002-04-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation.

  10. TRU waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which is located on an arid 10,240 acre site in the remote Los Medanos (the dunes) region of the northern Chihuahuan desert in southeast New Mexico near Carlsbad. The mission of the WIPP is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste resulting from the nation's defense program activities. Authorized by Congress in 1979 via Public Law 96-164, the WIPP represents a necessary, environmentally responsible, deep geologic disposal option. Initially thought to be subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act, further definition of the 1980 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986 and 1988 has made it clear that this demonstration must also show compliance with RCRA. The majority of retrievable TRU waste proposed and available for eventual disposal at the WIPP also contains hazardous constituents defined by RCRA, with the resultant mixed waste subject to its provisions

  11. Particle Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    I give a short overview on some of the favorite particle Cold Dark Matter candidates today, focusing on those having detectable interactions: the axion, the KK-photon in Universal Extra Dimensions, the heavy photon in Little Higgs and the neutralino in Supersymmetry. The neutralino is still the most popular, and today is available in different flavours: SUGRA, nuSUGRA, sub-GUT, Mirage mediation, NMSSM, effective MSSM, scenarios with CP violation. Some of these scenarios are already at the level of present sensitivities for direct DM searches.

  12. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  13. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  14. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  15. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  16. Disposal - practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  17. HLW Disposal System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm3. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability of HLW management

  18. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  19. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  20. Candide et le physicien

    CERN Document Server

    Espagnat, Bernard d'

    2008-01-01

    Les avancées considérables de la physique d'après guerre n'ont - on le sait - été possibles qu'au prix d'une vraie rupture entre elle et la physique dite " classique ". A quels changements cette rupture nous contraint-elle en ce qui concerne des notions essentielles, telles celles d'espace, de temps, d'objet et d'objectivité ? Quelles en sont les incidences quant à la portée de la connaissance, au rôle de la conscience, aux relations entre science et ontologie ? Ce sont là des questions de fond, fort délicates, auxquelles les personnes de tendance quelque peu philosophique sont plus sensibles que ne le sont les physiciens. Malheureusement, les premières ne disposent normalement pas des connaissances de pointe qui seules permettent d'approfondir de tels problèmes sans trop risquer de s'égarer. Etant donné l'impact que, par ses applications, la science a sur nos vies, nombreux sont ceux qui souhaitent se former une idée plus juste de ce qu'elle implique vraiment. Le présent ouvrage prend la for...

  1. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste backfilling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the backfilling requirements arising from the disposal of HGW in deep ocean sediments. The two disposal options considered are the drilled emplacement method and the free fall penetrator method. The materials best suited for filling the voids in the two options are reviewed. Candidate materials are selected following a study of the property requirements of each backfill. Placement methods for the candidate materials, as well as the means available for verifying the quality of the filling, are presented. Finally, an assessment of the overall feasibility of each placement method is given. The main conclusion is that, although the proposed methods are feasible, further work is necessary to test in inactive trials each of the proposed filling methods. Moreover, it is difficult to envisage how two of the backfilling operations in drilled emplacement option can be verified by non destructive methods. (author)

  2. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  3. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  4. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  5. Disposal in continental geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste retrievability is the factor used to distinguish between waste storage and waste disposal alternatives. Disposal options assume no assured ability to retrieve wastes, while storage alternatives are predicted on a design allowing waste recovery for a specified period of time. The waste form, the emplacement method, and the time elapsed since emplacement are three factors that influence the degree of retrievability from a storage or disposal alternative. An overview of these and other factors and how they apply to various waste management storage and disposal alternatives is presented. The advantages, disadvantages and technical uncertainties associated with geologic waste disposal in very deep holes (greater than 10 km) are summarized. Deep well injection and hydrofracture disposal of selected liquid wastes are briefly reviewed. The geologic requirements for deep well injection and its applicability to tritiated water disposal are discussed. Hydrofracture has been used to dispose of intermediate level liquid wastes at ORNL, and the results to date of this disposal operation are presented. Three emplacement methods for radioactive waste storage and disposal on, in, or under ice sheets are described. Recent international comments on ice sheet disposal, reflecting concern about the lack of knowledge and predictability of long-term ice sheet stability, are presented. Four melting disposal alternatives are described. These techniques all use the thermal power density of high-level waste to bring the surrounding medium to its melting temperature range. The techniques primarily differ in emplacement geometry and the time to first melt and to final resolidification. The similarities and differences of these techniques are discussed

  6. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  7. Progress in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal - this is the term or slogan around which turns the continued controversial discussion on power generation in nuclear reactors. The dispute's core is whether the problem of radioactive waste disposal is solved or not. The Federal Government's report on the disposal of radioactive was, passed on the 24. August 1983 says that solutions are available for all partial steps - and plants of nuclear waste disposal. Some of them have proved themselves to be reliable throughout years in industry, or are sufficiently developed, investigated and tried as to present no further obstacle to realisation. (orig.)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal: Global experience and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses radioactive waste disposal practices followed in various countries. Various technical factors like geology, hydrogeology, seismicity, etc, are taken into account during site selection. Then the sites are prepared for disposal. After disposal and closure of, the disposal facility, the site needs to be regularly monitored. This document presents various issues linked to the disposal facilities and radioactive wastes, for example, classification of radioactive wastes, design of the disposal facility, licensing procedure, disposal costs, public acceptance issues etc

  9. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  10. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 1012 Bq/m3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP)

  11. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  12. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  13. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  14. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  15. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.)

  16. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  17. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met

  18. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is disposed below ground at a position adjacent the coast line such that, 1. drainage of any water which has flowed through the disposal volume can be drained to the sea, or 2. the waste is disposed below the foreshore or coastal shallow water. Disposal facilities are described which advantageously include surrounding the waste with absorber to increase protection against migration of radionuclides. An example of a radioactive waste disposal facility is shown and includes a number of cells formed from concrete walls and floors, the cells being loaded successively with drums containing the waste, each cell being roofed with concrete after filling, there being absorber placed beneath the floors between the walls and after complete filling, above the said roof, with a soil mound surmounting. Drainage channels extend to sea via monitoring means. (author)

  20. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  1. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  2. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this research are to develop the acceptance criteria for reviewing the acceptability of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor for site selection, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. 13 geology/climate related events were selected for development of acceptance criteria, and the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods from the ground necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, a basic concept of safety regulation for Japanese geological disposal was developed, and the concept of quality assurance was developed. In order to develop the site-scale groundwater flow evaluation method, the methods regarding the process of the development of cracks in the fractured, sedimentary, and fractured sedimentary rock were discussed. And the safety scenarios of important geology/climate related events, e.g. uplift/erosion, active fault, and low-frequent scenario of the formation of mud volcano were developed. We started to support the decision of the Japanese policy to deal with safety standards discussed in IAEA/WASSC. (author)

  3. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of candidate wastes for tailored ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailored Ceramics offer a potential alternative to glass as an immobilization form for nuclear waste disposal. The form is applicable to the wide variety of existing wastes and may be tailored to suit the diverse environments being considered as disposal sites. Consideration of any waste product form, however, require extensive knowledge of the waste to be incorporated. A varity of waste types are under consideration for incorporation into a Tailored Ceramic form. This report integrates and summarizes chemical and physical characteristics of the candidate wastes. Included here are data on Savannah River Purex Process waste; Hanford bismuth phosphate, uranium recovery, redox, Purex, evaporator and residual liquid wastes; Idaho Falls calcine; Nuclear Fuel Services Purex and Thorex wastes and miscellaneous waste including estimated waste stream compositions produced by possible future commercial fuel reprocessing

  5. Human intrusion in geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the possibility of human intrusion into the WIPP facility, an undergound disposal facility for alpha-bearing wastes. The probability of exploratory drilling occurring at the site is described

  6. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  7. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  8. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; CUI, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  9. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  10. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  11. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  12. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP)

  13. Call for bids: last step for the Finnish nuclear candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-three years after the start-up of its last nuclear power plants, Finland would order a new reactor in December 2003 to supply the power needs of the three main paper companies of Finland which control the PVO power group. Three candidates are in the competition: Framatome ANP (France-Germany), Atomstroyexport (Minatom, Russia) and General Electric (US). Helsinki has also approved in May 2001 the construction of a waste disposal site for low- and medium-level radioactive wastes in a granitic cavity at a 800 m depth. Short paper. (J.S.)

  14. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degree}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project's high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250 degree C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab

  16. Final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant (TVO-I and TVO-II reactors). According to present estimates, a total of 1840 tU of spent fuel will be accumulated during the 40-year lifetime of the power plant. An interim storage facility for spent fuel (TVO-KPA Store) has operated at Olkiluoto since 1987. The spent fuel will be held in storage for several decades before it is shipped to the repository site. Both train and road transportation are possible. The spent fuel will be encapsulated in composite copper and steel canisters (ACP Canister) in a facility that will be build above the ground on the site where the repository is located. The repository will be constructed at the depth of several hundreds of meters in the bedrock. In 1987 five areas were selected for preliminary site investigations. The safety analysis (TVO-92) that was carried out shows that the proposed safety criteria would be met at each of the candidate sites. In future expected conditions there would never be significant releases of radioactive substances to the biosphere. The site investigations will be continued in the period 1993 to 2000. In parallel, a R and D programme will be devoted to the safety and technology of final disposal. The site for final disposal will be selected in the year 2000 with the aim of having the capability to start the disposal operations in 2020

  17. Thermal optimization of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal optimisation for the Teollisuuden Voima Oy's (TVO) and Imatran Voima Oy's (IVO) nuclear fuel waste disposal from the current 4 nuclear power units has been studied in this calculation report. A procedure for loading different aged nuclear fuel in canisters in such way, that the decay power per canister is minimized at the stage when the canister is disposed. The length of the disposing period is assumed to be 20 - 25 years starting immediately after the planned usage period of the current plants in 2020. The disposal of the canisters has been optimised in such way, that the maximum temperature in the interface of the canister mantle and the bentonite buffer keeps always below the set limit, +100 deg C. In this optimisation the minimum distance between the two neighbouring canisters is calculated. In the assessment the TVO's BWR-fuel, the IVO's VVER 440 fuel, the three repository site candidates (Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara), and two different size copper/steel canisters containing 9 or 11 bundles of fuel waste have been separately investigated and assessed. (orig.) (11 refs.)

  18. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  19. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  1. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  2. Waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of an atomic energy project is soon followed by the production of a variety of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of safely, quickly and cheaply. Experience has shown that much more thought has been devoted to the design of plant and laboratories than to the apparently dull problem of what to do with the wastes, but the nature of the wastes which will arise from nuclear power production calls for a change in this situation. We shall not be concerned here with power pile wastes, but disposal problems which have occurred in operation of experimental reactors have been serious enough to show that waste disposal should be considered during the early planning stages. (author)

  3. Identification of sites for the low-level waste disposal development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of site selection studies for potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Summaries of the site selection procedures used and results of previous site selection studies on the ORR are included. This report includes recommendations of sites for demonstration of shallow land burial using engineered trench designs and demonstration of above-grade disposal using design concepts similar to those used in tumulus disposal. The site selection study, like its predecessor (ORNL/TM-9717, Use of DOE Site Selection Criteria for Screening Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation), involved application of exclusionary site screening criteria to the region of interest to eliminate unacceptable areas from consideration. Also like the previous study, the region of interest for this study was limited to the Oak Ridge Department of Energy Reservation. Reconnaissance-level environmental data were used in the study, and field inspections of candidate sites were made to verify the available reconnaissance data. Five candidate sites, all underlain by Knox dolomite residuum and bedrock, were identified for possible development of shallow land burial facilities. Of the five candidate sites, the West Chestnut site was judged to be best suited for deployment of the shallow land burial technology. Three candidate sites, all underlain by the Conasauga Group in Bear Creek Valley, were identified for possible development of above-grade disposal technologies. Of the three sites identified, the Central Bear Creek Valley site lying between State Route 95 and Gum Hollow Road was ranked most favorable for deployment of the above-grade disposal technology

  4. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  5. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  6. TMT abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusse three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (a) storage in temporary storage casks, (b) underground storage in vaults, and (c) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  7. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  8. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  9. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  10. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D. [and others

    1995-11-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO{sub 2} Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO{sub 2} disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO{sub 2}. The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO{sub 2} is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO{sub 2} injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996.

  11. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  12. Geological disposal programme in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio Kawata, Executive Director (NUMO) presented the geological disposal programme in Japan. NUMO was created in 2000 by the Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act which describes the site selection process. The siting process is currently underway including a volunteer approach under NUMO's responsibility. The Final Disposal Act provides for a stepwise process of site investigation with a safety case including a demonstration of compliance with siting factors. The safety case will be refined step by step as the investigations proceed from one stage to the next. One of the key issues is the closure strategy, which is now a part of the overall safety strategy because it is closely linked to post-closure safety and to important issues such as monitoring and retrievability. T. Kawata insisted on the importance to share a common understanding of fundamental issues and a common safety philosophy among the countries involved with a view to successful implementation of the disposal programme in each country. In this regard, he declared that the role of the NEA/RWMC is indispensable

  13. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  14. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  15. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  16. Public acceptance activities for final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act (hereafter the Act) was promulgated in June 2000, with a view to ensuring systematic and safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Act calls for the establishment of an implementing body responsible for disposal of high-level waste (HLW). The body specified under the Act, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), was established in October 2000. In order to initiate the disposal project for HLW in Japan, NUMO selected an open solicitation approach for finding candidate sites and sent an information package to all municipalities in Japan in December 2002. For successful implementation of the HLW project, it is essential to gain public understanding of the need for HLW disposal in Japan, the disposal system planned by NUMO and NUMO's activities, with the focus on the following: the development of repository concepts in Japan, the site selection process, the open solicitation approach and the public outreach scheme. NUMO has organized fact-to-face forums and conducted information campaigns in leading newspapers, on TV and in magazines to raise awareness of its mission and activities. As a result of these actions, some municipalities have expressed an interested in the project, but this has not yet led to the first step of conducting literature surveys. Experience with municipalities that expressed an interest indicates the need to step up efforts towards improving the understanding of the final disposal project by the general public and local residents. (author)

  17. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  18. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  19. VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    YAPICI, Asım; KUTLU, M.Oğuz; BİLİCAN, F.Işıl

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined the change in values in time among teacher candidates. The Schwartz Values Inventory was administered to 708 freshmen and senior students studying at Cukurova University, Education Faculty. The results have shown that the students at the department of Science Education valued power, achievement, stimulation; the department of English Teaching Education valued hedonism; and the department of Education of Religious Culture valued un...

  20. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  1. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J B

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  2. Disposal concepts for HLW and TRU waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, the policy for long term radioactive waste management calls for isolation of high- level vitrified waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU) in deep continental geological formations. Four potential sites are at present being investigated with the objective of selecting a candidate site by the end of 1990. After several years of in-depth investigation through an underground site validation laboratory (1991-1995) approval procedure (1995-1996) and construction work (1997-2000) start up of the repository is scheduled in 2001 for TRU waste and 2010 for HLW. This paper reports several disposal concepts are envisaged for TRU and HLW. In the crystalline formations (granite, schist) the vault concept is the preferred one for TRU waste, although the borehole concept seems well adapted to HLW. In the sedimentary formations (clay, salt), the borehole concept is suitable for any type of waste and the silo concept in salt is considered as an alternative concept for TRU waste. Final choice of disposal concepts will be made for each geological formation once geotechnical and hydrogeological information is available from the surface drilling program and that safety assessments on the candidate scenarios are carried out

  3. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  4. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  5. Environmental chemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.R.; Williams, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    In this review the environmental chemistry problems associated with radioactive waste disposal are considered from the point of view of the threat to man of waste disposal, contamination pathways, the chemistry of waste containment, speciation of radio-isotopes, chemisorption, risk assessment and computerized simulation of waste disposal phenomena. A strategy for the future is discussed.

  6. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  7. Geological factors of disposal site selection for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes, shallow-ground disposal can provide adequate isolation of waste from human for a fairly long period of time. The objective of disposal site selection is to ensure that the natural properties of the site together with the engineered barrier site shall provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the human beings and environment, so the whole disposal system can keep the radiological impact within an acceptable level. Since the early 1980's, complying with the national standards and the expert's conception as well as the related IAEA Criteria, geological selection of disposal sites for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes has been carried out in East China, South China, Northwest China and Southwest China separately. Finally, 5 candidate sites were recommended to the CNNC

  8. Siting history and current construction status of disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean government decided disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), which is located at coastal area near the Wolsong nuclear power plants in Gyeong-Ju city in December. 2005, based on the result of votes of residents in four candidate sites. Since then, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), which is the management company of the LILW disposal facility, has carried out the preparation for construction of disposal facility and its licensing process. At the first phase, 100 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the rock cavern type disposal facility located at the depth from 80m to 130m below the sea level, and finally 800 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the site. This report shows the history of siting for the LILW disposal, the outline of design of disposal facility and current status of its construction, based on the information which was obtained mainly during our visit to the disposal site in Korea. (author)

  9. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  10. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  11. The disposal of mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the consequences of dam building with slime of high water content, and therefore low relative density, such as the tailings usually associated with the extraction of uranium. It shows how a low relative density reduces the practica maximum rate of rise, and hence the establishment cost, of slimes dams built by conventional means. Further hidden costs of such tailings dams are examined. It is concluded that dewatering of tailings before their disposal is the most cost-effective means of increasing the rate at which a particular dam can be constructed, or of reducing operating or stability problems on existing dams. In the longer term, underground disposal seems to be a feasible alternative. However, it is pointed out that there are factors that can compound the operating difficulties, and that these should be investigated before remedial steps are taken

  12. Underground criticality in geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposition of weapons fissile material as once-through MOx fuel in reactors or immobilization in waste glass would result in end products requiring geologic disposal. Similar considerations apply to some spent fuels in a geologic repository. The criticality potential of these end products in a geologic setting is an important consideration for the final disposal of these materials. In this document the authors present calculations that help define parameters and configurations for criticality, including those that, if the criticality is achieved, could lead to autocatalytic power transients. It is not the purpose of this paper to define scenarios that could reasonably lead to criticality or to establish the probabilities that critical configurations could occur. The authors suggest some parameters that should be considered by waste package designers and repository analysts to ensure that criticality cannot occur

  13. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  14. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has

  15. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  16. How a developing country is facing LLW disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiwan is a small island which measures about 36,000 square kilometers with over 70% mountainous area. Today over 90% of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is produced from six nuclear power units operated by the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower or TPC). The rest of the country's LLW is produced from medical, agricultural, industrial, educational and research programs. Due to the fact that over 90% of Taiwan's LLW is produced by Taipower, Taipower was designated by the Government to dispose of LLW for entire country. This paper will focus on the planning and implementation of the first phase. Through area screening and potential site evaluation, candidate sites will be selected based on currently available information and sites investigation. At the same time, the disposal methods will be evaluated in terms of safety, cost, and Taiwan's generic conditions of climate, geology, and topography. The conceptual design of the disposal method(s) will then be developed. Also, during site investigation, preliminary designs will be made

  17. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as (1) a tool for disseminating information about LLW management, (2) a vehicle that can foster communication, and (3) a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  18. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  19. Regional gross disposable household income

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Presents estimates published in May 2008, an overview of methodology used and future plans for regional economic dataThis article looks at estimates for regional gross disposable household income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in May 2008. These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels for the period 1995 to 2006. There is an overview of the methodology used ...

