Sample records for candidate spacecraft electronics

  1. Compendium of Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Boutte, Alvin J.; Chen, Dakai; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Casey, Megan C.; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Obryan, Martha V.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Batchlor, David A.; Oldham, Timothy R.


    Vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage is studied. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear, and hybrid devices.

  2. Spacecraft electronics design for radiation tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spacecraft electronics design for radiation tolerance is a complex subject, involving a detailed understanding of environment, component hardening, and design susceptibility. This paper describes current design practices and discusses future trends in spacecraft electronics which are likely to alter traditional approaches. A summary of radiation effects and radiation tolerance requirements typically levied on spacecraft designs is provided. Methods of dealing with radiation are then described, followed with testability issues

  3. Electromagnetic Dissociation and Spacecraft Electronics Damage (United States)

    Norbury, John W.


    When protons or heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or solar particle events (SPE) interact with target nuclei in spacecraft, there can be two different types of interactions. The more familiar strong nuclear interaction often dominates and is responsible for nuclear fragmentation in either the GCR or SPE projectile nucleus or the spacecraft target nucleus. (Of course, the proton does not break up, except possibly to produce pions or other hadrons.) The less familiar, second type of interaction is due to the very strong electromagnetic fields that exist when two charged nuclei pass very close to each other. This process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) and primarily results in the emission of neutrons, protons and light ions (isotopes of hydrogen and helium). The cross section for particle production is approximately defined as the number of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions or other types of reactions. (There are various kinematic and other factors which multiply the particle number to arrive at the cross section.) Strong, nuclear interactions usually dominate the nuclear reactions of most interest that occur between GCR and target nuclei. However, for heavy nuclei (near Fe and beyond) at high energy the EMD cross section can be much larger than the strong nuclear interaction cross section. This paper poses a question: Are there projectile or target nuclei combinations in the interaction of GCR or SPE where the EMD reaction cross section plays a dominant role? If the answer is affirmative, then EMD mechanisms should be an integral part of codes that are used to predict damage to spacecraft electronics. The question can become more fine-tuned and one can ask about total reaction cross sections as compared to double differential cross sections. These issues will be addressed in the present paper.

  4. Cluster PEACE observations of electrons of spacecraft origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szita

    Full Text Available The two PEACE (Plasma Electron And Current Experiment sensors on board each Cluster spacecraft sample the electron velocity distribution across the full 4 solid angle and the energy range 0.7 eV to 26 keV with a time resolution of 4 s. We present high energy and angular resolution 3D observations of electrons of spacecraft origin in the various environments encountered by the Cluster constellation, including a lunar eclipse interval where the spacecraft potential was reduced but remained positive, and periods of ASPOC (Active Spacecraft POtential Control operation which reduced the spacecraft potential. We demonstrate how the spacecraft potential may be found from a gradient change in the PEACE low energy spectrum, and show how the observed spacecraft electrons are confined by the spacecraft potential. We identify an intense component of the spacecraft electrons with energies equivalent to the spacecraft potential, the arrival direction of which is seen to change when ASPOC is switched on. Another spacecraft electron component, observed in the sunward direction, is reduced in the eclipse but unaffected by ASPOC, and we believe this component is produced in the analyser by solar UV. We find that PEACE anodes with a look direction along the spacecraft surfaces are more susceptible to spacecraft electron contamination than those which look perpendicular to the surface, which justifies the decision to mount PEACE with its field-of-view radially outward rather than tangentially.

    Key words. Magnetosheric physics (general or miscellaneous Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  5. Artificial charging of spacecraft due to electron beam emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beams on a spacecraft can be used to simulate positive charging from energetic ions whether natural (Jovian) or artificial (particle beams). Plasma environment dependent charging effects during electron beam operations on SCATHA are discussed

  6. Charge Dissipating Transparent Conformal Coatings for Spacecraft Electronics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space environment poses significant challenges to spacecraft electronics in the form of electrostatic discharge (ESD) as a result of exposure to highly charged...

  7. Multikilowatt power electronics development for spacecraft (United States)

    Decker, D. K.; Inouye, L. Y.; Rolandelli, D. L.


    Attention is given to several multikilowatt power electronic components developed by TRW for the Space Station Power Management and Distribution test bed at NASA Lewis Research Center. These components include a 12.5-kW DC-DC converter, a 6.25-kW battery charge/discharge regulator, an 82-channel sequential shunt unit, a 10-A remote power controllers, and three different types of 1-kW load converters. TRW is also monitoring the development of 120-V fuses for space applications. The authors discuss these developments and provide steady-state and dynamic performance parameters.

  8. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment. (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.


    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  9. Fast Auroral Snapshot Mission Unique Electronics Complete Spacecraft Electronics Contained in a Single Enclosure


    Dougherty, Lamar; Gruner, Timothy; Wilmot, Jonathan; Chiville, Michael


    The Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) Mission Unique Electronics (MUE), housed in a single container, controls all major spacecraft functions. The functions include, Command and Data Handling (C&DH), Attitude Control and Stabilization (ACS), battery charge control and power distribution which comprise the Power System Electronics (PSE), thermal sensing and control, pyrotechnic device firing, spacecraft health and safety functions, Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU) interface and Small Launch V...

  10. Variations in Cathodoluminescent Intensity of Spacecraft Materials Exposed to Energetic Electron Bombardment


    Dekany, Justin; Christensen, Justin; Dennison, JR; Evans, Amberly; Wilson, Greg; Schneider, Todd; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert H.


    Various highly insulating materials used in spacecraft construction can exhibit glow (electron-induced luminescence or cathodoluminescence) when exposed to the space plasma environment. Measurements of the absolute and relative cathodoluminescent intensity per incident electron flux of spacecraft materials are essential to predict and mitigate consequences for optical detection and for stray light contamination in space-based observatories. They also provide important information about the ...

  11. State of Utah Space Environment & Contamination Study (SUSpECS) MISSE-6 Payload to Investigate Their Effects on Electron Emission and Resistivity of Spacecraft Materials


    Dennison, JR; Pearson, L; Davis, L; Burns, J W; Hyde, R. S.; James S. Dyer; Andrus, Tina; Auman, Andrew Jay; Duce, Jeff; Neilsen, Tim; Leishman, Rob


    A study of the effects of prolonged exposure to the space environment and of charge-enhanced contamination on the electron emission and resistivity of spacecraft materials, the State of Utah Space Environment & Contamination Study (SUSpECS), is planned for flight aboard the MISSE-6 payload. The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-6) program is designed to characterize the performance of candidate new space materials over the course of approximately four to eight month expo...

  12. Materials Characterization at Utah State University: Facilities and Knowledge-base of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Thomson, C. D.; Kite, J.; Zavyalov, V.; Corbridge, Jodie


    In an effort to improve the reliability and versatility of spacecraft charging models designed to assist spacecraft designers in accommodating and mitigating the harmful effects of charging on spacecraft, the NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program has funded development of facilities at Utah State University for the measurement of the electronic properties of both conducting and insulating spacecraft materials. We present here an overview of our instrumentation and capabilities, which are particularly well suited to study electron emission as related to spacecraft charging. These measurements include electron-induced secondary and backscattered yields, spectra, and angular resolved measurements as a function of incident energy, species and angle, plus investigations of ion-induced electron yields, photoelectron yields, sample charging and dielectric breakdown. Extensive surface science characterization capabilities are also available to fully characterize the samples in situ. Our measurements for a wide array of conducting and insulating spacecraft materials have been incorporated into the SEE Charge Collector Knowledge-base as a Database of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging. This Database provides an extensive compilation of electronic properties, together with parameterization of these properties in a format that can be easily used with existing spacecraft charging engineering tools and with next generation plasma, charging, and radiation models. Tabulated properties in the Database include: electron-induced secondary electron yield, backscattered yield and emitted electron spectra; He, Ar and Xe ion-induced electron yields and emitted electron spectra; photoyield and solar emittance spectra; and materials characterization including reflectivity, dielectric constant, resistivity, arcing, optical microscopy images, scanning electron micrographs, scanning tunneling microscopy images, and Auger electron spectra. Further

  13. Measurement of Charging and Discharging of High Resistivity Materials Spacecraft Materials by Electron Beams


    Hoffman, Ryan; Hodges, Joshua L.; Hayes, Jesse; Dennison, JR


    New instrumentation has been developed for in situ measurements of the electron beam- induced surface voltage of high resistivity spacecraft materials in an existing ultra-high vacuum electron emission analysis chamber. Design details, calibration and characterization measurements of the system are presented, showing sensitivity to a range of surface voltages from12000 V, with resolutionsurface, using a paddle attached to a vacuum compatible stepper motor mounted within a hemispherical grid r...

  14. Spacecraft observations and analytic theory of crescent-shaped electron distributions in asymmetric magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Egedal, J; Daughton, W; Wetherton, B; Cassak, P A; Chen, L -J; Lavraud, B; Trobert, R B; Dorelli, J; Gershman, D J; Avanov, L A


    Supported by a kinetic simulation, we derive an exclusion energy parameter $\\cal{E}_X$ providing a lower kinetic energy bound for an electron to cross from one inflow region to the other during magnetic reconnection. As by a Maxwell Demon, only high energy electrons are permitted to cross the inner reconnection region, setting the electron distribution function observed along the low density side separatrix during asymmetric reconnection. The analytic model accounts for the two distinct flavors of crescent-shaped electron distributions observed by spacecraft in a thin boundary layer along the low density separatrix.

  15. The Use of Liquid Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma to Biologically Decontaminate Spacecraft Electronics (United States)

    Bonner, J. K.; Tudryn, Carissa D.; Choi, Sun J.; Eulogio, Sebastian E.; Roberts, Timothy J.; Tudryn, Carissa D.


    Legitimate concern exists regarding sending spacecraft and their associated hardware to solar system bodies where they could possibly contaminate the body's surface with terrestrial microorganisms. The NASA approved guidelines for sterilization as set forth in NPG 8020.12C, which is consistent with the biological contamination control objectives of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), recommends subjecting the spacecraft and its associated hardware to dry heat-a dry heat regimen that could potentially employ a temperature of 110(deg)C for up to 200 hours. Such a temperature exposure could prove detrimental to the spacecraft electronics. The stimulated growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in metallic interconnects and/or thermal degradation of organic materials composing much of the hardware could take place over a prolonged temperature regimen. Such detrimental phenomena would almost certainly compromise the integrity and reliability of the electronics. Investigation of sterilization procedures in the medical field suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H202) gas plasma (HPGP) technology can effectively function as an alternative to heat sterilization, especially for heat-sensitive items. Treatment with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in liquid form prior to exposure of the hardware to HPGP should also prove beneficial. Although IPA is not a sterilant, it is frequently used as a disinfectant because of its bactericidal properties. The use of IPA in electronics cleaning is widely recognized and has been utilized for many years with no adverse affects reported. In addition, IPA is the principal ingredient of the test fluid used in ionic contamination testers to assess the amount of ionic contamination found on the surfaces of printed wiring assemblies. This paper will set forth experimental data confirming the feasibility of the IPA/H202 approach to reach acceptable microbial reduction (MR) levels of spacecraft electronic hardware. In addition, a proposed process flow in

  16. Development and qualification of materials and processes for radiation shielding of Galileo spacecraft electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several materials and processing methods were evaluated for use on the JPL Galileo spacecraft in the area of radiation shielding for electronics. Development and qualification activities involving an aluminum structural laminate are described. These activities included requirements assessment, design tradeoffs, materials selection, adhesive bonding development, mechanical properties measurements, thermal stability assessment, and nondestructive evaluation. This paper presents evaluation of three adhesives for bonding tantalum to aluminum. The concept of combining a thin sheet of tantalum with two outer aluminum face sheets using adhesive bonding was developed successfully. This radiation shield laminate also provides a structural shear plate for mounting electronic assemblies

  17. Possible detection of low energy ions and electrons from planet Mercury by the Helios spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years 1974-1980 there have been several occasions when the Helios' spacecraft have been in the vicinity of the planet Mercury and were connected by interplanetary magnetic field lines to its magnetosphere. We report on one incidence when statistically significant increases (2-5 sigma level) in the proton (E > 80 keV) and electron (E > 60 keV) fluxes are observed coming from the planet and are directed towards the sun. These particles presumably originated from substorm activities in the Hermean magnetosphere or are released from the radiation belts. Solar wind particles accelerated and reflected at the bow shock of Mercury can be excluded

  18. Feasibility Study of Two Candidate Reaction Wheel/thruster Hybrid Control Architecture Designs for the Cassini Spacecraft (United States)

    Macala, Glenn A.; Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.


    As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. Cassini carries a set of three "fixed" reaction wheels and a backup reaction wheel (reaction wheel #4) is mounted on top of an articulable platform. If necessary, this platform could be articulated to orient the backup reaction wheel with the degraded wheel. The reaction wheels are used primarily for attitude control when precise and stable pointing of a science instrument such as the narrow angle camera is required. In 2001-02, reaction wheel #3 exhibited signs of bearing cage instability. As a result, reaction wheel #4 was articulated to align with reaction wheel #3. Beginning in July 2003, Cassini was controlled using wheel #1, #2, and #4. From their first use in the spring of 2000 until today, reaction wheels #1 and #2 have accumulated more than3.5 billions revolutions each. As such, in spite of very carefully management of the wheel spin rates by the mission operation team, there are some observed increases in the drag torque of the wheels' bearings. Hence, the mission operations team must prepare for the contingency scenario in which the reaction wheel #1 (in addition to wheel #3) had degraded. In this hypothetical fault scenario, the two remaining reaction wheels (#2 and #4) will not be able to provide precise and stable three-axis control of the spacecraft. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of controlling Cassini using the two remaining reaction wheels and four thrusters to meet the science pointing requirements for two key science operational modes: the Optical Remote Sensing and Downlink, Fields, Particles, & Waves operation modes. The performance (e.g., pointing control error, pointing stability, hydrazine consumption rate, etc.) of the hybrid controllers in both operations scenarios will be compared with those achieved

  19. Study of mass loss of spacecraft polymeric thermal control coatings under electron and proton radiations (United States)

    Khasanshin, Rashid; Novikov, Lev; Galygin, Alexander

    Polymeric composites have a number of properties that give a possibility to apply them as spacecraft external coatings. In space environment, however, such materials become one of the main sources of volatile products that form the outer spacecraft atmosphere and are able to con-dense on contamination-sensitive surfaces of onboard equipment. Thermal control coatings oc-cupy a considerable part of a satellite surface and are mostly subjected to ionizing radiations ac-companying by outgassing. The main stages of the process are the following: formation of vola-tile radiolysis products, diffusion of the products to free material surface, and desorption. Radia-tion-induced destruction and outgassing of material increase its permeability and accelerate mi-gration processes in it. Experimental data of effect of radiation on mass loss of polymeric composites used as thermal control coatings was analyzed and interpreted in the work. As a particular case, it was shown that mass loss of a polymeric composite irradiated by protons is greater than by electrons if energies and flux densities of the particles are the same. It can be explained that volatile products, in the first case, generate within a thin near-surface layer of material which permeability increases together with the absorbed dose, and quickly escape in vacuum. In the second case, a bulk of volatile products emerges far enough from the free surface of material which permeability increases slower as compared with proton radiation. Therefore, migration time of volatile products to the free surface grows and quantity of chemical reactions which they are involved in increases. To analyze and interpret experimental data, a mathematical model describing mass loss of polymeric composites subject to its growth of permeability under radiation is proposed. Based upon analysis of experiments and numerical simulation results, thresholds of fluen-cies and flux densities of electron and proton were determined. Exceeding these

  20. Modification of spacecraft charging and the near-plasma environment caused by the interaction of an artificial electron beam with the earth's upper atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Banks, P. M.; Gilchrist, B.E.;


    V, it is shown that secondary electrons supply a significant contribution to the return current to the spacecraft and thereby reduce the spacecraft potential. Our numerical results are in good agreement with observations from the CHARGE-2 sounding rocket experiment.A more detailed study of the BAI as it...

  1. Surface states and bulk electronic structure in the candidate type-II Weyl semimetal WTe2


    Bruno, F. Y.; Tamai, A.; Wu, Q. S.; Cucchi, I.; Barreteau, C.; A. de la Torre; Walker, S. McKeown; Riccò, S; Wang, Z.; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M.; Shi, M. (Mimi); Plumb, N. C.; Giannini, E; Soluyanov, A. A.


    We report angle-resolved photoemission experiments identifying an arc-like surface state connecting the bulk electron and hole pockets of the candidate type-II Weyl semimetal WTe2. This surface state can be isolated clearly on one of two distinct surface terminations observed experimentally, which we associate with the in-equivalent top and bottom surfaces of the non-centrosymmetric crystal structure. We further use the identification of the two different surfaces to clarify the number of bul...

  2. Multi-spacecraft Observations and Transport Modeling of Energetic Electrons for a Series of Solar Particle Events in August 2010 (United States)

    Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dresing, N.; Klassen, A.


    During 2010 August a series of solar particle events was observed by the two STEREO spacecraft as well as near-Earth spacecraft. The events, occurring on August 7, 14, and 18, originated from active regions 11093 and 11099. We combine in situ and remote-sensing observations with predictions from our model of three-dimensional anisotropic particle propagation in order to investigate the physical processes that caused the large angular spreads of energetic electrons during these events. In particular, we address the effects of the lateral transport of the electrons in the solar corona that is due to diffusion perpendicular to the average magnetic field in the interplanetary medium. We also study the influence of two coronal mass ejections and associated shock waves on the electron propagation, and a possible time variation of the transport conditions during the above period. For the August 18 event we also utilize electron observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft at a distance of 0.31 au from the Sun for an attempt to separate between radial and longitudinal dependencies in the transport process. Our modelings show that the parallel and perpendicular diffusion mean free paths of electrons can vary significantly not only as a function of the radial distance, but also of the heliospheric longitude. Normalized to a distance of 1 au, we derive values of λ ∥ in the range of 0.15–0.6 au, and values of λ ⊥ in the range of 0.005–0.01 au. We discuss how our results relate to various theoretical models for perpendicular diffusion, and whether there might be a functional relationship between the perpendicular and the parallel mean free path.

  3. A New Technique using Electron Velocity Data from the Four Cluster Spacecraft to Explore Magnetofluid Turbulence in the Solar Wind (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Gurgiolo, C.; Fazakerley, A.; Lahiff, A.


    It is now possible in certain circumstances to use velocity moments computed from the Plasma Electron and Current Experiment (PEACE) on the four Cluster spacecraft to determine a number of turbulence properties of the solar wind, including direct measurements of the vorticity and compressibility. Assuming that the four spacecraft are not co-planar and that there is only a linear variation of the plasma variables across the volume defined by the four satellites, one can estimate the curl of the fluid velocity, i.e., the vorticity. From the vorticity it is possible to explore directly intermittent regions in the solar wind where dissipation is likely to be enhanced. In addition, one can estimate directly the Taylor microscale.

  4. Search for new candidates for the neutrino-oriented mass determination by electron-capture

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Boehm, C; Blaum, K; Beck, D


    This proposal is part of an extended program dedicated to the neutrino-mass determination in the electron-capture sector, which aims at ultra-precise mass measurements by Penning traps in combination with cryogenic micro-calorimetry for atomic de-excitation measurements. Here, precise mass measurements with ISOLTRAP are proposed for the orbital electron-capture nuclides $^{194}$Hg and $^{202}$Pb, as well as their daughters, with the goal to determine accurately their Q-values. These values are expected to be the smallest ones among a great variety of known electron-capture precursors. Therefore, these nuclides are strong candidates for an improved electron-neutrino mass determination. We ask for 8 shifts of on-line beam at ISOLDE for mass measurements of $^{194}$Hg, $^{194}$ Au, $^{202}$Pb, and $^{202}$Tl at ISOLTRAP.

  5. Modification of spacecraft charging and the near-plasma environment caused by the interaction of an artificial electron beam with the earth's upper atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Banks, P. M.; Gilchrist, B.E.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Wiliamson, P.R.; Raitt, W.J.; Myers, N.B.; Sasaki, S.


    The Beam-Atmosphere Interaction (BAI) involves the ionization created in the earth's upper atmosphere by electron beams emitted from a low altitude spacecraft. This process is described by two coupled non-linear differential electron transport equations for the up-going (along magnetic field line......) and down-going differential energy flux. The equations are solved numerically,using the MSIS atmospheric model and the IRI ionospheric model, yielding estimates of the differential electron energy flux density at the spacecraft location. At altitudes below 200-250 km and forbeam energies around 1 ke......V, it is shown that secondary electrons supply a significant contribution to the return current to the spacecraft and thereby reduce the spacecraft potential. Our numerical results are in good agreement with observations from the CHARGE-2 sounding rocket experiment.A more detailed study of the BAI as it...

  6. Relativistic electron gas: A candidate for nature's left-handed materials (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.


    The electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities for a relativistic electron gas are calculated from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature and density as functions of temperature, chemical potential, frequency, and wave vector. The polarization and the magnetization depend linearly on both electric and magnetic fields, and are the sum of a zero-temperature and zero-density vacuum part with a temperature- and chemical-potential-dependent medium part. Analytic calculations lead to generalized expressions that depend on three scalar functions. In the nonrelativistic limit, results reproduce the Lindhard formula. In the relativistic case, and in the long wavelength limit, we obtain the following: (i) for ω =0 , generalized susceptibilities that reduce to known nonrelativistic limits; (ii) for ω ≠0 , Drude-type responses at zero temperature. The latter implies that both the electric permittivity ɛ and the magnetic permeability μ may be simultaneously negative, a behavior characteristic of metamaterials. This unambiguously indicates that the relativistic electron gas is one of nature's candidates for the realization of a negative index of refraction system. Moreover, Maxwell's equations in the medium yield the dispersion relation and the index of refraction of the electron gas. Present results should be relevant for plasma physics, astrophysical observations, synchrotrons, and other environments with fast-moving electrons.

  7. Increased electric sail thrust through removal of trapped shielding electrons by orbit chaotisation due to spacecraft body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen


    Full Text Available An electric solar wind sail is a recently introduced propellantless space propulsion method whose technical development has also started. The electric sail consists of a set of long, thin, centrifugally stretched and conducting tethers which are charged positively and kept in a high positive potential of order 20 kV by an onboard electron gun. The positively charged tethers deflect solar wind protons, thus tapping momentum from the solar wind stream and producing thrust. The amount of obtained propulsive thrust depends on how many electrons are trapped by the potential structures of the tethers, because the trapped electrons tend to shield the charged tether and reduce its effect on the solar wind. Here we present physical arguments and test particle calculations indicating that in a realistic three-dimensional electric sail spacecraft there exist a natural mechanism which tends to remove the trapped electrons by chaotising their orbits and causing them to eventually collide with the conducting tethers. We present calculations which indicate that if these mechanisms were able to remove trapped electrons nearly completely, the electric sail performance could be about five times higher than previously estimated, about 500 nN/m, corresponding to 1 N thrust for a baseline construction with 2000 km total tether length.

  8. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment (United States)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.


    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  9. Stereoscopic electron spectroscopy of solar hard X-ray flares with a single spacecraft


    Kontar, Eduard P.; John C. Brown


    Hard X-ray (HXR) spectroscopy is the most direct method of diagnosing energetic electrons in solar flares. Here we present a technique which allows us to use a single HXR spectrum to determine an effectively stereoscopic electron energy distribution. Considering the Sun's surface to act as a 'Compton mirror' allows us to look at emitting electrons also from behind the source, providing vital information on downward-propagating particles. Using this technique we determine simultaneously the el...

  10. Implosion lessons from national security, high reliability spacecraft, electronics, and the forces which changed them

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, L Parker


    Implosion is a focused study of the history and uses of high-reliability, solid-state electronics, military standards, and space systems that support our national security and defense. This book is unique in combining the interdependent evolution of and interrelationships among military standards, solid-state electronics, and very high-reliability space systems. Starting with a brief description of the physics that enabled the development of the first transistor, Implosion covers the need for standardizing military electronics, which began during World War II and continu

  11. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) Spacecraft Silicone Experiment (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.


    Under a microscope, atomic oxygen (AO) exposed silicone surfaces are crazed and seen as "islands" separated by numerous crack lines, much analogous to mud-tile cracks. This research characterized and compared the degree of AO degradation of silicones by analyzing optical microscope images of samples exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) AO as part of the Spacecraft Silicone Experiment. The Spacecraft Silicone Experiment consisted of eight DC 93-500 silicone samples exposed to eight different AO fluence levels (ranged from 1.46 to 8.43 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm) during two different Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) missions. Image analysis software was used to analyze images taken using a digital camera. To describe the morphological degradation of each AO exposed flight sample, three different parameters were selected and estimated: (1) average area of islands was determined and found to be in the 1000 to 3100 sq mm range; (2) total length of crack lines per unit area of the sample surface were determined and found to be in the range of 27 to 59 mm of crack length per sq mm of sample surface; and (3) the fraction of sample surface area that is occupied by crack lines was determined and found to be in the 25 to 56 percent range. In addition, average crack width can be estimated from crack length and crack area measurements and was calculated to be about 10 mm. Among the parameters studied, the fraction of sample surface area that is occupied by crack lines is believed to be most useful in characterizing the degree of silicone conversion to silicates by AO because its value steadily increases with increasing fluence over the entire fluence range. A series of SEM images from the eight samples exposed to different AO fluences suggest a complex sequence of surface stress due to surface shrinkage and crack formation, followed by re-distribution of stress and shrinking rate on the sample surface. Energy dispersive spectra (EDS) indicated that upon AO

  12. Automated determination of electron density from electric field measurements on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft (United States)

    Zhelavskaya, Irina; Kurth, William; Spasojevic, Maria; Shprits, Yuri


    We present the Neural-network-based Upper-hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurements made onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. A feedforward neural network is developed to determine the upper hybrid resonance frequency, f_{uhr}, from electric field measurements, which is then used to calculate the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few attempts to do robust, routine automated detections. We describe the design and implementation of the algorithm and perform an initial analysis of the resulting electron number density distribution obtained by applying NURD to 2.5 years of data collected with the EMFISIS instrumentation suite of the Van Allen Probes mission. Densities obtained by NURD are compared to those obtained by another recently developed automated technique and also to an existing empirical plasmasphere and trough density model.