  20. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  1. Engineered Barriers and Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geological disposal system comprises a system of multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, to provide long-term isolation and containment of radioactive waste. Various geological formations are stable and potentially suitable for geological disposal. Engineered barriers are designed to work in an integrated fashion together with the host geological formation. Much research has been carried out to develop engineered barrier systems suitable for use in different host rocks and with different waste types. These studies continue both nationally and within the framework of multilateral international projects, in facilities such as underground research laboratories. Geological disposal is the preferred method for long term management of radioactive waste. In each repository the long-term isolation and containment of the waste is achieved by the host geological formation and the system of engineered barriers. Any engineered barrier system (EBS) is made of several components, each taking different safety roles that are relied upon at different times in the lifetime of the repository. Research, demonstration and development of EBS materials, as well as of their manufacturing and emplacement technologies are important endeavours in national waste management programmes and the subject of international cooperation. These studies and demonstrations have considerably enhanced confidence in the production of the EBS components and in their performance under repository conditions

  2. SPS salvage and disposal alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    A wide range of salvage options exist for the satellite power system (SPS) satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit to return and use on Earth. The satellite might be used intact to provide for various purposes, it might be cannibalized, or it might be melted down to supply materials for space- or ground-based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. It is shown that the present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is likely to be on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the initial capital cost). The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full-scale SPS satellite and has a likely salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on site capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration or full-scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options appear to exist for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  3. Hanford site grout disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) completed processing and disposal of an initial 3,800 m3 of radioactive waste from the Hanford site's double-shell tanks (DSTs) on July 11, 1989. For the first time in the Hanford site's 46-yr history, tank wastes resulting from weapons-grade plutonium production were moved out of liquid storage and converted into a solid for environmentally safe disposal. In addition to the 3,800 m3 of nonhazardous, low-level waste processed in 1988 and 1989, ∼ 163,000 m3 of mixed waste will be treated for disposal between 1992 and 2013. These low-level wastes are radioactive, concentrated salt solutions classified as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and dangerous by the Washington State Department of Ecology. As feed for the grouting process they contain ∼ 11% sodium nitrate, 6% sodium hydroxide, 5% sodium nitrite, 3% sodium aluminate, 1% sodium phosphate, 0.5% sodium chloride, and 73% water. Many radionuclides are present, although 137Cs contributes more than 99% of the 0.3 Ci/l activity. From a long-term performance assessment standpoint, nitrate, 99Tc, and 129I are the primary contaminants of concern

  4. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  5. Geoenvironmental evaluation of geological formations of Lithuania for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, operating at present in Lithuania, every year produces approximately 1,5 ths.t. of radioactive wastes. They are being stored in temporary areas. The possibilities of underground disposal of radioactive wastes were evaluated. There are three geological formations in Lithuania, which are potentially suitable media for radioactive wastes disposal: Lower proterozoic rocks of crystalline basement, Upper Permian anhydrite layer, and Upper Permian salt domes. They are being proposed in the radioactive wastes management program as candidates for more detail investigations

  6. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  7. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  8. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  9. Development of CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal Concepts for the Improvement of Disposal Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two types of spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants, CANDU type and PWR type. PWR spent fuels which include a lot of reusable material can be considered to be recycled. CANDU spent fuels are considered to directly disposed in deep geological formation, since they have little reusable material. In this study, based on the Korean Reference spent fuel disposal System(KRS) which is to dispose both PWR and CANDU spent fuels, the more effective CANDU spent fuel disposal systems have been developed. To do this, the disposal canister has been modified to hold the storage basket which can load 60 spent fuel bundles. From these modified disposal canisters, the disposal systems to meet the thermal requirement for which the temperature of the buffer materials should not be over have been proposed. These new disposals have made it possible to introduce the concept of long term storage and retrievability and that of the two-layered disposal canister emplacement in one disposal hole. These disposal concepts have been compared and analyzed with the KRS CANDU spent fuel disposal system in terms of disposal effectiveness. New CANDU spent fuel disposal concepts obtained in this study seem to improve thermal effectiveness, U-density, disposal area, excavation volume, and closure material volume up to 30 - 40 %.

  10. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Limited, Rutland (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a `normal` site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author) 155 refs.

  11. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a 'normal' site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author)

  12. Promising new cryogenic seal candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the five seal candidates considered for the main propellant system of the Space Shuttle, only one candidate, the fluoroplastic Halar, satisfied all tests including the critical LO2 impact test and the cryogenic compression sealability test. Radiation-cross-linked Halar is a tough, strong thermoplastic that not only endured one hundred 2200 N compression cycles at 83 K while mounted in a standard military O-ring gland without cracking or deforming, but improved in sealability as a result of this cycling. Although these Halar O-rings require much higher sealing forces (approximately 500 N) at room temperature than rubber O-rings, on cooling to cryogenic temperatures the required sealing force only doubles, whereas the sealing force for rubber O-rings increases eightfold. Although these Halar O-rings were inadequately cross-linked, they still exhibited promise as LO2-compatible cryogenic seals. It is expected that their high-temperature properties can be greatly improved by higher degrees of cross-linking (e.g., by 20 mrad of radiation) without compromising their already excellent low-temperature properties. A direct comparison should then be obtained between the best of the cross-linked Halar compounds and the current commercial cryogenic seal materials, filled Teflon and Kel-F

  13. Research of uranium tailing disposal by method of thickened disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic principle of a thickened tailings disposal method is described and a main way of increasing tailing dam conditions, the non-selected density of the tailings in a mill, is determined. The followings are assayed: the slops of the tailing deposition, size composition and other main physical mechanical properties in the different positions of the deposition walls as well as the influence of lime and flocculant on various performances of the deposition walls. The basic regularities of deposition, consolidation, seepage, rheological properties and hydraulic transport, etc. are sought. A series of measurements about thickening of tailings slurry, hydraulic transport of heavy ore slurry, deposited dam, etc. are used in the old tailing pool of the mill to solve the problem influencing on safety in the mill are caused by the mill to solve the problem influencing on safety in the mill area caused by the seepage. The technological possibility and the economic reasonability of these measurements are described and the basic for design is provided. The results show that the transport of thickened tailings and deposition of tailing dam mentioned above have special advantages in saving energy, capital cost, decreasing occupied land and environment protection, ect. The suggested new method has a developing prospect in the uranium tailings disposal and a great value to use widely in non-ferrous ore processing plants

  14. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  15. Limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of organic solvent-contaminated wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W. R.; Griffin, R. A.; Mitchell, J. K.; Mitchell, R. A.

    1989-05-01

    The limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of solid wastes containing organic solvents and refrigerants (chlorinated fluorocarbons) were investigated by evaluating the attenuation capacity of a hypothetical waste-disposal site by numerical modeling. The basic theorem of this approach was that the land disposal of wastes would be environmentally acceptable if subsurface attenuation reduced groundwater concentrations of organic compounds to concentrations that were less than health-based, water-quality criteria. Computer simulations indicated that the predicted concentrations of 13 of 33 organic compounds in groundwater would be less than their health-based criteria. Hence, solid wastes containing these compounds could be safely disposed at the site. The attenuation capacity of the site was insufficient to reduce concentrations of four compounds to safe levels without limiting the amount of mass available to leach into groundwater. Threshold masses based on time-dependent migration simulations were estimated for these compounds. The remaining 16 compounds, which consisted mainly of chlorinated hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons could not be safely landfilled without severe restrictions on the amounts disposed. These organic compounds were candidates to ban from land disposal.

  16. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation

  17. Radioactive wastes, disposal sites wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two towns that were selected by the French government to home a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes, have withdrawn their bid. ANDRA (French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) attributes this withdrawal to the unbearable pressure made by the opponents on the city councils despite the public information meetings that were held in the 2 cities. The selection rules included the presence of clay layers with a thickness of at least 50 m, the absence of seismic activity and zones containing exploitable resources like petroleum or metal ores were barred in order to avoid future unexpected drilling. (A.C.)

  18. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat dissipation arising from the radioactive decay constitutes an important problem of the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. A heating experiment was carried out in a clay quarry near Monterotondo (Rome), at 6.4 M in depth by means of a heater whose thermal power ranged from 250 to 500 watt. The experimental results fit well the theoretical values and show that the clay is a homogeneous and isotropic medium. The clay thermal conductivity, which was deducted by means of the ''curve fitting'' method, ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 watt/C

  19. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  20. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  1. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  2. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  3. Risk assessment of natural disasters in the course of selection of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural disasters are calamities which bring about enormous damage to human beings and their accommodations and equipment. Based on the research of disaster risk and example study of volcanism, we tried to carry out the risk assessment of natural disasters which potentially occur in the candidate area of nuclear waste disposal by three steps of analyses, defining the most frequent occurring area of disasters, determining the parameters of risk assessment and dividing the most dangerous site and risk grades

  4. Technical framework to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Halsey, W G; Cmith, C F

    2000-01-31

    The option of storage and eventual geologic disposal in Russia of spent fuel of US origin used in Taiwan provides a unique opportunity that can benefit many parties. Taiwan has a near term need for a spent fuel storage and geologic disposal solution, available financial resources, but limited prospect for a timely domestic solution. Russia has significant spent fuel storage and transportation management experience, candidate storage and repository sites, but limited financial resources available for their development. The US has interest in Taiwan energy security, national security and nonproliferation interests in Russian spent fuel storage and disposal and interest in the US origin fuel. While it is understood that such a project includes complex policy and international political issues as well as technical issues, the goal of this paper is to begin the discussion by presenting a technical path forward to establish the feasibility of this concept for Russia.

  5. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  6. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  7. Recycling Engineering Of Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces conception of waste, generation of waste with generation and circulation of waste, waste generation amount, and classification of waste, management of waste, collection of waste on plan of collection, transportation and device of waste, waste management system such as extended producer responsibility, manifest system, exchange system of waste, volume-rate garbage disposal system, recycling of waste, including disposal technology for recycling waste, sanitary landfill, incineration, composting and human waste of disposal.

  8. The Demand for Solid Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    G. Strathman; Anthony M. Rufolo; Gerard C. S. Mildner

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the elasticity of demand for landfill disposal of municipal solid waste using data from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Efficiency losses associated with deviations from marginal cost pricing of disposal services are then derived. The efficiency losses of small deviations from long-run marginal disposal costs are not large. However, many municipalities finance solid waste services from general tax revenues, in which case waste generators effectively face zero...

  9. Post-disposal safety assessment of toxic and radioactive waste: waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria, assessment methods and post-disposal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for safety assessments of waste disposal stems not only from the implementation of regulations requiring the assessment of environmental effects, but also from the more general need to justify decisions on protection requirements. As waste-disposal methods have become more technologically based, through the application of more highly engineered design concepts and through more rigorous and specific limitations on the types and quantities of the waste disposed, it follows that assessment procedures also must become more sophisticated. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities through the development and testing of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. This report records all the work which has been undertaken during Phase 1 of the study. Waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria and assessment methods for both toxic and radioactive waste are reviewed with the purpose of identifying those features relevant to assessment methodology development. Difference and similarities in waste types, disposal practices, criteria and assessment methods between countries, and between toxic and radioactive wastes are highlighted and discussed. Finally, an approach to identify post-disposal impacts, how they arise and their effects on humans and the environment is described

  10. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  11. Disposal costs for advanced CANDU fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor can 'burn' a wide range of fuels without modification to the reactor system, including natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium, mixed oxide and spent LWR fuels. The economic feasibility of the advanced fuel cycles requires consideration of their disposal costs. Preliminary cost analyses for the disposal of spent CANDU-SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) and CANDU-DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU) fuels have been performed and compared to the internationally published costs for the direct disposal of spent CANDU and LWR fuels. The analyses show significant economic advantages in the disposal costs of CANDU-SEU and CANDU-DUPIC fuels. (author)

  12. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of completing its knowledge of various rock formations, the Federal Government also considers the suitability of granite for radioactive waste disposal. For this purpose, the Federal Minister of Research and Technology participated from 1983 to 1990 in relevant research and development activities in the NAGRA rock laboratory at Grimsel, Switzerland. After about 17 field tests, it can be stated that the understanding of basic connections and interactions between the mechanical behaviour of the rock, which is determined, for instance, by natural or artificially induced rock movements, and the hydrogeological or rock hydraulic relations could be clearly improved. So far, the German share in the project costs amounts to a total of approximately DM 20.7 million. Till the end of 1993, further activities are scheduled to be carried out which will require financial funds of about DM 6.3 million. (orig./HSCH)

  14. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  15. Resource implications of deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various deep disposal options have been examined by NIREX in a variety of host geologies, and include both land and sea-accessed solutions. In each option, the waste is transported to a land-based reception facility where it is prepared for onward transport to the repository vault. In the case of a sea-accessed repository these vaults are either large diameter, deep shafts (referred to as Boreholes) constructed from an artificial island or caverns accessed by shafts sunk from concrete gravity platforms, two such platforms being provided. For the land-accessed repository, the vaults are either caverns or a network of tunnels also accessed by shafts. This paper is a personal view of some of the constraints on the repository designer resulting from a consideration of construction requirements and waste handling logistics. (author)

  16. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps

  17. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  18. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: program plan for field testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of program plans is being developed to address the field testing needs for various candidate repository host rocks: salt, granitic rocks, tuff, and basalt. This document, NWTS-80(1), is the first plan of the series, and is intended to provide the framework on which subsequent, rock-specific program plans will be based. The series of Field Testing Program Plans (the NWTS-80 series) is as follows: NWTS-80(1) - Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Program Plan for Field Testing; NWTS-80(2) - Program Plan for Field Tests in Salt; NWTS-80(3) - Program Plan for Field Tests in Granitic Rock; NWTS-80(4) - Program Plan for Field Tests in Basalt at Hanford; and NWTS-80(5) - Program Plan for Field Tests in Tuff at Nevada Test Site. These plans will be revised on a regular basis as issues are resolved or new ones identified, to reflect the evolution of the Field Testing Program

  19. An Efficient Approach for Candidate Set Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nawar Malhis; Arden Ruttan; Hazem H. Refai

    2005-01-01

    When Apriori was first introduced as an algorithm for discovering association rules in a database of market basket data, the problem of generating the candidate set of the large set was a bottleneck in Apriori's performance, both in space and computational requirements. At first, many unsuccessful attempts were made to improve the generation of a candidate set. Later, other algorithms that out performed Apriori were developed that generate association rules without using a candidate set. They...

  20. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  1. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  2. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  3. Radioactive waste products - suitability for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    48 papers were read at the conference. Separate records are available for all of them. The main problem in radioactive waste disposal was the long-term sealing to prevent pollution of the biosphere. Problems of conditioning, acceptance, and safety measures were discussed. Final disposal models and repositories were presented. (PW)

  4. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Guideline, 40 CFR 247.10. EPA provides recovered materials content recommendations for paper and paper... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposable containers. 2902.21 Section 2902.21... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for...

  6. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  8. Retrievable disposal - opposing views on ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous decades many research programmes on the disposal of radioactive waste have been completed in the Netherlands. The experts involved have reconfirmed their view that deep underground disposal in suitable geological formations would ensure a safe and prolonged isolation of the waste from the biosphere. Both rock salt and clay formations are considered to qualify as a suitable host rock. In 1993 the government in a position paper stated that such a repository should be designed in a way that the waste can be retrieved from it, should the need arise. In an attempt to involve stakeholders in the decision-making process, a research contract was awarded to an environmental group to study the ethical aspects related to retrievable disposal of radioactive waste. In their report which was published in its final form in January 2000 the authors concluded that retrievable disposal is acceptable from an ethical point of view. However, this conclusion was reached in the understanding that this situation of retrievability would be permanent. From the concept of equity between generations, each successive generation should be offered equal opportunities to decide for itself how to dispose of the radioactive waste. Consequently, the preferred disposal option is retrievable disposal (or long term storage) in a surface facility. Although this view is not in conformity with the ''official'' position on radioactive waste disposal, there is a benefit of having established a dialogue between interested parties in a broad sense. (author)

  9. Tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal evaluation for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A second annual summary and analysis of potential processes for the mitigation of tritium contained in process effluent, ground water and stored waste is presented. It was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-05B. Technologies with directed potential for separation of tritium at present environmental levels are organized into two groups. The first group consists of four processes that have or are undergoing significant development. Of these four, the only active project is the development of membrane separation technology at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Although research is progressing, membrane separation does not present a near term option for the mitigation of tritium. A second grouping of five early stage projects gives an indication of the breadth of interest in low level tritium separation. If further developed, two of these technologies might prove to be candidates for a separation process. At the present, there continues to be no known commercially available process for the practical reduction of the tritium burden in process effluent. Material from last year's report regarding the occurrence, regulation and management of tritium is updated and included in the appendices of this report. The use of the State Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) for disposal of tritiated effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) begins in the fall of 1995. This is the most significant event impacting tritium in the environment at the Hanford Site this coming year

  10. High performance construction materials for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed hazardous/radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities are often required to either withstand harsh service environments or in the case of disposal facilities exhibit an extremely long service life. The default construction material, Portland cement based concrete (PCC) does not always meet the challenge. For example, many radioactive waste processing facilities are constructed with PCC and then lined with stainless steel. The stainless steel liner is added to provide a surface which can be decontaminated. Installation of the stainless steel liner is both expensive and labor intensive. Similarly, hazardous waste facilities generally require concrete surfaces to be lined with a material that reduces the permeability of the concrete and provides resistance to the harsh chemical environment prevalent in such facilities. This paper is a highly condensed report of the results of a research effort designed to expand the engineering knowledge on two alternate materials which exhibit properties that would allow them to replace the stainless steel lined concrete combination. The two materials are: (1) ICOM, a composite concrete made from a proprietary blend of resins, corrosion-resistant fillers and fine aggregates, and (2) sulfur concrete (SC) made from sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Both materials meet or exceed the mechanical and structural properties of PCC, with the added characteristic of impermeability. The experimental results which are briefly summarized below indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications where a PCC structure has traditionally required supplemental liners due to the poor performance of the PCC alone

  11. Local containment and evidence needed in HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater- and migration-oriented approaches to HLW disposal suffer from uncertainty, whereas much solid evidence indicates that long-term containment of natural model substances and sensitive indicator minerals is the rule in common, groundwater-saturated silicate rocks. The conditions for persisting containment are outlined. Confirmation from investigations at study sites and actual candidate sites is needed. Elaborate models of the main flow system in this context appear unimportant, because at most sites more than 99.5% of the total ground-water flow would bypass the nearfield of the waste. Only minor, local fluxes can interact with the nearfield barriers. These fluxes and associated transport can be estimated from in-situ measurements. Therefore, licensing and final approval of HLW disposal need not be based on large-scale models of nuclide transport. Nearfield quality control, time-scaled demonstration and monitoring of local containment, and evaluation of potential future changes in the site-specific conditions, are required. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 46 refs

  12. User's guide to the 'DISPOSALS' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a User's Guide to the 'DISPOSALS' computer model and includes instructions on how to set up and run a specific problem together with details of the scope, theoretical basis, data requirements and capabilities of the model. The function of the 'DISPOSALS' model is to make assignments of nuclear waste material in an optimum manner to a number of disposal sites each subject to a number of constraints such as limits on the volume and activity. The user is able to vary the number of disposal sites, the range and limits of the constraints to be applied to each disposal site and the objective function for optimisation. The model is based on the Linear Programming technique and uses CAP Scientific's LAMPS and MAGIC packages. Currently the model has been implemented on CAP Scientific's VAX 11/750 minicomputer. (author)

  13. Borehole Disposal for Spent Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As generally, many countries in the world, Indonesia still faces some difficulties in the storage and final disposal for spent radiation sources (SRS) which categorized as high risk. Spent radiation sources that have been stored in the Interim Storage 1 and 2 (IS-1 and IS-2), and High Activity Waste Storage (PSLAT) consist of Co-50 or Cs-137 (as irradiator), Pu-238 (as power sources), Am-241 (as neutron source) and Ra-226 (as sources in the medical field). The difficulties faced on storage and disposal are reasoned by long half-life, high gamma radiation, not established disposal system, expensiveness of disposal facility, difficulties on option to reexport of the SRS, lack of skilled labour, and the activity exceed for near surface disposal. For that reason, disposal system for SRS must be developed with the small scale national facility having some advances as well as costly cheaper, fulfill the safety standard, and could avoid the possibility of human intrusion. The answer of this problem is borehole disposal concept. By using this concept can be hoped that the problems of SRS disposal can be handled well, based on site characterization, borehole technology, SRS capsule packaged design, repository facility, and safety assessment. Finally, after obtained the optimum concepts, would be applied in the future to support the national nuclear program accepted by the public. The assessment of borehole disposal technology for SRS has been done. The assessment was done descriptively, involve the waste, site, technology, and safety aspects. Some concepts of borehole have been obtained that have been recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), applicable and suitable with the waste and site condition. The concepts are Borehole Disposal of Sealed Sources (BOSS) with variation as follow: 1) Unsaturated, non-sulphate environments type; 2) Saturated, non-sulphate, non-clay environments with high to medium permeability, and 3) saturated, very low permeability

  14. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  15. Progress in welding studies for Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the progress in the development of closure-welding technology for Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal containers. Titanium, copper and Inconel 625 are being investigated as candidate materials for fabrication of these containers. Gas-tungsten-arc welding, gas metal-arc-welding, resistance-heated diffusion bonding and electron beam welding have been evaluated as candidate closure welding processes. Characteristic weldment properties, relative merits of welding techniques, suitable weld joint configurations and fit-up tolerances, and welding parameter control ranges have been identified for various container designs. Furthermore, the automation requirements for candidate welding processes have been assessed. Progress in the development of a computer-controlled remote gas-shielded arc welding system is described

  16. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) at two candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate locations were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning in System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data were overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Two species of rare vascular plants have previously been reported to occur in the vicinity of the candidate locations. Two C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. No significant ecological impact is anticipated if the MLLWDF were constructed on either candidate location. However, both candidate locations are in the central area of the INEL where there is minimal disturbance to the ecosystem by facilities or humans

  17. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  18. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates invo...

  19. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  20. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  1. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  2. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  3. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  4. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  5. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  6. Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be decomissioned. Operational and decommissioning wastes will need to be disposed in a licensed disposal facility starting in 2014. Taiwan has adopted regulations similar to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) low-level radioactive waste rules (10 CFR 61) to govern the disposal of LLW. Taiwan has proposed several potential sites for the final disposal of LLW that is now in temporary storage on Lanyu Island and on-site at operating nuclear power plants, and for waste generated in the future through 2045. The planned final disposal facility will have a capacity of approximately 966,000 55-gallon drums. Taiwan is in the process of evaluating the best candidate site to pursue for licensing. Among these proposed sites there are basically two disposal concepts: shallow land burial and cavern disposal. A representative potential site for shallow land burial is located on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock and interbedded sedimentary rocks. An engineered cover system would be constructed to limit infiltration for shallow land burial. A representative potential site for cavern disposal is located along the southeastern coast of Taiwan in a tunnel system that would be about 500 to 800 m below the surface. Bedrock at this site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. Performance assessment analyses will be performed to evaluate future performance of the facility and the potential dose/risk to exposed populations. Preliminary performance assessment analyses will be used in the site-selection process and to aid in design of the

  7. Evaluations for draft reports on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the technical evaluations on two reports which are named as 'Overview of the Geological Disposal Facility' and Considerable Factors on Selection of Potential Sites for Geological Disposal' drafted by NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan). The review of each draft report has been referred to committee (held on 9th September, 2002) and working group (held on 1st October, 2002) which were organized in order to confirm a progress of implementation of geological disposal by government. (author)

  8. Problems of radioactive waste disposal in cryolithozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the problems of utilizing perennially frozen rocks as host medium for underground disposal of radwaste. Peculiarities of mechanical, thermal and chemical interaction of radwaste with frozen ground are shown. Significant differences in the impact of low-, intermediate- and high-active waste on the geological environment of cryolithozone are established; the differences require a mathematical modeling of thermal interaction of heat emitting radwaste with frozen soils. The investigations show that a long-term reliable disposal of radwaste in the frozen rock formations is feasible and, according to many indicators, is more preferable as compared to the disposal in nonfrozen rock formations. 15 refs., 10 figs

  9. Shallow land disposal, the french system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1969, low and medium activity waste are disposed of in France at the Centre Manche. The management system set up covers the whole of the operations, from the sorting of the wastes and their conditioning to the final disposal. Safety standards and technical issues were found satisfactory by the National Safety Authority and they are the basis of the program for the realization of two new disposal sites which should take over from the Centre Manche loaded towards 1990. ANDRA, a National Agency, is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste, in France

  10. Land disposal of hazardous waste in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Illinois Hazardous Waste Task Force was formed to provide a blueprint for developing a clear, comprehensive, long-term policy for hazardous waste management in the State of Illinois. Ten committees were formed to examine existing conditions and to recommend future policy. One of these committees was charged with investigating land disposal of hazardous wastes. That committee studied the various methods of land disposal including landfills, deep-well injection, and surface pits and ponds. This paper reviews the data collected by the committee, the land disposal problems encountered, and the recommendations made by the committee

  11. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  12. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  13. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  14. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (2). Selection of grout materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the construction of an underground facility for the geological disposal of high level waste, it is important to limit the ingress of high pressure groundwaters to ensure site safety during the emplacement of buffer materials and waste canisters in the disposal tunnels and galleries. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed three candidate grout materials with consideration to the long-term chemical compatibility with other facility components. Reported here are the necessary selection criteria for grout materials to fulfill their intended purpose with special emphasis on the determination procedure of design hydrological fracture aperture. (author)

  15. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  16. Design of the disposal facility 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel accumulated from the nuclear power plants in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and in Haestholmen in Loviisa will be disposed of in Olkiluoto. A facility complex will be constructed at Olkiluoto, and it will include two nuclear waste facilities according to Government Degree 736/2008. The nuclear waste facilities are an encapsulation plant, constructed to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel and a disposal facility consisting of an underground repository and other underground rooms and above ground service spaces. The repository is planned to be excavated to a depth of 400 - 450 meters. Access routes to the disposal facility are an inclined access tunnel and vertical shafts. The encapsulated fuel is transferred to the disposal facility in the canister lift. The canisters are transferred from the technical rooms to the disposal area via central tunnel and deposited in the deposition holes which are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels and are lined beforehand with compacted bentonite blocks. Two parallel central tunnels connect all the deposition tunnels and these central tunnels are inter-connected at regular intervals. The solution improves the fire safety of the underground rooms and allows flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages during the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level. ONKALO is designed and constructed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. The goal is that the first part of the disposal facility will be constructed under the building permit phase in the 2010's and operations will start in the 2020's. The fuel from 4 operating reactors as well the fuel from the fifth nuclear power plant under construction, has been taken into account in designing the disposal facility. According to the information from TVO and Fortum, the amount of the spent nuclear fuel is 5,440 tU. The disposal facility is being excavated

  17. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  18. Global waste management and disposal update 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a review of waste management/disposal efforts in various countries of the world in 1993. The activities of 17 countries are summarized, with technical, business, and political aspects being covered in each

  19. Underground disposal facility closure design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva has developed a detailed design for construction of a KSB-3 type disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on Olkiluoto Island. The disposal facility design calls for construction of five shafts and an access tunnel that will serve to connect the disposal level to the surface. Routes to the underground disposal facility would be via the underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, which is currently under construction. The positioning of the underground disposal facility at Olkiluoto Island has been done by taking into account the main geological structures and available geological information on the site. Conditions actually encountered on reaching the potential disposal level will be assessed and the final layout selected at that time. The closure of the underground facility shall complete the isolation of the spent nuclear fuel and contribute to restoring and maintaining the favourable natural conditions in the bedrock. Beyond the deposition tunnels there remain underground openings associated with central and access tunnels, shafts and technical rooms or other spaces that comprise by definition the closure of the underground disposal facility. The underground disposal facility's general closure design described in this document deals specifically with the backfill and plugs installed in regions beyond the deposition tunnels and how the local geosphere may affect their performance. These tunnels, rooms and shafts represent approximately 60 % of the volume of the underground disposal facility openings and will intersect a variety of geological and hydrogeological features. Hence, backfilling and plugging of the disposal facility excavations in these regions will need to be approached in a flexible manner with the ability to modify the materials used to reflect the properties of the features intersected. Based on relevant available information the basis for flexible and general closure plan has been developed. The general closure plan takes into

  20. Future disposal burnup credit process and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed a risk-informed, performance based methodology for disposal criticality analyses. The methodology is documented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, YMP/TR-004Q (YMP 2000). The methodology includes taking credit for the burnup of irradiated commercial light water reactor fuel in criticality analyses, i.e., burnup credit. This paper summarizes the ongoing and planned future burnup credit activities associated with the methodology. (author)

  1. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  2. UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES: STATE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Centner, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of pounds of unwanted pesticides have accumulated in barns throughout our country. The potential environmental and health risks posed by this situation has garnered public attention and governmental action. The federal government has revised its Universal Waste Rule so that it is easier to dispose of unwanted pesticides rather than simply banned pesticides. Nearly every state has initiated efforts to collect and dispose of accumulated pesticides in a safe manner. While the possession...

  3. Development of the Borehole Disposal Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (Necsa) initiated the Borehole Disposal Concept (BDC) with a view to improving radioactive waste management practices in Africa. An IAEA Technical Cooperation project was launched to investigate the technical feasibility and economic viability of a borehole for the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources. Phase III of the project was completed by the end of 2004, and the main objective of this phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the concept by means of a practical demonstration. The disposal concept consists of a 260 mm diameter borehole drilled to a depth of up to 100 m in which stainless steel disposal containers are emplaced and backfilled with cement. Each disposal container contains a source within a stainless steel capsule within a containment barrier. Included in the terms of reference of Phase III were the design and the evaluation of the disposal concept. The evaluation included container materials, backfill materials and a generic post-closure safety assessment. The post-closure safety assessment and the associated derivation of activity limits showed that, through the use of multiple physical and chemical barriers, the BDC provides an appropriate degree of long term safety. Furthermore, the safety of the disposal concept is not reliant on an extended period of institutional control, and owing to its small 'footprint', the likelihood of direct human intrusion into the borehole is small. An international peer review team positively assessed the technical feasibility, economic viability and overall safety of the concept, and thus concluded the development phase of the project. The Member States of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) have decided to proceed to Phase IV of the project with the main aim to implement the borehole disposal technology. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  5. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  6. US charts plans for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) passed in 1982 defines long-term federal programs to dispose of the leftovers from nuclear power generation. A succession of interacting multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, is to protect the public. Inside a mined underground repository will go waste packages. The geological formations surrounding the repository will be the final barrier. The article discussed site selections, salt sites, and subseabed disposal. (DP)

  7. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Ćurković, Lidija; Fajković, Hana; Rončević, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in...

  8. Nuclear waste disposal: technology and environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; the nature and origin of wastes (fuel cycles; character of wastes; mining and milling operations; middle stages; irradiated fuel; reprocessing (waste generation); reactor wastes); disposal techniques and disposal of reprocessing wastes; siting of repositories; potential environmental impacts (impacts after emplacement in a rock repository; catastrophic effects; dispersion processes (by migrating ground water); thermal effects; future security; environmental survey, monitoring and modelling); conclusion. (U.K.)

  9. Radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the policy of the United Kingdom Government is that HLW should be stored in a suitable facility for at least fifty years before considering further storage or final disposal. This period allows many short-lived radionuclides, but more importantly, the associated radioactive decay heat, to diminish ahead of disposal. For intermediate-level solid wastes current policy is to develop, as soon as possible, a suitable deep geological facility for its permanent disposal. LLW constitutes the majority by volume of all radioactive waste. The waste arises not only from the nuclear industry, but also from all users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals, research establishments and industry. At present, it is mainly disposed of at a 300-acre site at Drigg in Cumbria, operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNEL). It is packed into containers and placed in concrete-lined trenches which are subsequently sealed. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years. Original plans-term disposal route for LLW involved disposal in a new near-surface repository. However, in 1987, this proposal was abandoned, on cost-benefit arguments, and the Government agreed that a yet to be developed national deep repository should also be used for some LLW. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years.

  10. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  11. Waste disposal technologies: designs and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many states and compacts are presently in the throes of considering what technology to select for their low level waste disposal site. Both the technical and economic aspects of disposal technology are important considerations in these decisions. It is also important that they be considered in the context of the entire system. In the case of a nuclear power plant, that system encompasses the various individual waste streams that contain radioactivity, the processing equipment which reduces the volume and/or alters the form in which the radioisotopes are contained, the packaging of the processed wastes in shipment, and finally its disposal. One further part of this is the monitoring that takes place in all stages of this operation. This paper discusses the results of some research that has been sponsored by EPRI with the principal contractor being Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation. Included is a description of the distinguishing features found in disposal technologies developed in a generic framework, designs for a selected set of these disposal technologies and the costs which have been derived from these designs. In addition, a description of the early efforts towards defining the performance of these various disposal technologies is described. 5 figures, 1 table

  12. Determining the suitability of materials for disposal at sea under the London Convention 1972: A radiological assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) prohibits the disposal at sea of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter. However natural radionuclides are present in all materials, including natural and inert materials, which can also contain artificial radionuclides from anthropogenic sources such as fallout due to past atmospheric nuclear testing. Therefore, the Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 recognized the need to develop definitions and guidelines so that candidate materials (those wastes or other matter not otherwise prohibited from disposal at sea in accordance with Annex I to the Convention) containing less than de minimis levels of specific activity, can be regarded as 'non-radioactive' and may be disposed of at sea subject to the other provisions of the Convention. At the Nineteenth Consultative Meeting in 1997, Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 agreed to request the IAEA to develop further the concept of de minimis levels and, in particular, to 'provide guidance for making judgements on whether materials planned to be dumped could be exempted from radiological control or whether a specific assessment was needed' (LC 19/10, paragraph 6.31). This paragraph continues: 'The IAEA would then further be requested to provide guidance to national authorities responsible for conducting specific assessments.' The IAEA presented its advice on de minimis in IAEA-TECDOC-1068, entitled Application of Radiological Exclusion and Exemption Principles to Sea Disposal, to the Twenty-first Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 in October 1999. The Contracting Parties accepted these principles and criteria and interpreted them further in the Guidelines for the Application of the De Minimis Concept Under the London Convention 1972 (the Guidelines). At that time, the Contracting Parties asked the IAEA to prepare additional guidance

  13. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec,Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  14. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these...... genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these...... genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  15. Scattering Properties of Candidate Planetary Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory investigation of the scattering properties of candidate planetary regolith materials is an important technique for understanding the physical properties of a planetary regolith. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  17. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A., E-mail: smlandi@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  18. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION:...