  13. Electronic Portfolios in Teacher Education: A Case Study of Early Childhood Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Ntuli, Esther; Keengwe, Jared; Kyei-Blankson, Lydia


    The use of electronic portfolios is increasingly becoming popular in teacher education programs. The electronic portfolio allows learners to express their work and take ownership over their own ability to plan and assess and reflect upon their learning during a specific period of time. While many teacher education programs have adopted electronic…

  14. Active Spacecraft Potential Control Investigation (United States)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Tajmar, M.; Scharlemann, C.; Jeszenszky, H.; Laky, G.; Fremuth, G.; Escoubet, C. P.; Svenes, K.


    In tenuous plasma the floating potential of sunlit spacecraft reaches tens of volts, positive. The corresponding field disturbs measurements of the ambient plasma by electron and ion sensors and can reduce micro-channel plate lifetime in electron detectors owing to large fluxes of attracted photoelectrons. Also the accuracy of electric field measurements may suffer from a high spacecraft potential. The Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics. New features include the use of capillaries instead of needles, new materials for the emitters and their internal thermal insulators, an extended voltage and current range of the electronics, both for ion emission and heating purposes, and a more capable control software. This enables lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Results from on-ground testing demonstrate compliance with requirements. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. Finally, the various operating modes to adapt to changing boundary conditions are described along with the main data products.

  15. Spacecraft sterilization. (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.


    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  16. Initial Results from the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric Atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) on the FASTSAT Spacecraft (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Rowland, Douglas; Keller, John W.; Chornay, Dennis; Khazanov, George; Herrero, Federico; Moore, Thomas E.; Kujawski, Joseph; Casas, Joseph C.; Wilson, Gordon


    The MINI-ME instrument is a collaborative effort between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the U.S. Naval Academy, funded solely through GSFC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) awards. It detects neutral atoms from about 10 eV to about 700 eV (in 30 energy steps) in its current operating configuration with an approximately 10 degree by 360 degree field-of-view, divided into six sectors. The instrument was delivered on August 3, 2009 to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for integration with the FASTSAT-HSV01 small spacecraft bus developed by MSFC and a commercial partner, one of six Space Experiment Review Board (SERB) experiments on FASTSAT and one of three GSFC instruments (PISA and TTI being the other two). The FASTSAT spacecraft was launched on November 21, 2010 from Kodiak, Alaska on a Minotaur IV as a secondary payload and inserted into a 650 km, 72 degree inclination orbit, very nearly circular. MINI-ME has been collecting science data, as spacecraft resources would permit, in "optimal science mode" since January 20, 2011. In this presentation, we report initial science results including the potential first observations of neutral molecular ionospheric outflow. At the time of this abstract, we have identified 15 possible molecular outflow events. All these events occur between about 65 and 82 degrees geomagnetic latitude and most map to the auroral oval. The MINI-ME results provide an excellent framework for interpretation of the MILENA data, two instruments almost identical to MINI-ME that will launch on the VISIONS suborbital mission

  17. Analysis of Surface Charging for a Candidate Solar Sail Mission Using Nascap-2k (United States)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.; Davis, Victoria; Mandell, Myron; Gardner, Barbara


    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design task. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.0 AU L1 solar wind environments are performed. A model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties is constructed using Object Toolkit. The spacecraft charging analysis is performed using Nascap-2k, the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. Nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions are used to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. Finally, a geostationary orbit environment case is included to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft. Results from the charging analyses demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as anticipated from standard guidelines for mitigation of spacecraft charging issues. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range.

  18. Unusual electronic properties of LaBi - a new topological semimetal candidate


    Wu, Yun; Kong, Tai; Wang, Lin-Lin; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Schrunk, Benjamin; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam


    We use density functional theory calculations and ARPES measurements to study the electronic properties of LaBi, a binary system that was proposed to be a member of a new family of topological semimetals. Both bulk and surface bands are present in the spectra. The dispersion of the surface state is highly unusual. It resembles a Dirac cone, but upon closer inspection we can clearly detect an energy gap. The bottom band follows roughly a parabolic dispersion. The top band has an unusual linear...

  19. Bulk and surface electron transport in topological insulator candidate YbB{sub 6-δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushkov, Vladimir V.; Demishev, Sergey V.; Sluchanko, Nikolay E. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Vavilov str. 38, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bozhko, Alexey D.; Bogach, Alexey V.; Semeno, Alexey V.; Voronov, Valeriy V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Vavilov str. 38, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dukhnenko, Anatoliy V.; Filipov, Volodimir B.; Shitsevalova, Natalya Yu. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science NAS, Krzhyzhanovsky str. 3, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine); Kondrin, Mikhail V. [Vereshchagin Institute of High Pressure Physics of RAS, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Alexey V.; Sannikov, Ilia I. [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Kashirskoe Shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We report the study of transport and magnetic properties of the YbB{sub 6-δ}single crystals grown by inductive zone melting. A strong disparity in the low temperature resistivity, Seebeck and Hall coefficients is established for the samples with the different level of boron deficiency. The effective parameters of the charge transport in YbB{sub 6-δ} are shown to depend on the concentration of intrinsic defects, which is estimated to range from 0.09% to 0.6%. The pronounced variation of Hall mobility μ{sub H} found for bulk holes is induced by the decrease of transport relaxation time from τ ∼ 7.7 fs for YbB{sub 5.994} to τ ∼ 2.2 fs for YbB{sub 5.96}. An extra contribution to conductivity from electrons with μ{sub H}∼ -1000 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and the very low concentration n /n{sub Yb}∼ 10{sup -6} discovered below 20 K for all the single crystals under investigation is suggested to arise from the surface electron states appeared in the inversion layer due to the band bending. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. The relativistic electron plasma: a candidate for nature's left-handed material

    CERN Document Server

    de Carvalho, C A A


    The electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities for a relativistic electron gas are calculated from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature and density as functions of temperature, chemical potential, frequency, and wavevector. The polarization and the magnetization depend linearly on both electric and magnetic fields, and are the sum of a zero-temperature and zero-density vacuum part with a temperature- and chemical potential-dependent medium part. Analytic calculations lead to generalized expressions that depend on three scalar functions. In the nonrelativistic limit, results reproduce the Lindhard formula. In the relativistic case, and in the long wavelength limit, we obtain: i) for $\\omega=0$, generalized susceptibilities that reduce to known nonrelativistic limits; ii) for $\\omega \

  1. A neutral oxygen-vacancy center in diamond: A plausible qubit candidate and its spintronic and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spintronic and electronic properties of a neutral oxygen-vacancy (O-V) center, an isoelectronic defect similar to the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, were studied by combining first-principles calculations and a mean-field theory for spin hyperfine interaction. It is elucidated that the neutral O-V center is stable in the p-type diamond and possesses an S = 1 triplet ground state and four spin-conserved excited states with the spin coherence times in an order of second at T = 0 K. The results indicate that the neutral O-V center is another promising candidate for spin coherent manipulation and qubit operation

  2. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael


    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  3. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Fountain, Glen H; Hersman, Christopher B; Herder, Timothy S; Coughlin, Thomas B; Gibson, William C; Clancy, Deborah A; DeBoy, Christopher C; Hill, T Adrian; Kinnison, James D; Mehoke, Douglas S; Ottman, Geffrey K; Rogers, Gabe D; Stern, S Alan; Stratton, James M; Vernon, Steven R; Williams, Stephen P


    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments that will collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration needed to reach the Pluto system prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight mass and power allocations, yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto flyby is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer solar system require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power, and a single RTG is used by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on less than 200 W....

  4. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew


    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  5. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew


    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  6. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain


    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  7. Impact property at cryogenic temperature of candidate materials for fusion reactor and their electron beam welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact properties at cryogenic temperature of candidate materials for fusion reactor and their electron beam welded joints are investigated by using instrumented Charpy impact testing apparatus. Material used are aluminum alloys (A7N01, A5083, A6061), JFMS (Japanese Ferritic Martensitic Steel) and two kinds of high manganese steels. Although JFMS is a steel for high temperature use, the impact test is conducted at low temperature same as the cases of the other materials. Testing results are obtained as follows. 1. Base metals and welded joint of aluminum alloys exhibit high absorbed energy at low temperature. Ductility of each base metal and welded joint gradually decreases with decreasing of testing temperature. 2. Base metal and welded joint of JFMS exhibit an absorbed energy transition temperature at near a room temperature. 3. Base metal and welded joint of high manganese steel A-T (18Mn) exhibit abrupt decreasing of absorbed energy at 77K, but base metal and welded joint of high manganese steel B-T (22Mn-0.2N) exhibit gradual increasing of maximum strength and decreasing of ductility with decreasing of testing temperature. (author)

  8. X-ray spectra from magnetar candidates. II Resonant cross sections for electron-photon scattering in the relativistic regime

    CERN Document Server

    Nobili, L; Zane, S


    Recent models of spectral formation in magnetars called renewed attention on electron-photon scattering in the presence of ultra-strong magnetic fields. Investigations presented so far mainly focussed on mildly relativistic particles and magnetic scattering was treated in the non-relativistic (Thomson) limit. This allows for consistent spectral calculations up to a few tens of keVs, but becomes inadequate in modelling the hard tails (<200 keV) detected by INTEGRAL from magnetar sources. In this paper, the second in a series devoted to model the X-/soft gamma-ray persistent spectrum of magnetar candidates, we present explicit, relatively simple expressions for the magnetic Compton cross-section at resonance which account for Landau-Raman scattering up to the second Landau level. No assumption is made on the magnetic field strength. We find that sensible departures from the Thomson regime can bealready present at B ~5E12 G. The form of the magnetic cross section we derived can be easily implemented in Monte ...

  9. Xenia Spacecraft Study Addendum: Spacecraft Cost Estimate (United States)

    Hill, Spencer; Hopkins, Randall


    This slide presentation reviews the Xenia spacecraft cost estimates as an addendum for the Xenia Spacecraft study. The NASA/Air Force Cost model (NAFCPOM) was used to derive the cost estimates that are expressed in 2009 dollars.

  10. Active control of electric potential of spacecraft (United States)

    Goldstein, R.


    Techniques are discussed for controlling the potential of a spacecraft by means of devices which release appropriate charged particles from the spacecraft to the environment. Attention is given to electron emitters, ion emitters, a basic electron emitter arrangement, techniques for sensing electric field or potential, and flight experiments on active potential control. It is recommended to avoid differential charging on spacecraft surfaces because it can severely affect the efficacy of emitters. Discharging the frame of a spacecraft with dielectric surfaces involves the risk of stressing the dielectric material excessively. The spacecraft should, therefore, be provided with grounded conductive surfaces. It is pointed out that particles released by control systems can return to the spacecraft.

  11. Pointing compensation system for spacecraft instruments (United States)

    Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)


    A closed loop system reduces pointing errors in one or more spacecraft instruments. Associated with each instrument is a electronics package (3) for commanding motion in that instrument and a pointing control system (5) for imparting motion in that instrument in response to a command (4) from the commanding package (3). Spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) compensates for instrument pointing errors caused by instrument-motion-induced spacecraft motion. Any finite number of instruments can be so compensated, by providing each pointing control system (5) and each commanding package (3), for the instruments desired to be compensated, with a link to the spacecraft motion compensation logic (25). The spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) is an electronic manifestation of the algebraic negative of a model of the dynamics of motion of the spacecraft. An example of a suitable model, and computer-simulated results, are presented.

  12. Structural changes of surfaces of spacecraft solar array protective glasses being irradiated by 20-keV electrons (United States)

    Khasanshin, R. H.; Novikov, L. S.


    When irradiating K-208 and CMG glasses by 20-keV electrons with flux densities of 1010 < φe < 2 × 1011 cm-2 s-1 in vacuum 10-4 Pa, electrostatic discharges accompanied by plasma emission and destruction of glass surfaces were observed. Examination of glasses by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed significant difference in structural changes of surfaces of K-208 and CMG samples irradiated by equal flux densities within the range from 2.0 × 1010 to 9.0 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 that can be explained by different mechanisms of removal of charge accumulated in glasses. Surface discharges generating channels on surfaces of K-208 and CMG glasses appear when φ ⩾ 7.4 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 and φ ⩾ 8.7 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 respectively. In average, if radiation conditions are the same and φ ⩾ 1.4 × 1011 cm-2 s-1, the channels are 1.5 times deeper in K-208 than in CMG.

  13. Research on Spacecraft Illumination


    Bo Cai; Ling Li; Jing Hu; Biao He; Yuan Long; Dengyi Zhang


    Illumination analysis of spacecraft is very important. This paper firstly introduces the importance of spacecraft illumination analysis in aerospace fields and points out that illumination conditions will influence the design of shape of spacecraft body and the installation of spacecraft equipments. Then, it discusses two methods for analyzing spacecraft solar-panel shadow and illumination conditions: ray tracing illumination algorithm and polyhedral mesh contour edge projection algorithm and...

  14. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnikov, K K; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V


    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  15. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language

  16. Conductive spacecraft materials development program (United States)

    Lehn, W. L.


    The objectives of this program are to provide design criteria, techniques, materials, and test methods to ensure control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces. The control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft cannot be effected without the development of new and improved or modified materials or techniques that will provide electrical continuity over the surface of the spacecraft. The materials' photoemission, secondary emission, thermooptical, physical, and electrical properties in the space vacuum environment both in the presence and absence of electrical stress and ultraviolet, electron, and particulate radiation, are important to the achievement of charge control. The materials must be stable or have predictable response to exposure to the space environment for long periods of time. The materials of interest include conductive polymers, paints, transparent films and coatings as well as fabric coating interweaves.

  17. Simulating spacecraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eickhoff, Jens


    This book on the application of functional system simulation in spacecraft development covers the entire process from spacecraft design to final verification. It offers the latest research in all relevant topics and includes numerous examples.

  18. The ISO Spacecraft (United States)

    Ximenez de Ferrin, S.


    ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) consists of two modules: the Payload module, which includes the telescope and the scientific instruments, and the Service Module, which houses the instruments electronics, the hydrazine propellant tank and all other classical spacecraft subsystems. To ensure that the telescope is kept near absolute zero and thus is the least disturbed by the effects of the infrared emissions from other elements of the system, the telescope is enclosed in a helium-cooled cryostat. The cryostat in turn is shaded by a Sun-shield to protect it from the heat of the direct Sun. The shield has a covering of solar cells that provide the electrical power needed for the mission.

  19. Assessment of homogeneity of candidate reference material at the nanogram level and investigation on representativeness of single particle analysis using electron probe X ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate samples of a candidate reference material are evaluated on their homogeneity from bottle to bottle using electron probe X ray microanalysis technique. The evaluation on the homogeneity is done by the utilization of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics to the processing of the quantitative electron probe X ray microanalysis data. Due to a limitation, existing even in computer controlled electron probe X ray microanalysis, in terms of analysis time and expenses, the number of particles analyzed is much smaller compared to that in the sample. Therefore, it is investigated whether this technique provides representative analysis results for the characteristics of the sample, even though a very small portion of the sample is really analyzed. Furthermore, the required number of particles for the analysis, to insure a certain level of reproducibility, e.g. 5% relative standard deviation, is determined by the application of the Ingamells sampling theory. (author)

  20. The Candidate


    Osborn, John C


    ABSTRACT   The Candidate is an attempt to marry elements of journalism and gaming into a format that both entertains and educates the player. The Google-AP Scholarship, a new scholarship award that is given to several journalists a year to work on projects at the threshold of technology and journalism, funded the project. The objective in this prototype version of the game is to put the player in the shoes of a congressional candidate during an off-year election, specificall...

  1. Internet Access to Spacecraft


    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold


    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Sa...

  2. Higgs boson candidate event from 2012 data (8 TeV) recorded by the CMS experiment: ZZ to four electrons

    CERN Multimedia


    Event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson to a pair of Z bosons, both of which subsequently decay to a pair of electrons. The event could also be due to known standard model background processes.

  3. Spacecraft Spin Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to correct unbalances of spacecraft by using dynamic measurement techniques and static/coupled measurements to provide products of...

  4. Spacecraft camera image registration (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Chan, Fred N. T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)


    A system for achieving spacecraft camera (1, 2) image registration comprises a portion external to the spacecraft and an image motion compensation system (IMCS) portion onboard the spacecraft. Within the IMCS, a computer (38) calculates an image registration compensation signal (60) which is sent to the scan control loops (84, 88, 94, 98) of the onboard cameras (1, 2). At the location external to the spacecraft, the long-term orbital and attitude perturbations on the spacecraft are modeled. Coefficients (K, A) from this model are periodically sent to the onboard computer (38) by means of a command unit (39). The coefficients (K, A) take into account observations of stars and landmarks made by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2) themselves. The computer (38) takes as inputs the updated coefficients (K, A) plus synchronization information indicating the mirror position (AZ, EL) of each of the spacecraft cameras (1, 2), operating mode, and starting and stopping status of the scan lines generated by these cameras (1, 2), and generates in response thereto the image registration compensation signal (60). The sources of periodic thermal errors on the spacecraft are discussed. The system is checked by calculating measurement residuals, the difference between the landmark and star locations predicted at the external location and the landmark and star locations as measured by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2).

  5. SIF – Yet Another Spacecraft Interconnection Standard


    Sinclair, Doug


    SIF is a Standard InterFace for spacecraft electronics. It combines a number of existing standards+28 V avionics power, ISO 11898-3 fault-tolerant Control Area Network (CAN), and the CANopen software protocol. Terminals are connected into a closed loop by identical cables. The resulting network is fail-operational and is easy to modify even late in satellite integration. SpaceQuest experience building a large spacecraft with SIF avionics has demonstrated the cost and schedule savings inherent...

  6. Research on Spacecraft Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cai


    Full Text Available Illumination analysis of spacecraft is very important. This paper firstly introduces the importance of spacecraft illumination analysis in aerospace fields and points out that illumination conditions will influence the design of shape of spacecraft body and the installation of spacecraft equipments. Then, it discusses two methods for analyzing spacecraft solar-panel shadow and illumination conditions: ray tracing illumination algorithm and polyhedral mesh contour edge projection algorithm and compares their efficiency and feasibility. Shadow area and solar area are computed of every cell on solar panels. We designed solar panel single-axis rotation experiment to validate the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that contour edge projection algorithm has fine accuracy and costs less time. For detailed illumination information, we apply a practical segment clipping algorithm after some comparisons.

  7. Spectrum of allergenic pollen in Karachi and their characterization using conventional and electron microscopy: Potential candidates for allergy vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the distribution of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and study their pollen morphology in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: We performed field surveys of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and studied their pollen morphology using conventional (light) as well as scanning electron microscopy. Results: About 80 allergenic pollen producing species were identified which are distributed in 45 genera and 9 angiospermic families. Grasses belonging to Graminae are most abundant followed by plants from family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Highly allergenic weeds were also found widely growing in the city areas belonging to Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. Conclusion: Our study provides an updated information about the allergenic plants growing in Karachi city. All desensitization efforts should be designed in accordance to the available information regarding the prevalent allergens in the environment so that appropriate therapy can be given to the affected population. (author)

  8. Ingot niobium as candidate electrode material for Jefferson Lab 200 kV inverted electron photogun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad, E-mail: [Christopher Newport University, Newport News VA (United States); Suleiman, Riad, E-mail: [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)


    This contribution describes the field emission characterization of niobium electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of six electrodes were evaluated: two large-grain, two single-crystal, and two fine-grain that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Field emission from niobium electrodes could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode is biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (<10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18.7 MV/m. Motivated by these results, an inverted electron photogun operated at Jefferson Lab injector test facility was equipped with a large-grain niobium cathode electrode and it has been successfully conditioned to 225 kV without field emission. This photogun was used to study strained superlattice GaAs and K{sub 2}CsSb photocathodes at high beam currents.

  9. Ingot niobium as candidate electrode material for Jefferson Lab 200 kV inverted electron photogun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution describes the field emission characterization of niobium electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of six electrodes were evaluated: two large-grain, two single-crystal, and two fine-grain that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Field emission from niobium electrodes could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode is biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (<10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18.7 MV/m. Motivated by these results, an inverted electron photogun operated at Jefferson Lab injector test facility was equipped with a large-grain niobium cathode electrode and it has been successfully conditioned to 225 kV without field emission. This photogun was used to study strained superlattice GaAs and K2CsSb photocathodes at high beam currents

  10. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A


    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  11. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  12. Spacecraft Power Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Spacecraft Power Monitor (SPM) which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). NEMO transforms the power...

  13. NASA spacecraft propulsion activities (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.; Sankovic, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.; Hamley, John A.; Patterson, Michael J.; Sovey, James S.


    The NASA's activities in the development of spacecraft propulsion systems are reviewed, with emphasis on program directions and recent progress made in this domain. The recent trends towards the use of smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles call for new onboard propulsion systems. The NASA's efforts are conducted within the framework of the onboard propulsion program. The research and development work carried out in relation to the different propulsion system technologies are considered: electromagnetic systems; electrostatic systems; electrothermal systems; bipropellant systems; and monopropellant systems.

  14. Spacecraft transformer and inductor design (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.


    The conversion process in spacecraft power electronics requires the use of magnetic components which frequently are the heaviest and bulkiest items in the conversion circuit. This handbook pertains to magnetic material selection, transformer and inductor design tradeoffs, transformer design, iron core dc inductor design, toroidal power core inductor design, window utilization factors, regulation, and temperature rise. Relationships are given which simplify and standardize the design of transformers and the analysis of the circuits in which they are used. The interactions of the various design parameters are also presented in simplified form so that tradeoffs and optimizations may easily be made.

  15. Orbital spacecraft resupply technology (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.


    The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.

  16. Heat capacity mapping radiometer for AEM spacecraft (United States)

    Sonnek, G. E.


    The operation, maintenance, and integration of the applications explorer mission heat capacity mapping radiometer is illustrated in block diagrams and detail schematics of circuit functions. Data format and logic timing diagrams are included along with radiometric and electronic calibration data. Mechanical and electrical configuration is presented to provide interface details for integration of the HCMR instrument to AEM spacecraft.

  17. Electron pitch angle variations recorded at the high magnetic latitude boundary layer by the NUADU instrument on the TC-2 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lu


    Full Text Available The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit experiment aboard TC-2 recorded, with high temporal and spatial resolution, 4π solid angle images of electrons (~50-125 keV spiraling around geomagnetic field lines at high northern magnetic latitudes (L>10, during its in-orbit commissioning phase (September 2004. The ambient magnetic field, as well as electrons in other energy ranges, were simultaneously measured by the TC-2 magnetometer (FGM, the plasma electron and current experiment (PEACE, the low energy ion detector (LEID and the high energy electron detector (HEED. The NUADU data showed that up-flowing electron beams could form "ring-like" and "dumbbell-type" pitch angle distributions (PADs in the region sampled. Changes in these pitch angle distributions due to transient magnetic variations are suggested to have been associated with electron acceleration along the geomagnetic field lines. A nested magnetic bottle configuration that formed due to the propagation towards the Earth of a magnetic pulse, is proposed to have been associated with this process.

  18. Spacecraft at Small NEO

    CERN Document Server

    Scheeres, D


    The impact risk has been sharply curtailed for the largest km-sized Near Earth Objects (NEOs) through a concerted period of observation spanning the last decade. Thus the risk of impact has now migrated to the smaller and more numerous members of the Near Earth Object (NEO) population. Characterization and mitigation missions to these smaller objects become more complex from a spacecraft operations perspective, even as the prospects for nudging such lower mass bodies off course become more feasible. This paper details the challenges for spacecraft operations at small bodies and indicates areas where more research and analysis of this problem is needed.

  19. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence (United States)

    Hwang, Victor


    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  20. Spacecraft Radiation Analysis (United States)

    Harris, D. W.


    The radiation interface in spacecrafts using radioisotope thermoelectric generators is studied. A Monte Carlo analysis of the radiation field that includes scattered radiation effects, produced neutron and gamma photon isoflux contours as functions of distance from the RTG center line. It is shown that the photon flux is significantly depressed in the RTG axial direction because of selfshielding. Total flux values are determined by converting the uncollided flux values into an equivalent RTG surface source and then performing a Monte Carlo analysis for each specific dose point. Energy distributions of the particle spectra completely define the radiation interface for a spacecraft model.

  1. Intelligent spacecraft module (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana


    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  2. Spacecraft attitude control momentum requirements analysis (United States)

    Robertson, Brent P.; Heck, Michael L.


    The relationship between attitude and angular momentum control requirements is derived for a fixed attitude, Earth orbiting spacecraft with large area articulating appendages. Environmental effects such as gravity gradient, solar radiation pressure, and aerodynamic forces arising from a dynamic, rotating atmosphere are examined. It is shown that, in general, each environmental effect contributes to both cyclic and secular momentum requirements both within and perpendicular to the orbit plane. The gyroscopic contribution to the angular momentum control requirements resulting from a rotating, Earth oriented spacecraft is also discussed. Special conditions are described where one or more components of the angular momentum can be made to vanish, or become purely cyclical. Computer generated plots for a candidate space station configuration are presented to supplement the analytically derived results.

  3. A Self-Regulating Freezable Heat Exchanger for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A spacecraft thermal control system must keep the cabin (both air and its structure if manned) and electronic equipment within a narrow temperature range even...

  4. Thermo-Optical and Mechanical Property Testing of Candidate Solar Sail Materials (United States)

    Hollerman, WIlliam A.; Stanaland, T. L.; Womack, F.; Edwards, David; Hubbs, Whitney; Semmel, Charles


    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Since sails are not limited by reaction mass, they provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Practical solar sails can expand the number of possible missions, enabling new concepts that are difficult by conventional means. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra-lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. Solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic front layer, a thin polymeric substrate, and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate sails to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to electrons. This poster will discuss the preliminary results of this research.


    Fedor, J. V.


    The Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) was developed to aid in the simulation of a large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. FSD is extremely versatile and can be used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. FSD has been used to analyze the in-orbit attitude performance and antenna deployment of the RAE and IMP class satellites, and the HAWKEYE, SCATHA, EXOS-B, and Dynamics Explorer flight programs. FSD is applicable to inertially-oriented spinning, earth oriented, or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft flexibility is treated in a continuous manner (instead of finite element) by employing a series of shape functions for the flexible elements. Torsion, bending, and three flexible modes can be simulated for every flexible element. FSD can handle up to ten tubular elements in an arbitrary orientation. FSD is appropriate for studies involving the active control of pointed instruments, with options for digital PID (proportional, integral, derivative) error feedback controllers and control actuators such as thrusters and momentum wheels. The input to FSD is in four parts: 1) Orbit Construction FSD calculates a Keplerian orbit with environmental effects such as drag, magnetic torque, solar pressure, thermal effects, and thruster adjustments; or the user can supply a GTDS format orbit tape for a particular satellite/time-span; 2) Control words - for options such as gravity gradient effects, control torques, and integration ranges; 3) Mathematical descriptions of spacecraft, appendages, and control systems- including element geometry, properties, attitudes, libration damping, tip mass inertia, thermal expansion, magnetic tracking, and gimbal simulation options; and 4) Desired state variables to output, i.e., geometries, bending moments, fast Fourier transform plots, gimbal rotation, filter vectors, etc. All FSD input is of free format, namelist construction. FSD

  6. Topology Control Algorithms for Spacecraft Formation Flying Networks Under Connectivity and Time-Delay Constraints Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI is proposing to develop a set of topology control algorithms for a formation flying spacecraft that can be used to design and evaluate candidate formation...