  19. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non- federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request...

  20. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  1. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  2. Canister filling materials -- Design requirements and evaluation of candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has been evaluating a copper/steel canister for use in the disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Once the canister is breached by corrosion, it is possible that the void volume inside the canister might fill with water. Water inside the canister would moderate the energy of the neutrons emitted by spontaneous fission in the fuel. It the space in the canister between and around the fuel pins is occupied by canister filling materials, the potential for criticality is avoided. The authors have developed a set of design requirements for canister filling material for the case where it is to be used alone, with no credit for burnup of the fuel or other measures, such as the use of neutron absorbers. Requirements were divided into three classes: essential requirements, desirable features, and undesirable features. The essential requirements are that the material fill at least 60% of the original void space, that the solubility of the filling material be less than 100 mg/l in pure water or expected repository waters at 50 C, and that the material not compact under its own weight by more than 10%. In this paper they review the reasons for these requirements, the desirable and undesirable features, and evaluate 11 candidate materials with respect to the design requirements and features. The candidate materials are glass beads, lead shot, copper spheres, sand, olivine, hematite, magnetite, crushed rock, bentonite, other clays, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the determination of whether further work is needed to eliminate uncertainties in the evaluation of the ability of a particular filling material to be successfully used under actual conditions, and on the ability to predict the long-term performance of the material under the repository conditions

  3. Vaccine candidates for malaria: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Although it is more than a decade since the parasite genome information was obtained, standardized novel genome-wide selection/prioritization strategies for candidacy of malaria vaccine antigens are still sought. In the quest to systematically identify candidates, it is impossible to overemphasize the usefulness of wheat germ cell-free technology in expressing quality proteins for the post-genome vaccine candidate discovery. PMID:26559316

  4. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  5. 32 CFR 644.394 - Protection of disposal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Protection of disposal information. 644.394... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.394 Protection of disposal information. To prevent premature disclosure to the public, information on and plans for disposal of all or a portion...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  10. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations.

  11. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations

  12. Corrosion of container materials for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.S.; Park, H.S.; Yeon, J.W.; Ha, Y.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    In the corrosion aspect of container for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, disposal concepts and the related container materials, which have been developed by advanced countries, have been reviewed. The disposal circumstances could be divided into the saturated and the unsaturated zones. The candidate materials in the countries, which consider the disposal in the unsaturated zone, are the corrosion resistant materials such as supper alloys and stainless steels, but those in the saturated zone is cupper, one of the corrosion allowable materials. By the results of the pitting corrosion test of sensitized stainless steels (such as 304, 304L, 316 and 316L), pitting potential is decreased with the degree of sensitization and the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L is higher than others. And so, the long-term corrosion experiment with 316L stainless steel specimens, sebsitized and non-sensitized, under the compacted bentonite and synthetic granitic groundwater has been being carried out. The results from the experiment for 12 months indicate that no evidence of pitting corrosion of the specimens has been observed but the crevice corrosion has occurred on the sensitized specimens even for 3 months. (author). 33 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. History of geological disposal concept (3). Implementation phase of geological disposal (2000 upward)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important standards and concept about geological disposal have been arranged as an international common base and are being generalized. The authors overview the concept of geological disposal, and would like this paper to help arouse broad discussions for promoting the implementation plan of geological disposal projects in the future. In recent years, the scientific and technological rationality of geological disposal has been recognized internationally. With the addition of discussions from social viewpoints such as ethics, economy, etc., geological disposal projects are in the stage of starting after establishment of social consensus. As an international common base, the following consolidated and systematized items have been presented as indispensable elements in promoting business projects: (1) step-by-step approach, (2) safety case, (3) reversibility and recovery potential, and (4) trust building and communications. This paper outlines the contents of the following cases, where international common base was reflected on the geological disposal projects in Japan: (1) final disposal method and safety regulations, and (2) impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident on geological disposal plan. (A.O.)

  14. Leaching of strontium from strontium-doped pyrochlore for nuclear waste disposal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of advanced and newer generation reactors, the problem of safe disposal of nuclear waste has become more acute. The Vitrification i. e. the incorporation of radioactive waste in glass cannot hold it for more than 100 years. The glasses are thermodynamically unstable and undergo devitrification which poses a danger of radionuclides leaching out to the environment. Crystalline materials with the pyrochlore structure have been suggested as candidates for the immobilisation of actinide species found in high-level nuclear waste (HLW) streams from the nuclear power industry and weapons decommissioning programmes. The resilience of these crystalline ceramics to intrinsic radiation damage and degradation by repository groundwater is far better than that of the borosilicate glasses. Various pyrochlore oxides of the type A2B2O7 like Nd2Zr2O7, Gd2Zr2O7, Gd2Ti2O7 have been studied widely as a matrix for nuclear waste disposal

  15. A Working Party report on corrosion problems related to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7 papers presented in this volume deal with corrosion related problems inherent in the various concepts of underground radioactive waste disposal which may result from the different geological conditions of the host formations, in particular salt domes. The provision of a series of technical barriers to prevent radionuclides from entering the biosphere is the background against which these papers are set. Of these barriers the most important is the waste container. The integrity of such containers over the timescale of thousands of years required by most disposal concepts is crucial. Corrosion rates, localized corrosion, such as pitting and stress corrosion, and crack propagation are examined for a number of different container candidate metals and alloys. A separate abstract has been prepared for each paper. (UK)

  16. A low-level radioactive waste disposal facility siting simulation exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facilities. This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation consists of two sessions: in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred site is chosen from three suitable candidate sites. Several workshops involving the simulation have been conducted for persons involved in the planning of LLW management activities. The simulation is useful as (a) a training tool, (b) a vehicle to foster communication, and (c) a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The siting simulation is now available through the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in the development of LLW disposal facilities

  17. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  18. Method of ground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock bases are drilled to form a disposal hole, an overhanging hole and a burying hole each as a shaft. An appropriate number of canisters prepared by vitrification of high level radioactive wastes are charged in the disposal hole with a gap to the inner wall of the hole. Shock absorbers each made of bentonite are filled between each of the canisters and between the canister and the inner wall of the disposal hole, and the canisters are entirely covered with the layer of the shock absorbers. Further, plucking materials having water sealing property such as cement mortar are filled thereover. With such a constitution, in a case if water should intrude into the overhung portion, since the disposal hole is covered with the large flange portion in addition to the water sealing performance of the plucking, the shock absorbers and the canisters undergo no undesirable effects. Further, in a case if water should intrude to the disposal hole, the shock absorber layers are swollen by water absorption, to suppress the intrusion of water. (T.M.)

  19. Waste disposal aspects of actinide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two recent NRPB reports are summarized (Camplin, W.C., Grimwood, P.D. and White, I.F., The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of disposal of high-level radioactive waste on the ocean bed, Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R94 (1980), London, HMSO; Hill, M.D., White, I.F. and Fleishman, A.B., The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste. Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R95 (1980), London, HMSO). They describe preliminary environmental assessments relevant to waste arising from the reprocessing of PWR fuel. Details are given of the modelling of transport of radionuclides to man, and of the methodology for calculating effective dose equivalents in man. Emphasis has been placed on the interaction between actinide separation and the disposal options rather than comparison of disposal options. The reports show that the effects of actinide separation do depend on the disposal method. Conditions are outlined where the required substantial further research and development work on actinide separation and recycle would be justified. Toxicity indices or 'toxic potentials' can be misleading and should not be used to guide research and development. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear waste disposal: radiological protection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study on the potential radiological consequencies of the geological disposal of vitrified high level waste which have recently been published (Preliminary Assessment of the Radiological Protection Aspects of Disposal of High Level Waste in Geologic Formations. Hill M.D. and Grimwood P.D. NRPB-R69 1978 (H.M.S.O.)) are discussed. The four main barriers which can prevent the return, or influence the rate of return, of radioactivity to man's environment from a waste repository are considered. The radionuclides which the study suggests would give rise to the highest doses and the predicted peak individual doses which would arise from these nuclides are quoted. The study indicates areas in which major uncertainties exist including; prediction of geological events which might lead to a failure of geological containment; events and processes due to the presence of the repository itself which could lead to loss of its integrity; the behaviour of vitrified waste under expected disposal conditions; and rates of migration of radionuclides with ground-water. The results of the preliminary study suggest that there is no reason to rule out geological disposal, but there is considerable work to be carried out before a decision can be taken on the acceptability of this disposal option. (U.K.)

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property? The disposal agency must determine that there is no further Federal need or requirement for the... this determination, the disposal agency must expeditiously make the surplus property available for... by public advertising, negotiation, or other disposal action. The disposal agency must consider...

  2. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  3. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P; Owen, M J; Ophoff, R A; O'Donovan, M C; Corvin, A; Cichon, S; Sullivan, P F

    2015-05-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why historical candidate gene studies did not achieve their primary aims is inadequate statistical power. However, the considerable efforts embodied in these early studies unquestionably set the stage for current successes in genomic approaches to schizophrenia. PMID:25754081

  4. Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

  5. Spent fuel disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical reasons warranting a postponement of spent fuel disposal are explained, and the time schedule is given of activities associated with the design, construction, and start-up of a deep geological repository, stretching as far as 2070. The status of preparatory activities implemented so far in relation to the repository is summarized. The design is under development but its future is dependent on the Atomic Act which is being prepared by the Czech Government. The problem of liabilities associated with the fuel cycle back end is discussed. A brief overview of deep geological disposal plans in Finland, France, Germany and Sweden is presented. The estimated cost of ultimate radioactive waste disposal is given. (J.B.). 3 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Public values associated with nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the major findings from a study designed to assess public attitudes and values associated with nuclear waste disposal. The first objective was to obtain from selected individuals and organizations value and attitude information which would be useful to decision-makers charged with deciding the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste materials. A second research objective was to obtain information that could be structured and quantified for integration with technical data in a computer-assisted decision model. The third general objective of this research was to test several attitude-value measurement procedures for their relevance and applicability to nuclear waste disposal. The results presented in this report are based on questionnaire responses from 465 study participants

  7. Closing the door on dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold dark matter candidates - if they exist - will be present in, and perhaps dominate the mass density of, the halo of our Galaxy. As they pass the vicinity of the Sun, such halo particles will be focussed gravitationally, pass through the Sun and - occasionally - be captured and accumulate in the solar core. When the density in the core of the Sun of dark matter candidates has increased sufficiently, they will annihilate and among the annihilation products will be energetic (≥ GeV) ''ordinary'' neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) which are detectable in deep underground experiments. The event rates in such detectors from the capture and annihilation of various dark matter candidates (Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, Sneutrinos and Photinos) are presented and it is shown how comparison with data may lead to constraints on (or, the exclusion of) the masses of these particles. 6 refs

  8. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste must be managed safely, consistent with internationally agreed safety standards. The disposal method chosen for the waste should be commensurate with the hazard and longevity of the waste. Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides and low concentrations of long lived radionuclides. The term 'near surface disposal' encompasses a wide range of design options, including disposal in engineered structures at or just below ground level, disposal in simple earthen trenches a few metres deep, disposal in engineered concrete vaults, and disposal in rock caverns several tens of metres below the surface. The use of a near surface disposal option requires design and operational measures to provide for the protection of human health and the environment, both during operation of the disposal facility and following its closure. To ensure the safety of both workers and the public (both in the short term and the long term), the operator is required to design a comprehensive waste management system for the safe operation and closure of a near surface disposal facility. Part of such a system is to establish criteria for accepting waste for disposal at the facility. The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures and in addition, to prevent or limit hazards, which could arise from non-radiological causes. Waste acceptance criteria include limits on radionuclide content concentration in waste materials, and radionuclide amounts in packages and in the repository as a whole. They also include limits on quantity of free liquids, requirements for exclusion of chelating agents and pyrophoric materials, and specifications of the characteristics of the waste containers. Largely as a result of problems encountered at some disposal facilities operated in the past, in 1985 the IAEA published guidance on generic acceptance

  9. Disposal of disused sealed sources in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not foreseen by the Belgian operator to dispose radioactive sealed sources in Near Surface Disposal Facility. The adaptation of the generic safety assessment in order to take in account the presence of sealed sources has been made. The level of concern in the context of the long term safety of a near surface disposal is assessed. On the base of the Belgium exemption level and the extrapolation for the disused sources the range of values above which sources could be considered as to have a significant radiological impact is determined. The number of significant medical sources after 300 years is estimated to be 294. For long term safety after 300 years it is obtained the reduction by a factor 10 of the number of sources, when only three radionuclides 241Am, 137Cs and 226Ra should be taken into account for the long term safety (only α and γemitters). The Belgian Near Surface Disposal Concept is presented. Long Term Safety Assessment including assumptions, generic concept, classification, scenarios (Human intrusion scenario) is presented. It is concluded that high actives of long-lived radionuclides sources should be avoided in a near surface disposal facility regarding the human intrusion scenario. If sources are still foreseen, activity limits should be specified together with requirements on their management. Specific limits could be derived from safety or security scenario. Attempts to distribute other sources in each module of the disposal and to set out the monoliths containing sources away from the intruder possible access could be made. Stylised human intrusion scenarios including sources should be developed by discussions with the safety authority. Scenario addressing the Operational phase should include the presence of sources

  10. UK surplus source disposal programme - 16097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP), managed by the Environment Agency, was designed to remove redundant radioactive sources from the public domain. The UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was concerned that disused sources were being retained by hospitals, universities and businesses, posing a risk to public health and the environment. AMEC provided a range of technical and administrative services to support the SSDP. A questionnaire was issued to registered source holders and the submitted returns compiled to assess the scale of the project. A member of AMEC staff was seconded to the Environment Agency to provide technical support and liaise directly with source holders during funding applications, which would cover disposal costs. Funding for disposal of different sources was partially based on a sliding scale of risk as determined by the IAEA hazard categorisation system. This funding was also sector dependent. The SSDP was subsequently expanded to include the disposal of luminised aircraft instruments from aviation museums across the UK. These museums often hold significant radiological inventories, with many items being unused and in a poor state of repair. These instruments were fully characterised on site by assessing surface dose rate, dimensions, source integrity and potential contamination issues. Calculations using the Microshield computer code allowed gamma radiation measurements to be converted into total activity estimates for each source. More than 11,000 sources were disposed of under the programme from across the medical, industrial, museum and academic sectors. The total activity disposed of was more than 8.5 E+14 Bq, and the project was delivered under budget. (authors)

  11. The Michigan site selection process for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michigan as the host for the Midwest Compact, a consortium of states, is in the process of site selection of three potential candidate sites for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Ultimately, three detailed site characterization studies will be performed concurrently. The site selection process consists of application of siting criteria. An initial screening of the entire state with exclusionary criteria incorporated into a geographic information system eliminated about 97 percent of the state. The remaining areas of over 2,250 acres in extent are being investigated using available data. Three have been eliminated to date and the remaining 79 continue under study. (author) 10 figs

  12. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Haruo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs.

  13. Disposable demineralizer - a radwaste processing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposable demineralizers and filters provide a method by which liquid waste treatment systems can be added or replaced at nuclear power plants. These systems involve minimal capital investment for equipment and facilities to house the system. The systems have demonstrated a high degree of radionuclide removal on a continuous basis and of reliability with minimum operator attendance and maintenance. For most liquid waste streams, the disposable demineralizer/filter system will provide greater reduction in waste volume than other treatment systems. Even though relatively expensive ion exchange resin and filter media are used on a one-time basis, the systems are economical to operate

  14. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal

  15. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities

  16. The safe disposal of landfill gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable wastes deposited in landfill sites are decomposed by microbial activity to produce water and a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. This gas can migrate from the landfill site presenting hazards and an odor problem. If the gas cannot be commercially utilized it must be disposed of in a safe and economic manner by flaring. This paper briefly outlines the generation of the gas and its potential hazards. The need for gas control is discussed along with methods for the disposal of the extracted gas

  17. Radioactive metals disposal and recycling impact modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening life cycle assessment models developed to investigate hypothetical disposal and recycling options for the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor heat exchangers were used to generate more complex models addressing the main UK radioactive metals inventory. Both studies show there are significant environmental advantages in the metals recycling promoted by the current low level waste disposal policies, strategies and plans. Financial benefits from current metals treatment options are supported and offer even greater benefits when applied to the UK radioactive metals inventory as a whole. (authors)

  18. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to predict tensile stress levels in thin-walled titanium alloy and thick-walled carbon steel containers designed for the ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive wastes. Results showed that tensile stresses would be produced in both designs by the expansion of the lead filter, for a temperature rise of 2000C. Tensile stress could be reduced if the waste heat output at disposal was reduced. Initial stresses for the titanium-alloy containers could be relieved by heat treatment. (UK)

  19. New York State's LLRW disposal facility status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to legislation enacted in 1990 the New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission is currently focused on selecting a disposal method. The statute prohibits site specific studies until a conceptual disposal method is approved by the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC). The Commission's July, 1993 Method Selection Plan defines the process by which a method will be selected. This plan encourages review and comment by the public, and, in accordance with New York law, provides for outside review by the Citizen Advisory Committee and an independent Technical and Scientific Evaluation Panel

  20. Radioactive waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal into ground has sometimes proved to be an expedient and simple method. Where ground disposal has become an established practice, the sites have so far been limited to those remote from population centres; but in other respects, such as in climate and soil conditions, their characteristics vary widely. Experience gained at these sites has illustrated the variety of problems in radioactive waste migration and the resulting pollution and environmental radiation levels that may reasonably be anticipated at other sites, whether remote from population centres or otherwise.

  1. AFCI Storage & Disposal FY-06 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Wigeland, R; Dixon, B

    2006-09-27

    AFCI Storage and Disposal participants at LLNL, ANL and INL provide assessment of how AFCI technology can optimize the future evolution of the fuel cycle, including optimization of waste management. Evaluation of material storage and repository disposal technical issues provides feedback on criteria and metrics for AFCI, and evaluation of AFCI waste streams provides technical alternatives for future repository optimization. LLNL coordinates this effort that includes repository analysis at ANL and incorporation of repository impacts into AFCI criteria at INL. Cooperative evaluation with YMP staff is pursued to provide a mutually agreed technical base. Cooperation with select international programs is supported.

  2. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  3. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  4. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ''home'' for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ''special-case'' or ''orphan'' wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE's Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Safety of direct disposal of spent fuel and of disposal of reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005, the French Agency for Radioactive waste management (ANDRA) established a report on the feasibility of the geological disposal of high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste, in a clay formation. The hypothesis of spent fuel direct disposal was also considered. By the end of 2005, IRSN performed a complete technical review of ANDRA's report, aiming at highlighting the salient safety issues that were to be addressed within a process that may possibly lead to the creation of a disposal facility for these wastes. The following publication presents the main conclusions of this technical review. (author)

  6. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  7. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  8. The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toremen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates' responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstructured interview method…

  9. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  10. FAME's Search for Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.

    FAME is a five year survey mission to observe the positions, proper motions, and parallaxes of 40,000,000 stars down to 15th magnitude with accuracies of 50 microarcseconds at 9th magnitude. In addition to producing an astrometric and photometric catalog unparalleled for its accuracy and size, the survey will provide significant astrophysics results and search for extrasolar planet candidates.

  11. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  12. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  13. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  14. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  15. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  16. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  17. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  19. Urban garbage disposal and management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change andregional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in fivebig cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showedthe output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition arealso increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing thegrowing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residentsare in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battlingagainst garbage.Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some polieymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a socialwelfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control,promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been putforward in the paper.

  20. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  1. Critical groups for geological disposal performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International recommendations and many national regulations on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste include requirements to demonstrate that radiation doses and/or risks to individuals after waste disposal meet particular quantitative standards. Therefore, an important question for performance assessments (PAs) is how to define the characteristics of the relevant individuals so as to allow their radiation exposure to be assessed. In the USA and in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal, this question has been given an increased profile following the publication of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on technical bases for Yucca Mountain standards. This paper presents a summary compilation and analysis of information on critical groups being prepared for the Electric Power Research Institute in order to inform judgements on assumptions for critical groups which might be used in PA of Yucca Mountain. Consideration has been given to the regulatory development of the concept of a critical group and its use in radiological assessments, including assessments of present day effluent releases as well as releases which might occur in the long term future as a result of land based disposal of solid radioactive waste

  2. Inventory of radioactive waste disposals at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for having such an inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides from different sources entering the marine environment can be assessed and compared. To respond to the request of the London Convention, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include: disposal at sea of radioactive wastes, and accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive materials. This report addresses disposal at sea of radioactive waste, a practice which continued from 1946 to 1993. It is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-588, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste, published in 1991. In addition to the data already published in IAEA-TECDOC-588, the present publication includes detailed official information on sea disposal operations carried out by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation provided in 1993 as well as additional information provided by Sweden in 1992 and the United Kingdom in 1997 and 1998

  3. Studies on geological disposal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French nuclear programme anticipates an installed capacity of 58 GW(e) in 1990. Since the reprocessing option has been adopted, it is foreseen that by the year 2000 the amount of vitrified waste and alpha-bearing waste produced will be 3000 m3 and 45 000 m3, respectively. With a view to disposal of the wastes in appropriate geological formations, studies have been made of different management scenarios, with the duration of intermediate storage of vitrified waste before final disposal varying between 30 years and over 150 years, either on the surface or underground at the disposal site itself. Where low- and intermediate-level wastes containing significant amounts of alpha-emitting radioisotopes are concerned, a disposal concept compatible with the (small) thermal effects of these wastes (cladding hulls and process wastes encapsulated in cement and sludges encapsulated in bitumen) is described. The initial projects are designed for a host medium of the granite type, a rock studied by France in the context of the co-ordinated research programme of the European Community. However, since a site has yet to be chosen, consideration has been given to the possibility of applying these concepts to other media, of the clay and salt types; efforts have also been made to draw up estimates for the time needed and costs of constructing storage facilities. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy: the disposal situation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable interim storage sites and ultimate radwaste disposal sites are needed regardless of the future course of nuclear energy. Beside the radwaste due to return from reprocessing abroad, considerable amounts of radwaste are also produced outside the electricity economy (medicine, research). The proponents of a complete phase-out will probably find it hard surendering to the fact that the need for storage capacities (wastes from decommissioning, whole reactor cores) will become all the more urgent the sooner the phase-out of nuclear energy is to take place. The prospective costs of reprocessing forbid holding on to this option. Economically, it would be best to go over to direct ultimate disposal as fast as possible. However, the requirement to furnish proof of adequate provisions having been made for ultimate disposal may yet cause problems, as the dispute over the Gorleben site is still not settled. A viable solution may be to prolong interim storage. This is certainly sensible from the economic viewpoint. The most important advantage of this option is that it can offer some political breathing space. It would take away the pressure to make immediate decisious that might prove wrong in retrospect. The time thus gained could be used to soberly think over the future of nuclear energy and arrive at an overall concept. All options would be retained, e.g., the exploration of other possible ultimate disposal sites, a later return to reprocessing; and, most important of all, a more reflective assessment of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  6. Ocean disposal of heat generating waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat generating waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the engineering and operational aspects of the Penetrator Option for ocean disposal to enable technical comparisons with other options to be made. In the Penetrator Option concept, waste would be loaded into carefully designed containers which would be launched at a suitable deep ocean site where they would fall freely through the water and would embed themselves completely within the seabed sediments. Radiological protection would be provided by a multi-barrier system including the vitrified waste form, the penetrator containment, the covering sediment and the ocean. Calculations and demonstration have shown that penetrators could easily achieve embedment depths in excess of 30m and preliminary radiological assessments indicate that 30m of intact sediment would be an effective barrier for radionuclide isolation. The study concludes that a 75mm thickness of low carbon steel appears to be sufficient to provide a containment life of 500 to 1000 years during which time the waste heat output would have decayed to an insignificant level. Disposal costs have been assessed. (author)

  7. Magnox graphite core decommissioning and disposal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite core dismantling and disposal will be a key issue for the decommissioning of the United Kingdom (UK) Magnox reactors. The irradiated graphite arisings from the UK gas cooled reactor programme represent a significant proportion of the radioactive wastes currently destined for the UK geological repository. Data on the graphite and radionuclide inventory of the Magnox reactor graphite cores are presented together with data on the core designs. Magnox reactor cores represent a significant fraction of the worldwide irradiated graphite inventory and the paper recognizes that there may be alternatives to geological disposal. Sources and arisings of carbon-14, which is one of the major long lived radionuclides of concern, are discussed along with wider aspects of the arisings and behaviour of carbon-14 in the environment. Indubitably, core graphite disposal and the technical challenges it poses is one of the major issues to address in achieving final site clearance in a cost effective manner and reducing the liability cost associated with disposal of graphite. (author)

  8. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  9. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces biological waste water treatment with basic theory and activated sludge process, which includes chemical reaction engineering with reaction velocity and mass balance, an effector, characteristic of water treatment effector and biological waste water disposal such as flow pattern and tracer test. This is biological theory of steady on waste water treatment, design and management.

  10. Geomechanics of clays for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay formations have been studied for many years in the European Community as potential disposal media for radioactive waste. This document brings together results of on-going research about the geomechanical behaviour of natural clay bodies, at normal and elevated temperatures. The work is carried out within the third Community R and D programme on Management and storage of radioactive waste

  11. Subseabed Disposal Program plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the most stable geologic formations are underneath the deep oceans. Purpose of this program is to assess the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of packaged high-level waste and/or repackaged spent reactor fuel in these formations

  12. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  13. NRC perspective on alternative disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is discussed an NRC staff strategy for the development of technical criteria and procedures for the licensing of various alternatives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Steps taken by the staff to identify viable alternative disposal methods and to comply with the requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) of 1985 are also discussed. The strategy proposed by the NRC staff is to focus efforts in FY 87 on alternative concepts that incorporate concrete materials with soil or rock cover (e.g., below ground vaults and earth-mounded concrete bunkers), which several State and State Compacts have identified as preferred disposal options. While the NRC staff believes that other options, such as above ground vaults and mined cavities, are workable and licensable, the staff also believes, for reasons addressed in the paper, that it is in the best interest of the industry and the public to encourage standardization and to focus limited resources on a manageable number of alternative options. Therefore, guidance on above ground vaults, which are susceptible to long-term materials degradation due to climatological effects, and mined cavities, which represent a significant departure from the current experience base for low-level radioactive waste disposal, will receive minimal attention. 6 references

  14. Costs and impacts of transporting nuclear waste to candidate repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a status report on the current estimated costs and impacts of transporting high-level nuclear wastes to candidate disposal sites is given. Impacts in this analysis are measured in terms of risk to public health and safety. Since it is difficult to project the status of the nuclear industry to the time of repository operation - 20 to 50 years in the future - particular emphasis in the paper is placed on the evaluation of uncertainties. The first part of this paper briefly describes the characteristics of the waste that must be transported to a high-level waste disposal site. This discussion is followed by a section describing the characteristics of the waste transport system. Subsequent sections describe the costs and risk assessments of waste transport. Finally, in a concluding section, the effect of the uncertainties in the definition of the waste disposal system on cost and risk levels is evaluated. This last section also provides some perspectives on the magnitude of the cost and risk levels relative to other comparable costs and risks generally encountered. 13 references, 2 figures, 16 tables

  15. Studies of direct final disposal of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development programme for 'Direct Final Disposal' comprises works compiled for direct disposal of high-temperature fuel elements which, as regards the direct disposal of IWR fuel elements, are either carried out independently by the DWK (conditioning and development of tanks), or coordinated by the project group for Other Waste Disposal Techniques (PAE) of the KfK on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (repository). Part A of the research and development programme includes work on the direct disposal of high-temperature fuel elements. Part B comprises work on the direct disposal of LWR fuel elements. (orig./DG)

  16. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  17. Repository for final disposal of medium level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews studies and activities associated with the required installations for the final disposal site for all medium-level wastes, generated in Argentina. These wastes are diverse in nature: they range from nuclear power plant operation, radioisotopes production, spent sealed sources from applications in medicine and industry, future decommissioning actions, etc. The repository design based on a multibarrier concept consists of engineered structures (concrete modules) buried at shallow depth. Work groups have been established to develop the following subjects: selection of candidate sites and site confirmation; safety aspects; agreement from the authorities and public; modules design and associated facilities; cementitious materials used as wastes matrices, containers, grouts, backfills, liners, seals; other materials; construction and commissioning; operation and shutdown; procedures and acceptance criteria that waste packages must meet; physical, industrial and radiological security; post closure control; evaluation of the long-term evolution of the various components of the repository system (performance assessment) and economical aspects. Preliminary results are presented in this paper

  18. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) studies Finnish bedrock for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The study is in accordance with the decision in principle by Finnish government in 1983. The report is the summary of the preliminary site investigations carried out during the years 1987-1992. On the basis of these investigations a few areas will be selected for detailed site investigation. The characterization comprises five areas selected from the shortlist of potential candidate areas resulted in the earlier study during 1983-1985. Areas are located in different parts of Finland and they represent the main formations of the Finnish bedrock. Romuvaara area in Kuhmo and Veitsivaara area in Hyrynsalmi represent the Archean basement. Kivetty area in Konginkangas consists of mainly younger granitic rocks. Syyry in Sievi is located in transition area of Svecofennidic rocks and granitic rocks. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki represents migmatites in southern Finland. For the field investigations area-specific programs were planned and executed. The field investigations have comprised airborne survey by helicopter, geophysical surveys, geological mappings and samplings, deep and shallow core drillings, geophysical and hydrological borehole measurements and groundwater samplings

  19. Execution techniques for high-level radioactive waste disposal. 2. Fundamental concept of geological disposal and implementing approach of disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The making high activity of the high-level radioactive waste disposal business shall be fully started after establishing of the implementing organization which is planned around 2000. Considering each step of disposal business, in this study, the implementation procedure for a series of disposal business such as the selection of the disposal site, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of the disposal facility and the management after closure, which are carried forward by the implementation body is discussed in detail from the technical viewpoint and an example of the master schedule is proposed. Furthermore, we investigate and propose the concept of the geological disposal which becomes important in carrying forward to making of the business of the disposal, such as the present site selection smoothly, the fundamental idea of the safe securing for disposal, the basic idea to get trust to the disposal technique and the geological environmental condition which is the basic condition of this whole study for the disposal business making. (author)

  20. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens' opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.)

  1. Atlantic ocean disposal sites: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts Development Incorporated (CDI) has reviewed the literature and summarized the environmental data base available for two possible waste disposal sites off the northeast coast of the United States. These sites include the 106-Mile Ocean Waste Disposal Site (DWD 106) located due east of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, and the Cape Hatteras Site (CHS). DWD 106 is now used for the disposal of industrial wastes. CHS was identified through a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) program to locate regions suitable for the marine disposal of large structures, within the exclusive economic zone of the United States (200 nautical miles or less from the coast), in deep (>4000m) water. DWD 106 has been the subject of EPA and NOAA environmental studies in conjunction with industrial waste disposal at the site, and CHS has been described by Hollister, Bruce and Chandler (1979) and considered in a study of dissolved contaminant dispersal by Kupferman and Moore (1981). The prime objective of this study was to identify and review published accounts of environmental studies pertaining to DWD 106 or CHS. A secondary objective was to identify studies conducted within the general region (taken to be the NW Atlantic) so that in cases where site-specific data are unavailable one could identify the nearest available data set of a given category. Additionally, some effort was directed toward assembling references which would aid in the characterization of waste contaminated with traces of natural radioactive material.This document presents literature search site characterization summary material; brief discussion of the result of the waste characterization review; and a listing of bibliographic references identified to date

  2. 22 CFR 11.8 - Travel expenses of candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of candidates. 11.8 Section 11... Travel expenses of candidates. The travel and other personal expenses of candidates incurred in... Department may issue round-trip invitational travel orders to bring candidates to Washington at...

  3. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  4. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations. PMID:20672542

  5. Corrosion considerations of high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. High nickel alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessments of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns of involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degrees}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 31 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Corrosion considerations of high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project's high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. High nickel alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessments of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns of involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250 degrees C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 31 refs., 1 tab

  7. Determination of optimum alternative low-level radioactive waste disposal site/disposal technology combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is developed and demonstrated to determine a numerical figure of merit (FOM) by which alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal sites and disposal technologies can be evaluated. The FOM is an arbitrarily selected nominal value, representative of the societal value of products associated with the LLRW, modified by the positive and negative impacts of waste disposal. Impacts considered include radiological health effects, transportation accidents, disposal and transportation economics, and user-specified socioeconomic factors. All impacts are converted to an economic basis via a user-specified value of life to allow a common basis of comparison. A demonstration of the methodology evaluates the 1984 Pennsylvania LLRW source team in 24 cases, 2 general locations, 3 soil types, and 4 disposal technologies (Part 61 trench, above-ground vault, below-ground vault, and grouted trench or engineered container). Costs derived for each case in 1984 dollars range from $1990 to 1090/m/sup 3/ ($28 to 31/ft/sup 3/). Uniform criteria applied to each case assume a linear loss of containment and structural stability for LLRW in a waste cell. Radiological pathways are primarily a function of the site and generally show little or no dependence on the disposal technology

  8. Underground disposal method for radioactive material-containing body and underground disposal product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a radioactive material-containing body is buried, in a sealed state, into a disposal hole formed in rock substrates, a high density buffering layer is formed to the surface of the radioactive material-containing body such that a buffering material, for example, bentonite compressed and solidified by cold isostatic pressing covers the surface integrally. The thus formed underground disposal products are charged in the disposal hole and buried in a sealed state. Accordingly, operation for forming a buffering layer by additionally filling buffering material to the disposal hole can be saved, thereby enabling to remarkably improve the operationability upon underground disposal. Further, since the homogeneous high density buffering layer is formed integrally, if underground water is immersed to the disposal hole, the high density buffering layer is swollen uniformly, to prevent water from intrusion due to elevation of the inner pressure, accordingly, sealing property and safety can be ensured. Further, when ground water is intruded, ground water is prevented from reaching an overpack and corroding the surface thereof by uniform swelling of the buffer layer. (T.M.)

  9. The benefits that could flow from coastal disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to radioactive waste disposal, under coastal sites but with sea connection, could enhance safety and practicability. The advantages of this method of disposal for low and intermediate level waste are examined. (author)

  10. HYDROGEOLOGY OF REFUSE DISPOSAL SITE JAKUŠEVAC (ZAGREB)

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Mayer; Zvonimir Markovac

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the aquifer and distribution of potentials in the area of refuse disposal site Jakuševac are described. Possible effects of disposal site on ground water quality are estimated (the paper is published in Croatian).