  7. Nanocomposites in Multifuntional Structures for Spacecraft Platforms (United States)

    Marcos, J.; Mendizabal, M.; Elizetxea, C.; Florez, S.; Atxaga, G.; Del Olmo, E.


    The integration of functionalities as electrical, thermal, power or radiation shielding inside carrier electronic boxes, solar panels or platform structures allows reducing weight, volume, and harness for spacecraft. The multifunctional structures represent an advanced design approach for space components and subsystems. The development of such multifunctional structures aims the re-engineering traditional metallic structures by composites in space, which request to provide specific solutions for thermal conductivity, EMI-EMC, radiation shielding and integration. The use of nanomaterials as CNF and nano-adds to reinforce composite structures allows obtaining local solutions for improving electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and radiation shielding. The paper summarises the results obtained in of three investigations conducted by Tecnalia based on carbon nanofillers for improving electro-thermal characteristics of spacecraft platform, electronic substrates and electronics boxes respectively.

  8. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Design Nuclear Electric Spacecraft (United States)

    Pannell, William P.


    The basic approach to to design nuclear electric spacecraft is to generate a group of candidate designs, see how "fit" the design are, and carry best design forward to the next generation. Some designs eliminated, some randomly modified and carried forward.

  9. Spacecraft Thermal Management (United States)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller


    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  10. Robust multivariable controller design for flexible spacecraft (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Armstrong, Ernest S.


    Large, flexible spacecraft are typically characterized by a large number of significant elastic modes with very small inherent damping, low, closely spaced natural frequencies, and the lack of accurate knowledge of the structural parameters. Summarized here is some recent research on the design of robust controllers for such spacecraft, which will maintain stability, and possible performance, despite these problems. Two types of controllers are considered, the first being the linear-quadratic-Gaussian-(LQG)-type. The second type utilizes output feedback using collocated sensors and actuators. The problem of designing robust LQG-type controllers using the frequency domain loop transfer recovery (LTR) method is considered, and the method is applied to a large antenna model. Analytical results regarding the regions of stability for LQG-type controllers in the presence of actuator nonlinearities are also presented. The results obtained for the large antenna indicate that the LQG/LTR method is a promising approach for control system design for flexible spacecraft. For the second type of controllers (collocated controllers), it is proved that the stability is maintained in the presence of certain commonly encountered nonlinearities and first-order actuator dynamics. These results indicate that collocated controllers are good candidates for robust control in situations where model errors are large.

  11. Spacecraft Electrostatic Radiation Shielding (United States)


    This project analyzed the feasibility of placing an electrostatic field around a spacecraft to provide a shield against radiation. The concept was originally proposed in the 1960s and tested on a spacecraft by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Such tests and analyses showed that this concept is not only feasible but operational. The problem though is that most of this work was aimed at protection from 10- to 100-MeV radiation. We now appreciate that the real problem is 1- to 2-GeV radiation. So, the question is one of scaling, in both energy and size. Can electrostatic shielding be made to work at these high energy levels and can it protect an entire vehicle? After significant analysis and consideration, an electrostatic shield configuration was proposed. The selected architecture was a torus, charged to a high negative voltage, surrounding the vehicle, and a set of positively charged spheres. Van de Graaff generators were proposed as the mechanism to move charge from the vehicle to the torus to generate the fields necessary to protect the spacecraft. This design minimized complexity, residual charge, and structural forces and resolved several concerns raised during the internal critical review. But, it still is not clear if such a system is costeffective or feasible, even though several studies have indicated usefulness for radiation protection at energies lower than that of the galactic cosmic rays. Constructing such a system will require power supplies that can generate voltages 10 times that of the state of the art. Of more concern is the difficulty of maintaining the proper net charge on the entire structure and ensuring that its interaction with solar wind will not cause rapid discharge. Yet, if these concerns can be resolved, such a scheme may provide significant radiation shielding to future vehicles, without the excessive weight or complexity of other active shielding techniques.

  12. Plasmas for spacecraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review presents the basics of plasma discharges applied to electric spacecraft propulsion. It briefly reports on the mature and flown technologies of gridded ion thrusters and Hall thrusters before exploring the recent yet immature technology of plasma thrusters based on expansion from low pressure high density inductively coupled and wave-excited plasma sources, e.g. the radiofrequency helicon source. Prototype development of plasma engines for future space travel is discussed using the example of the helicon double layer thruster. A summary of highlights in electric propulsion based space missions gives some insight into the challenges of future high power missions in more remote regions of space. (topical review)

  13. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft (United States)

    Myers, Roger M.


    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  14. Spacecraft Charging Sensitivity to Material Properties (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.


    Evaluating spacecraft charging behavior of a vehicle in the space environment requires knowledge of the material properties relevant to the charging process. Implementing surface and internal charging models requires a user to specify a number of material electrical properties including electrical resistivity parameters (dark and radiation induced), dielectric constant, secondary electron yields, photoemission yields, and breakdown strength in order to correctly evaluate the electric discharge threat posed by the increasing electric fields generated by the accumulating charge density. In addition, bulk material mass density and/or chemical composition must be known in order to analyze radiation shielding properties when evaluating internal charging. We will first describe the physics of spacecraft charging and show how uncertainties in material properties propagate through spacecraft charging algorithms to impact the results obtained from charging models. We then provide examples using spacecraft charging codes to demonstrate their sensitivity to material properties. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize the importance in having good information on relevant material properties in order to best characterize on orbit charging threats.

  15. Small Spacecraft Activities at JPL


    Jones, Ross


    This paper presents a brief technical description of some of the small spacecraft concepts prepared by JPL for various sponsors. Some of JPL's work in microspacecraft is presented. The paper contains brief technical descriptions of the following four small spacecraft conceptual designs: 1) Lunar GAS, 2) Polar Mesoscale Explorer, 3) DARPA SHF and 4) Discovery. Since 1986, JPL has studied more than 10 small spacecraft including those to be presented here.

  16. CAS Experiments Onboard Spacecraft Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The descent module of China's Shenzhou 3 spacecraft returned to Earth on April 1, 2002, one week after the spacecraft was launched at the Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center in Gansu Province. It was the third test flight of a prototype spacecraft expected to carry taikonauts (stemming from the Chinese words for outer space) into space in the near future since the first launch of the Shenzhou (Divine Vessel) series on November 20,1999.

  17. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission...

  18. Instrumentation Requirements for the Engineering Evaluation of Nuclear-Electric Spacecraft (United States)

    Apel, W. C.


    Spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion are being proposed for missions to Venus and distances beyond. These spacecraft utilize a nuclear reactor to provide thermal energy to a turboalternator which generates electric power for an ion motor and the other spacecraft systems. This Report discusses the instrumentation and communications system needed to evaluate a nuclear-electric spacecraft in flight, along with the problems expected. A representative spacecraft design is presented, which leads to a discussion of the instrumentation needed to evaluate such a spacecraft. A basic communications system is considered for transmitting the spacecraft data to Earth. The instrumentation and communications system, as well as all electronic systems on a nuclear-electric spacecraft, will be operating in high temperature and nuclear-radiation environments. The problems caused by these environments are discussed, and possible solutions are offered.

  19. Spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif


    been based entirely on direct human supervision and control. This paper describes a vision-based system and methodology, that autonomously generates accurate guidance information that may assist a human operator in performing the tasks associated with both the rendezvous and docking navigation...... procedures. The method described generates, based on a single camera and a priory information about the target vehicle and orbit data, all necessary guidance information for closed-loop autonomous navigation, from first detection at far distance, to a close up a hold point. Furthermore, the system provide......The phenomenons and problems encountered when a rendezvous manoeuvre, and possible docking, of two spacecrafts has to be performed, have been the topic for numerous studies, and, details of a variety of scenarios has been analysed. So far, all solutions that has been brought into realization has...

  20. The Gravitational Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    D'Aquino, F


    There is a electromagnetic factor of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass, which in specific electromagnetic conditions, can be reduced, nullified, negated, and increased. This means that gravitational forces can be reduced, nullified, inverted and intensified by means of electromagnetic fields. Such control of the gravitational interaction can have a lot of practical applications. For example, a new concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight arises from the possibility of the electromagnetic control of the gravitational mass.Some theoretical consequences of the mentioned correlation are: the generalization of Newton=92s second law for the motion (New law for Inertia), the deduction of the differential equation for entropy (second law of Thermodynamics), unification of gravitational and electromagnetic interactions .

  1. Spacecraft stability and control (United States)

    Barret, Chris


    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Today, satellite stability and control has become a higher priority. For a satellite design that is to have a life expectancy of 14 years, appropriate spacecraft flight control systems will be reviewed, stability requirements investigated, and an appropriate flight control system recommended in order to see the design process. Disturbance torques, including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques, will be assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torques can be determined. The control torques, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, and reaction control systems (RCSs), will be considered. Conditions for stability will also be considered.

  2. The Plume Chaser mission: Two-spacecraft search for organics on the dwarf planet Ceres (United States)

    Nayak, Michael; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Aziz, Jonathan; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Jonsson, Jonas; McKay, Chris; Sears, Derek; Soulage, Michael; Swenson, Jason; Yang, Fan Yang


    We present a mission concept designed at NASA Ames Research Center for a two-probe mission to the dwarf planet Ceres, utilizing a set of small low-cost spacecraft. The primary spacecraft will carry both a mass and an infrared spectrometer to characterize water vapor detected to be emanating from Ceres. Shortly after its arrival a second identical spacecraft will impact Ceres to create an ejecta "plume" timed to enable a rendezvous and sampling by the primary spacecraft. This enables additional subsurface chemistry, volatile content and material characterization, and new science complementary to the Dawn spacecraft, the first to arrive at Ceres. Science requirements, candidate instruments, rendezvous trajectories, spacecraft design and comparison with Dawn science are detailed.

  3. Architecture and Dynamics of Kepler's Candidate Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lissauer, Jack J; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Douglas A; Dunham, Edward W; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gautier, Thomas N; Holman, Matthew J; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Morehead, Robert; Rowe, Jason; Quintana, Elisa V; Sasselov, Dimitar; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H


    Borucki et al. 2011 (ApJ, submitted) report on characteristics of over 1200 candidate transiting planets orbiting nearly 1000 Kepler spacecraft target stars detected in the first four months of spacecraft data. Included among these targets are 115 targets with two transiting planet candidates, 45 targets with three, 8 with four, and one each with five and six sets of transit signatures. We characterize herein the dynamical properties of these candidate multi-planet systems. We find that virtually all systems are stable, as tested by numerical integration assuming a mass-radius relationship. The distribution of observed period ratios is also clustered just outside resonances, particularly the 2:1 resonance. Neither of these characteristics would emerge if the systems were significantly contaminated with false positives, and these combined with other considerations strongly suggest that the majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Using the observed multiplicity frequencies (e.g., t...

  4. Quaternion Feedback Control for Rigid-body Spacecraft


    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This paper addresses three-axis attitude control for a Danish spacecraft, Roemer. The algorithm proposed is based on an approximation of the exact feedback linearisation for quaternionic attitude representation. The proposed attitude controller is tested in a simulation study. The environmental disturbances correspond to those expected for the Roemer mission. The pros and cons of the algorithm are discussed. The results of the study show that the controller is a > successful candidate for ...

  5. Limit on the Two-Photon Production of the Glueball Candidate fJ(2220) at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the CLEO detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, CESR, to search for the two-photon production of the glueball candidate fJ(2220) in its decay to KsKs . We present a restrictive upper limit on the product of the two-photon partial width and the KsKs branching fraction, (ΓγγBKsKs)fJ(2220) . We use this limit to calculate a lower limit on the stickiness, which is a measure of the two-gluon coupling relative to the two-photon coupling. This limit on stickiness indicates that the fJ(2220) has substantial glueball content. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Relative tracking of multiple spacecraft by interferometry (United States)

    Border, James S.; Kahn, Robert D.

    An analysis is conducted of earth-based radiometric tracking of one spacecraft relative to an angularly nearby second spacecraft. Two cases are studied: relative positioning between a lander and a rover on the surface of Mars and relative tracking between a Mars lander and a Mars orbiter. All spacecraft signals are simultaneously received in the same beamwidth of an earth tracking antenna. Differential interferometric measurement errors are predicted. Errors which scale with angular separation between sources and errors which scale with temporal separation between measurement epochs are reduced virtually to zero. System thermal noise and systematic phase shifts introduced by receiver electronics typically dominate the error budget. Solar plasma delays become dominant for signal paths which pass close to the sun. Precise line-of-sight range measurements, differenced between stations, are also considered. Meter-level accuracy is obtained for lander/rover relative position by combining interferometric and precise range measurements. Either data type alone, for geometries where earth is not near zero declination as seen from Mars and Mars is not near zero declination as seen from earth, can provide accuracy at the 10-100-m level.

  7. Advanced Spacecraft Thermal Modeling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft developers who spend millions to billions of dollars per unit and require 3 to 7 years to deploy, the LoadPath reduced-order (RO) modeling thermal...

  8. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983 (United States)


    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  9. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description (United States)

    Bennett, Norman R.; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky


    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data.

  10. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  11. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a...

  12. Environmental charging tests of spacecraft thermal control louvers (United States)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stevens, N. J.; Schmidt, F. W.; Blech, R. A.


    The environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces program consists, in part, of experimental evaluation of material response to the environmental charged particle flux. A flight type spacecraft thermal control louver assembly has been tested in an electron flux. The louver blade surface potential, the louver assembly currents, and the relatively high number of discharges observed in the electron environment are self-consistent results. The unexpected result of this testing was the flutter observed when the louvers were closed. The flutter is about 1 to 2 Hz in frequency and is probably electrostatically induced.

  13. Interplanetary spacecraft navigation using pulsars


    Deng, X. P.; Hobbs, G.; You, X. P.; M. T. Li; Keith, M. J.; Shannon, R. M.; Coles, W.; Manchester, R. N.; J.H. Zheng; Yu, X. Z.; Gao, D.; Wu, X; Chen, D.


    We demonstrate how observations of pulsars can be used to help navigate a spacecraft travelling in the solar system. We make use of archival observations of millisecond pulsars from the Parkes radio telescope in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and highlight issues, such as pulsar spin irregularities, which need to be accounted for. We show that observations of four millisecond pulsars every seven days using a realistic X-ray telescope on the spacecraft throughout a journe...

  14. CMS Higgs Search in 2011 and 2012 data: candidate ZZ event (8 TeV) with two electrons and two muons

    CERN Multimedia

    McCauley, T


    Event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson to a pair of Z bosons, one of which subsequently decays to a pair of electrons (green lines and green towers) and the other Z decays to a pair of muons (red lines). The event could also be due to known standard model background processes.

  15. Reconfigurability Analysis Method for Spacecraft Autonomous Control


    Dayi Wang; Chengrui Liu


    As a critical requirement for spacecraft autonomous control, reconfigurability should be considered in design stage of spacecrafts by involving effective reconfigurability analysis method in guiding system designs. In this paper, a novel reconfigurability analysis method is proposed for spacecraft design. First, some basic definitions regarding spacecraft reconfigurability are given. Then, based on function tree theory, a reconfigurability modeling approach is established to properly describe...

  16. The Space Environment Monitors of Shenzhou Manned Spacecrafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; WANG Chunqin; YE Haihua; JING Guiru; ZHU Guangwu; WANG Shijin; QIN Guotai; LIANG Jinbao; SUN Yueqiang; HUANG Xiuying; YANG Xiaochao; WANG Yue


    For the purpose of ensuring normal operations of Shenzhou (SZ) series of manned spacecrafts and cosmonauts' safety, Space Environment Monitors (SEM)are mounted on board SZ-2, 3, 4, 5. SEMs aim to detect the high energy particles, the low energy particles, charging potential, atmospheric desity and composition. Detection of SEMs enable us to understand better the space environment in the manned spacecraft's orbit, and to provide a good space environment services for the spacecraft and cosmonauts. In addition, by using the data from SEMs, we have achieved some scientific accomplishments, such as the energy spectra of precipitating electrons, the abnormal variety of atmospheric density and composition during geomagnetic disturbances, the electron angle distribution in the low orbit and so on.

  17. Multi-spacecraft observations of decay phases of SEP events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-spacecraft analysis of the decay phase of 26 SEP events is presented, based upon Helios 1 and 2 and IMP8 data. The Helios spacecraft were magnetically connected to the far side of the Sun for part of their lifetime, and detected SEP events at large longitudinal separation from the location of the associated flares. In this study, 26 SEP events are considered, 19 of which observed by three spacecraft and 7 by two. For each event, the total event duration at 1 electron and 2 proton energies is measured. A plot of event duration versus the longitudinal distance Δφ between the associated flare location and the footpoint of the magnetic field line through the spacecraft reveals asymmetries in the detection and duration of SEP events. First, SEP events associated with flares far to the east of the spacecraft footpoint are 5 times more likely than events associated with flares far to the west. Second, the event duration shows a tendency to decrease as the location of the associated flare changes from east to west. We show that the first asymmetry is not a result of the trajectory of the spacecraft

  18. Flight Experiments on the Effects of Contamination on Electron Emission of Materials


    Dennison, JR; Hodges, Joshua L.; Duce, Jeff; Evans, Amberly


    We report on a study of the effects of prolonged exposure to the space environment and of chargeenhanced contamination on the electron emission and resistivity of spacecraft materials. The State of Utah Space Environment & Contamination Study (SUSpECS) was deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2008 onboard the MISSE-6 payload during STS-123. The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-6) program is designed to characterize the performance of candidate new ...

  19. Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) Development Status


    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita,Osamu; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Jomaas, Grunde


    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is underdevelopment to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for exploration missions. The Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project is developing three Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire-I, -II, and -III) to conduct a series of material flammability tests at a length scale that is realistic for a serious spacecraft fire in low-gravity. The objectives of these experiments a...

  20. Polyurethane Membranes Modified with Isopropyl Myristate as a Potential Candidate for Encapsulating Electronic Implants: A Study of Biocompatibility and Water Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepen Paul


    Full Text Available Medical polyurethanes have shown good bio-stability and mechanical properties and have been used as coating for implantable medical devices. However, despite their excellent properties, they are relatively permeable to liquid water and water vapour which is a drawback for electronic implant encapsulation. In this study polyether polyurethanes with different soft segment molecular weights were modified by incorporating isopropyl myristate (IPM, as a hydrophobic modifying agent, and the effect of IPM on water resistant and biocompatibility of membranes were investigated. IPM changed the surface properties of the polyurethane film and reduced its surface energy. Polyurethane films were found to be stable with IPM concentrations of 1–5 wt% based upon their chemistry; however it leached out in BSA at higher concentrations. Though, low concentrations of IPM reduced both liquid water and water vapour permeability; at higher IPM content liquid permeability did not improved significantly. In general, the polyurethane materials showed much lower water permeability compared with currently used silicone packaging material for electronic implants. In addition, cytotoxicity assessment of IPM containing polyurethanes showed no evidence of cytotoxcity up to 5 wt% IPM.

  1. What's the Kepler Spacecraft Been Up To? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Remember back in May 2013 when the second of Keplers reaction wheels failed, rendering it unable to control its precision pointing? As a result of a clever backup plan by intrepid scientists, Kepler is still going strong! This January, a paper was published describing some of the results from the first year of the extended Kepler mission, known as K2.K2: A Second ChanceHistograms of the K2 planet candidate sample (solid yellow) compared with planet candidates from the first four months of Kepler observations (blue diagonal lines). The histograms compare planet radius, orbital period, and brightness. [Vanderburg et al. 2016]After an incredibly successful five years discovering transiting exoplanets, the failure of two of Keplers reaction wheels (which allow it to maintain its orientation) looked like it would shut down the mission. Luckily, the scientific community came up with the ingenious plan of stabilizing the telescope using the radiation pressure exerted by the Sun. Though this solution limits Kepler to observing within the ecliptic plane, it has provided a new life lease for the project.Despite the significantly worsened pointing precision in the K2 mission, new analysis techniques have been developed that decouple the motion of the spacecraft from its observations, resulting in an observational precision for K2 thats within 35% of the original precision achieved by Kepler.Using these techniques, a team of scientists led by Andrew Vanderburg (HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics) analyzed the publicly released data from the first year of the K2 mission. In a new study, they describe the results from the 59,174 targets that Kepler has observed in that time.Planetary CandidatesVanderburg and collaborators report that K2 has detected 234 planetary candidates around 208 stars in its first year. These candidates span a range of sizes from gas-giant to smaller than the Earth, and have orbital periods that range from hours to more than a month. The list

  2. Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft (United States)

    Holt, A. C.


    Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.

  3. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner; Jessner, Axel


    An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

  4. Meteoroid Impacts on Spacecraft (United States)

    Foschini, Luigi

    In the space age, information about the near-Earth environment is becoming more and more important, because of the potential danger to human exploration and use of space. In recent years there have been a number of in situ space experiments, such as LDEF and EURECA, that have demonstrated the threaths to satellites, space station, and astronauts from high-kinetic-energy impacts of meteoroids and space debris. Post-flight analyses of data from these satellites have revealed that, the catastrophic impact to be a rare event; however, the main danger comes from the impact-generated plasma, which can produce several types of electromagnetic interferences that can disturb or even destroy on-board electronics.

  5. Low Energy Electron Gun Power Control Unit


    Fish, Chad


    Orbiting spacecraft are subject to surface charging induced by plasma currents. The reaction of spacecraft materials to electron and ion bombardments is a major factor in spacecraft surface charging. A key bombardment process known to induce severe spacecraft surface charging is secondary electron emission. NASA funds the Surface Science Group in the Physics Department at Utah State University to research and document different secondary electron emission material characteristics. The Surface...

  6. Fermi arc electronic structure and Chern numbers in the type-II Weyl semimetal candidate MoxW1 -xTe2 (United States)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su-Yang; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Zheng, Hao; Neupane, Madhab; Alidoust, Nasser; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wu, Yun; Bian, Guang; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Song, You; Wang, Baigeng; Wang, Guanghou; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Yao, Nan; Rault, Julien E.; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Kaminski, Adam; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M. Zahid


    It has recently been proposed that electronic band structures in crystals can give rise to a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion, which violates Lorentz invariance and, consequently, is forbidden in particle physics. It was further predicted that MoxW1 -xTe2 may realize such a type-II Weyl fermion. Here, we first show theoretically that it is crucial to access the band structure above the Fermi level ɛF to show a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1 -xTe2 . Then, we study MoxW1 -xTe2 by pump-probe ARPES and we directly access the band structure >0.2 eV above ɛF in experiment. By comparing our results with ab initio calculations, we conclude that we directly observe the surface state containing the topological Fermi arc. We propose that a future study of MoxW1 -xTe2 by pump-probe ARPES may directly pinpoint the Fermi arc. Our work sets the stage for the experimental discovery of the first type-II Weyl semimetal in MoxW1 -xTe2 .

  7. Autonomous spacecraft attitude control using magnetic torquing only (United States)

    Musser, Keith L.; Ebert, Ward L.


    Magnetic torquing of spacecraft has been an important mechanism for attitude control since the earliest satellites were launched. Typically a magnetic control system has been used for precession/nutation damping for gravity-gradient stabilized satellites, momentum dumping for systems equipped with reaction wheels, or momentum-axis pointing for spinning and momentum-biased spacecraft. Although within the small satellite community there has always been interest in expensive, light-weight, and low-power attitude control systems, completely magnetic control systems have not been used for autonomous three-axis stabilized spacecraft due to the large computational requirements involved. As increasingly more powerful microprocessors have become available, this has become less of an impediment. These facts have motivated consideration of the all-magnetic attitude control system presented here. The problem of controlling spacecraft attitude using only magnetic torquing is cast into the form of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), resulting in a linear feedback control law. Since the geomagnetic field along a satellite trajectory is not constant, the system equations are time varying. As a result, the optimal feedback gains are time-varying. Orbit geometry is exploited to treat feedback gains as a function of position rather than time, making feasible the onboard solution of the optimal control problem. In simulations performed to date, the control laws have shown themselves to be fairly robust and a good candidate for an onboard attitude control system.

  8. Multi-Spacecraft Observations of the Auroral Acceleration Region


    Sadeghi, Soheil


    The two major agents for producing aurora are generally believed to be the quasi-static parallel electric fields, accelerating electrons in the auroral acceleration region (AAR), and Alfvén waves. The Cluster spacecraft quartet has made multi-spacecraft measurements in the AAR possible for the first time. Four event studies are included and discussed in this thesis, using Cluster data inside and at the top of the AAR, to address various open issues regarding the nature of the quasistatic elec...

  9. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants (United States)

    James, John T.


    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  10. Software Architecture for Autonomous Spacecraft (United States)

    Shih, Jimmy S.


    The thesis objective is to design an autonomous spacecraft architecture to perform both deliberative and reactive behaviors. The Autonomous Small Planet In-Situ Reaction to Events (ASPIRE) project uses the architecture to integrate several autonomous technologies for a comet orbiter mission.

  11. Optimal Reorientation Of Spacecraft Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelnokov Yuriy Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The problem of optimal reorientation of the spacecraft orbit is considered. For solving the problem we used quaternion equations of motion written in rotating coordinate system. The use of quaternion variables makes this consideration more efficient. The problem of optimal control is solved on the basis of the maximum principle. An example of numerical solution of the problem is given.

  12. Propulsion Challenges for Small Spacecraft: 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadim Zakirov; LI Luming


    Small (<100 kg) spacecrafts are being developed in many countries but their propulsion systems still have many challenges. Although there is demand for small spacecraft propulsion, the number of missions at present is small due to several commercial and technical reasons. Poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion systems is one of the main reasons for the small number of missions. Several reasons are given for the poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion. Suggested improvements focus on small spacecraft and propulsion hardware mass optimization rather than on specific impulse enhancement. Propellantless propulsion systems are also recommended for small spacecraft interplanetary missions.