  11. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  12. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Maintenance dredging has been carried out along the navigational channel at Kavaratii Island and dredge spoil is disposed in the open sea. This paper describes the movement of sediment plume while dredging and disposal. The study indicates...

  13. Candidate Species Selection: Cultural and Photosynthetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cultural information is provided for a data base that will be used to select candidate crop species for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Lists of food crops which will satisfy most nutritional requirements of humans and also fit within the scope of cultural restrictions that logically would apply to a closed, regenerating system were generated. Cultural and environmental conditions that will allow the most rapid production of edible biomass from candidate species in the shortest possible time are identified. Cultivars which are most productive in terms of edible biomass production by (CE) conditions, and which respond to the ever-closed approach to optimization realized by each shortened production cycle are selected. The experimental approach with lettuce was to grow the crop hydroponically in a growth chamber and to manipulate such variables as light level and duration, day/night temperature, and nutrient form and level in the solution culture.

  14. New drug candidates in tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Evranos Aksöz

    2014-12-01

    makes them quit the treatment. From these problems emerges the need for development of effective new drugs, with smaller duration of therapy, less side effects and without the problem of resistance. After a long period such as 40 years, a new drug molecule bedaquiline was approved in December 2012 by FDA while the drug was in phase II research. Bedaquiline will be used in multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy. When the chemical structures of bedaquilline and other candidate drugs were examined, the structures such as diarylquinoline, oxazolidinone, nitroimidazole, ethylenediamine drew attention. These common structures will be directive in designing new molecules. In this review, bedaquiline and other candidate drug molecules such as sutezolide, linezolide, PA-824, delamanide, rifapentine, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, BTZ-043, TBA-354, CPZEN-45, DC-159a, Q201, SQ-609, SQ-641 were mentioned.

  15. Optical Nova Candidate in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 14.46 and 16.46 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.7. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h42m37.72s, Dec = +41d12'30.0"(J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 1'14" west and 3'39" south of the core of M 31. All magnitudes given are obtained from a photometric solution using R magnitudes of the Local Group Survey M 31 catalogue (Massey et al.

  16. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars and not...... planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  17. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  18. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam Aliya; Brohan Elaine; Thornicroft Graham; Lewis-Holmes Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  19. Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, Monica; Weyant, C. M.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Faber, K. T.

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) oxide, due to its high-temperature capabilities and thermal expansion coefficient similar to silicon nitride, is a promising candidate for environmental barriers for silicon (Si) nitride-based ceramics. This paper focuses on the development of plasma-sprayed Ta oxide as an environmental barrier coating for silicon nitride. Using a D-optimal design of experiments, plasma-spray processing variables were optimized to maximize coating density. The effect of processing variables on c...

  20. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  1. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...

  2. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  3. Comparing Candidate Selection : A Feminist Institutionalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnegard, Elin; Kenny, Meryl

    2016-01-01

    This contribution evaluates the theoretical and methodological challenges ofresearching the gendered dynamics of candidate selection in comparativeperspective. It argues that comparative studies should take into account not only thegendered nature of political parties and their wider institutional context, but mustalso investigate the informal aspects of the selection process and their genderedconsequences. The article explores these dynamics by revisiting original in-depthresearch on the can...

  4. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF ALLOSENSITIZED CARDIAC TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Mauricio; Johnson, Maryl R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation remains the best treatment in advanced heart failure patients with a high risk of death. However, an inadequate supply of donor hearts decreases the likelihood of transplantation for many patients. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are being increasingly used as a bridge to transplant in patients who may not survive long enough to receive a heart. This expansion in VAD use has been associated with increasing rates of allosensitization in cardiac transplant candidates. A...

  6. Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu PİJİ KÜÇÜK; Yusuf Barış UZUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant İzzet B...

  7. Preoperative Anxiety in Candidates for Heart Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi, Mehdi; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Joudi, Marjan; Joudi, Mitra; Mahdikhani, Helia; Ferasatkish, Rasool; Bakhshandeh, Houman; Jabbari Nooghabi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate preoperative anxiety and its predisposing factors in a group of adult patients who were candidate for any kind of heart surgery. Methods: We evaluated preoperative anxiety in 300 patients undergoing heart surgery whose ages ranged between 18-65 years. Relationship of probable demographic factors like gender, educational level, marital status, number of children, family support, opium addiction, occupational status, and left ventricular ejectio...

  8. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  9. Safety assessment of spent fuel disposal in Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara - TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants is planned to be disposed of in copper-iron canisters emplaced in a KBS-3 type repository constructed at a depth of about 500 metres at one of the four candidate sites investigated. The disposal concept aims at long-term isolation of the spent fuel assemblies from the biosphere and even from the geosphere. The evaluation of the normal evolution of the disposal system accords with the conclusions of the previous Finnish, Swedish and Canadian safety assessments of similar disposal concepts. Subject to the influence of the expected, normal evolution of the repository, initially intact copper-iron canisters will most likely preserve their integrity for more than one million years at any of the candidate sites. Consequently, the best-estimate assessment is that there never will be any significant releases of radionuclides from the repository into the geosphere. Consequences of potential canister failures have been evaluated using conservative assumptions, models and data. The results show that at any of the sites a large number of canisters could be assumed to be initially defective or to `disappear` simultaneously after some time without that the proposed constraints for release rates into the biosphere or dose rates were exceeded. In most cases this conclusion is valid for all canisters failing simultaneously, even if rather pessimistic flow and transport data is used. In the sensitivity and `what if` analyses where very high flow rates of saline groundwater are assumed, highest release and dose rates are caused by weakly-sorbing cations Sr-90 and Ra-226. The most important differences between the sites are related to the coastal location and brackish/saline groundwater of Haestholmen and Olkiluoto, and on the other hand to the inland location and fresh groundwater of Kivetty and Romuvaara. Because of the ongoing postglacial land uplift at the coast of the Baltic Sea, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen, too, may become

  10. Safety assessment of spent fuel disposal in Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara - TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants is planned to be disposed of in copper-iron canisters emplaced in a KBS-3 type repository constructed at a depth of about 500 metres at one of the four candidate sites investigated. The disposal concept aims at long-term isolation of the spent fuel assemblies from the biosphere and even from the geosphere. The evaluation of the normal evolution of the disposal system accords with the conclusions of the previous Finnish, Swedish and Canadian safety assessments of similar disposal concepts. Subject to the influence of the expected, normal evolution of the repository, initially intact copper-iron canisters will most likely preserve their integrity for more than one million years at any of the candidate sites. Consequently, the best-estimate assessment is that there never will be any significant releases of radionuclides from the repository into the geosphere. Consequences of potential canister failures have been evaluated using conservative assumptions, models and data. The results show that at any of the sites a large number of canisters could be assumed to be initially defective or to 'disappear' simultaneously after some time without that the proposed constraints for release rates into the biosphere or dose rates were exceeded. In most cases this conclusion is valid for all canisters failing simultaneously, even if rather pessimistic flow and transport data is used. In the sensitivity and 'what if' analyses where very high flow rates of saline groundwater are assumed, highest release and dose rates are caused by weakly-sorbing cations Sr-90 and Ra-226. The most important differences between the sites are related to the coastal location and brackish/saline groundwater of Haestholmen and Olkiluoto, and on the other hand to the inland location and fresh groundwater of Kivetty and Romuvaara. Because of the ongoing postglacial land uplift at the coast of the Baltic Sea, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen, too, may become

  11. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  12. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report

  13. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS

  14. 48 CFR 45.604-1 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 45.604-1 Section 45.604-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.604-1 Disposal methods. (a) Except as...

  15. Decommissioning and disposal of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal techniques in decommissioning of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities are systematically discussed, including covering of uranium tailing impoundment, drainaging and consolidation of uranium tailing, and treatment of mining waste water and polluted groundwater, and the costs associated with disposal are analyzed. The necessity of strengthening the decommissioning disposal technology research and international exchanges and cooperation is emphasized. (authors)

  16. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  17. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  18. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  19. 20 CFR 209.16 - Disposal of payroll records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposal of payroll records. 209.16 Section... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.16 Disposal of payroll records. Employers may dispose of payroll records for periods subsequent to 1936, provided that the payroll records are more...

  20. Imaging the risks - risking the image: Social impact assessment of the final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland started about twenty years ago. At present the work is carried out by Posiva Oy, which in 1996 took over the programme managed earlier by Teollisuuden Voima Oy, one of the country's nuclear power companies. From 1996 on the preparations have been made for all the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power stations. The site for the final disposal facility will be selected among four alternatives by the end of 2000 and - assuming that the technical approach proposed by Posiva is accepted by the Government and the Parliament - the construction of the repository will start in the 2010s. The disposal operations are planned to be started in 2020. The alternative four sites have gone through a systematic site selection process based on geologic siting criteria and on environmental and cultural considerations. One of the objectives of the process was to avoid inhabited areas, agricultural fields, valuable groundwater or preservation areas as well as areas which might draw interest as regards the potential for ore deposits. The idea was that the field investigations and later the possible disposal facility should not cause any harm to local people. Two of the candidate sites are at present nuclear power plant sites situated at the coast, the two other candidates are inland sites with no nuclear activities. The geologic siting investigations were started in 1987. Interim assessments of the results so far have been made in 1992 and 1996 and a final report of all the investigations will be published before the end of 2000. The present view is that all four candidates are geologically suitable for siting the repository. Posiva's EIA for the final disposal of spent fuel in Finland is nearing completion. A considerable effort was made to involve local groups and individuals in the assessment process. Yet the participation remained limited and consisted mainly of active opponents of the project and of those who were

  1. Imaging the risks - risking the image: Social impact assessment of the final disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolahti, J.; Vira, J. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    Preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland started about twenty years ago. At present the work is carried out by Posiva Oy, which in 1996 took over the programme managed earlier by Teollisuuden Voima Oy, one of the country's nuclear power companies. From 1996 on the preparations have been made for all the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power stations. The site for the final disposal facility will be selected among four alternatives by the end of 2000 and - assuming that the technical approach proposed by Posiva is accepted by the Government and the Parliament - the construction of the repository will start in the 2010s. The disposal operations are planned to be started in 2020. The alternative four sites have gone through a systematic site selection process based on geologic siting criteria and on environmental and cultural considerations. One of the objectives of the process was to avoid inhabited areas, agricultural fields, valuable groundwater or preservation areas as well as areas which might draw interest as regards the potential for ore deposits. The idea was that the field investigations and later the possible disposal facility should not cause any harm to local people. Two of the candidate sites are at present nuclear power plant sites situated at the coast, the two other candidates are inland sites with no nuclear activities. The geologic siting investigations were started in 1987. Interim assessments of the results so far have been made in 1992 and 1996 and a final report of all the investigations will be published before the end of 2000. The present view is that all four candidates are geologically suitable for siting the repository. Posiva's EIA for the final disposal of spent fuel in Finland is nearing completion. A considerable effort was made to involve local groups and individuals in the assessment process. Yet the participation remained limited and consisted mainly of active opponents of the project and of those

  2. Technologies for immobilization and disposal of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done within a program one of whose objectives was to know the state of the technology development for tritium separation in the moderator circuit at HWR and to define the possible technologies to be applied to the Argentine nuclear power plants. Within this framework the strategies adopted by each country and the available technologies for a safe disposal of tritium, not only in its gaseous state tritium but also as tritiated water were analyzed. It is considered that if the selected separation method is such that the tritium is in its gaseous state, the hydride formation for long periods of immobilization should be studied. whereas if it were triated water immobilization should be studied to choose the technology between cementation and drying agents, in both cases the final disposal site will have to be selected. (author). 8 refs

  3. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  4. Overview of the Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation addresses the rationale, history, strategy, and management techniques used in the development of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) for both high level waste and spent fuel. The three subsections will summarize first, the US Department of Energy (DOE) high level waste and spent fuel waste disposal strategy and the position that the SDP occupies within that strategy; second, the technical and administrative tools developed to support the long range research and engineering plans defined by the DOE, program management, and program participants and employed to facilitate the day-to-day operation of the SDP; and third, the current studies and plans for addressing the legal, political, and international uncertainties that must be addressed before the SDP reaches the final engineering phases

  5. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  6. Disposal of waste by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid radioactive waste solutions at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been disposed of for nearly 20 years by preparing a slurry, injecting it into bedding plane fractures formed in low-permeability shale, and allowing the slurry to set into a solid. Three major considerations are required for this method: a rock formation that forms horizontal or bedding plane fractures and is highly impermeable, a plant facility that can develop sufficient hydraulic pressure to fracture the rock and to inject the slurry, and a slurry that can be pumped into the fracture and that will set, preferably, into a low-leaching solid. The requirements and desirable conditions of the formation, the process and facility as used for radioactive waste disposal, and the mix formulation and slurry properties that were required for injection and solidification are described. The intent of this paper is to stimulate interest in this technique for possible application to nonnuclear wastes

  7. Status of Swiss waste disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost 10 years now, Swiss work on planning and implementing of radioactive waste disposal has been heavily influenced by political and legislative requirements. In the years 1978-1979, continued use of expansion of nuclear power was made dependent upon the provision of projects demonstrating the technical feasibility an the long-term safety of disposal of all types of radioactive waste in Switzerland. This led in January 1985 to the submission to the Swiss Government of the extensive documentation on Project Gewahr 1985, as has been summarized at an earlier Waste Management conference. (Since the english translation Guarantee of the word Gewahr does not convey the full meaning of the german word, the original project denomination is used in this paper)

  8. Bioactive contaminants leach from disposable laboratory plasticware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, G Reid; Hudson, Alan L; Dunn, Susan M J; You, Haitao; Baker, Glen B; Whittal, Randy M; Martin, Jonathan W; Jha, Amitabh; Edmondson, Dale E; Holt, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Disposable plasticware such as test tubes, pipette tips, and multiwell assay or culture plates are used routinely in most biological research laboratories. Manufacturing of plastics requires the inclusion of numerous chemicals to enhance stability, durability, and performance. Some lubricating (slip) agents, exemplified by oleamide, also occur endogenously in humans and are biologically active, and cationic biocides are included to prevent bacterial colonization of the plastic surface. We demonstrate that these manufacturing agents leach from laboratory plasticware into a standard aqueous buffer, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol and can have profound effects on proteins and thus on results from bioassays of protein function. These findings have far-reaching implications for the use of disposable plasticware in biological research. PMID:18988846

  9. Improvement of BWR radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is made here about the improvement of the disposal systems for liquid and solid radioactive waste in recent BWR plants. Regarding the improvement of liquid waste disposal systems in Toshiba, emphasis was laid on crud removal and laundry drain treatment; as a result, a crud removal system utilizing a centrifugal separation mechanism and an evaporative enriching system using anti-foaming agent have been practicalized. An important problem left for solution is the method of volume reduction of solid waste. A method attracting attention of late is the plastic solidification which is far superior to the conventional cement and bitumen solidification. In Toshiba, this method is promising to be practicalized, in which the waste is dried and then solidified with thermosetting resin. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  12. Radioactive waste containing vessel for underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A canister and an over packing vessel for containing the canister are assembled. Preceding to underground disposal, a sealing medium under a pressurized state is sealed to the space in the overpacking vessel. As the sealing medium, non-compressible medium of a liquid or a fluid such as a mineral oil, vegetable oil, cement mortar is used in an ordinary cases. Alternatively, gases such as of nitrogen or argon are applied for the purpose of increasing pressure of the space portion to more than the pressure of underground water and the like. In the state of the underground disposal, difference of pressure between the external pressure such as of underground water and a pressure of the sealed medium is applied to the wall of the over packing vessel. With such a constitution, since the wall of the over packing vessel can be reduced, the weight and the cost can be reduced. (I.N.)

  13. Stakeholder confidence and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any significant decisions regarding geologic disposal of radioactive waste will need a comprehensive public review and a thorough involvement of all relevant stakeholders, such as waste generators, waste management agencies, regulatory authorities, local communities and elected officials. The participation of non-technical stakeholders will become increasingly important as more countries move towards siting and implementing geologic repositories. The decision-making process and avenues for stakeholder involvement differ from country to country. It is important to identify similarities and differences, understand the key concerns of the various stakeholders, and develop means to interact effectively. The Nuclear Energy Agency recently set up a Forum on Stakeholder Confidence charged with distilling the lessons that can be learnt from national and international experience. These proceedings of the Forums first workshop held in August 2000 provide an overview of OECD countries' experience in the field of stakeholder confidence and radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  14. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of the majority of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel under permanent disposal conditions will be controlled by the rate of dissolution of the UO2 fuel matrix. In this manuscript the mechanism of the coupled anodic (fuel dissolution) and cathodic (oxidant reduction) reactions which constitute the overall fuel corrosion process is reviewed, and the many published observations on fuel corrosion under disposal conditions discussed. The primary emphasis is on summarizing the overall mechanistic behaviour and establishing the primary factors likely to control fuel corrosion. Included are discussions on the influence of various oxidants including radiolytic ones, pH, temperature, groundwater composition, and the formation of corrosion product deposits. The relevance of the data recorded on unirradiated UO2 to the interpretation of spent fuel behaviour is included. Based on the review, the data used to develop fuel corrosion models under the conditions anticipated in Yucca Mountain (NV, USA) are evaluated

  15. Waste and Disposal: Concept and Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. Within this context, various aspects concerning design and operation are investigated.The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In 2000, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up, which is a surface experiment designed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory

  16. Site evaluation for disposal facilities in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the various geoscientific investigations are not finished yet, the results so far show that the Konrad mine has some outstanding geological features as required for a safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The iron ore formation is extremely dry. Seepage water is no threat to the waste disposal operation and the repository itself. The construction of stable underground storage rooms which are sufficiently seized in volume is possible. Galleries containing wastes in drums or contaminated components can be refilled and sealed efficiently as well as the rest of the mine including the two shafts. Thereafter the geological containment with its favourable structure and ideal petrology will be an effective barrier against the contamination of the biosphere. As investigated this applies in particular to the low-active wastes with their specific nuclide inventory and the short decay time. (orig.)

  17. Disposal plans and activities in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of small quantities of radioactive waste and spent fuel Slovenia needs final solution for this waste.While for spent fuel the debate is still being carried on at the strategic level, Slovenia made a clear decision on the disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW). It is required that the site for a repository for LILW be known by 2008 and the repository in operation by 2013. The site selection and the repository construction are therefore the first priority of Agency for Radwaste Management - the National Waste Management Organisation.The paper presents the disposal plans in Slovenia, the site selection procedure with the methods and tools, used in different phases of the procedure, the difficulties and successes registered so far, and the new challenges expected in the future. (authors)

  18. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  19. Changing the paradigm of disposing nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima accident occurred in Japan in March 2011 could potentially change the courses of future nuclear energy development in many countries, including Japan. While this game-changing event re-focused the issues on nuclear safety, it also exposed the problem of 'What to do with the growing stocks of used fuel? ' especially toward their final disposal in geologic media. This problem is obviously not confined to Fukushima but is common to all nuclear power programs in the world. The answer to the challenge may lie in the possibility of changing the paradigm in managing the nuclear technologies and wastes in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, including the final disposal of long-lived and problematic radioactive wastes in deep geologic media. (author)

  20. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational and technical feasibility of the penetrator option for HGW disposal has been reviewed and the areas where research is required to confirm feasibility have been identified. The research requirements have been presented against the Department's ocean disposal programme timescale on a series of bar charts. The bar charts show the need for theoretical and experimental studies of the basic mechanisms governing hole closure and the development of suitable instrumentation to assess the actual behaviour of the remoulded sediment in deep ocean trials. Detailed planning of deep ocean trials in sufficient time to develop strategy, models and instrumentation, identification of site investigation requirements and thermal response studies of sediments are also required. (author)

  1. The treatment and disposal of oily solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oily solids are generated as a waste product of Brunel Shell Petroleum's drilling and production activities. The main sources are waste oil based mud, tank bottom sludges, and oil contaminated soil. The oily solids are stored in a purpose built holding basin which is gradually being filled up. The need for appropriate treatment and an acceptable means of final disposal of the solids has been recognized as an item for attention in the Company's Environmental Management Plan. The paper describes the resulting feasibility study which is evaluating the relative merits of processes such as incineration, lime stabilization, and landfarming. The feasibility study is considering the quantity and properties of the solids, the environmental conditions in Brunei, the availability of treatment services in the country, and the need to define acceptable environmental criteria for the treatment and disposal methods. The way in which these factors influence the study are discussed

  2. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of safe ocean disposal options for heat-generating radioactive waste relies on the existence of suitable disposal sites. This review considers the status of the development of site selection criteria and the results of the study area investigations carried out under various national and international research programmes. In particular, the usefulness of the results obtained is related to the data needed for environmental and emplacement modelling. Preliminary investigations have identified fifteen potential deep ocean study areas in the North Atlantic. From these Great Meteor East (GME), Southern Nares Abyssal Plan (SNAP) and Kings Trough Flank (KTF) were selected for further investigation. The review includes appraisals of regional geology, geophysical studies, sedimentology, geotechnical studies, geochemical studies and oceanography. (author)

  3. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified high-level radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Some resist pressure by using a structural shell leaving the contents unstressed whereas others transmit loads to their contents. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. However, no entirely suitable materials have been found and further research is required in this area. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible although filling operations and container closure could be difficult

  4. Final and secure disposal of radioactive sources: The situation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealed sources are used for a wide variety of purposes in the European Union and its neighbouring countries. The European Commission has studied the management of these sources for several years and has produced a number of reports covering the Member States, ten of the Candidate Countries and the Russian Federation.While the management of the sealed sources is now carried out in such a way as to ensure an adequate level of safety in most of the countries studied, the absence of dedicated centralized storage facilities means that many sources are still held at users' premises. In such cases the levels of both safety and security are reduced. There is an absence of proper disposal facilities for radioactive sources, especially the high activity sources, in most of the countries. Without such facilities, the safe and secure long term management of the sources cannot be fully guaranteed. New proposed legislation by the European Commission should improve the control and management of high activity sources within the European Union and also bring about the siting and construction of disposal sites. In the meantime, the establishment of improved centralized storage and disposal facilities could greatly benefit from increased international co-operation. (author)

  5. COMPORTEMENT SOUS FLEXION D'UNE ARGILE : APPLICATION A LA COUVERTURE D'UNE ISD TFA

    OpenAIRE

    Camp Ép Devernay, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    The sealing cover system of landfills for storing non bio-degradable and dangerous waste is most of the time made up of a layer of clay and/or a geomembrane. The question of the optimization of the conditions of storage of the radioactive waste envisage a surface storage for very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) and low and intermediate short-lived radioactive waste.This study is applied to a VLLW disposal facility of which the cover is made up of a clay layer over a geomembrane but can be ...

  6. Communication strategy for final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1999, Posiva filed an application for a policy decision to the Council of State on the construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. The decision to be made by the Council of State must be ratified by the Parliament. The precondition for a positive decision is that the preliminary statement on safety to be provided by STLTK by the end of the year 1999 is in favour of Posiva. continuing with its repository development programme, and that the Eurajoki municipality approves the project in its statement by the 28th of January 2000. The policy decision by the Council of State is expected to be made in March followed by the ratification of the Parliament before the summer. In a poll-carried out among 350 decision-makers, less than 10 % of those who answered 134 persons) found Internet as the most important source of Posiva's information on final disposal. On the other hand, over 80 % of those who answered found the information folder as the most significant source of information. When considering all the information available on final disposal (TV, radio, newspapers, authorities, environmental organisations, etc.) Posiva was found to be the most significant source of information while newspapers and periodicals came second. In this case the environmental organisations seemed to have a minor role, as a result of not being too active in confrontation. As a conclusive remark it can be assumed that because it is not only Posiva's information that is relevant to decision-makers, but the media also plays a significant role, the impression that decision-makers have of final disposal is based on a mixture of messages coming from Posiva and from the media. That is why the communication related to decision-makers is also communication with media, in order to ensure that the messages produced by the media support the information produced by Posiva

  7. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meenashisundaram V.; Narayanaswamy R.; Senthilkumar R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  8. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  9. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  10. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 105 m3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 1018 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90Sr, 99Tc, 137Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 104 m3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 1018Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  11. Commercial radioactive waste disposal: marriage or divorce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the state (South Carolina) is doing a good job in regulating the South Carolina disposal facility of Chemo-Nuclear Inc., and that there is no need for the NRC to reassert Federal control. The efforts in developing a low-level site in New Mexico are described. The NRC Task Force report on Federal/state regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds is discussed

  12. Disposal modes for Mars transfer nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Friedlander, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    A managed disposal approach is proposed that would place the nuclear stage or vehicle in a highly stable orbit at modest cost to mission performance. The approach requires only a small increase in initial mass in LEO, but should be included in preliminary trajectory design and performance calculations. The mass penalty is expected to be larger for all-up flight profiles, or in cases of high-thrust propulsion systems for the cargo vehicle.

  13. Social impacts of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an approach is developed for the assessment of socio-economic impacts from radioactive waste disposal. The approach provides recommendations on procedures to be used in identification and prediction of impacts. Two decision-aiding methods are also included. The first provides for the identification of key issues and the illustration of the trade-offs involved in the decision. Multi-attribute scoring and weighting techniques are then proposed for the illustration of impacts using quantitative measures. (author)

  14. Thermal loading effects on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint study on the thermal loading effects on geological disposal was carried out within the European Community Programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste by several laboratories in Belgium, France and the Federal Republic of Germany. The purpose of the work was to review the thermal effects induced by the geological disposal of high-level wastes and to assess their consequences on the 'admissible thermal loading' and on waste management in general. Three parallel studies dealt separately with the three geological media being considered for HLW disposal within the CEC programme: granite (leadership: Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA), France), salt (leadership: Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF), Federal Republic of Germany), and clay (leadership: Centre d'etude de l'energie nucleaire (CEN/SCK), Belgium). The studies were based on the following items: only vitrified high-level radioactive waste was considered; the multi-barrier confinement concept was assumed (waste glass, container (with or without overpack), buffer material, rock formation); the disposal was foreseen in a deep mined repository, in an 'in-land' geological formation; only normal situations and processes were covered, no 'accident' scenario being taken into account. Although reasonably representative of a wide variety of situations, the data collected and the results obtained are generic for granite, formation-specific for salt (i.e. related to the north German Zechstein salt formation), and site-specific for clay (i.e. concentrated on the Boom clay layer at the Mol site, Belgium). For each rock type, realistic temperature limits were set, taking into account heat propagation, thermo-mechanical effects inside the rock formations, induced or modified groundwater or brine movement, effects on the buffer material as well as effects on the waste glass and canister, and finally, nuclide transport

  15. Final disposal room structural response calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finite element calculations have been performed to determine the structural response of waste-filled disposal rooms at the WIPP for a period of 10,000 years after emplacement of the waste. The calculations were performed to generate the porosity surface data for the final set of compliance calculations. The most recent reference data for the stratigraphy, waste characterization, gas generation potential, and nonlinear material response have been brought together for this final set of calculations

  16. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

  17. The management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the origin and nature of high, intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes and discusses the NIREX proposals for the effective packaging, storage and disposal of these wastes. The transportation of packaged wastes from their source of origin to a repository and the possible radiation hazards to workers and the public are discussed. The importance of careful selection of repository sites based on local geology, population density and scenic interest are also discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Development, evaluation, and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernadzikowski, T A; Allender, J S; Gordon, D E; Gould, Jr, T H

    1982-01-01

    The seven candidate waste forms, evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and gelogic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes were borosilicate glass, SYNROC, tailored ceramic, high-silica glass, FUETAP concrete, coated sol-gel particles, and glass marbles in a lead matrix. The evaluation, completed on August 1, 1981, combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at Department of Energy (DOE) defense waste-sites and at independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate-based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms, respectively, for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. The borosilicate glass and ceramic forms were further compared during FY-1982 on the basis of risk assessments, cost comparisons, properties comparisons, and conformance with proposed regulatory and repository criteria. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at DOE defense HLW sites; they are also candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This paper describes the waste form screening process, discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms in 1981, and presents a brief summary of the comparisons of the two forms during 1982 and the selection process to determine the final form for SRP defense HLW.

  19. Maintenance of records for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of the radioactive waste disposal concepts does not rely on long term institutional arrangements. However, future generations may need information related to repositories and the wastes confined in them. The potentially needed information therefore has to be identified and collected. A suitable system for the preservation of that information needs to be created as a part of the disposal concept beginning with the planning phase. The IAEA has prepared this technical report to respond to the needs of Member States having repositories or involved in or considering the development of repositories. In many countries policies and systems for record keeping and maintenance of information related to disposal are the subjects of current interest. This report describes the requirements for presenting information about repositories for radioactive waste including long lived and transuranic waste and spent fuel if it is declared as a waste. The report discussed topics of identification, transfer and long term retention of high level information pertaining to the repository in a records management system (RMS) for retrieval if it becomes necessary in the future

  20. Selected metal recovery in pitchblende residue disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate a method for resource recovery and waste immobilization for pitchblende residues within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste inventory. These residues resulted from uranium extraction of African ores in the 1940s in support of the war effort. They are temporarily in storage in New York and Fernald at DOE controlled sites. These residues are richer in radium than those of U.S.-extracted ores because of their high uranium content (35-60% U3O8). They are highly dispersive. The residues contain appreciable concentrations of precious metals and uranium. A disposal method selected for these residues should address the potential for migration into air and water. In addition, disposal should not waste limited resources which have some utility. A process for resource recovery and waste immobilization was developed which would minimize long-term risk of the residues in the environment, reduce maintenance costs for storage and minimize disposal costs. The process involves three steps: carbonate leach, yellowcake formation, and electric furnace smelting. The initial two steps result in uranium recovery. The smelting results in the recovery of precious and base metals and fuses the radium-bearing slag into a nondispersive waste form

  1. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures

  2. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS

  3. Management evaluations of waste disposal programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation will discuss one approach to performing a management evaluation of waste disposal programs by: describing how the Department of Energy environment, safety and health (ES and H) oversight activities evolved into a management evaluation program based on three guiding principles showing how these three guiding principles provide a programmatic approach to determine the effectiveness of environment (including waste management), safety and health programs; exploring a process that can be used to conduct a management evaluation of your waste disposal programs using these guiding principles; and describing how these guiding principles are used in performing Safety Management Evaluations at Department of Energy sites. These guiding principles: focusing on line management responsibilities, identification of requirements, and skills and knowledge of the work force; provide a management verses compliance approach to evaluating safety programs (including environmental programs). The Department of Energy approach, which addressed these three guiding principles for conducting Safety Management Evaluations, can serve as a frame work for other federal agencies, public organizations and private companies. Also, although this presentation will focus primarily on waste disposal programs, the approach works equally well in evaluating other environment, safety and health programs

  4. Operating considerations of shallow land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow land burial (SLB) is a widely used and accepted technique for disposal of low level radioactive wastes. In the United States, such activities are governed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations (10CFR61). Operating a shallow land burial facility is a complex process requiring concurrent and consistent management emphasis over a broad spectrum of interrelated activities. The degree of emphasis required by some of these activities is predetermined by rigid external influences. Prevailing natural conditions and characteristics of the site as well as state and federal regulations are basic, direct and inescapable influences on site operation. Having a comprehensive set of outstanding operating procedures does not insure that things will be done correctly or even done at all. As in most operations, the overpowering consideration, in operating the disposal site, is the skills and qualifications of both management and operating personnel. Consequently, the most critical factors in the administration of a safe and effective disposal operation is the viable recruitment, selection and training of personnel. Ultimately, the degree of success depends upon the training process

  5. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  6. Satellite power system salvage and disposal alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    A wide range of salvage options for the SPS satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit in return and use on Earth are presented. The satellite can be used intact to provide power for various purposes, it can be cannibalized or it can be melted down to supply materials for space or ground based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. The present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the capital cost.) The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full scale SPS satellite and has a salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on-orbit capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration of full scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options is presented for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  7. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the open-quotes Disposal Room Model,close quotes describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized

  8. Management and disposal of graphite waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technological and radiological assessment has been made of the management options for irradiated graphite wastes from the decommissioning of Magnox and Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors. The main contribution to the radionuclide inventory of irradiated graphite is from activation of the graphite and its stable impurities. Three different packaging methods for graphite have been described; each could be used for either sea or land disposal, and each is logistically feasible and could be achieved at reasonable cost. Leaching tests have been carried out on irradiated graphite, under a variety of conditions including those of the deep ocean bed; the different conditions had little effect on the observed leach rates of radiologically significant radionuclides. Radiological assessments were made of four generic options for disposal of packaged graphite: on the deep ocean bed, in deep geologic repositories at two different types of site, and by shallow land burial. Incineration of graphite was also considered, though this option presents logistical problems additional to those of direct disposal. With appropriate precautions during the lifetime of the 60Co content of the graphite, any of the options considered could give acceptably low doses to individuals, and all the options would merit further investigation in site-specific contexts. (author)

  9. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  10. A Comparison of Distillery Stillage Disposal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sajbrt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the main stillage disposal methods from the point of view of technology, economics and energetics. Attention is paid to the disposal of both solid and liquid phase. Specifically, the following methods are considered: a livestock feeding, b combustion of granulated stillages, c fertilizer production, d anaerobic digestion with biogas production and e chemical pretreatment and subsequent secondary treatment. Other disposal techniques mentioned in the literature (electrofenton reaction, electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis have not been considered, due to their high costs and technological requirements.Energy and economic calculations were carried out for a planned production of 120 m3 of stillage per day in a given distillery. Only specific treatment operating costs (per 1 m3 of stillage were compared, including operational costs for energy, transport and chemicals. These values were determined for January 31st, 2009. Resulting sequence of cost effectiveness: 1. – chemical pretreatment, 2. – combustion of granulated stillage, 3. – transportation of stillage to a biogas station, 4. – fertilizer production, 5. – livestock feeding. This study found that chemical pretreatment of stillage with secondary treatment (a method developed at the Department of Process Engineering, CTU was more suitable than the other methods. Also, there are some important technical advantages. Using this method, the total operating costs are approximately 1 150 ??/day, i.e. about 9,5 ??/m3 of stillage. The price of chemicals is the most important item in these costs, representing about 85 % of the total operating costs.