  13. Critical velocity ionization in the environment of large spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss some potential problems of critical velocity ionization in the environment of large spacecraft, such as the Space Station. Outgassing, exhaust, and reflection of ambient species may form a significant environment of a large spacecraft. As a result of beam plasma interactions, Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) phenomenon may occur. CIV has been demonstrated to occur in the laboratory. CIV experiments in space have been inconclusive. Most CIV space experiments have used barium vapor beams injected into the space plasma. They point out that there exist restrictive conditions which may explain the low yields in the CIV space experiments. The finite width of the beam allows energetic electrons to escape along magnetic field lines easily without ionization, thus reducing the probability of ionization chain reaction. The finite longitudinal length of a beam pulse, or cloud, may not allow enough time for electron heating along magnetic field lines. The parallel component of the lower hybrid plasma wavelength may be too long that it does not fit into the beam. These conditions may become less restrictive for the environment of large spacecraft. If CIV ionization really occurs in the spacecraft environment, the vicinity of the Space Station may be a more likely place. As a consequence, the transport of ions and electrons may pose contamination and radiation problems on the instruments aboard

  14. Spacecraft TT&C and information transmission theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiaxing


    Spacecraft TT&C and Information Transmission Theory and Technologies introduces the basic theory of spacecraft TT&C (telemetry, track and command) and information transmission. Combining TT&C and information transmission, the book presents several technologies for continuous wave radar including measurements for range, range rate and angle, analog and digital information transmissions, telecommand, telemetry, remote sensing and spread spectrum TT&C. For special problems occurred in the channels for TT&C and information transmission, the book represents radio propagation features and its impact on orbit measurement accuracy, and the effects caused by rain attenuation, atmospheric attenuation and multi-path effect, and polarization composition technology. This book can benefit researchers and engineers in the field of spacecraft TT&C and communication systems. Liu Jiaxing is a professor at The 10th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation.

  15. Laser-reactive protection of spacecraft from fine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the optimal conditions for laser irradiation and of typical paths of man-made debris in laser-reactive protection of spacecraft. Protection is provided by the recoil momentum resulting from laser evaporation of the surface layers of a debris particle, which can change its path, thus avoiding an collision with a spacecraft. Estimates are obtained of changes in the paths of particles with a characteristic size 1 cm when they are irradiated by radiation from a laser located on the protected spacecraft moving along one of the circular orbits at altitudes of 200, 400, or 700 km above the Earth's surface. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Processing Images of Craters for Spacecraft Navigation (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Johnson, Andrew E.; Matthies, Larry H.


    A crater-detection algorithm has been conceived to enable automation of what, heretofore, have been manual processes for utilizing images of craters on a celestial body as landmarks for navigating a spacecraft flying near or landing on that body. The images are acquired by an electronic camera aboard the spacecraft, then digitized, then processed by the algorithm, which consists mainly of the following steps: 1. Edges in an image detected and placed in a database. 2. Crater rim edges are selected from the edge database. 3. Edges that belong to the same crater are grouped together. 4. An ellipse is fitted to each group of crater edges. 5. Ellipses are refined directly in the image domain to reduce errors introduced in the detection of edges and fitting of ellipses. 6. The quality of each detected crater is evaluated. It is planned to utilize this algorithm as the basis of a computer program for automated, real-time, onboard processing of crater-image data. Experimental studies have led to the conclusion that this algorithm is capable of a detection rate >93 percent, a false-alarm rate <5 percent, a geometric error <0.5 pixel, and a position error <0.3 pixel.

  17. CASE via MS: Ranking Structure Candidates by Mass Spectra


    Kerber, Adalbert; Meringer, Markus; Rücker, Christoph


    Two important tasks in computer-aided structure elucidation (CASE) are the generation of candidate structures from a given molecular formula, and the ranking of structure candidates according to compatibility with an experimental spectrum. Candidate ranking with respect to electron impact mass spectra is based on virtual fragmentation of a candidate structure and comparison of the fragments’ isotope distributions against the spectrum of the unknown compound, whence a structure–spectrum compat...

  18. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  19. Service Oriented Spacecraft Modeling Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The I-Logix team proposes development of the Service Oriented Spacecraft Modeling Environment (SOSME) to allow faster and more effective spacecraft system design...

  20. SAS-A spacecraft magnetic tests (United States)

    Boyle, J. C.


    Magnetic tests were conducted on the spacecraft for: (1) alignment, compensation, calibration, and bias determination for the spacecraft three-axis vector magnetometer; (2) determination of permanent, induced, and stray magnetic moments of the spacecraft and compensation of permanent magnetic moments by permanent magnets; and (3) evaluation of the spin and attitude control system.

  1. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I. (United States)

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  2. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity (United States)

    Anderson, John D.


    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  3. Anomalous Earth flybys of spacecraft (United States)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.


    A small deviation from the potential is expected for the gravitational interaction of extended bodies. It is explained as a consequence of a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al. in Astrophys. Space Sci. 343:135-144, 2013) and has been applied to anomalous perihelion advances by Wilhelm and Dwivedi (New Astron. 31:51-55, 2014). The effect—an offset of the effective gravitational centre from the geometric centre of a spherical symmetric body—might also be responsible for the observed anomalous orbital energy gains and speed increases during Earth flybys of several spacecraft. However, close flybys would require detailed considerations of the orbit geometry. In this study, an attempt is made to explain the anomalous Earth flybys of the Galileo, NEAR Shoemaker and Rosetta spacecraft.

  4. The Near Spacecraft Telecommunications System


    Bokulic, R.S.; Jensen, J R; McKnight, T.R.


    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, first in NASA's Discovery series, is designed to gather scientific data about the near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros. Due to launch in February 1996, the spacecraft will rendezvous with and eventually orbit the asteroid. The telecommunications system is centered about two redundant X-band transponder systems that provide the command, telemetry, and tracking functions. Although the mission has a very tight development schedule, a significant amount ...

  5. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft (United States)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)


    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  6. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space

  7. Cross-field gradients: general concept, importance of multi-spacecraft measurements and study at 1 AU of the source intensity gradient for E > 30 keV solar event electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Chaizy

    Full Text Available Three main physical processes (and associated properties are currently used to describe the flux and anisotropy time profiles of solar energetic par- ticle events, called SEP profiles. They are (1 the particle scattering (due to magnetic waves, (2 the particle focusing (due to the decrease of the amplitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF with the radial distance to the Sun and (3 the finite injection profile at the source. If their features change from one field line to another, i.e. if there is a cross IMF gradient (CFG, then the shape of the SEP profiles will depend, at onset time, on the relative position of the spacecraft to the IMF and might vary significantly on small distance scale (e.g. 106 km. One type of CFG is studied here. It is called intensity CFG and considers variations, at the solar surface, only of the intensity of the event. It is shown here that drops of about two orders of magnitude over distances of ~104 km at the Sun (1° of angular distance can influence dramatically the SEP profiles at 1 AU. This CFG can lead to either an under or overestimation of both the parallel mean free path and of the injection parameters by factor up to, at least, ~2-3 and 18, respectively. Multi-spacecraft analysis can be used to identify CFG. Three basic requirements are proposed to identify, from the observation, the type of the CFG being measured.

    Key words: Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (energetic particles; flares and mass ejections - Space plasma physics (transport processes

  8. Active spacecraft potential control for Cluster – implementation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Torkar

    Full Text Available Electrostatic charging of a spacecraft modifies the distribution of electrons and ions before the particles enter the sensors mounted on the spacecraft body. The floating potential of magnetospheric satellites in sunlight very often reaches several tens of volts, making measurements of the cold (several eV component of the ambient ions impossible. The plasma electron data become contaminated by large fluxes of photoelectrons attracted back into the sensors. The Cluster spacecraft are equipped with emitters of the liquid metal ion source type, producing indium ions at 5 to 9 keV energy at currents of some tens of microampere. This current shifts the equilibrium potential of the spacecraft to moderately positive values. The design and principles of the operation of the instrument for active spacecraft potential control (ASPOC are presented in detail. Experience with spacecraft potential control from the commissioning phase and the first two months of the operational phase are now available. The instrument is operated with constant ion current for most of the time, but tests have been carried out with varying currents and a "feedback" mode with the instrument EFW, which measures the spacecraft potential . That has been reduced to values according to expectations. In addition, the low energy electron measurements show substantially reduced fluxes of photoelectrons as expected. The flux decrease in photoelectrons returning to the spacecraft, however, occurs at the expense of an enlarged sheath around the spacecraft which causes problems for boom-mounted probes.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging; Instruments and techniques; Active perturbation experiments

  9. Maneuver analysis for spinning thrusting spacecraft and spinning tethered spacecraft (United States)

    Martin, Kaela M.

    During axial thrusting of a spin-stabilized spacecraft undergoing orbital injections or control maneuvers, misalignments and center-of-mass offset create undesired body-fixed torques. The effects of the body-fixed torques, which in turn cause velocity pointing errors, can be reduced by ramping up (and then ramping down) the thruster. The first topic discussed in this thesis derives closed-form solutions for the angular velocity, Euler angles, inertial velocity, and inertial displacement solutions with nonzero initial conditions. Using the closed-form solutions, the effect of variations in the spin-axis moment of inertia and spin-rate on the spacecraft velocity pointing error are shown. The analytical solutions closely match numerical simulations. The next topic considers various ramp-up profiles (including parabolic, cosine, logarithmic, exponential, and cubic) to heuristically find a suboptimal solution to reduce the velocity pointing error. Some of the considered cosine, logarithmic, exponential, parabolic, and cubic profiles drive the velocity pointing error to nearly zero and hence qualify as effective solutions. The third topic examines a large tethered spacecraft that produces artificial gravity with the propulsion system on one end of the tether. Instead of thrusting through the center of mass, the offset thrust occurs at an angle to the tether which is held in the desired direction by changing the spin rate to compensate for decreasing propellant mass. The dynamics and control laws of the system are derived for constant, time-varying, planar, and non-planar thrust as well as spin-up maneuvers. The final topic discusses how the Bodewadt solution of a self-excited rigid body is unable to accurately predict the motion compared to a numerical integration of the equations of motion.

  10. Materials and techniques for spacecraft static charge control (United States)

    Amore, L. J.; Eagles, A. E.


    An overview of the design, development, fabrication, and testing of transparent conductive coatings and conductive lattices deposited or formed on high resistivity spacecraft dielectric materials to obtain control static charge buildup on spacecraft external surfaces is presented. Fabrication techniques for the deposition of indium/tin oxide coatings and copper grid networks on Kapton and FEP Teflon films and special frit coatings for OSR and solar cell cover glasses are discussed. The techniques include sputtering, photoetching, silkscreening, and mechanical processes. A facility designed and built to simulate the electron plasma at geosynchronous altitudes is described along with test procedures. The results of material characterizations as well as electron irradiation aging effects in this facility for spacecraft polymers treated to control static charge are presented. The data presents results for electron beam energies up to 30 kV and electron current densities of 30 nA/cm squared. Parameters measured include secondary emission, surface leakage, and through the sample currents as a function of primary beam energy and voltage.

  11. Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast electrons are used to produce isotopes for studying the cooper metabolism: Cu-64 in a cyclotron and Cu-67 in a linear accelerator. Localized electrons are responsible for the chemical and physiological characteristics of the trace elements. Studied are I, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe, Se, Mg. The Cu/Mo and Cu/Zn interactions are investigated. The levels of molybdenum, sulfate and zinc in the food are analysed. The role of the electrons in free radicals is discussed. The protection action of peroxidases and super oxidases against electron dangerous effect on normal physiology is also considered. Calculation of radiation damage and radiation protection is made. (author)

  12. Analysis of surface charging for a candidate solar sail mission using Nascap-2k


    Parker, L. F. Neergaard; Minow, J. I.; Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Gardner, B M


    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design tasks. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.0 AU L1 solar ...

  13. Reconfigurability Analysis Method for Spacecraft Autonomous Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayi Wang


    Full Text Available As a critical requirement for spacecraft autonomous control, reconfigurability should be considered in design stage of spacecrafts by involving effective reconfigurability analysis method in guiding system designs. In this paper, a novel reconfigurability analysis method is proposed for spacecraft design. First, some basic definitions regarding spacecraft reconfigurability are given. Then, based on function tree theory, a reconfigurability modeling approach is established to properly describe system’s reconfigurability characteristics, and corresponding analysis procedure based on minimal cut set and minimal path set is further presented. In addition, indexes of fault reconfigurable degree and system reconfigurable rate for evaluating reconfigurability are defined, and the methodology for analyzing system’s week links is also constructed. Finally, the method is verified by a spacecraft attitude measuring system, and the results show that the presented method cannot only implement the quantitative reconfigurability evaluations but also find the weak links, and therefore provides significant improvements for spacecraft reconfigurability design.

  14. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.


    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  15. Timeline as Unifying Concept for Spacecraft Operations (United States)

    Reinholtz, Kirk


    The notion of Timeline has been used informally in spacecraft operations software for some time, but it has not heretofore been formalized and unified either syntactically or semantically. We have formalized and unified the Timeline so that the commonality can be exploited to reduce the cost of developing and using spacecraft operations software. The Timeline can then be used as the common data structure for storage and communications between spacecraft planning and operations software elements.

  16. A spacecraft for the Earth observing system (United States)

    Taylor, Raynor L.; Bordi, Francesco


    The space segment of NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) includes three series of intermediate-sized spacecraft, plus two smaller spacecraft. The EOS-AM spacecraft is the first of the intermediate-sized spacecraft. EOS-AM accommodates sensors that measure cloud and aerosol radiative properties, and that provide data to study the water and energy cycles. Scheduled for launch in the late 1990s, the EOS-AM spacecraft is designed for a 5-year mission. The spacecraft will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (California) into a polar, Sun-synchronous, low-Earth orbit with a 16-day repeat cycle. In its flight configuration, the spacecraft is almost 20 ft long (including instruments mounted at the fore end of the spacecraft) and 6 ft wide (in its widest dimension), has a mass of about 13,000 Ibs and uses about 3000 W of electrical power. The spacecraft is compatible with the Atlas IIAS launch vehicle. EOS-AM has on-board storage for at least two orbits of science data. These data will be transmitted to the ground via the tracking and data relay satellite system (using data structures and protocols in compliance with the recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems). A direct downlink system to support distributed users will also be available.

  17. Formation Flying Spacecraft Concept for Heliophysics Applications (United States)

    Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Davila, Joseph; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Shah, Neerav; Li, Steven X.


    A number of space-based heliophysics instruments would benefit from formation flying spacecraft. An occulter or a focusing optic such as a photon sieve could be mounted on a separate spacecraft rather than at the end of a boom. This would enable science measurements to be made on smaller, less expensive spacecraft. To accomplish this goal, the relative position of the spacecraft must be monitored and controlled to high precision. We describe two separate optical sensing systems that monitor relative position of the spacecraft to the level required for a photon sieve mission concept wherein the photon sieve is mounted on one spacecraft while the imaging detector is mounted on another. The first system employs a novel time of flight measurement of a laser beam that includes imbedded optical data packets. The contents of the returning data packet can be compared to the departing data packet to provide an extremely high resolution distance measurement. Employing three such systems allows measurement of pitch and yaw in addition to longitudinal separation. The second optical system monitors lateral motion. A mildy divergent laser beam is transmitted from one spacecraft to a sensor array on the second spacecraft. Monitoring the position of the brightest portion of the beam on the sensor array provides a direct measurement of lateral relative motion. Employing at least two such systems enables monitoring roll of the spacecraft as well as centration. We will also discuss low force thruster systems required for high precision station keeping.

  18. Outer planet spacecraft temperature testing and analysis (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Avila, A.


    Unmanned spacecraft flown on missions to the outer planets of the solar system have included flybys, planetary orbiters, and atmospheric probes during the last three decades. The thermal design, test, and analysis approach applied to these spacecraft evolved from the passive thermal designs applied to the earlier lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. The inflight temperature data from representative sets of engineering subsystems and science instruments from a subset of these spacecraft are compared to those obtained during the ground test programs and from the prelaunch predictions. Several lessons are presented with specific recommendations for considerations for new projects to aid in the planning of cost effective temperature design, test, and analysis programs.

  19. Optimizing Spacecraft Placement for Liaison Constellations (United States)

    Chow, C. Channing; Villac, Benjamin F.; Lo, Martin W.


    A navigation and communications network is proposed to support an anticipated need for infrastructure in the Earth-Moon system. Periodic orbits will host the constellations while a novel, autonomous navigation strategy will guide the spacecraft along their path strictly based on satellite-to-satellite telemetry. In particular, this paper investigates the second stage of a larger constellation optimization scheme for multi-spacecraft systems. That is, following an initial orbit down-selection process, this analysis provides insights into the ancillary problem of spacecraft placement. Two case studies are presented that consider configurations of up to four spacecraft for a halo orbit and a cycler trajectory.

  20. A Systematic Search for Exoplanet Candidates in K2 Data (United States)

    Kahre, Tarryn; Karnes, Katherine L.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Smith, Jeffrey C.


    We present a catalog of 41 promising exoplanet candidates in 33 stellar systems from the K2 Campaign 3 data. The K2 Mission was developed upon the mechanical failure of the second of four reaction wheels, as the Kepler Spacecraft could not continue the original Kepler Mission. The Kepler Mission was a 4-year mission designed to determine the prevalence of exoplanets in our galaxy, and the configuration and diversity of those planetary systems discovered. The K2 Mission has a similar goal, though the spacecraft now points at fields along the ecliptic in ~75 day campaigns (Howell et al. 2014). Although the light curves in K2 data are noisier and have significant motion-induced systematics, it has been shown that there is success in finding exoplanets and exoplanet candidates (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2015; Montet et al. 2015). Utilizing the Transiting Planet Search and Data Validation from the Kepler Processing Pipeline, we systematically search K2 Campaign 3 for potential exoplanet candidates. Setting a 7.1s maximum folded statistic threshold minimum for a minimum of three transit events, we define our initial candidate list. Our list is further narrowed by the results from Data Validation, as it allows us to statistically identify false positives, such as eclipsing binaries or uncorrected roll-drift, in our sample. We further draw parallels between our results and other transit-searching pipeline results published for Campaign 3.

  1. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  2. Electronics Modernization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current electronic packaging designs used in our most recent spacecraft are comprised of technologies from the 1980’s and 1990’s. The current approach...

  3. Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the electronic equipment used in pulse counting and mean current radiation detection systems is described. This includes the high voltage supply, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, scalers or counters, ratemeters, single-channel pulse height analyser, multi-channel pulse height analyser, d.c. amplifiers, coincidence and anticoincidence units and gain stabilisers

  4. Laboratory investigation of antenna signals from dust impacts on spacecraft (United States)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Collette, Andrew; Malaspina, David M.; Thayer, Frederick


    Electric field and plasma wave instruments act as dust detectors picking up voltage pulses induced by impacts of particulates on the spacecraft body. These signals enable the characterization of cosmic dust environments even with missions without dedicated dust instruments. For example, the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed the first detection of dust particles near Uranus, Neptune, and in the outer solar system [Gurnett et al., 1987, 1991, 1997]. The two STEREO spacecraft observed distinct signals at high rate that were interpreted as nano-sized particles originating from near the Sun and accelerated to high velocities by the solar wind [MeyerVernet et al, 2009a, Zaslavsky et al., 2012]. The MAVEN spacecraft is using the antennas onboard to characterize the dust environment of Mars [Andersson et al., 2014] and Solar Probe Plus will do the same in the inner heliosphere. The challenge, however, is the correct interpretation of the impact signals and calculating the mass of the dust particles. The uncertainties result from the incomplete understanding of the signal pickup mechanisms, and the variation of the signal amplitude with impact location, the ambient plasma environment, and impact speed. A comprehensive laboratory study of impact generated antenna signals has been performed recently using the IMPACT dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado. Dust particles of micron and submicron sizes with velocities of tens of km/s are generated using a 3 MV electrostatic analyzer. A scaled down model spacecraft is exposed to the dust impacts and one or more antennas, connected to sensitive electronics, are used to detect the impact signals. The measurements showed that there are three clearly distinct signal pickup mechanisms due to spacecraft charging, antenna charging and antenna pickup sensing space charge from the expanding plasma cloud. All mechanisms vary with the spacecraft and antenna bias voltages and, furthermore, the latter two

  5. Operator Performance Evaluation of Fault Management Interfaces for Next-Generation Spacecraft (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Ravinder, Ujwala; Beutter, Brent; McCann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Renema, Fritz


    In the cockpit of the NASA's next generation of spacecraft, most of vehicle commanding will be carried out via electronic interfaces instead of hard cockpit switches. Checklists will be also displayed and completed on electronic procedure viewers rather than from paper. Transitioning to electronic cockpit interfaces opens up opportunities for more automated assistance, including automated root-cause diagnosis capability. The paper reports an empirical study evaluating two potential concepts for fault management interfaces incorporating two different levels of automation. The operator performance benefits produced by automation were assessed. Also, some design recommendations for spacecraft fault management interfaces are discussed.

  6. Wet oxidation of a spacecraft model waste (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.


    Wet oxidation was used to oxidize a spacecraft model waste under different oxidation conditions. The variables studied were pressure, temperature, duration of oxidation, and the use of one homogeneous and three heterogeneous catalysts. Emphasis is placed on the final oxidation state of carbon and nitrogen since these are the two major components of the spacecraft model waste and two important plant nutrients.

  7. Materials and processes for spacecraft and high reliability applications

    CERN Document Server

    D Dunn, Barrie


    The objective of this book is to assist scientists and engineers select the ideal material or manufacturing process for particular applications; these could cover a wide range of fields, from light-weight structures to electronic hardware. The book will help in problem solving as it also presents more than 100 case studies and failure investigations from the space sector that can, by analogy, be applied to other industries. Difficult-to-find material data is included for reference. The sciences of metallic (primarily) and organic materials presented throughout the book demonstrate how they can be applied as an integral part of spacecraft product assurance schemes, which involve quality, material and processes evaluations, and the selection of mechanical and component parts. In this successor edition, which has been revised and updated, engineering problems associated with critical spacecraft hardware and the space environment are highlighted by over 500 illustrations including micrographs and fractographs. Sp...

  8. Particle Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, Stefano


    I give a short overview on some of the favorite particle Cold Dark Matter candidates today, focusing on those having detectable interactions: the axion, the KK-photon in Universal Extra Dimensions, the heavy photon in Little Higgs and the neutralino in Supersymmetry. The neutralino is still the most popular, and today is available in different flavours: SUGRA, nuSUGRA, sub-GUT, Mirage mediation, NMSSM, effective MSSM, scenarios with CP violation. Some of these scenarios are already at the level of present sensitivities for direct DM searches.

  9. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks (United States)

    Loveless, Andrew


    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  10. The heterogeneous anti-radiation shield for spacecraft* (United States)

    Telegin, S. V.; Draganyuk, O. N.


    The paper deals with modeling of elemental composition and properties of heterogeneous layers in multilayered shields to protect spacecraft onboard equipment from radiation emitted by the natural Earth’s radiation belt. This radiation causes malfunctioning of semiconductor elements in electronic equipment and may result in a failure of the spacecraft as a whole. We consider four different shield designs and compare them to the most conventional radiation-protective material for spacecraft - aluminum. Out of light and heavy chemical elements we chose the materials with high reaction cross sections and low density. The mass attenuation coefficient of boron- containing compounds is 20% higher than that of aluminum. Heterogeneous shields consist of three layers: a glass cloth, borated material, and nickel. With a protective shield containing heavy metal the output bremsstrahlung can be reduced. The amount of gamma rays that succeed to penetrate the shield is 4 times less compared to aluminum. The shields under study have the thicknesses of 5.95 and 6.2 mm. A comparative analysis of homogeneous and multilayered protective coatings of the same chemical composition has been performed. A heterogeneous protective shield has been found to be advantageous in weight and shielding properties over its homogeneous counterparts and aluminum. The dose characteristics and transmittance were calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The results of our study lead us to conclude that a three-layer boron carbide shield provides the most effective protection from radiation. This shield ensures twice as low absorbed dose and 4 times less the number of penetrated gamma-ray photons compared to its aluminum analogue. Moreover, a heterogeneous shield will have a weight 10% lighter than aluminum, with the same attenuation coefficient of the electron flux. Such heterogeneous shields can be used to protect spacecraft launched to geostationary orbit. Furthermore, a protective boron-containing and

  11. The role of volume charging of dielectrics in the occurrence of electrostatic discharges on spacecraft (United States)

    Chirskaia, Natalia; Novikov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina


    Most recent works consider the occurrence of electrostatic discharges (ESD) on the surface of the spacecraft due to spacecraft charging as a consequence of its surface interaction with the surrounding space plasma and solar radiation [1]. At the same time, low-orbit spacecraft are simultaneously exposed to the hot magnetospheric plasma with the typical energies of the particles ~ 0.1 - 50 keV and to the particles of the Earth radiation belts (ERB) with a typical energy in the range of 0.1-10 MeV. Electrons of ERB with these energies penetrate into spacecraft dielectrics on the order of a few millimeters in depth and create an embedded charge with their own electric field. It has been shown in a number of papers that exactly a volume charge of the electrons of ERB can be the cause of ESD on spacecraft [2,3]. In this work we present the results of calculation of the dose rate and, correspondingly, the radiation conductivity in a typical spacecraft dielectrics, arising under the action of the hot magnetospheric plasma and electrons of ERB. Using software packages based on Monte Carlo methods and on the solution of equations of charge transport in spacecraft dielectrics, it is shown that in a number of areas of the Earth's magnetosphere the ESD can occur under the action of the ERB electrons. The results of present work can provide a basis for creation of the standard, characterizing the emergence of ESR on spacecraft due to volume charging of dielectrics and describing the methods of laboratory tests of spacecraft dielectrics. L.S. Novikov, A.A. Makletsov, and V.V. Sinolits, Comparison of Coulomb-2, NASCAP-2K, MUSCAT and SPIS codes for geosynchronous spacecraft charging, Advances in Space Research, 2016, V. 57, Is. 2, pp. 671-680. Wrenn G.L., Smith R.J.K. The ESD Threat to GEO Satellites: Empirical Models for Observed Effects Due to Both Surface and Internal Charging. Proc. ESA Symp. "Environment Modelling for Space-based Applications", ESTEC Noordwijk, The

  12. Spacecraft Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition (United States)

    Fortescue, Peter; Stark, John; Swinerd, Graham


    Following on from the hugely successful previous editions, the third edition of Spacecraft Systems Engineering incorporates the most recent technological advances in spacecraft and satellite engineering. With emphasis on recent developments in space activities, this new edition has been completely revised. Every chapter has been updated and rewritten by an expert engineer in the field, with emphasis on the bus rather than the payload. Encompassing the fundamentals of spacecraft engineering, the book begins with front-end system-level issues, such as environment, mission analysis and system engineering, and progresses to a detailed examination of subsystem elements which represent the core of spacecraft design - mechanical, electrical, propulsion, thermal, control etc. This quantitative treatment is supplemented by an appreciation of the interactions between the elements, which deeply influence the process of spacecraft systems design. In particular the revised text includes * A new chapter on small satellites engineering and applications which has been contributed by two internationally-recognised experts, with insights into small satellite systems engineering. * Additions to the mission analysis chapter, treating issues of aero-manouevring, constellation design and small body missions. In summary, this is an outstanding textbook for aerospace engineering and design students, and offers essential reading for spacecraft engineers, designers and research scientists. The comprehensive approach provides an invaluable resource to spacecraft manufacturers and agencies across the world.

  13. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    areas such as highly miniaturized analog and digital electronics, instrument space qualification, test and validation procedures, sensor fusion techniques and optimized software implementations to reach a successful conclusion. The content of the project thus represents cutting edge aerospace technology...

  14. Spacecraft exploration of Phobos and Deimos


    Duxbury, Thomas C.; Zakharov, Alexander; Hoffmann, Harald; Guinness, Edward


    We review the previous exploration of Phobos and Deimos by spacecraft. The first close-up images of Phobos and Deimos were obtained by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1971, followed by much image data from the two Viking orbiters at the end of the 70s, which formed the basis for early Phobos and Deimos shape and dynamic models. The Soviet Phobos 2 spacecraft came within 100 km of landing on Phobos in 1988. Mars Global Surveyor (1996–2006) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (since 2005) made close-up...

  15. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary


    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  16. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  17. Reconfigurable modular computer networks for spacecraft on-board processing (United States)

    Rennels, D. A.


    The core electronics subsystems on unmanned spacecraft, which have been sent over the last 20 years to investigate the moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, have progressed through an evolution from simple fixed controllers and analog computers in the 1960's to general-purpose digital computers in current designs. This evolution is now moving in the direction of distributed computer networks. Current Voyager spacecraft already use three on-board computers. One is used to store commands and provide overall spacecraft management. Another is used for instrument control and telemetry collection, and the third computer is used for attitude control and scientific instrument pointing. An examination of the control logic in the instruments shows that, for many, it is cost-effective to replace the sequencing logic with a microcomputer. The Unified Data System architecture considered consists of a set of standard microcomputers connected by several redundant buses. A typical self-checking computer module will contain 23 RAMs, two microprocessors, one memory interface, three bus interfaces, and one core building block.

  18. A Sustainable Spacecraft Component Database Solution Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous spacecraft component databases have been developed to support NASA, DoD, and contractor design centers and design tools. Despite the clear utility of...

  19. Fermi FT2 Spacecraft Pointing Files (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This utility permits you to download the most current version of the spacecraft (FT2) file predicting the LAT's pointing for a given mission week. The FT2 file is a...

  20. A stochastic bioburden model for spacecraft sterilization. (United States)

    Roark, A. L.


    Development of a stochastic model of the probability distribution for the random variable representing the number of microorganisms on a surface as a function of time. The first basic principle associated with bioburden estimation is that viable particles are removed from surfaces. The second notion important to the analysis is that microorganisms in environments and on surfaces occur in clumps. The last basic principle relating to bioburden modeling is that viable particles are deposited on a surface. The bioburden on a spacecraft is determined by the amount and kind of control exercised on the spacecraft assembly location, the shedding characteristics of the individuals in the vicinity of the spacecraft, its orientation, the geographical location in which the assembly takes place, and the steps in the assembly procedure. The model presented has many of the features which are desirable for its use in the spacecraft sterilization programs currently being planned by NASA.

  1. Mirage Fire Sensor for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft fires create exception risks to crew members. There is usually no place to escape. Even small amounts of hardware damage can compromise a mission. The...

  2. Spacecraft Magnetic Cleanliness Prediction and Control (United States)

    Weikert, S.; Mehlem, K.; Wiegand, A.


    The paper describes a sophisticated and realistic control and prediction method for the magnetic cleanliness of spacecraft, covering all phases of a project till the final system test. From the first establishment of the so-called magnetic moment allocation list the necessary boom length can be determined. The list is then continuously updated by real unit test results with the goal to ensure that the magnetic cleanliness budget is not exceeded at a given probability level. A complete example is described. The synthetic spacecraft modeling which predicts only quite late the final magnetic state of the spacecraft is also described. Finally, the most important cleanliness verification, the spacecraft system test, is described shortly with an example. The emphasis of the paper is put on the magnetic dipole moment allocation method.

  3. Passive Wireless Sensors for Spacecraft Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New classes of sensors are needed on spacecraft that can be interrogated remotely using RF signals and respond with the sensor's identity as well as the...

  4. Chaos in attitude dynamics of spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yanzhu


    Attitude dynamics is the theoretical basis of attitude control of spacecrafts in aerospace engineering. With the development of nonlinear dynamics, chaos in spacecraft attitude dynamics has drawn great attention since the 1990's. The problem of the predictability and controllability of the chaotic attitude motion of a spacecraft has a practical significance in astronautic science. This book aims to summarize basic concepts, main approaches, and recent progress in this area. It focuses on the research work of the author and other Chinese scientists in this field, providing new methods and viewpoints in the investigation of spacecraft attitude motion, as well as new mathematical models, with definite engineering backgrounds, for further analysis. Professor Yanzhu Liu was the Director of the Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. Dr. Liqun Chen is a Professor at the Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, China.

  5. Odor Control in Spacecraft Waste Management Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft and lunar bases generate a variety of wastes containing water, including food wastes, feces, and brines. Disposal of these wastes, as well as recovery of...

  6. Lunar Scout Two spacecraft gravity experiment (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew F.


    Measurement of the gravity field of the Moon has a high science priority because of its implications for the internal structure and thermal history of the Moon, and it has a high priority for future exploration activities because of the influence of lunar gravity on spacecraft navigation and orbit maintenance. The current state of knowledge in the lunar gravity field (and the uncertainty in the knowledge) is based primarily on data accumulated from the Lunar Orbiter and Apollo programs. Data are sparse and emphasize the equatorial band (+/- 30 deg) on the near side of the Moon. There are no tracking data on the far side and only the Lunar Orbiter 5 provides a small amount of high inclination data. A host of gravity models developed from different combinations of tracking data have large discrepancies in their predictions of spacecraft motion and orbit lifetimes. There are also large disagreements in the Mercator projections of the gravity acceleration from each model, especially on the far side, where the contours tend to have no obvious relationship with the local topography. The science and engineering requirements for global gravity field mapping will be satisfied with continuous radio metric tracking of Lunar Scout 1 in a low polar orbit using the Deep Space Network and Lunar Scout 2 in a high elliptical orbit. The gravity field of the Moon will be mapped during the Scout Program using a two spacecraft concept. In the two spacecraft concept, one spacecraft is placed in a high altitude eccentric orbit while the second spacecraft is in a low altitude polar orbit. The gravity experiment requires a radio frequency that will permit two-way Doppler tracking between the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network (DSN). Both spacecraft carry NASA standard transponder systems for data transmission to Earth as well as for tracking and orbit determination. Data sufficient to produce a gravity field map could be acquired within one month with this system.

  7. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs;


    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re-sup...... validation experiment are crucial to the ultimate goal of the project, which is the development of predictive tools that should be capable of selecting an adaptive response to fire spread in any manned spacecraft....

  8. Applications of Multifunctional Structures to Small Spacecraft


    DiPalma, John; Preble, Jeff; Schoenoff, Mike; Motoyama, Stephen; Guerrero, James; Burks, Capt. Russell


    A process for the design and fabrication of multifunctional structures has been developed to increase the utility and efficiency of spacecraft. The process addresses the unique requirements associated with small spacecraft and other highly integrated systems. By integrating items such as electrical conductors for signals and power, thermal control elements, and materials for radiation and EMI shielding, these multifunctional structures offer benefits in terms of mass savings, reduced parts co...

  9. An Evolutionary Optimization System for Spacecraft Design (United States)

    Fukunaga, A.; Stechert, A.


    Spacecraft design optimization is a domian that can benefit from the application of optimization algorithms such as genetic algorithms. In this paper, we describe DEVO, an evolutionary optimization system that addresses these issues and provides a tool that can be applied to a number of real-world spacecraft design applications. We describe two current applications of DEVO: physical design if a Mars Microprobe Soil Penetrator, and system configuration optimization for a Neptune Orbiter.

  10. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems (United States)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.


    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  11. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Structural Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is being conducted to develop an integrated technology for the prediction of aging behavior for space structural materials during service. This research will utilize state-of-the-art radiation experimental apparatus and analysis, updated codes and databases, and integrated mechanical and radiation testing techniques to investigate the suitability of numerous current and potential spacecraft structural materials. Also included are the effects on structural materials in surface modules and planetary landing craft, with or without fission power supplies. Spacecraft structural materials would also be in hostile radiation environments on the surface of the moon and planets without appreciable atmospheres and moons around planets with large intense magnetic and radiation fields (such as the Jovian moons). The effects of extreme temperature cycles in such locations compounds the effects of radiation on structural materials. This paper describes the integrated methodology in detail and shows that it will provide a significant technological advance for designing advanced spacecraft. This methodology will also allow for the development of advanced spacecraft materials through the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material degradation in the space radiation environment. Thus, this technology holds a promise for revolutionary advances in material damage prediction and protection of space structural components as, for example, in the development of guidelines for managing surveillance programs regarding the integrity of spacecraft components, and the safety of the aging spacecraft. (authors)

  12. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde


    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  13. An LDEF follow-on spacecraft concept (United States)

    Keller, Vernon; Breazeale, Larry; Perkinson, Don; Kinard, William H.


    The successful flight, retrieval, and analyses of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiments demonstrated the value of long duration space exposure for a broad spectrum of science and engineering investigations. The original LDEF was an excellent gravity gradient spacecraft, but because of its 9 m length and 9,700 kg mass it was difficult to manifest on the Shuttle, for either launch or retrieval, in conjunction with other payloads. This paper discusses an LDEF follow-on spacecraft concept whose short stowed length (approximately 3 m) greatly improves Shuttle manifesting opportunities while still providing very large surface area exposure for experiments. Deployable 'wings' on each end of the short, 'cylindrical' main body of this new spacecraft provide the means for gravity gradient stabilization while greatly increasing the spacecraft surface area. The center section of the spacecraft is oriented with the end faces of the twelve sided, 4.2 m diameter 'cylinder' perpendicular to the velocity vector thus providing large areas for experiments in both the ram and anti-ram directions as well as additional exposure area around the periphery of the cylinder. When deployed and properly oriented with the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS), both wings of the spacecraft are oriented edge on to the direction of motion and lie in the plane which contains the local gravity vector. The relatively thin wings readily accommodate dual side exposure of glass plate stacks for cosmic ray detection. Flat surfaces mounted normal to and on the periphery of the wings provide additional areas in both the ram and anti-ram directions for cosmic dust, micrometeoroid, and orbital debris collection free of contamination from 'splatter' off secondary surfaces. The baseline concept provides enhancements not available on the original LDEF such as solar array generated electrical power and data telemetry. Status of the efforts to promote support for and ultimately space flight

  14. Attitude coordination for spacecraft formation with multiple communication delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yaohua


    Full Text Available Communication delays are inherently present in information exchange between spacecraft and have an effect on the control performance of spacecraft formation. In this work, attitude coordination control of spacecraft formation is addressed, which is in the presence of multiple communication delays between spacecraft. Virtual system-based approach is utilized in case that a constant reference attitude is available to only a part of the spacecraft. The feedback from the virtual systems to the spacecraft formation is introduced to maintain the formation. Using backstepping control method, input torque of each spacecraft is designed such that the attitude of each spacecraft converges asymptotically to the states of its corresponding virtual system. Furthermore, the backstepping technique and the Lyapunov–Krasovskii method contribute to the control law design when the reference attitude is time-varying and can be obtained by each spacecraft. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated by the numerical simulations of a spacecraft formation.

  15. Spacecraft to Spacecraft Coherent Laser Tracking as a Xylophone Interferometer Detector of Gravitational Radiation (United States)

    Tinto, M.


    Searches for gravitational radiation can be performed in space with two spacecraft tracking each other with coherent laser light. This experimental technique could be implemented with two spacecraft carrying an appropriate optical payload, or with the proposed broad-band, space-based laser interferometer detectors of gravitational waves operated in this non-interferometric mode.

  16. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations (United States)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to

  17. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit


    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  18. Simulator for Testing Spacecraft Separation Devices (United States)

    Johnston, Nick; Gaines, Joe; Bryan, Tom


    A report describes the main features of a system for testing pyrotechnic and mechanical devices used to separate spacecraft and modules of spacecraft during flight. The system includes a spacecraft simulator [also denoted a large mobility base (LMB)] equipped with air thrusters, sensors, and data-acquisition equipment. The spacecraft simulator floats on air bearings over an epoxy-covered concrete floor. This free-flotation arrangement enables simulation of motion in outer space in three degrees of freedom: translation along two orthogonal horizontal axes and rotation about a vertical axis. The system also includes a static stand. In one application, the system was used to test a bolt-retraction system (BRS) intended for separation of the lifting-body and deorbit-propulsion stages of the X- 38 spacecraft. The LMB was connected via the BRS to the static stand, then pyrotechnic devices that actuate the BRS were fired. The separation distance and acceleration were measured. The report cites a document, not yet published at the time of reporting the information for this article, that is said to present additional detailed information.

  19. Study on the effect of shape-stabilized phase change materials on spacecraft thermal control in extreme thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A shape-stabilized PCM is used to protect the spacecraft attacked by high energy. ► Taking a satellite as example, it proves the solution given in the work is feasible. ► Low thermal conductivity makes the material above its thermal stability limit. ► It provides guidance on how to choose the shape-stabilized PCM for similar problems. - Abstract: In space, the emergencies such as short-term high heat flux is prone to cause spacecraft thermal control system faults, resulting in temperature anomalies of electronic equipment of the spacecraft and even failures in them. In order to protect the spacecraft attacked by the high energy, a new guard method is proposed. A shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM), which has high thermal conductivity and does not require being tightly packaged, is proposed to be used on the spacecraft. To prove the feasibility of using the material on spacecraft attacked by high energy, the thermal responses for spacecraft with shape-stabilized PCM are investigated in situations of normal and short-term high heat flux, in contrast to that with conventional thermal control system. The results indicate that the shape-stabilized PCM can effectively absorb the heat to prevent the thermal control system faults when the spacecraft’s outer heat flux changes dramatically and has no negative effect on spacecraft in normal heat flux. Additionally the effect of thermal conductivity of PCM on its application effectiveness is discussed

  20. Guidance and control of swarms of spacecraft (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel James

    There has been considerable interest in formation flying spacecraft due to their potential to perform certain tasks at a cheaper cost than monolithic spacecraft. Formation flying enables the use of smaller, cheaper spacecraft that distribute the risk of the mission. Recently, the ideas of formation flying have been extended to spacecraft swarms made up of hundreds to thousands of 100-gram-class spacecraft known as femtosatellites. The large number of spacecraft and limited capabilities of each individual spacecraft present a significant challenge in guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation deals with the guidance and control algorithms required to enable the flight of spacecraft swarms. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are focused on achieving two main goals: swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration. The objectives of swarm keeping are to maintain bounded relative distances between spacecraft, prevent collisions between spacecraft, and minimize the propellant used by each spacecraft. Swarm reconfiguration requires the transfer of the swarm to a specific shape. Like with swarm keeping, minimizing the propellant used and preventing collisions are the main objectives. Additionally, the algorithms required for swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration should be decentralized with respect to communication and computation so that they can be implemented on femtosats, which have limited hardware capabilities. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are concerned with swarms located in low Earth orbit. In these orbits, Earth oblateness and atmospheric drag have a significant effect on the relative motion of the swarm. The complicated dynamic environment of low Earth orbits further complicates the swarm-keeping and swarm-reconfiguration problems. To better develop and test these algorithms, a nonlinear, relative dynamic model with J2 and drag perturbations is developed. This model is used throughout this dissertation to validate the algorithms

  1. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.


    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  2. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.


    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  3. Printable Spacecraft: Flexible Electronic Platforms for NASA Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric confetti. Inchworm crawlers. Blankets of ground penetrating radar. These are some of the unique mission concepts which are enabled by a printable...

  4. The Lewis Research Center geomagnetic substorm simulation facility. [its function in determining the response of spacecraft materials (United States)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stevens, N. J.; Sturman, J. C.


    A simulation facility was established at the NASA-Lewis Research Center to determine the response of typical spacecraft materials to the geomagnetic substorm environment and to evaluate instrumentation that will be used to monitor spacecraft system response to this environment. Space environment conditions simulated included the thermal-vacuum conditions of space, solar simulation, geomagnetic substorm electron fluxes and energies, and the low energy plasma environment. Measurements for spacecraft material tests included sample currents, sample surface potentials, and the cumulative number of discharges. Discharge transients were measured by means of current probes and oscilloscopes and were verified by a photomultiplier.

  5. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Jomaas, Grunde


    -supply vehicle like the ATV or Orbital’s Cygnus, a series of supporting experiments are being planned and conducted by the team members. In order to answer the appropriate scientific and engineering problems relevant for spacecraft fire safety, a canonical scenario that can improve the understanding of flame...... terms of their relevance for the flame spread problem. Further, it is explained how the results can be combined to enhance the understanding of fire spread in the real scale configuration and thus improve the fire safety onboard spacecrafts. The results and particularly the ones from the large scale...

  6. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier;


    to the complexity, cost and risk associ-ated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short......Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...

  7. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward


    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  8. Spacecraft Attitude Control in Hamiltonian Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    The objective of this paper is to give a design scheme for attitude control algorithms of a generic spacecraft. Along with the system model formulated in the Hamilton's canonical form the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipative term. The control action is the...... sum of the gradient of the potential energy and the dissipative force. It is shown that this control law makes the system uniformly asymptotically stable to the desired reference point. Three problems were addressed in the paper: spacecraft stabilization in the inertial frame, libration damping with...

  9. Architectures for fault-tolerant spacecraft computers (United States)

    Rennels, D. A.


    This paper summarizes the results of a long-term research program in fault-tolerant computing for spacecraft on-board processing. In response to changing device technology this program has progressed from the design of a fault-tolerant uniprocessor to the development of fault-tolerant distributed computer systems. The unusual requirements of spacecraft computing are described along with the resulting real-time computer architectures. The following aspects of these designs are discussed: (1) architectural features to minimize complexity in the distributed computer system, (2) fault-detection and recovery, (3) techniques to enhance reliability and testability, and (4) design approaches for LSI implementation.

  10. Science Benefits of Onboard Spacecraft Navigation (United States)

    Cangahuala, Al; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Owen, Bill


    Primitive bodies (asteroids and comets), which have remained relatively unaltered since their formation, are important targets for scientific missions that seek to understand the evolution of the solar system. Often the first step is to fly by these bodies with robotic spacecraft. The key to maximizing data returns from these flybys is to determine the spacecraft trajectory relative to the target body-in short, navigate the spacecraft- with sufficient accuracy so that the target is guaranteed to be in the instruments' field of view. The most powerful navigation data in these scenarios are images taken by the spacecraft of the target against a known star field (onboard astrometry). Traditionally, the relative trajectory of the spacecraft must be estimated hours to days in advance using images collected by the spacecraft. This is because of (1)!the long round-trip light times between the spacecraft and the Earth and (2)!the time needed to downlink and process navigation data on the ground, make decisions based on the result, and build and uplink instrument pointing sequences from the results. The light time and processing time compromise navigation accuracy considerably, because there is not enough time to use more accurate data collected closer to the target-such data are more accurate because the angular capability of the onboard astrometry is essentially constant as the distance to the target decreases, resulting in better "plane-of- sky" knowledge of the target. Excellent examples of these timing limitations are high-speed comet encounters. Comets are difficult to observe up close; their orbits often limit scientists to brief, rapid flybys, and their coma further restricts viewers from seeing the nucleus in any detail, unless they can view the nucleus at close range. Comet nuclei details are typically discernable for much shorter durations than the roundtrip light time to Earth, so robotic spacecraft must be able to perform onboard navigation. This onboard

  11. Pyroshock Environments Characterized for Spacecraft Missions (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.


    Pyrotechnic shock, or pyroshock, is the transient response of a structure to loading induced by the ignition of pyrotechnic (explosive or propellant activated) devices. These devices are typically used to separate structural systems (e.g., separate a spacecraft from a launch vehicle) and deploy appendages (e.g., solar panels). Pyroshocks are characterized by high peak acceleration, high-frequency content, and short duration. Because of their high acceleration and high-frequency, pyroshocks can cause spaceflight hardware to fail. Verifying by test that spaceflight hardware can withstand the anticipated shock environment is considered essential to mission success. The Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 spacecraft for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth is scheduled to be launched on an Atlas IIAS vehicle in 1999, and the NASA Lewis Research Center is the launch vehicle integrator for this NASA Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft. The EOS spacecraft was subjected to numerous ground shock tests to verify that its scientific instruments and avionics components will withstand the shock-induced vibration produced when the spacecraft separates from the launch vehicle. Shock test data from these tests represent the third largest available pyroshock database in the United States. Future spacecraft missions will directly benefit from the knowledge gained from these tests. The payload separation system used for EOS is a new system that operates by firing six separation nuts. This system was tested to verify its functional operation and to characterize the resulting shock levels. The launch vehicle contractor (Lockheed Martin Astronautics) and spacecraft contractor (Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space) completed 16 separation test firings. This resulted in an unusually large amount of pyroshock data. Typically, only one or two pyroshock test firings are performed for a spacecraft mission. Because of the size of this separation system shock database, engineers were able to perform

  12. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems. (United States)

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E


    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  13. Modular, Fault-Tolerant Electronics Supporting Space Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AeroAstro's innovative design approach for implementing reconfigurable electronics frees the spacecraft designer to concentrate on the mission at hand with...

  14. Detection of meteoroid hypervelocity impacts on the Cluster spacecraft (United States)

    Vaverka, Jakub; Mann, Ingrid; Kero, Johan; De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Hamrin, Maria; Norberg, Carol; Pitkanen, Timo; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta


    There are several methods to measure the cosmic dust entering the Earth's atmosphere such as space-born dust detectors, meteor and HPLA radars, and optical imaging. One complementary method could be to use electric field instruments initially designed to measure electric waves. A plasma cloud generated by a hypervelocity dust impact on a spacecraft body can be detected by the electric field instruments commonly operated on the spacecraft. Since Earth-orbiting missions are generally not equipped with conventional dust detectors, the electric field instruments offer an alternative method to measure the Earth's dust environment. We present the first detection of dust impacts on one of the Earth-orbiting Cluster satellites recorded by the Wide-Band Data (WBD) instrument. We describe the concept of dust impact detection focused on specifics of the Cluster spacecraft and the WBD instrument and their influence on dust impact detection. The detected pulses are compared with theoretical shape based on the model of the recollection of plasma clouds electrons. The estimation of the size and the velocity of the impinging dust grains from the amplitude of the Cluster voltage pulses shown that such impacts can be generated by grains of radius of r = 0.1 μm impacting with the velocity v ˜100 km/s or by grains of radius r = 1 μm impacting with the velocity v ˜10 km/s. We discuss the sensitivity of this method for dust grain detection showing that grains of radius r = 0.01 μm can be detected when impacting with velocity v ˜300 km/s and grains of radius r = 10 μm with velocity v ˜1 km/s if the WBD instrument operates in the high gain level (75 dB).

  15. Sextant measures spacecraft altitude without gravitational reference (United States)


    Horizon-sensing sextant measures the altitude of an orbiting spacecraft without gravitational reference by optically measuring the dip angle to the horizon along a line of sight in each of two planes. The sextant scans over a relatively limited field of view.

  16. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.


    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  17. Reengineering the JPL Spacecraft Design Process (United States)

    Briggs, C.


    This presentation describes the factors that have emerged in the evolved process of reengineering the unmanned spacecraft design process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Topics discussed include: New facilities, new design factors, new system-level tools, complex performance objectives, changing behaviors, design integration, leadership styles, and optimization.

  18. Fault Tolerant Techniques for Spacecraft Data Recorders


    Anderson, Scott


    This paper presents the techniques for improving system reliability which SEAKR Engineering employs in the design of their spacecraft solid state data recorders. Briefly, these techniques include Hamming code error correction, periodic memory scrubbing, latch-up protection, excessive capacity, redundant power supplies/control/bus circuits, microcode protection, and shielding.

  19. Apollo experience report: Spacecraft pyrotechnic systems (United States)

    Falbo, M. J.; Robinson, R. L.


    Pyrotechnic devices were used successfully in many systems of the Apollo spacecraft. The physical and functional characteristics of each device are described. The development, qualification, and performance tests of the devices and the ground-support equipment are discussed briefly. Recommendations for pyrotechnic devices on future space vehicles are given.

  20. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham


    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  1. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah


    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  2. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier;


    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...

  3. Gravity gradient torque of spacecraft orbiting asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue


    Purpose: This paper presents a full fourth-order model of the gravity gradient torque of spacecraft around asteroids by taking into consideration of the inertia integrals of the spacecraft up to the fourth order, which is an improvement of the previous fourth-order model of the gravity gradient torque. Design, methodology and approach: The fourth-order gravitational potential of the spacecraft is derived based on Taylor expansion. Then the expression of the gravity gradient torque in terms of gravitational potential derivatives is derived. By using the formulation of the gravitational potential, explicit formulations of the full fourth-order gravity gradient torque are obtained. Then a numerical simulation is carried out to verify our model. Findings: We find that our model is more sound and precise than the previous fourth-order model due to the consideration of higher-order inertia integrals of the spacecraft. Numerical simulation results show that the motion of the previous fourth-order model is quite diff...