  11. Permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research performed was to explore methods of permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs that may improve the receptive capacity of a well to a level that will allow continued use of the disposal zone without resorting to elevated injection pressures. The laboratory investigation employed a simulated open-hole completion in a disposal well wherein the entire formation face is exposed to the well bore. Cylindrical core samples from representative reservoir rocks through which a central vertical opening or borehole had been drilled were injected with a liquid waste obtained from a chemical manufacturing plant. This particular waste material was found to have a moderate plugging effect when injected into samples of reservoir rocks in a prior study. A review was made of the chemical considerations that might account for the reduction of permeability in waste injection. Purpose of this study was to ascertain the conditions under which the precipitation of certain compounds might occur in the injection of the particular waste liquid employed. A summary of chemical calculations is contained in Appendix B. The data may be useful in the treatment of wastes prior to injection and in the design of restoration procedures where analyses of waste liquids and interstitial materials are available. The results of permeability restoration tests were analyzed mathematically by curve-fitting techniques performed by a digital computer. A summary of the analyses is set forth in the discussion of test results and examples of computer printouts are included in Appendix A

  12. Final disposal of radioactive wastes. Pt. 1. Facts and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first in a series of three papers which introduces the issue ''disposal of radioactive waste'' and identifies related societal and scientific questions. Types and amounts of waste to be disposed of are presented. The authors describe the disposal options discussed in the past and argue in favour of the concept of disposal in deep geologic formations which does not require any follow-up maintenance. They explain the basics of disposal concepts in crystalline rock, clays and claystones, and in rock salt.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal fees—Methodology for calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic. - Highlights: • Policy of radioactive waste management in the Czech Republic. • Methodology for calculation of fees for radioactive waste disposal. • Comparison of fee for radioactive waste disposal for selected countries. • The most important factors influencing fee-case example of the Czech Republic

  14. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  15. Low level radioactive waste disposal in the absence of a disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a six-step strategy to dispose of the large quantity and diverse waste types produced at Port Hope uranium conversion facility. The strategy provides a logical step-by-step process to first characterize a waste, then identify and access feasible options and select a preferred disposal or recycle route. Regulatory and financial approvals are obtained and, finally, implementation of the preferred route takes place. A total of 29 waste types have been identified at the facility. By employing the waste disposal strategy, some 16 wastes are now disposed of or routinely recycled. This represents about 3000 tons of waste material annually. The waste disposal strategy is currently being applied to another ten of the wastes: oils, non-usable drums, scrap metal, zirconium tetrafluoride (ZrF4), PCB liquids, PCB solids, magnesium fluoride, miscellaneous chemicals, waste solvents and calcium fluoride. The strategy is described for three of these: non-usable drums, scrap metal and ZrF4

  16. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  17. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  18. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  19. Operation for Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Center is located in Oishitai, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikitagun, of Aomori Prefecture. This district is situated in the southern part of Shimohita Peninsula in the northeastern corner of the prefecture, which lies at the northern tip of Honshu, Japan's main island. The Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center deals with only LLW generated by operating of nuclear power plants. The No.1 and No.2 disposal facility are now in operation. The disposal facilities in operation have a total dispose capacity of 80,000m3 (equivalent to 400,000 drums). Our final business scope is to dispose of radioactive waste corresponding to 600,000 m3 (equivalent to 3000,000 drums). For No.1 disposal facility, we have been disposing of homogeneous waste, including condensed liquid waste, spent resin, solidified with cement and asphalt, etc. For No.2 disposal facility, we can bury a solid waste solidified with mortar, such as activated metals and plastics, etc. Using an improved construction technology for an artificial barrier, the concrete pits in No.2 disposal facility could be constructed more economical and spacious than that of No.1. Both No.1 and No.2 facility will be able to bury about 200,000 waste packages (drums) each corresponding to 40,000 m3. As of March 17, 2008, Approximately 200,00 waste drums summing up No.1 and No.2 disposal facility have been received from Nuclear power plants and buried. (author)

  20. The design of high level radioactive waste disposal container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of nuclear energy can produce radioactive wastes. The disposal of wastes is highly concerned, especially for the high level radioactive wastes (HLW) which are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose HLW in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system which combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system (EBS). The EBS include the HLW, HLW canister, disposal container, buffer materials and backfill materials. The disposal container is the most important barrier for isolating the HLW from the surroundings owing to the integrity and corrosion proof of the container. According to the character of the content, two types of container BV and BG are discussed in this paper, focusing on the material, structure and disposal method of these containers. (authors)

  1. Optical Nova Candidates in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 06.47 and 07.47 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.9.

  2. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  3. Dark Matter and its Particle Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bottino, A

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures we first briefly review the main observational facts which imply that most part of matter in the Universe is not visible and some recent intriguing experimental data which would point to a significant contribution to Omega due to a cosmological constant. We subsequently discuss some particle candidates for dark matter, with particular emphasis for the neutralino. We present the main properties of this particle, also in the light of the most recent experimental results in direct search for relic particles; furthermore, we discuss the perspectives for their indirect searches.

  4. Assessment of candidate accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of candidate accident management strategies, whose purpose is to prevent or mitigate in-vessel core damage, were identified from various Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry reports. These strategies have been grouped in this report by the challenges they are intended to meet, and assessed to provide information which may be useful to individual licensees for consideration when they perform their Individual Plant Examinations. Each assessment focused on describing and explaining the strategy, considering its relationship to existing requirements and practices as well as identifying possible associated adverse effects. 10 refs

  5. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  6. Candidate gene effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerljung, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of five candidate genes to the variation in meat tenderness, pH, colour, marbling and water holding capacity (WHC) was analysed in muscle samples from 243 young bulls of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, or Simmental breed, raised in Swedish commercial herds. The animals were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding calpain 1 (CAPN1:c.947G>C), calpastatin, (CAST:c.155C>T), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), leptin (UASMS2C>T) a...

  7. Onsite disposal of radioactive waste: Methodology for the radiological assessment of disposal by subsurface burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume describes the criteria and technical methodology used by NRC staff to evaluate requests by licensees for approval of onsite disposal by burial in soil. The technical methodology includes the ONSITE/MAXI1 code for calculating radiological exposure from various pathways, the MOCMOD84 code, and analytical methods for calculating contaminant transport and concentration of radionuclides in flowing groundwater. Radiological exposure analyses include the following pathways: (1) exposure to direct gamma from any surface contamination or buried waste; (2) drinking water from a well contaminated by migration of radionuclides; (3) ingesting agricultural products derived from radionuclide-contaminated soil; and (4) inhaling radionuclides resuspended at the burial site. Licensee-proposed disposal activities are evaluated in terms of radiological impact on public health and safety and the environment. The estimated committed effective dose equivalent resulting from the technical evaluation will usually be the determining factor in the authorization of the proposed disposal

  8. ENSI's view on the waste disposal program 2008 of the bodies in charge of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) evaluated the disposal program of the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The implementation plan for low- and intermediate-level waste (ILW) as well as for high-level waste (HLW) correctly and completely describes the necessary steps. The priorities are correctly set. For the disposal site selection the plan follows the detailed assertions of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geologic Repositories. In the oncoming update of the disposal program, ENSI expects that the necessary activities will follow the priorities. The license for underground exploration will be granted only after the federal parliament has granted the framework license. For the ILW disposal, ENSI does not expect the license for preparation, construction and operation of the underground rock laboratory be granted before 10 years time, because for the nuclear construction license many geologic and technical safety data have still to be collected. NAGRA has to comment this point in the course of the disposal program update. The site-independent research and development needed, proceed from the present status of the disposal projects ILW and HLW. The planning of scientific and technical activities for the realization of the deep geologic repositories for ILW and HLW is fully described in research, development and demonstration plans; their most important goal is the determination of purpose, extent, kind and time schedule of the various future research and development activities, on the basis of the corresponding requirements and planning assumptions for the disposal realization. The open questions in the project Opalinus clay were analysed by NAGRA. NAGRA gave correct answers and considered them in the elaboration of its disposal program. According to the proposed time schedule, the operation of the rock laboratory for ILW and the corresponding underground exploration will run in parallel with the preparation of the

  9. Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Günthardt, G I; Camperi, J A; Díaz, R J; Gomez, P L; Bosch, G; Schirmer, M

    2015-01-01

    NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object i...

  10. Tracking quintessence and cold dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the generation of a kination-dominated phase in the context of a quintessential model with an inverse-power-law potential and a Hubble-induced mass term for the quintessence field. The presence of kination is associated with an oscillating evolution of the quintessence field and the barotropic index. We find that, in sizeable regions of the parameter space, a tracker scaling solution can be reached sufficiently early to alleviate the coincidence problem. Other observational constraints originating from nucleosynthesis, the inflationary scale, the present acceleration of the universe and the dark-energy-density parameter can be also met. The impact of this modified kination-dominated phase on the thermal abundance of cold dark matter candidates is also investigated. We find that: 1. the enhancement of the relic abundance of the WIMPs with respect to the standard paradigm, crucially depends on the hierarchy between the freeze-out temperature and the temperature at which the extrema in the evolution of the quintessence field are encountered, and; 2. the relic abundance of e-WIMPs takes its present value close to the temperature at which the earliest extremum of the evolution of the quintessence field occurs and, as a consequence, both gravitinos and axinos arise as natural cold dark matter candidates. In the case of unstable gravitinos, the gravitino constraint can be satisfied for values of the initial temperature well above those required in the standard cosmology

  11. Pulsar Candidates Toward Fermi Unassociated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Jagannathan, P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for steep spectrum radio sources within the 95% confidence error ellipses of the Fermi unassociated sources from the Large Array Telescope (LAT). Using existing catalogs and the newly released GMRT all-sky survey at 150 MHz we identify compact radio sources that are bright at MHz frequencies but faint or absent at GHz frequencies. Such steep spectrum radio sources are rare and constitute a sample of pulsar candidates, selected independently of period, dispersion measure, interstellar scattering and orbital parameters. We find point-like, steep spectrum candidates toward 11 Fermi sources. Based on the gamma-ray/radio positional coincidence, the rarity of such radio sources, and the properties of the 3FGL sources themselves, we argue that many of these sources could be pulsars. They may have been missed by previous radio periodicity searches due to interstellar propagation effects or because they lie in an unusually tight binary. If this hypothesis is correct, then renewed gamma-ray and ra...

  12. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  13. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Eisele

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  14. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  15. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  16. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  17. CASE via MS: Ranking Structure Candidates by Mass Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Adalbert; Meringer, Markus; Rücker, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Two important tasks in computer-aided structure elucidation (CASE) are the generation of candidate structures from a given molecular formula, and the ranking of structure candidates according to compatibility with an experimental spectrum. Candidate ranking with respect to electron impact mass spectra is based on virtual fragmentation of a candidate structure and comparison of the fragments’ isotope distributions against the spectrum of the unknown compound, whence a structure–spectrum compat...

  18. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  19. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place

  20. Risk Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a short description of analytical method for risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities based on calculation of a so-called concentration reduction factor. A conceptual model of a simple near-field intrusion scenario (receptor well), that is being analyzed is described and a review of input parameters characterizing radioactive waste, technical design of facility and site is given. The selected input parameters refer to a surface type of disposal facilities for low and medium level radioactive waste, which are assumed likely to be built in Croatia. The results reached by the analytical method developed by the authors of the article are compared to the results acquired on the same example by applying computer codes GWSCREEN and PAGAN. The authors state a good level of correspondence between them and point out the fact that the analytical method is conservative enough to serve as and adequate approximation to computer codes. The advantages of the analytical method are simplicity of application and minimum requirements for input parameters. This renders itself particularly convenient when only a conceptual technical design is available and when the siting process is not completed so that input parameters are not known to the extent necessary for application of sophisticated computer codes. Furthermore, analytical method approximates disposal facility performance and site characteristic by only one factor (concentration reduction factor), which represents a measure of isolation characteristics of a facility and a site. Such approach enables a simple comparison of various technical designs at a certain site, i.e. a certain technical design on various site. The next significant advantage of analytical method is a relatively simple uncertainty analysis. As an example for this, the paper gives a short survey of one-parameter analysis of uncertainty of total concentration reduction factor for the Sr-90 case. (author)

  1. Finnish safety criteria for geological waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presented the history of the development of regulations for spent fuel disposal in Finland. The government decision 478/1999 introduced safety criteria which depend on the time frames: dose constraints in the first thousands of years, radionuclide release constraints up to 100 000 years and qualitative arguments in the longer time frames. J. Vira stressed the importance of ethical considerations for deriving the regulation. Since these criteria met a wide acceptance it is not felt advisable to revise them in the near future. (author)

  2. Method of dismantling and disposing nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the space for waste disposal by reducing the volume of dismantled scraps. Method: Pressure vessels or the likes used up to their life limits are roughly divided in the primary cutting step, finely divided in the secondary cutting step and then finally crushed into scraps of small granule pieces in the final cutting step. Thereafter, the granule scraps are subjected to briquetting by way of pressing or the like and then the solid scraps subjected to the briquetting are covered with concretes into a block. Since the scraps are finely crushed into granules and thereafter pressed, the volume thereof can be reduced. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Progress towards the use of disposable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)

  4. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrite salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  5. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  6. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  7. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates.

  8. Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal is part of the larger problem of curriculum and instruction in science. At a time when science and technological literacy is crucial to the nation's economic future fewer students are electing to take needed courses in science that might promote such literacy. The problem is directly related to what science teachers teach and how they teach it. Science content that is more relevant and interesting to students must be a part of the curriculum. Science instruction must allow students to be actively involved in investigating or playing the game of science

  9. Responsible disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States today are approximately 100 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste [HLW] containing more than 1 billion curies of radioactivity. This waste has been generated primarily from reprocessing operations used in the production of plutonium and tritium for defense needs. The waste is most often handled and stored in a liquid or semi-liquid form and placed in large underground tanks. Many of these tanks are now over a quarter of a century old and materials problems and concerns have arisen. This paper reports on what is now needed, a more effective means for not only storing this waste, but for permanently disposing of it

  10. City snow's physicochemical property affects snow disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Sharukha, A. V.; Evtin, P. V.; Vershinina, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    At the present day the industrial cities run into severe problem: fallen snow in a city it's a concentrator of pollutants and their quantity is constantly increasing by technology development. Pollution of snow increases because of emission of gases to the atmosphere by cars and factories. Large accumulation of polluted snow engenders many vexed ecological problems. That's why we need a new, non-polluting, scientifically based method of snow disposal. This paper investigates polluted snow's physicochemical property effects on snow melting. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there.

  11. Nebraska files suit to block disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just when the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact thought things might be starting to go its way, the state of Nebraska, following instructions from Gov. Ben Nelson, has filed a new lawsuit to block development of an LLW disposal site within its borders. The suit maintains that the recently reconfigured proposed site (in which an area of wetlands was excluded) has not received open-quotes community consent,close quotes as required by state law; says that site developer, US Ecology, has not obtained county consent; and asks that the court permanently prevent development of any LLW site in Nebraska until community consent is demonstrated

  12. Identity Functions and Empathetic Tendencies of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Alpaslan; Kadi, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research is to investigate identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. Sample consists of 232 teacher candidates in social studies teacher education. Survey model is preferred to investigate the difference between identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. And also correlational…

  13. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  14. Perceptions of Candidate Teachers about Concept of the Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate candidate teachers' metaphors about project concept in Turkey. Study group of research is 171 candidate teachers enrolled 2011-2012 educational terms one of the faculty of education in Turkey. Data was obtained from the candidate teachers' completion of the sentence "Project is like ..., because ...".…

  15. Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea under the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996: A Radiological Assessment Procedure. 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides guidance on performing specific assessments of candidate materials for dumping at sea, to determine whether the materials are de minimis in the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (the London Convention 1972) and the related Protocol 1996 (the London Protocol 1996). It presents a detailed radiological procedure to assess doses to workers and members of the public and doses to marine flora and fauna related to the dumping of materials at sea. The procedures in this publication follow the requirements to protect the environment in the IAEA Safety Standards and in the recommendations by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. It is expected to be used by national regulatory authorities responsible for authorizing disposal at sea of candidate materials as well as by those companies and individuals applying to obtain permission to dispose these materials at sea

  16. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  17. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  18. Separation, storage and disposal of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical means available for the retention of 85Kr and its immobilization, storage and disposal are reviewed. Cryogenic processes for the separation of krypton and xenon from diluting gases are discussed in more detail. Besides the cryogenic processes, a liquid adsorption process for reprocessing off-gases and charcoal adsorption and membrane processes for reactor off-gases are also dealt with. The retained krypton can be stored in pressurized containers with air or water cooling. The containers can be kept in engineered storage facilities for an intermediate period or until the 85Kr has decayed. Alternatively, the krypton may be encapsulated in a solid. The injection of gases containing krypton into suitable geologic strata may also be possible. Much of the equipment required for the separation and storage of krypton, well known from ordinary technology, often needs some adaptation. Further R and D work is, however, needed to solve some problems which are specific to highly concentrated fission krypton. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: methods available for the separation of krypton from off-gases; separation of krypton from reactor off-gas; separation of krypton from reprocessing off-gas; conditioning methods; engineering storage; transportation; disposal

  19. Spent fuel disposal impact on plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regardless of the decommissioning option selected (DECON, SAFSTOR, or ENTOMB), a 10 CFR 50 license cannot be terminated until the spent fuel is either removed from the site or stored in a separately 10 CFR 72 licensed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Humboldt Bay is an example of a plant which has selected the SAFSTOR option. Its spent fuel is currently in wet storage in the plant's spent fuel pool. When it completes its dormant period and proceeds with dismantlement, it will have to dispose of its fuel or license an ISFSI. Shoreham is an example of a plant which has selected the DECON option. Fuel disposal is currently critical path for license termination. In the event an ISFSI is proposed to resolve the spent fuel removal issue, whether wet or dry, utilities need to properly determine the installation, maintenance, and decommissioning costs for such a facility. In considering alternatives for spent fuel removal, it is important for a utility to properly account for ISFSI decommissioning costs. A brief discussion is presented on one method for estimating ISFSI decommissioning costs

  20. Nuclear wastes: disposal, storage or reprocessing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the domains of medium-, low- and very low-level radioactive wastes, existing techniques are already implemented and belong to a well-mastered know-how. For high level wastes, according to the December 30, 1991 law, researches are carried out in three ways: separation-transmutation of long living radioactive elements, reversible or irreversible disposal inside deep geologic formations, and long lasting conditioning and surface storage. Each of these ways is useful, not contradictory but complementary to each other. This meeting has contributed to fulfill the approach requested by the French Parliament who considers that information spreading and transparency are key elements of the radioactive waste management debate, like technicality is. This small book is the proceedings of the 2 parliamentary meeting on nuclear energy which were specifically devoted to the problem of radioactive wastes management in the framework of the 1991 law. The meeting was organized around three round-tables dealing with: 1 - the management of low and medium-level radioactive wastes: a problem on the way of disappearing? 2 - What reprocessing mean for nuclear wastes? 3 - Disposal and storage of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels: where and for how long? The opinions expressed by the participants during the round-tables are compiled in this document. (J.S.)