  4. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program (United States)


    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  5. Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft (United States)

    Shireman, Kirk; McSwain, Gene; McCormick, Bernell; Fardelos, Panayiotis


    Spacecraft Engineering Simulation II (SES II) is a C-language computer program for simulating diverse aspects of operation of a spacecraft characterized by either three or six degrees of freedom. A functional model in SES can include a trajectory flight plan; a submodel of a flight computer running navigational and flight-control software; and submodels of the environment, the dynamics of the spacecraft, and sensor inputs and outputs. SES II features a modular, object-oriented programming style. SES II supports event-based simulations, which, in turn, create an easily adaptable simulation environment in which many different types of trajectories can be simulated by use of the same software. The simulation output consists largely of flight data. SES II can be used to perform optimization and Monte Carlo dispersion simulations. It can also be used to perform simulations for multiple spacecraft. In addition to its generic simulation capabilities, SES offers special capabilities for space-shuttle simulations: for this purpose, it incorporates submodels of the space-shuttle dynamics and a C-language version of the guidance, navigation, and control components of the space-shuttle flight software.

  6. Understanding compressible turbulence in the solar wind with multipoint density measurements derived from spacecraft potential (United States)

    Roberts, Owen


    Measurements of spacecraft potential can often be used to derive the electron number density with higher time resolution than is typically available with plasma instruments. On board the Cluster spacecraft the potential is measured with the Electric Fields and Waves instrument (EFW) which consists of four booms in the spin plane of the spacecraft. Consequently the potential measurement is affected by spin and wake effects. This makes the study of frequencies larger than the spin frequency challenging. To overcome these caveats a statistical model of the potential is obtained as a function of the angle the spacecraft is facing. When this variation is known it can be removed from the potential data, resulting in a much more accurate determination of the electron density and a cleaner power spectrum. Spikes at harmonics of the spin frequency can be removed without the need to use a notch filter on the time series. The treated data can then be used as an input to the k-filtering technique, which has previously been applied to the incompressible components of the magnetic field. This allows determination of the three dimensional power distribution in wave space as well as the wavevectors and plasma frame frequencies. Results for the compressible component (using electron density and magnitude of the magnetic field as inputs) and the incompressible component (three components of the magnetic field) will be compared.

  7. Application of Space Environmental Observations to Spacecraft Pre-Launch Engineering and Spacecraft Operations (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael


    This presentation focuses on the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems and applying this knowledge to spacecraft pre-launch engineering and operations. Particle radiation, neutral gas particles, ultraviolet and x-rays, as well as micrometeoroids and orbital debris in the space environment have various effects on spacecraft systems, including degradation of microelectronic and optical components, physical damage, orbital decay, biasing of instrument readings, and system shutdowns. Space climate and weather must be considered during the mission life cycle (mission concept, mission planning, systems design, and launch and operations) to minimize and manage risk to both the spacecraft and its systems. A space environment model for use in the mission life cycle is presented.

  8. Monte Carlo random walk simulation of electron transport in confined porous TiO2 as a promising candidate for photo-electrode of nano-crystalline solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo continuous time random walk simulation is used to study the effects of confinement on electron transport, in porous TiO2. In this work, we have introduced a columnar structure instead of the thick layer of porous TiO2 used as anode in conventional dye solar cells. Our simulation results show that electron diffusion coefficient in the proposed columnar structure is significantly higher than the diffusion coefficient in the conventional structure. It is shown that electron diffusion in the columnar structure depends both on the cross section area of the columns and the porosity of the structure. Also, we demonstrate that such enhanced electron diffusion can be realized in the columnar photo-electrodes with a cross sectional area of ∼1 μm2 and porosity of 55%, by a simple and low cost fabrication process. Our results open up a promising approach to achieve solar cells with higher efficiencies by engineering the photo-electrode structure

  9. The Integrated eXploration Environment (PIXE) (United States)

    Johnson, Michael


    The Integrated eXploration Environment (PIXE) is an integrated generic spacecraft design, simulation, manufacturing, and operations system for the low cost mass exploration of space by amateur and professional Principle Investigators (PIs). PIs use an online tool to design Thin-Film Spacecraft/Lander/Rovers (TF-SLRs) using a library of predefined spacecraft and mission components to specify TF-SLRs in quantities ranging from one to thousands per mission, each with a typical mass <1g, surface area <1m2, and electronics process, and integrated for launch into 0.5-3U Interplanetary CubeSat motherships capable of being qualified to COSPAR Planetary Protection Category IVa or better. The Interplanetary CubeSat is launched on a standard CubeSat rideshare to an orbit suitable for deploying the TF-SLRs, and acts as a communications relay until its end of life. Data is received on earth using adapted radio telescopes and CCSDS compliant ground stations, and forwarded to a central data warehouse for download by the PI. Individual elements of the concept have been demonstrated on earth and in orbit during 2013 and 2014. A full proof of concept mission 'Pocket Spacecraft: Mission to the Moon' has been traditionally and crowd funded and is being prepared for flight with the goal of achieving low lunar orbit in 2016.

  10. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) (United States)


    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  11. High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of...

  12. Spacecraft Formation Orbit Estimation Using WLPS-Based Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Ting Goh


    Full Text Available This paper studies the implementation of a novel wireless local positioning system (WLPS for spacecraft formation flying to maintain high-performance spacecraft relative and absolute position estimation. A WLPS equipped with antenna arrays allows each spacecraft to measure the relative range and coordinate angle(s of other spacecraft located in its coverage area. The dynamic base station and the transponder of WLPS enable spacecraft to localize each other in the formation. Because the signal travels roundtrip in WLPS, and due to the high spacecraft velocities, the signal transmission time delay reduces the localization performance. This work studies spacecraft formation positions estimation performance assuming that only WLPS is available onboard. The feasibility of estimating the spacecraft absolute position using only one-dimensional antenna array is also investigated. The effect of including GPS measurements in addition to WLPS is studied and compared to a GPS standalone system.

  13. Solar Wind Electron Interaction with the Dayside Lunar Surface and Crustal Magnetic Fields: Evidence for Precursor Effects (United States)

    Halekas, Jasper S.; Poppe, A.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; Horanyi, M.


    Electron distributions measured by Lunar Prospector above the dayside lunar surface in the solar wind often have an energy dependent loss cone, inconsistent with adiabatic magnetic reflection. Energy dependent reflection suggests the presence of downward parallel electric fields below the spacecraft, possibly indicating the presence of a standing electrostatic structure. Many electron distributions contain apparent low energy (electron reflection requires the use of the proper reference frame. Nonadiabatic reflection may also play a role, but cannot fully explain observations. In cases with upward-going beams, we observe partial isotropization of incoming solar wind electrons, possibly indicating streaming and/or whistler instabilities. The Moon may therefore influence solar wind plasma well upstream from its surface. Magnetic anomaly interactions and/or non-monotonic near surface potentials provide the most likely candidates to produce the observed precursor effects, which may help ensure quasi-neutrality upstream from the Moon.

  14. NASA 4005: The LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.


    Power systems with voltages higher than about 55 volts may charge in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) enough to cause destructive arcing. The NASA 4005 LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard will help spacecraft designers prevent arcing and other deleterious effects on LEO spacecraft. The appendices, based on the popular LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines by Ferguson and Hillard, serve as a useful information handbook to explain and accompany the standard.

  15. NASA STD-4005: The LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.


    Power systems with voltages higher than about 55 volts may charge in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) enough to cause destructive arcing. The NASA STD-4005 LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard will help spacecraft designers prevent arcing and other deleterious effects on LEO spacecraft. The Appendices, an Information Handbook based on the popular LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines by Ferguson and Hillard, serve as a useful explanation and accompaniment to the Standard.

  16. On the spacecraft attitude stabilization in the orbital frame


    Antipov Kirill A.; Tikhonov Alexey A.


    The paper deals with spacecraft in the circular near-Earth orbit. The spacecraft interacts with geomagnetic field by the moments of Lorentz and magnetic forces. The octupole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field is accepted. The spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, namely the electrostatic charge moment of the first order and the eigen magnetic moment are the controlled quasiperiodic functions. The control algorithms for the spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, which allows to...

  17. At the edge of the earth's magnetosphere: a survey by the AMPTE UKS spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is made, using measurements from the AMPTE-UKS spacecraft, of the interaction between plasmas of solar and terrestrial origin at the outer edge of the Earth's magnetosphere. The first results are presented of a new type of analysis which aims to clarify the nature of the boundary layer that develops between the two plasmas by re-ordering, on the basis of a consistent relationship between electron density and temperature and the normally erratic progress made by a spacecraft across the constantly moving region. Distinctive patterns found consistently for the electron and ion transitions suggest that diffusion, viscosity and loss to the atmosphere govern the boundary layer. Electron acceleration within the boundary layer is identified; and its cause, and relevance to dayside auroral precipitation are discussed. (author)

  18. Wireless Intra-Spacecraft Communication: The Benefits and the Challenges (United States)

    Zheng, Will H.; Armstrong, John T.


    In this paper we present a systematic study of how intra-spacecraft wireless communication can be adopted to various subsystems of the spacecraft including C&DH (Command & Data Handling), Telecom, Power, Propulsion, and Payloads, and the interconnects between them. We discuss the advantages of intra-spacecraft wireless communication and the disadvantages and challenges and a proposal to address them.

  19. CMS Higgs Search in 2011 and 2012 data: candidate ZZ event (8 TeV) with two electrons and two muons: 3D perspective, r-phi and r-z views

    CERN Multimedia

    McCauley, T


    Event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson to a pair of Z bosons, one of which subsequently decays to a pair of electrons (green lines and green towers) and the other Z decays to a pair of muons (red lines). The event could also be due to known standard model background processes.

  20. Gravity Gradient Tensor Eigendecomposition for Spacecraft Positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pei; Han, Chao


    In this Note, a new approach to spacecraft positioning based on GGT inversion is presented. The gravity gradient tensor is initially measured in the gradiometer reference frame (GRF) and then transformed to the Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed (ECEF) frame via attitude information as well as Earth rotation parameters. Matrix Eigen-Decomposition is introduced to directly translate GGT into position based on the fact that the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of GGT are simplespecific functions of spherical coordinates of the observation position. without the need of an initial position. Unlike the strategy of inertial navigation aiding, no prediction or first guess of the spacecraft position is needed. The method makes use of the J2 gravity model, and is suitable for space navigation where higher frequency terrain contributions to the GGT signals can be neglected.

  1. Kalman filtering for spacecraft attitude estimation (United States)

    Lefferts, E. J.; Markley, F. L.; Shuster, M. D.


    Several schemes in current use for sequential estimation of spacecraft attitude using Kalman filters are examined. These differ according to their treatment of the attitude error, namely: using the complete four-component quaternion; using a truncated quaternion in which one of the components has been eliminated; or using a quaternion referred to approximate body-fixed axes. These schemes are examined for the case of a spacecraft carrying line-of-sight attitude sensors and three-axis gyros whose measurements are corrupted by noise on both the drift rate and the drift-rate ramp. The analysis of the covariance is carried out in detail. The historical development of Kalman filtering of attitude is reviewed.

  2. FORTE spacecraft vibration mitigation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, J.R.


    This report documents work that was performed by CSA Engineering, Inc., for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to reduce vibrations of the FORTE spacecraft by retrofitting damped structural components into the spacecraft structure. The technical objective of the work was reduction of response at the location of payload components when the structure is subjected to the dynamic loading associated with launch and proto-qualification testing. FORTE is a small satellite that will be placed in orbit in 1996. The structure weighs approximately 425 lb, and is roughly 80 inches high and 40 inches in diameter. It was developed and built by LANL in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque for the United States Department of Energy. The FORTE primary structure was fabricated primarily with graphite epoxy, using aluminum honeycomb core material for equipment decks and solar panel substrates. Equipment decks were bonded and bolted through aluminum mounting blocks to adjoining structure.

  3. Fundamentals of spacecraft attitude determination and control

    CERN Document Server

    Markley, F Landis


    This book explores topics that are central to the field of spacecraft attitude determination and control. The authors provide rigorous theoretical derivations of significant algorithms accompanied by a generous amount of qualitative discussions of the subject matter. The book documents the development of the important concepts and methods in a manner accessible to practicing engineers, graduate-level engineering students and applied mathematicians. It includes detailed examples from actual mission designs to help ease the transition from theory to practice, and also provides prototype algorithms that are readily available on the author’s website. Subject matter includes both theoretical derivations and practical implementation of spacecraft attitude determination and control systems. It provides detailed derivations for attitude kinematics and dynamics, and provides detailed description of the most widely used attitude parameterization, the quaternion. This title also provides a thorough treatise of attitu...

  4. Comments on 'Hamiltonian adaptive control of spacecraft' (United States)

    Fossen, Thor I.


    In the adaptive scheme presented by Slotine and Benedetto (1990) for attitude tracking control of rigid spacecraft, the spacecraft is parameterized in terms of the inertial frame. This note shows how a parameterization in body coordinates considerably simplifies the representation of the adaptation scheme. The new symbolic expression for the regressor matrix is easy to find even for 6-degrees of freedom (DOF) Hamiltonian systems with a large number of unknown parameters. If the symbolic expression for the regressor matrix is known in advance, the computational complexity is approximately equal for both representations. In the scheme presented by Slotine and Benedetto this is not trivial because the transformation matrix between the inertial frame and the body coordinates is included in the expression for the regressor matrix. Hence, implementation for higher DOF systems is strongly complicated. An example illustrates the advantage of the new representation when modeling a simple three-DOF model of the lateral motion of a space shuttle.

  5. Close-Range Photogrammetry & Next Generation Spacecraft (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S.


    NASA is focusing renewed attention on the topic of large, ultra-lightweight space structures, also known as 'gossamer' spacecraft. Nearly all of the details of the giant spacecraft are still to be worked out. But it's already clear that one of the most challenging aspects will be developing techniques to align and control these systems after they are deployed in space. A critical part of this process is creating new ground test methods to measure gossamer structures under stationary, deploying and vibrating conditions for validation of corresponding analytical predictions. In addressing this problem, I considered, first of all, the possibility of simply using conventional displacement or vibration sensor that could provide spatial measurements. Next, I turned my attention to photogrammetry, a method of determining the spatial coordinates of objects using photographs. The success of this research and development has convinced me that photogrammetry is the most suitable method to solve the gossamer measurement problem.

  6. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been twelve years since two Voyager spacecraft began the direct route to the outer planets. In October 1989 a single Galileo spacecraft started the return to Jupiter. Conceived as a simple Voyager look-alike, the Galileo power management and distribution (PMAD) system has undergone many iterations in configuration. Major changes to the PMAD resulted from dual spun slip ring limitations, variations in launch vehicle thrust capabilities, and launch delays. Lack of an adequate launch vehicle for an interplanetary mission of Galileo's size has resulted in an extremely long flight duration. A Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA) tour, vital to attain the required energy, results in a 6 year trip to Jupiter and its moons. This paper provides a description of the Galileo PMAD and documents the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware

  7. Fault analysis of multichannel spacecraft power systems (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Lollar, Louis F.


    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement computer-controlled fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Elements under study include the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power system faults is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study will be applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS) breadboard. The results of the power system fault study and the planned implementation of these faults into the LASEPS breadboard are described.

  8. Materials and techniques for spacecraft static charge control 2 (United States)

    Schmidt, R. E.; Eagles, A. E.


    Results of exploratory development on the design, fabrication and testing of transparent conductive coatings, conductive bulk materials and grounding techniques for application to high resistivity spacecraft dielectric materials to obtain control of static charge buildup are presented. Deposition techniques for application of indium oxide, indium/tin oxide and other metal oxide films on Kapton, FEP Teflon, OSR and solar cell coverglasses discussed include RF and Magnetron sputtering and vapor deposition. Development, fabrication and testing of conductive glass tiles for OSR and solar cell coverglass applications is discussed. Several grounding techniques for rapid charge dissipation from the conductively coated polymer and glass dielectrics which were developed and tested in thermal cycled and electron plasma environments are described. The optical and electrical characterization and aging effects of these coatings, bulk materials and grounding techniques are reviewed as they apply to the performance of their design functions in a geosynchronous orbit environment.

  9. Synthesis and Validation of Vision Based Spacecraft Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massaro, Alessandro Salvatore

    This dissertation targets spacecraft navigation by means of vision based sensors. The goal is to achieve autonomous, robust and ecient navigation through a multidisciplinary research and development effort, covering the fields of computer vision, electronics, optics and mechanics. The attention...... to the Moon's surface is still prohibitively expensive and not ideal for missions such as cargo delivery. The first part of this book focuses on a lunar landing scenario as case study and discusses software and hardware components for an optimal vision based sensor for precision planetary landing. Computer...... vision techniques are applied to the problems of horizontal velocity estimation, and hazard detection. Experimental implementations are henceforth presented and the results show their potential for integration on a space qualified processing unit. The study concludes with recommendations for key physical...

  10. Evaluating Fault Management Operations Concepts for Next-Generation Spacecraft: What Eye Movements Tell Us (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Ravinder, Ujwala; McCann, Robert S.; Beutter, Brent; Spirkovska, Lily


    Performance enhancements associated with selected forms of automation were quantified in a recent human-in-the-loop evaluation of two candidate operational concepts for fault management on next-generation spacecraft. The baseline concept, called Elsie, featured a full-suite of "soft" fault management interfaces. However, operators were forced to diagnose malfunctions with minimal assistance from the standalone caution and warning system. The other concept, called Besi, incorporated a more capable C&W system with an automated fault diagnosis capability. Results from analyses of participants' eye movements indicate that the greatest empirical benefit of the automation stemmed from eliminating the need for text processing on cluttered, text-rich displays.

  11. Multiple main-belt asteroid mission options for a Mariner Mark II spacecraft (United States)

    Sauer, Carl G., Jr.; Yen, Chen-Wan L.


    This paper presents the trajectory options available for a MMII spacecraft mission to asteroids and introduces systematic methods of uncovering attractive mission opportunities. The analysis presented considers multiple synchronous gravity assists of Mars and introduces a terminal resonant or phasing orbit; a concept useful for both increasing the number of asteroid rendezvous targets attainable during a launch opportunity, and also in increasing the number of potential asteroid flybys. Systematic examinations of the requirements for superior asteroidal alignments are made and a comprehensive set of asteroid rendezvous opportunities for the 1998 to 2010 period are presented. Examples of candidate missions involving one or more rendezvous and several flybys are also presented.

  12. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames


    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  13. Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) Development Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos;


    -g flammability limits compared to those obtained in NASA’s normal gravity material flammability screening test. The experiments will be conducted in Orbital Science Corporation’s Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the International Space Station. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety...... paper along with a brief look at future experiments that could further enhance NASA’s approach to spacecraft fire safety....

  14. Spacecraft Dynamic Characteristics While Deploying Flexible Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程绪铎; 李俊峰; 樊勇; 王照林


    The attitude dynamic equations of a spacecraft while deploying two flexible beams and the beam equations were developed from momentum theory. The dynamic equations were solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method to calculate the vibration amplitudes of the flexible beams and the attitude angular velocity. The results show that the vibration amplitudes increase as the beam length increases or as the initial attitude angular velocity increases. The results also show that the vibration amplitudes decrease as the deployment velocity increases.

  15. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.


    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  16. Building the Small Spacecraft Technology Pipeline


    Reuther, Dr. James


    Biography - Dr. Reuther currently serves as the Acting Director for Crosscutting Capability Demonstrations in the Office of Chief Technologist of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters. Previously, Dr. Reuther served as the Lead of the Test and Verification (T&V) Office for the Orion spacecraft development. After graduating from the University of California Davis with a Bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D. in mechanical and aeronautical engineering, Dr. Reuther perform...

  17. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy


    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.



    Jansen, Frank


    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  19. The Future of Spacecraft Nuclear Propulsion (United States)

    Jansen, F.


    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  20. Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lina


    Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

  1. Space Robotics: What is a Robotic Spacecraft?


    Alex Ellery


    In this first of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space engineering with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space development and exploration. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and this paper stresses the unique constraints that space application imposes. This first paper is thus a general introduction to the nature of spacecraft engineering and its application to robotic spac...

  2. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy


    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  3. Radioisotope AMTEC power system designs for spacecraft applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) system is an exceptional candidate for high performance spacecraft power systems including small systems powered by General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS). The AMTEC converter is best described as a thermally regenerative electrochemical concentration cell. AMTEC is a static energy conversion device and can operate at efficiencies between 15% and 30%. The single tube, remote condensed, wick return minicell design has been incorporated into a radioisotope powered system model. Reported cell efficiencies used for these system design studies ranged from 15% to 25%. This efficiency is significantly higher than other static conversion systems operating at the same temperatures. Savings in mass and cost, relative to other more conventional static conversion systems, have also been shown. The minicell used for this system study has many advanced features not combined in previous designs, including wick return, remote condensing, and hot zone feedthroughs. All of these features significantly enhance the performance of the AMTEC cell. Additionally, the cell end provides enough area for adequate heat transfer from the GPHS module, eliminating the need for a ''hot shoe'', and reducing the complexity and weight of the system. This paper describes and compares small (two module) and larger (16 module) AMTEC radioisotope powered systems and describes the computer model developed to predict their performance

  4. Space environmental effects on spacecraft thermal control coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large portion of the space based applications in the near future are for low Earth orbit (LEO) including the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The lifetime needs for materials on the SSF is 30 years. Materials must be selected which can withstand the deleterious effects of LEO. Environmental effects in the LEO include atomic oxygen, UV, ionizing radiation, and hypervelocity impact. These effects can adversely affect the surface properties of materials. This is particularly critical in the case of thermal control materials where the efficiency of the thermal control is dependent on the stability of the surface properties. The current baseline thermal coating for the SSF radiators is Ag Teflon. The surface property requirements for the coatings are a solar absorptance of 0.2 and an infrared emittance of 0.8. The effects of atomic oxygen and UV radiation on the baseline coating and several other candidate thermal control materials were studied. The thermal control radiator materials included Ag and Al backed Teflon, H2SO4 anodized Al, sputter deposited SiO2 on Al, and Ag and Al backed polychloro trifluoroethylene. The simulation of several of the LEO environment constituents provided a data base to aid in the selection of the radiator thermal control material to meet the life requirements of the SSF. The effects are illustrated of the environment on thermal control coatings and the importance of this factor in the selection process for long life spacecraft materials

  5. Time Delay Interferometry with Moving Spacecraft Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Tinto, M; Armstrong, J W; Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, Frank B.; Armstrong, adn J.W.


    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time-varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up- and down-links. Reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter non-symmetric up- and downlink light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and downlink time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four inter-spacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time-dependence of the light...

  6. Spacecraft contamination prediction and testing techniques (United States)

    Jeffery, J. A.; Maag, C. R.; Morelli, F. A.


    Techniques used in the prediction of spacecraft contamination for the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and in the determination of the effects of such contamination are presented. Following a quick-look assessment of the contributions of ground-based initial contaminant loading, launch vehicle interface effects, vacuum-exposed outgassing deposition and attitude control thruster impingement and venting to the spacecraft contamination burden, the evaluations centered on the effects of the attitude control thruster on the scan platform optics, including calculations of thruster flowfields and a high-fidelity computer simulation of contaminant distribution. The evaluations revealed a considerable problem with thruster contamination, which could be solved by the use of a thrust shield and the avoidance of thruster operation at certain scan platform orientations. The effects of the various possible contaminants on spacecraft thermal and optical system performances were also investigated in studies of the optical transmittance of deposited monomethyl hydrazine nitrate, vacuum optical degradation due to contaminant outgassing and re-emission outgassing, and an operational satellite contaminant monitor on the NOAA-C satellite. It is concluded that with a good evaluation and testing program, contamination control may become a necessary portion of system design procedures, and recommendations for the implementation of various practices and tests to minimize contamination effects are presented.

  7. Stochastic Analysis of Orbital Lifetimes of Spacecraft (United States)

    Sasamoto, Washito; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David


    A document discusses (1) a Monte-Carlo-based methodology for probabilistic prediction and analysis of orbital lifetimes of spacecraft and (2) Orbital Lifetime Monte Carlo (OLMC)--a Fortran computer program, consisting of a previously developed long-term orbit-propagator integrated with a Monte Carlo engine. OLMC enables modeling of variances of key physical parameters that affect orbital lifetimes through the use of probability distributions. These parameters include altitude, speed, and flight-path angle at insertion into orbit; solar flux; and launch delays. The products of OLMC are predicted lifetimes (durations above specified minimum altitudes) for the number of user-specified cases. Histograms generated from such predictions can be used to determine the probabilities that spacecraft will satisfy lifetime requirements. The document discusses uncertainties that affect modeling of orbital lifetimes. Issues of repeatability, smoothness of distributions, and code run time are considered for the purpose of establishing values of code-specific parameters and number of Monte Carlo runs. Results from test cases are interpreted as demonstrating that solar-flux predictions are primary sources of variations in predicted lifetimes. Therefore, it is concluded, multiple sets of predictions should be utilized to fully characterize the lifetime range of a spacecraft.

  8. Solar thermal vacuum tests of Magellan spacecraft (United States)

    Neuman, James C.


    The Magellen solar/thermal/vacuum test involved a number of unique requirements and approaches. Because of the need to operate in orbit around Venus, the solar intensity requirement ranged up to 2.3 suns or Earth equivalent solar constants. Extensive modification to the solar simulator portion of the test facility were required to achieve this solar intensity. Venus albedo and infrared emission were simulated using temperature controlled movable louver panels to allow the spacecraft to view either a selectable temperature black heat source with closed louvers, or the chamber coldwall behind open louvers. The test conditions included widely varying solar intensities, multiple sun angles, alternate hardware configurations, steady state and transient cases, and cruise and orbital power profiles. Margin testing was also performed, wherein supplemental heaters were mounted to internal thermal blankets to verify spacecraft performance at higher than expected temperatures. The test was successful, uncovering some spacecraft anomalies and verifying the thermal design. The test support equipment experienced some anomalous behavior and a significant failure during the test.

  9. N° 28-1998: SOHO spacecraft contacted (United States)

    Contact has been re-established with the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) following six weeks of silence. Signals sent yesterday through the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) station at Canberra, Australia, were answered at 22:51 GMT in the form of bursts of signal lasting from 2 to 10 seconds. These signals were recorded both by the NASA DSN station and the ESA Perth station. Contact is being maintained through the NASA DSN stations at Goldstone (California), Canberra and Madrid (Spain). Although the signals are intermittent and do not contain any data information, they show that the spacecraft is still capable of receiving and responding to ground commands. The slow process of regaining control of the spacecraft and restoring it to an operational attitude will commence immediately, with attempts to initiate data transmissions in order to perform an initial assessment of the spacecraft on-board conditions. Radio contact with SOHO, a joint mission of the European Space Agency and NASA, was interrupted on 25 June (see ESA press releases N°24,25 and 26-98). More information on SOHO, including mission status reports is available on the Internet at or via the new ESA science website:

  10. Ontological Modeling for Integrated Spacecraft Analysis (United States)

    Wicks, Erica


    Current spacecraft work as a cooperative group of a number of subsystems. Each of these requiresmodeling software for development, testing, and prediction. It is the goal of my team to create anoverarching software architecture called the Integrated Spacecraft Analysis (ISCA) to aid in deploying the discrete subsystems' models. Such a plan has been attempted in the past, and has failed due to the excessive scope of the project. Our goal in this version of ISCA is to use new resources to reduce the scope of the project, including using ontological models to help link the internal interfaces of subsystems' models with the ISCA architecture.I have created an ontology of functions specific to the modeling system of the navigation system of a spacecraft. The resulting ontology not only links, at an architectural level, language specificinstantiations of the modeling system's code, but also is web-viewable and can act as a documentation standard. This ontology is proof of the concept that ontological modeling can aid in the integration necessary for ISCA to work, and can act as the prototype for future ISCA ontologies.

  11. Stability analysis of spacecraft power systems (United States)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.; Sheble, G. B.; Nelms, R. M.


    The problems in applying standard electric utility models, analyses, and algorithms to the study of the stability of spacecraft power conditioning and distribution systems are discussed. Both single-phase and three-phase systems are considered. Of particular concern are the load and generator models that are used in terrestrial power system studies, as well as the standard assumptions of load and topological balance that lead to the use of the positive sequence network. The standard assumptions regarding relative speeds of subsystem dynamic responses that are made in the classical transient stability algorithm, which forms the backbone of utility-based studies, are examined. The applicability of these assumptions to a spacecraft power system stability study is discussed in detail. In addition to the classical indirect method, the applicability of Liapunov's direct methods to the stability determination of spacecraft power systems is discussed. It is pointed out that while the proposed method uses a solution process similar to the classical algorithm, the models used for the sources, loads, and networks are, in general, more accurate. Some preliminary results are given for a linear-graph, state-variable-based modeling approach to the study of the stability of space-based power distribution networks.

  12. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space missions, we developed – with challenging requirements from the European space industry – a novel modeling language and toolset for a (semi-)automated validation approach. Our modeling language is a dialect of AADL and enables engineers to express the system, the software, and their reliability aspects. The COMPASS toolset utilizes state-of-the-art model checking techniques, both qualitative and probabilistic, for the analysis of requirements related to functional correctness, safety, dependability and performance. Several pilot projects have been performed by industry, with two of them having focused on the system-level of a satellite platform in development. Our efforts resulted in a significant advancement of validating spacecraft designs from several perspectives, using a single integrated system model. The associated technology readiness level increased from level 1 (basic concepts and ideas) to early level 4 (laboratory-tested)

  13. On the Electronic Structure of mer,trans-[RuCl3(1H-indazole)2(NO)], a Hypothetical Metabolite of the Antitumor Drug Candidate KP1019: An Experimental and DFT Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bučinský, L.; Buchel, G.E.; Ponec, Robert; Rapta, P.; Breza, M.; Kožíšek, J.; Gall, M.; Biskupič, S.; Fronc, M.; Schiessl, K.; Cuzan, O.; Prodius, D.; Turta, C.; Shova, S.; Zajac, D.A.; Arion, V.B.


    Roč. 14, MAY (2013), s. 2505-2519. ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0118 Grant ostatní: GA SK(SK) 1/0679/11; GA SK(SK) 1/0289/12; GA SK(SK) 1/0327/12; AAIM(AT) SK-03; ASF(AT) I 374-N19 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ruthenium * electronic structure * antitumor agents Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2013

  14. Contemporary state of spacecraft/environment interaction research

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, L S


    Various space environment effects on spacecraft materials and equipment, and the reverse effects of spacecrafts and rockets on space environment are considered. The necessity of permanent updating and perfection of our knowledge on spacecraft/environment interaction processes is noted. Requirements imposed on models of space environment in theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the spacecraft/environment interaction problem are formulated. In this field, main problems which need to be solved today and in the nearest future are specified. The conclusion is made that the joint analysis of both aspects of spacecraft/environment interaction problem promotes the most effective solution of the problem.

  15. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation (United States)

    Edwards, Dave


    Spacecraft are growing in complexity and sensitivity to environmental effects. The spacecraft engineer must understand and take these effects into account in building reliable, survivable, and affordable spacecraft. Too much protections, however, means unnecessary expense while too little will potentially lead to early mission loss. The ability to balance cost and risk necessitates an understanding of how the environment impacts the spacecraft and is a critical factor in its design. This presentation is intended to address both the space environment and its effects with the intent of introducing the influence of the environment on spacecraft performance.

  16. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Toth, Balazs; Jomaas, Grunde


    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  17. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  18. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour. (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves


    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at PMID:27131783

  19. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda


    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  20. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;


    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  1. Amplitude Variability in gamma Dor and delta Scuti stars observed by the Kepler Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Joyce A; Bradley, Paul A; Jackiewicz, Jason


    The NASA Kepler spacecraft data revealed a large number of multimode nonradially pulsating gamma Dor and delta Sct variable star candidates. The high precision long time-series photometry makes it possible to study amplitude variations of the frequencies. We summarize recent literature on amplitude and frequency variations in pulsating variables. We are searching for amplitude variability in several dozen faint gamma Doradus or delta Scuti variable-star candidates observed as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program. We apply several methods, including a Matlab-script wavelet analysis developed by J. Jackiewicz, and the wavelet technique of the VSTAR software ( Here we show results for two stars, KIC 2167444 and KIC 2301163. We discuss the magnitude and timescale of the amplitude variations, and the presence or absence of correlations between amplitude variations for different frequencies of a given star. Amplitude variations may be detectable using Kepler data even for s...

  2. NASCAP Modeling of GEO Satellites--Spacecraft Charging is Back! (United States)

    Chock, R.; Ferguson, D. C.; Synder, D. B.


    During the last few years of Solar Minimum, GEO spacecraft charging design practices may have become lax because of paucity of spacecraft charging events. Unfortunately, this has also been the time of great changes in spacecraft design, because of the new emphases on higher power arrays and lower costs. Also unfortunate is the fact that spacecraft charging may lead to failures of solar array strings, panels, or entire spacecraft. One way to prevent satellite failures die to spacecraft charging events is to simulate the effects with a charging code, such as the venerable NASCAP/GEO code. We will discuss the use of NASCAP on the ACTS satellite as well as a newer application dealing with typical recent spacecraft charging anomalies.

  3. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  4. SHARP - Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  5. Spacecraft fabrication and test MODIL. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.T.


    This report covers the period from October 1992 through the close of the project. FY 92 closed out with the successful briefing to industry and with many potential and important initiatives in the spacecraft arena. Due to the funding uncertainties, we were directed to proceed as if our funding would be approximately the same as FY 92 ($2M), but not to make any major new commitments. However, the MODIL`s FY 93 funding was reduced to $810K and we were directed to concentrate on the cryocooler area. The cryocooler effort completed its demonstration project. The final meetings with the cryocooler fabricators were very encouraging as we witnessed the enthusiastic reception of technology to help them reduce fabrication uncertainties. Support of the USAF Phillips Laboratory cryocooler program was continued including kick-off meetings for the Prototype Spacecraft Cryocooler (PSC). Under Phillips Laboratory support, Gill Cruz visited British Aerospace and Lucas Aerospace in the United Kingdom to assess their manufacturing capabilities. In the Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP), contracts were pursued for the analysis by four Brilliant Eyes prime contractors to provide a proprietary snap shot of their current status of Integrated Product Development. In the materials and structure thrust the final analysis was completed of the samples made under the contract (``Partial Automation of Matched Metal Net Shape Molding of Continuous Fiber Composites``) to SPARTA. The Precision Technologies thrust funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to prepare a plan to develop a Computer Aided Alignment capability to significantly reduce the time for alignment and even possibly provide real time and remote alignment capability of systems in flight.

  6. Spacecraft computer technology at Southwest Research Institute (United States)

    Shirley, D. J.


    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed and delivered spacecraft computers for a number of different near-Earth-orbit spacecraft including shuttle experiments and SDIO free-flyer experiments. We describe the evolution of the basic SwRI spacecraft computer design from those weighing in at 20 to 25 lb and using 20 to 30 W to newer models weighing less than 5 lb and using only about 5 W, yet delivering twice the processing throughput. Because of their reduced size, weight, and power, these newer designs are especially applicable to planetary instrument requirements. The basis of our design evolution has been the availability of more powerful processor chip sets and the development of higher density packaging technology, coupled with more aggressive design strategies in incorporating high-density FPGA technology and use of high-density memory chips. In addition to reductions in size, weight, and power, the newer designs also address the necessity of survival in the harsh radiation environment of space. Spurred by participation in such programs as MSTI, LACE, RME, Delta 181, Delta Star, and RADARSAT, our designs have evolved in response to program demands to be small, low-powered units, radiation tolerant enough to be suitable for both Earth-orbit microsats and for planetary instruments. Present designs already include MIL-STD-1750 and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology with near-term plans to include RISC processors and higher-density MCM's. Long term plans include development of whole-core processors on one or two MCM's.

  7. High Energy Failure Containment for Spacecraft (United States)

    Pektas, Pete; Baker, Christopher


    Objective: The objective of this paper will be to investigate advancements and any commonality between spacecraft debris containment and the improvements being made in ballistic protection. Scope: This paper will focus on cross application of protection devices and methods, and how they relate to protecting humans from failures in spacecraft. The potential gain is to reduce the risk associated with hardware failure, while decreasing the weight and size of energy containment methods currently being used by the government and commercial industry. Method of Approach: This paper will examine testing that has already been accomplished in regards to the failure of high energy rotating hardware and compare it to advancements in ballistic protection. Examples are: DOT research and testing of turbine containment as documented in DOT/FAA/AR-96/110, DOT/FAA/AR-97/82, DOT/FAA/AR-98/22. It will also look at work accomplished by companies such as ApNano and IBD Deisenroth in the development of nano ceramics and nanometric steels. Other forms of energy absorbent materials and composites will also be considered and discussed. New Advances in State of the Art: There have been numerous advances in technology in regards to high energy debris containment and in the similar field of ballistic protection. This paper will discuss methods such as using impregnated or dry Kevlar, ceramic, and nano-technology which have been successfully tested but are yet to be utilized in spacecraft. Reports on tungsten disulfide nanotubes claim that they are 4-5 times stronger than steel and reports vary about the magnitude increase over Kevlar, but it appears to be somewhere in the range of 2-6 times stronger. This technology could also have applications in the protection of pressure vessels, motor housings, and hydraulic component failures.

  8. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  9. MEMS device for spacecraft thermal control applications (United States)

    Swanson, Theordore D. (Inventor)


    A micro-electromechanical device that comprises miniaturized mechanical louvers, referred to as Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) louvers are employed to achieve a thermal control function for spacecraft and instruments. The MEMS louvers are another form of a variable emittance control coating and employ micro-electromechanical technology. In a function similar to traditional, macroscopic thermal louvers, the MEMS louvers of the present invention change the emissivity of a surface. With the MEMS louvers, as with the traditional macroscopic louvers, a mechanical vane or window is opened and closed to allow an alterable radiative view to space.

  10. Phase change materials for spacecraft thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this investigation were to determine the capabilities of certain phase change materials (PCM) in pellet form to buffer heat loads immediately following short term peak thermal input as part of a spacecraft thermal management system (SCTMS). Two types of PCMs demonstrated potential for SCTMS were encapsulated inorganic salt hydrate, calcium chloride hexahydrate, and the form-stable crystalline polymer, high density polyethylene. The PCM properties examined for the design of experimental packed bed heat exchangers included: packed bed porosity, mass density, pellet diameter, melting point, etc

  11. Impulsive orbit control for spacecraft around asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 崔平远; 栾恩杰


    An impulse feedback control law to change the mean orbit elements of spacecraft around asteroid is presented. First, the mean orbit elements are transferred to the osculating orbit elements at the burning time.Then, the feedback control law based on Gauss' s perturbation equations of motion is given. And the impulse control for targeting from the higher circulation orbit to the specified periapsis is developed. Finally, the numerical simulation is performed and the simulation results show that the presented impulse control law is effective.

  12. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.


    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Some of the research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  13. SHARP: Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.


    The planetary spacecraft mission OPS as applied to SHARP is studied. Knowledge systems involved in this study are detailed. SHARP development task and Voyager telecom link analysis were examined. It was concluded that artificial intelligence has a proven capability to deliver useful functions in a real time space flight operations environment. SHARP has precipitated major change in acceptance of automation at JPL. The potential payoff from automation using AI is substantial. SHARP, and other AI technology is being transferred into systems in development including mission operations automation, science data systems, and infrastructure applications.

  14. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics of the...... satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  15. Loading operations for spacecraft propulsion subsystems (United States)

    Purohit, G. P.; Nordeng, H. O.; Ellison, J. R.


    This paper provides a broad overview of loading operations for pressurized blowdown monopropellant and pressure regulated integral bipropellant propulsion subsystems used in geosynchronous communication satellites. Propellant chemical composition, cleanliness, processing, and handling requirements are addressed. Ground servicing equipment (GSE) and propellant transfer procedures for the various loading configurations are discussed. Effects of helium solubility and helium saturation levels in both GSE carts and propellant tanks are examined. Predicted equilibrium pressures for actual postload tank pressures are compared against extensive loading data on Hughes bipropellant spacecraft. Helium tank pressurization and manifold pressurization practices are described. Propellant loading facility requirements and safety requirements are discussed.



    YAPICI, Asım; KUTLU, M.Oğuz; BİLİCAN, F.Işıl


    Abstract This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined the change in values in time among teacher candidates. The Schwartz Values Inventory was administered to 708 freshmen and senior students studying at Cukurova University, Education Faculty. The results have shown that the students at the department of Science Education valued power, achievement, stimulation; the department of English Teaching Education valued hedonism; and the department of Education of Religious Culture valued un...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New transiting planet candidates are identified in 16 months (2009 May-2010 September) of data from the Kepler spacecraft. Nearly 5000 periodic transit-like signals are vetted against astrophysical and instrumental false positives yielding 1108 viable new planet candidates, bringing the total count up to over 2300. Improved vetting metrics are employed, contributing to higher catalog reliability. Most notable is the noise-weighted robust averaging of multi-quarter photo-center offsets derived from difference image analysis that identifies likely background eclipsing binaries. Twenty-two months of photometry are used for the purpose of characterizing each of the candidates. Ephemerides (transit epoch, T 0, and orbital period, P) are tabulated as well as the products of light curve modeling: reduced radius (R P/R *), reduced semimajor axis (d/R *), and impact parameter (b). The largest fractional increases are seen for the smallest planet candidates (201% for candidates smaller than 2 R ⊕ compared to 53% for candidates larger than 2 R ⊕) and those at longer orbital periods (124% for candidates outside of 50 day orbits versus 86% for candidates inside of 50 day orbits). The gains are larger than expected from increasing the observing window from 13 months (Quarters 1-5) to 16 months (Quarters 1-6) even in regions of parameter space where one would have expected the previous catalogs to be complete. Analyses of planet frequencies based on previous catalogs will be affected by such incompleteness. The fraction of all planet candidate host stars with multiple candidates has grown from 17% to 20%, and the paucity of short-period giant planets in multiple systems is still evident. The progression toward smaller planets at longer orbital periods with each new catalog release suggests that Earth-size planets in the habitable zone are forthcoming if, indeed, such planets are abundant.

  18. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates. (United States)

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R


    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease. PMID:19446931

  19. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Gong-He; REN Zhao-Yu; GUO Ping; ZHENG Ji-Ming


    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments,frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors.

  20. Comprehensive Plasma Instrumentation (CPU) for the Geotail spacecraft (United States)

    Frank, Louis A.


    Geotail was launched on 24 July 1992 as the first new spacecraft of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP). A primary objective of the Geotail mission is the acquisition of particles and fields measurements in the tail region of the magnetosphere. Some of the specific scientific objectives of the Geotail mission are; (1) assessment of the relative importance of solar-wind and ionospheric sources to the plasmas of the magnetotail, (2) a search for plasmoids and flux ropes, (3) direct observation of the effects of plasma acceleration and heating in the current sheet, and (4) measurements of currents and convective flows carried by magnetotail plasmas. The Comprehensive Plasma Instrumentation (CPI) aboard the Geotail spacecraft provides observations of the charged particles that comprise the plasma populations of the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In many cases the physical processes that contribute to the flow of energy and mass through the Solar-Terrestrial plasma system can be understood only through a detailed examination and analysis of the distribution of the particle velocities in the ambient plasmas. The CPI provides detailed measurements of these distributions. It employs three plasma analyzers: (1) the Hot Plasma analyzer (CPI-HP) for hot electrons and ions found in the plasma sheet and the inner magnetosphere; (2) a Solar Wind analyzer (CPI-SW) for cool plasmas with high bulk speeds such as those found in the solar wind and magnetosheath; and (3) an Ion Composition analyzer (CPI-IC) for identification of ion species such as H(+), He(+), He(++), and O(+). Along with measurements from other fields and particles instrumentation on Geotail, the CPI measurements provide a fundamental experimental base for investigations of solar-terrestrial plasmas and fields.

  1. Thermal Design, Test and Analysis of PharmaSat, a Small Class D Spacecraft with a Biological Experiment (United States)

    Diaz-Aguado, Millan F.; VanOutryve, Cassandra; Ghassemiah, Shakib; Beasley, Christopher; Schooley, Aaron


    Small spacecraft have been increasing in popularity because of their low cost, short turnaround and relative efficiency. In the past, small spacecraft have been primarily used for technology demonstrations, but advances in technology have made the miniaturization of space science possible [1,2]. PharmaSat is a low cost, small three cube size spacecraft, with a biological experiment on board, built at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ames Research Center. The thermal design of small spacecraft presents challenges as their smaller surface areas translate into power and thermal constraints. The spacecraft is thermally designed to run colder in the Low Earth Orbit space environment, and heated to reach the temperatures required by the science payload. The limited power supply obtained from the solar panels on small surfaces creates a constraint in the power used to heat the payload to required temperatures. The pressurized payload is isolated with low thermally conductance paths from the large ambient temperature changes. The thermal design consists of different optical properties of section surfaces, Multi Layer Insulation (MLI), low thermal conductance materials, flexible heaters and thermal spreaders. The payload temperature is controlled with temperature sensors and flexible heaters. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and testing were used to aid the thermal design of the spacecraft. Various tests were conducted to verify the thermal design. An infrared imager was used on the electronic boards to find large heat sources and eliminate any possible temperature runaways. The spacecraft was tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to optimize the thermal and power analysis and qualify the thermal design of the spacecraft for the mission.

  2. Multi-spacecraft observations of quasiperiodic emissions (United States)

    Nemec, Frantisek; Pickett, Jolene S.; Hospodarsky, George; Santolik, Ondrej; Bezdekova, Barbora; Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Parrot, Michel; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig


    Whistler mode electromagnetic waves observed in the inner magnetosphere at frequencies of a few kilohertz sometimes exhibit a nearly periodic modulation of the wave intensity. The modulation periods may range from several tens of seconds up to a few minutes, and such emissions are usually called quasiperiodic (QP) emissions. The origin of these events is still unclear, but it seems that their generation might be related to compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations which periodically modulate resonance conditions in the source region. From an observational point of view, single-point measurements are quite insufficient, as they do not allow us to distinguish between spatial and temporal variations of the emissions. Multipoint observations of these events are, on the other hand, rather rare. We present several QP wave events observed simultaneously by several different spacecraft (Cluster, Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, DEMETER). We demonstrate that although the quasiperiodic modulation is observed over a huge spatial region, individual spacecraft do not see the QP elements at exactly the same times. Moreover, when an event is observed simultaneously on the dawnside and on the duskside, the modulation period observed on the duskside is about twice larger than the modulation period observed on the dawnside. We present a qualitative explanation of these phenomena.

  3. Adaptive System Modeling for Spacecraft Simulation (United States)

    Thomas, Justin


    This invention introduces a methodology and associated software tools for automatically learning spacecraft system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques were used to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). Evaluation on historical ISS telemetry data shows that adaptive system modeling reduces simulation error anywhere from 50 to 90 percent over existing approaches. The purpose of the methodology is to outline how someone can create accurate system models from sensor (telemetry) data. The purpose of the software is to support the methodology. The software provides analysis tools to design the adaptive models. The software also provides the algorithms to initially build system models and continuously update them from the latest streaming sensor data. The main strengths are as follows: Creates accurate spacecraft system models without in-depth system knowledge or any assumptions about system behavior. Automatically updates/calibrates system models using the latest streaming sensor data. Creates device specific models that capture the exact behavior of devices of the same type. Adapts to evolving systems. Can reduce computational complexity (faster simulations).

  4. High temperature thruster technology for spacecraft propulsion (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    A technology program has been underway since 1985 to develop high temperature oxidation-resistant thrusters for spacecraft applications. The successful development of this technology will provide the basis for the design of higher performance satellite engines with reduced plume contamination. Alternatively, this technology program will provide a material with high thermal margin to operate at conventional temperatures and provide increased life for refuelable or reusable spacecraft. The new chamber material consists of a rhenium substrate coated with iridium for oxidation protection. This material increases the operating temperature of thrusters to 2200°C, a significant increase over the 1400°C of the silicide-coated niobium chambers currently used. Stationkeeping class 22 N engines fabricated from iridium-coated rhenium have demonstrated steady state specific impulses 20 to 25 seconds higher than niobium chambers. Ir-Re apogee class 440 N engines are expected to deliver an additional 10 to 15 seconds. These improved performances are obtained by reducing or eliminating the fuel film cooling requirements in the combustion chamber while operating at the same overall mixture ratio as conventional engines. The program is attempting to envelope flight qualification requirements to reduce the potential risks and costs of flight qualification programs.

  5. Spacecraft Angular Rates Estimation with Gyrowheel Based on Extended High Gain Observer. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaokun; Yao, Yu; Ma, Kemao; Zhao, Hui; He, Fenghua


    A gyrowheel (GW) is a kind of electronic electric-mechanical servo system, which can be applied to a spacecraft attitude control system (ACS) as both an actuator and a sensor simultaneously. In order to solve the problem of two-dimensional spacecraft angular rate sensing as a GW outputting three-dimensional control torque, this paper proposed a method of an extended high gain observer (EHGO) with the derived GW mathematical model to implement the spacecraft angular rate estimation when the GW rotor is working at large angles. For this purpose, the GW dynamic equation is firstly derived with the second kind Lagrange method, and the relationship between the measurable and unmeasurable variables is built. Then, the EHGO is designed to estimate and calculate spacecraft angular rates with the GW, and the stability of the designed EHGO is proven by the Lyapunov function. Moreover, considering the engineering application, the effect of measurement noise in the tilt angle sensors on the estimation accuracy of the EHGO is analyzed. Finally, the numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the validity of the method proposed in this paper. PMID:27089347

  6. Spacecraft Angular Rates Estimation with Gyrowheel Based on Extended High Gain Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Liu


    Full Text Available A gyrowheel (GW is a kind of electronic electric-mechanical servo system, which can be applied to a spacecraft attitude control system (ACS as both an actuator and a sensor simultaneously. In order to solve the problem of two-dimensional spacecraft angular rate sensing as a GW outputting three-dimensional control torque, this paper proposed a method of an extended high gain observer (EHGO with the derived GW mathematical model to implement the spacecraft angular rate estimation when the GW rotor is working at large angles. For this purpose, the GW dynamic equation is firstly derived with the second kind Lagrange method, and the relationship between the measurable and unmeasurable variables is built. Then, the EHGO is designed to estimate and calculate spacecraft angular rates with the GW, and the stability of the designed EHGO is proven by the Lyapunov function. Moreover, considering the engineering application, the effect of measurement noise in the tilt angle sensors on the estimation accuracy of the EHGO is analyzed. Finally, the numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the validity of the method proposed in this paper.

  7. Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler, III: Analysis of the First 16 Months of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.;


    binaries. Twenty-two months of photometry are used for the purpose of characterizing each of the new candidates. Ephemerides (transit epoch, T_0, and orbital period, P) are tabulated as well as the products of light curve modeling: reduced radius (Rp/R*), reduced semi-major axis (d/R*), and impact......New transiting planet candidates are identified in sixteen months (May 2009 - September 2010) of data from the Kepler spacecraft. Nearly five thousand periodic transit-like signals are vetted against astrophysical and instrumental false positives yielding 1,091 viable new planet candidates...... orbits). The gains are larger than expected from increasing the observing window from thirteen months (Quarter 1-- Quarter 5) to sixteen months (Quarter 1 -- Quarter 6). This demonstrates the benefit of continued development of pipeline analysis software. The fraction of all host stars with multiple...

  8. Spacecraft Dynamics Should be Considered in Kalman Filter Attitude Estimation (United States)

    Yang, Yaguang; Zhou, Zhiqiang


    Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation has been used in some high-profile missions and has been widely discussed in literature. While some models in spacecraft attitude estimation include spacecraft dynamics, most do not. To our best knowledge, there is no comparison on which model is a better choice. In this paper, we discuss the reasons why spacecraft dynamics should be considered in the Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation problem. We also propose a reduced quaternion spacecraft dynamics model which admits additive noise. Geometry of the reduced quaternion model and the additive noise are discussed. This treatment is more elegant in mathematics and easier in computation. We use some simulation example to verify our claims.

  9. Three spacecraft observe Jupiter's glowing polar regions (United States)


    The aurorae on Jupiter are like the Aurorae Borealis and Australis on the Earth, although visible only by ultraviolet light. They flicker in a similar way in response to variations in the solar wind of charged particles blowing from the Sun. While Galileo monitored the changing environment of particles and magnetism in Jupiter's vicinity, IUE recorded surprisingly large and rapid variations in the overall strength of the auroral activity. IUE's main 45-centimetre telescope did not supply images,but broke up the ultraviolet rays into spectra, like invisible rainbows, from which astrophysicists could deduce chemical compositions, motions and temperatures in the cosmic objects under examination. In the case of Jupiter's aurorae, the strongest emission came from activated hydrogen atoms at a wavelength of 1216 angstroms. The Hubble Space Telescope's contributions to the International Jupiter Watch included images showing variations in the form of the aurorae, and "close-up" spectra of parts of the auroral ovals. Astronomers will compare the flickering aurorae on Jupiter with concurrent monitoring of the Sun and the solar wind by the ESA-NASA SOHO spacecraft and several satellites of the Interagency Solar-Terrestrial Programme. It is notable that changes in auroral intensity by a factor of two or three occurred during the 1996 observational period, even though the Sun was in an exceptionally quiet phase, with very few sunspots. In principle, a watch on Jupiter's aurorae could become a valuable means of checking the long-range effects of solar activity, which also has important consequences for the Earth. The situation at Jupiter is quite different from the Earth's, with the moons strongly influencing the planet's space environment. But with Hubble busy with other work, any such Jupiter-monitoring programme will have to await a new ultraviolet space observatory. IUE observed Jupiter intensively in 1979-80 in conjunction with the visits of NASA's Voyager spacecraft, and

  10. Study on Space Debris and Impact Effect on Spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space debris is increasingly concerned by aerospace engineers and scientists. The evolution of an orbital debris cloud, the collision probability between of debris and a spacecraft, and the damage evaluation of spacecraft when impacted by space debris are studied in this work. A hypervelocity impact model for honeycomb panel is proposed. Under considering secondary debris, the survivability of spacecraft impacted by space debris is finally investigated

  11. Measuring Charge Storage Decay Time and Resistivity of Spacecraft Insulators


    Brunson, Jerilyn; Dennison, JR


    An informal discussion of how accurate measurements of resistivity and increasing understanding of the behavior of insulating materials used on spacecraft is fundamental to advancing the design and utility of the spacecraft. Build up of charge can vary between different areas of the spacecraft, with excess charge accumulating and leading to functional anomalies or component failure. The most important parameter in determining how charge will decay through an insulator is the resistivity of th...

  12. Harmonic analysis of nonlinear devices on spacecraft power systems (United States)

    Williamson, Frank; Sheble, Gerald B.


    A nonlinear device modeling algorithm (NOLID) has been developed for use in spacecraft power system analysis. This algorithm is designed to explore the effects of nonlinear devices and loads on a spacecraft power system. Application of this harmonic modeling algorithm in spacecraft power system management programs such as harmonic power flow analysis packages is discussed. It is shown that the NOLID algorithm can be applied in conjunction with a harmonic power flow to give a more accurate description of system state.

  13. Study on Space Debris and Impact Effect on Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Hai; Jia Guanghui; Dong Yunfeng [School of Astronautics, Beihang University (BUAA), Xueyuan Road No.37, Beijing 100083 (China)


    Space debris is increasingly concerned by aerospace engineers and scientists. The evolution of an orbital debris cloud, the collision probability between of debris and a spacecraft, and the damage evaluation of spacecraft when impacted by space debris are studied in this work. A hypervelocity impact model for honeycomb panel is proposed. Under considering secondary debris, the survivability of spacecraft impacted by space debris is finally investigated.

  14. Requirements analysis for a multi-spacecraft flight system (United States)

    Brown, G. M.; O'Quinn, C. F.; Porter, B. S.


    The StarLight mission scheduled to launch June 2006, will demonstrate the separated spacecraft technologies of formation flying, precision formation, estimation, and long baseline stellar interferometry.

  15. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design (United States)

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.


    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  16. Material Properties of Three Candidate Elastomers for Space Seals Applications (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.


    A next-generation docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support Constellation Space Exploration Missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. A number of investigations were carried out to quantify the properties of candidate elastomer materials for use in the main interface seal of the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This seal forms the gas pressure seal between two mating spacecraft. Three candidate silicone elastomer compounds were examined: Esterline ELA-SA-401, Parker Hannifin S0383-70, and Parker Hannifin S0899-50. All three materials were characterized as low-outgassing compounds, per ASTM E595, so as to minimize the contamination of optical and solar array systems. Important seal properties such as outgas levels, durometer, tensile strength, elongation to failure, glass transition temperature, permeability, compression set, Yeoh strain energy coefficients, coefficients of friction, coefficients of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and are reported herein.

  17. Bright low mass eclipsing binary candidates observed by STEREO

    CERN Document Server

    Wraight, K T; White, Glenn J; Norton, A J; Bewsher, D


    Observations from the Heliospheric Imagers (HI-1) on both the STEREO spacecraft have been analysed to search for bright low mass eclipsing binaries (EBs) and potential brown dwarf transits and to determine the radii of the companions. A total of 9 EB candidates have been found, ranging in brightness from V=6.59 mag to V=11.3 mag, where the radius of the companion appears to be less than 0.4 Rsol, with a diverse range of host temperatures, from 4074 K to 6925 K. Both components of one candidate, BD-07 3648, appear to be less than 0.4 Rsol and this represents a particularly interesting system for further study. The shapes of the eclipses in some cases are not clear enough to be certain they are total and the corresponding radii found should therefore be considered as lower limits. The EBs reported in this paper have either been newly found by the present analysis, or previously reported to be eclipsing by our earlier STEREO/HI-1 results. One of the new objects has subsequently been confirmed using archival Supe...

  18. Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler, III: Analysis of the First 16 Months of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Rowe, Jason F.; /NASA, Ames; Bryson, Stephen T.; /NASA, Ames; Barclay, Thomas; /NASA, Ames; Burke, Christopher J.; /NASA, Ames; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /NASA, Ames; Mullally, Fergal; /NASA, Ames; Thompson, Susan E.; /NASA, Ames; Brown, Timothy M.; /Las Cumbres Observ.; Dupree, Andrea K.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /UC, Santa Cruz


    New transiting planet candidates are identified in sixteen months (May 2009 - September 2010) of data from the Kepler spacecraft. Nearly five thousand periodic transit-like signals are vetted against astrophysical and instrumental false positives yielding 1091 viable new planet candidates, bringing the total count up to over 2,300. Improved vetting metrics are employed, contributing to higher catalog reliability. Most notable is the noise-weighted robust averaging of multiquarter photo-center offsets derived from difference image analysis which identifies likely background eclipsing binaries. Twenty-two months of photometry are used for the purpose of characterizing each of the new candidates. Ephemerides (transit epoch, T{sub 0}, and orbital period, P) are tabulated as well as the products of light curve modeling: reduced radius (R{sub P}/R{sub {star}}), reduced semi-major axis (d/R{sub {star}}), and impact parameter (b). The largest fractional increases are seen for the smallest planet candidates (197% for candidates smaller than 2R{sub {circle_plus}} compared to 52% for candidates larger than 2R{sub {circle_plus}}) and those at longer orbital periods (123% for candidates outside of 50 day orbits versus 85% for candidates inside of 50 day orbits). The gains are larger than expected from increasing the observing window from thirteen months (Quarter 1 - Quarter 5) to sixteen months (Quarter 1 - Quarter 6). This demonstrates the benefit of continued development of pipeline analysis software. The fraction of all host stars with multiple candidates has grown from 17% to 20%, and the paucity of short-period giant planets in multiple systems is still evident. The progression toward smaller planets at longer orbital periods with each new catalog release suggests that Earth-size planets in the Habitable Zone are forthcoming if, indeed, such planets are abundant.

  19. Promising new cryogenic seal candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the five seal candidates considered for the main propellant system of the Space Shuttle, only one candidate, the fluoroplastic Halar, satisfied all tests including the critical LO2 impact test and the cryogenic compression sealability test. Radiation-cross-linked Halar is a tough, strong thermoplastic that not only endured one hundred 2200 N compression cycles at 83 K while mounted in a standard military O-ring gland without cracking or deforming, but improved in sealability as a result of this cycling. Although these Halar O-rings require much higher sealing forces (approximately 500 N) at room temperature than rubber O-rings, on cooling to cryogenic temperatures the required sealing force only doubles, whereas the sealing force for rubber O-rings increases eightfold. Although these Halar O-rings were inadequately cross-linked, they still exhibited promise as LO2-compatible cryogenic seals. It is expected that their high-temperature properties can be greatly improved by higher degrees of cross-linking (e.g., by 20 mrad of radiation) without compromising their already excellent low-temperature properties. A direct comparison should then be obtained between the best of the cross-linked Halar compounds and the current commercial cryogenic seal materials, filled Teflon and Kel-F

  20. Carbon dioxide removal system for closed loop atmosphere revitalization, candidate sorbents screening and test results (United States)

    Mattox, E. M.; Knox, J. C.; Bardot, D. M.


    Due to the difficulty and expense it costs to resupply manned-spacecraft habitats, a goal is to create a closed loop atmosphere revitalization system, in which precious commodities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water are continuously recycled. Our aim is to test other sorbents for their capacity for future spacecraft missions, such as on the Orion spacecraft, or possibly lunar or Mars mission habitats to see if they would be better than the zeolite sorbents on the 4-bed molecular sieve. Some of the materials being tested are currently used for other industry applications. Studying these sorbents for their specific spacecraft application is different from that for applications on earth because in space, there are certain power, mass, and volume limitations that are not as critical on Earth. In manned-spaceflight missions, the sorbents are exposed to a much lower volume fraction of CO2 (0.6% volume CO2) than on Earth. LiLSX was tested for its CO2 capacity in an atmosphere like that of the ISS. Breakthrough tests were run to establish the capacities of these materials at a partial pressure of CO2 that is seen on the ISS. This paper discusses experimental results from benchmark materials, such as results previously obtained from tests on Grade 522, and the forementioned candidate materials for the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) system.

  1. Electromagnetic thrusters for spacecraft prime propulsion (United States)

    Rudolph, L. K.; King, D. Q.


    The benefits of electromagnetic propulsion systems for the next generation of US spacecraft are discussed. Attention is given to magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) and arc jet thrusters, which form a subset of a larger group of electromagnetic propulsion systems including pulsed plasma thrusters, Hall accelerators, and electromagnetic launchers. Mission/system study results acquired over the last twenty years suggest that for future prime propulsion applications high-power self-field MPD thrusters and low-power arc jets have the greatest potential of all electromagnetic thruster systems. Some of the benefits they are expected to provide include major reductions in required launch mass compared to chemical propulsion systems (particularly in geostationary orbit transfer) and lower life-cycle costs (almost 50 percent less). Detailed schematic drawings are provided which describe some possible configurations for the various systems.

  2. Spacecraft Doppler tracking with a VLBI antenna (United States)

    Comoretto, G.; Iess, L.; Bertotti, B.; Brenkle, J. P.; Horton, T.


    Preliminary results are reported from Doppler-shift measurements to the Voyager-2 spacecraft at a distance of 26 AU, obtained using the 32-m VLBI antenna at Medicina (Italy) during July and August 1988. The apparatus comprises the el-az antenna, an S-X-band receiver, a hydrogen maser to generate the reference signal, a Mark III VLBI terminal, and a digital tone extractor capable of isolating a tone of known frequency from a noisy signal and giving its phase and amplitude. A signal transmitted in S-band from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) station in Australia and retransmitted coherently in X-band by Voyager, was received 7 h 6 min later at Medicina and at the DSN station in Madrid. Sample data are presented graphically and shown to be of generally high quality; further in-depth analysis is under way.

  3. Electrochromic emissivity modulator for spacecraft thermal management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Moorehead, David [Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc., 2345 Anvil Street North, St. Petersburg, FL 33710 (United States)


    A novel electrochromic device (ECD) working in mid- to long-wave infrared (IR) region is presented, comprising of a solid-state monolithic thin film system for adjusting heat rejection/receiving levels on attached surfaces. The system is an electrically controllable active emissivity modulator. EclipseVED trademark, variable-emissivity ECD, is designed for satellite and spacecraft thermal control, using an active ECD system for long-wave infrared (LWIR) modulation and a passive cold mirror for solar rejection. Emissivity modulation of the system is 0.8 for 7-12 {mu}m region while average solar rejection is 80% in the vis-NIR region. Device properties and initial space test results are also presented. (author)

  4. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

  5. Raytracing for Multi-Spacecraft Missions (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)


    The numerical simulation of in-situ instruments allows the instrument design to be optimized for particle throughput and allows for the iteration of the design parameters before fabrication. This effort leads to greater efficiency since the hardware itself does not have to be machined and fabricated to test each design change. More importantly for multi-spacecraft missions, the numerical raytracing allows the assessment of manufacturing tolerances so that a low relative accuracy can be obtained between the instruments. We will discuss our experience in optimizing and raytracing our charged particle instruments, obtaining the geometry factor from these simulations, and the comparison with the results of laboratory testing. This discussion with others will support the ISSI Scientific Report on Calibration Techniques for In-Situ Plasma Instrumentation.

  6. Kepler & K2: One spacecraft, Two Missions (United States)

    Batalha, Natalie


    This year, we mark twenty years of exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems orbiting main sequence stars. Exoplanet discoveries spill into the thousands, and the sensitivity boundaries continue to expand. NASA's Kepler Mission unveiled a galaxy replete with small planets and revealed populations that don't exist in our own solar system. The mission has yielded a sample sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, and host star properties. We've learned that every late-type star has at least one planet on average, that terrestrial-sized planets are more common than larger planets within 1 AU, and that the nearest, potentially habitable earth-sized planet is likely within 5pc. After four years of continuous observations, the Kepler prime mission ended in May 2013 with the loss of a second reaction wheel. Thanks to innovative engineering, the spacecraft gained a second lease on life and emerged as the ecliptic surveyor, K2. In many regards, K2 is a distinctly new mission, not only by pointing at new areas of the sky but also by focusing on community-driven goals that diversify the science yield. For exoplanets, this means targeting bright and low mass stars -- the populations harboring planets amenable to dynamical and atmospheric characterization. To date, the mission has executed 7 observing campaigns lasting ~80 days each and has achieved a 6-hour photometric precision of 30 ppm. A couple dozen planets have been confirmed, including two nearby (watch-list for future JWST campaigns. While Kepler prime is setting the stage for the direct imaging missions of the future, K2 is easing us into an era of atmospheric characterization -- one spacecraft, two missions, and a bright future for exoplanet science.

  7. Double Cusp Observed By The Cluster Spacecraft (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Bosqued, J. M.; Berchem, J.; Anderson, P. C.; Fehringer, M.; Laakso, H.; Reme, H.

    The polar cusp is characterised by a direct entry of solar wind plasma into the magne- tosphere. Depending on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), Bz positive or negative, the precipitation of the ions in the cusp presents a dispersion in energy directed poleward or equatorward. In addition the polar cusp moves in latitude according to the IMF, from about 75 deg. ILAT for Bz negative to about 82 deg. ILAT for Bz positive. The Cluster spacecraft are crossing the mid-altitude polar cusp, in a "string of pearl" configuration, and are therefore the ideal tool to study the motion and evolution of the cusp on time scale of a few minutes up to 45 min. On 30 August 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed the mid-altitude polar cusp (4-6 Re) around 12.5 H local time with SC4 entering the cusp at 1532 UT, SC2 following 1.5 min later, SC1, 3 min later and finally SC3, 45 min later. SC4 and SC1 observed a typical poleward dispersion associated with Bz negative. SC3 observed first the same disper- sion starting at about 74 deg. ILAT, however at 81 deg. ILAT a second dispersion was observed. The IMF was southward during the dispersion and became slightly positive during the second dispersion. Two hypothesis can be proposed, a fast motion of the cusp poleward during the SC3 crossing or a double injection in the cusp. Preliminary analysis of DMSP satellites, although not exactly in the same sector, indicates that the cusp moved poleward around that time. Cluster observations will be compared with the results from a global MHD simulation model to investigate the geometry of the reconnection between the IMF and the Earth magnetic field.

  8. Optimal configuration of dual-spacecraft radio occultation observation for future lunar ionosphere exploration (United States)

    Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Matsumoto, Koji


    The lunar ionosphere is one of the remaining mysteries of the Moon. The lunar ionosphere was found by stellar radio occultation observations (Elsmore, 1957) and radio occultation observations of spacecraft, such as Luna 19, Luna 20, and SELENE (Vasilyev et al., 1974; Vyshlov et al., 1976; Imamura et al., 2012). However, the existence of the lunar ionosphere is still debated. The estimated electron densities of several hundreds to 1000 cm-3 are much larger than a theoretical estimate (Daily et al., 1977). Three different theories have been proposed to explain the existence of the lunar ionosphere. One is increase in the density of the neutral particle near the terminator, which is supply source of electrons (Daily et al., 1977). Second is existence of remnant magnetic fields which prevent the solar wind from stripping electrons of the lunar ionosphere (Savich 1976). Third is updraft of charged dust grains which are accompanied by electrons (Stubbs et al., 2011). The cause of the lunar ionosphere remains an open question because the quality and quantity of the present data are inadequate. Principal factor is the terrestrial ionosphere. The amplitude of fluctuation of total electron content (TEC) of the terrestrial ionosphere is similar to or larger than the expected TEC of the lunar ionosphere. The cause of the lunar ionosphere cannot be elucidated without removal of the terrestrial ionosphere. A dual-spacecraft radio occultation technique is one of the effective methods to remove the effect of the terrestrial ionosphere. By observing a target and a reference spacecraft simultaneously, the fluctuation of the terrestrial ionosphere which is common in two propagation paths can be canceled out. The dual-spacecraft technique has been used in the radio occultation experiment on SELENE mission (Ando et al., 2012). Although the enhancement of the electric density caused by the lunar ionosphere was detected, the number of successful observations was severely restricted

  9. Generalized Analysis Tools for Multi-Spacecraft Missions (United States)

    Chanteur, G. M.


    Analysis tools for multi-spacecraft missions like CLUSTER or MMS have been designed since the end of the 90's to estimate gradients of fields or to characterize discontinuities crossed by a cluster of spacecraft. Different approaches have been presented and discussed in the book "Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data" published as Scientific Report 001 of the International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland (G. Paschmann and P. Daly Eds., 1998). On one hand the approach using methods of least squares has the advantage to apply to any number of spacecraft [1] but is not convenient to perform analytical computation especially when considering the error analysis. On the other hand the barycentric approach is powerful as it provides simple analytical formulas involving the reciprocal vectors of the tetrahedron [2] but appears limited to clusters of four spacecraft. Moreover the barycentric approach allows to derive theoretical formulas for errors affecting the estimators built from the reciprocal vectors [2,3,4]. Following a first generalization of reciprocal vectors proposed by Vogt et al [4] and despite the present lack of projects with more than four spacecraft we present generalized reciprocal vectors for a cluster made of any number of spacecraft : each spacecraft is given a positive or nul weight. The non-coplanarity of at least four spacecraft with strictly positive weights is a necessary and sufficient condition for this analysis to be enabled. Weights given to spacecraft allow to minimize the influence of some spacecraft if its location or the quality of its data are not appropriate, or simply to extract subsets of spacecraft from the cluster. Estimators presented in [2] are generalized within this new frame except for the error analysis which is still under investigation. References [1] Harvey, C. C.: Spatial Gradients and the Volumetric Tensor, in: Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data, G. Paschmann and P. Daly (eds.), pp. 307-322, ISSI

  10. Microbial diversity on spacecraft and in spacecraft assembly and testing facilities (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Nellen, J.; Fritze, D.; Verbarg, S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Kminek, G.

    Planetary protection measures are necessary for all space flight missions involved with life detection and or sample return procedures to avoid the contamination of critical spacecraft hardware components with terrestrial organisms Spacecraft are assembled in clean rooms under defined and controlled environmental conditions These conditions might be considered as extreme with respect to controlled air circulation low relative humidity moderately high constant temperature and low nutrient conditions and represent a special artificial environment for microorganisms In the ESA-Project MiDiv the bioburden and the microbial diversity of three different spacecraft assembly and testing facilities has been investigated in periods where the facilities have been in full operation with the assembly and test of European satellites For the selected satellite missions SMART-1 and ROSETTA however no strict planetary protection measures like those required for a landing mission on Mars COSPAR Planetary Protection Category IV have been necessary and taken into consideration The result of this investigation therefore reflects the normal microbial conditions in standard class 100 000 clean rooms used by employees without any special training in planetary protection The investigation in the MiDiv project was restricted to so-called cultivable microorganisms in particular to those microorganisms that are able to grow under the selected conditions The analysis of the samples included cultivation on different media at different pH values and

  11. An application of modern control theory to an elastic spacecraft (United States)

    Larson, V.; Likins, P. W.


    Results are presented to illustrate the application of established procedures of linear, quadratic, Gaussian optimal estimation and control to a spacecraft with dynamically significant elastic appendages. Interpretations are provided in both time domain and frequency domain, and conclusions are drawn for a wide class of problems of flexible spacecraft attitude control.

  12. Attitude dynamics and control of spacecraft using geomagnetic Lorentz force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attitude stabilization of a charged rigid spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit using torques due to Lorentz force in pitch and roll directions is considered. A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in the Earth's magnetic field will be subject to perturbations from the Lorentz force. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft's orientation. We assume that the spacecraft is moving in the Earth's magnetic field in an elliptical orbit under the effects of gravitational, geomagnetic and Lorentz torques. The magnetic field of the Earth is modeled as a non-tilted dipole. A model incorporating all Lorentz torques as a function of orbital elements has been developed on the basis of electric and magnetic fields. The stability of the spacecraft orientation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The existence and stability of equilibrium positions is investigated for different values of the charge to mass ratio (α*). Stable orbits are identified for various values of α*. The main parameters for stabilization of the spacecraft are α* and the difference between the components of the moment of inertia for the spacecraft. (research papers)

  13. Analytical Investigation of Pumped Fluid Loop Radiators for Orion Spacecraft (United States)

    Reavis, Gretchen


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of pumped fluid loop radiators used in Apollo spacecraft, and the problems and challenges for using them in the Orion Spacecraft. Included in this presentation are the issues of Flow stagnation, flow stability, for single panels and multi-panels.

  14. Drawing of American ASTP crewmen searching for Soviet Soyuz spacecraft (United States)


    The American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in painting on space subjects.

  15. Three Canted Radiator Panels to Provide Adequate Cooling for Instruments on Slewing Spacecraft in LEO (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.


    Certain free-flying spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) or payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) are required to slew to point the telescopes at targets. Instrument detectors and electronics require cooling. Traditionally a planar thermal radiator is used. The temperature of such a radiator varies significantly when the spacecraft slews because its view factors to space vary significantly. Also for payloads on the ISS, solar impingement on the radiator is possible. These thermal adversities could lead to inadequate cooling for the instrument. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes three canted radiator panels to mitigate this problem. It increases the overall radiator view factor to cold space and reduces the overall solar or albedo flux absorbed per unit area of the radiator.

  16. A Survey of Research on Service-Spacecraft Orbit Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; ZHANG Jian-xin; ZHANG Qiang; WEI Xiao-peng


    On-orbit service spacecraft orbit problem has been addressed for decades. The research of on-orbit service spacecraft orbit can be roughly divided into orbit design and orbit optimization. The paper mainly focuses on the orbit design problem. We simply summarize of the previous works, and point out the main content of the on-orbit service spacecraft orbit design. We classify current on-orbit service spacecraft orbit design problem into parking-orbit design, maneuvering-orbit design and servicing-orbit design. Then, we give a detail description of the three specific orbits, and put forward our own ideas on the existed achievements. The paper will provide a meaningful reference for the on-orbit service spacecraft orbital design research.

  17. Asteroid Deflection Using a Spacecraft in Restricted Keplerian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Ketema, Yohannes


    A method for asteroid deflection that makes use of a spacecraft moving back and forth on a segment of an appropriate Keplerian orbit about the asteroid is described and evaluated. It is shown that, on average, the spacecraft describing such a trajectory can exert a significantly larger force on the asteroid than e.g. a stationary gravity tractor, thereby reducing the time needed to effect a desired velocity change for the asteroid. Furthermore, the current method does not require canted thrusters on the spacecraft (unlike a stationary gravity tractor), markedly reducing the amount of fuel needed to create a given change in the asteroid velocity. In addition, the method allows for the simultaneous use of several spacecraft, further strengthening the overall tugging effect on the asteroid, and distributing the thrust requirement among the spacecraft.

  18. Recent Observations With the ISUAL Instrument on FORMOSAT-2 Spacecraft. (United States)

    Mende, S. B.


    The Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on the Taiwanese FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2) spacecraft is the first global observatory of transient luminous events (TLEs). Since its launch (20th of May 2004) it has observed a large number of events and the statistical distribution of the various types of TLE-s were determined subject to the observational limitations of the FORMOSAT-2 platform. Half of the most commonly occurring TLE-s, elves having intense far ultraviolet (FUV) signatures (less attenuated by atmospheric O2) are produced by lightning that shows a three-step signature in the photometer signal indicating the (1) initial breakdown, (2) a beta-type stepped leader followed (3) by the bright return stroke of a negative cloud to ground (-CG) lightning. The multiwavelength, quantitative observation with the spectro- photometer allows us to analyze the spectral composition of elves and in such an event the elves contained significant 391.4 nm emission of the N2+ ion proving that ionization takes place in elves. Quantitative comparison of the signals in the various channels yields the electron energy distribution, the reduced electric field (>200 Td) within the event and the average electron density produced (210 electrons cm-3) over a large (165 km diameter) circular region having an assumed 10 km altitude extent. These observations indicate that thunderstorms are a significant source of ionization in the low- to midlatitude nighttime D region. ISUAL observed also many sprites, which tend to occur after a positive cloud to ground lightning (+CG) without a signature of initial breakdown and stepped leader. Many sprites are associated with the continuing current and can be delayed up to 100 ms after the lightning. Electron energies and the strength of the electric fields in sprites were deduced for selected events from ISUAL. Comparison of the intensity observed by channel 2 (centered at 337 nm) and channel 3 (centered at 391.4 nm) gave an

  19. Spacecraft Electrical Connector Selection and Application Processes (United States)

    Iannello, Chris; Davis, Mitchell I; Kichak, Robert A.; Slenski, George


    This assessment was initiated by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) after a number of recent "high profile" connector problems, the most visible and publicized of these being the problem with the Space Shuttle's Engine Cut-Off System cryogenic feed-thru connector. The NESC commissioned a review of NASA's connector selection and application processes for space flight applications, including how lessons learned and past problem records are fed back into the processes to avoid recurring issues. Team members were primarily from the various NASA Centers and included connector and electrical parts specialists. The commissioned study was conducted on spacecraft connector selection and application processes at NASA Centers. The team also compared the NASA spacecraft connector selection and application process to the military process, identified recent high profile connector failures, and analyzed problem report data looking for trends and common occurrences. The team characterized NASA's connector problem experience into a list of top connector issues based on anecdotal evidence of a system's impact and commonality between Centers. These top issues are as follows, in no particular rank order: electrically shorted, bent and/or recessed contact pins, contact pin/socket contamination leading to electrically open or intermittencies, connector plating corrosion or corrosion of connector components, low or inadequate contact pin retention forces, contact crimp failures, unmated connectors and mis-wiring due to workmanship errors during installation or maintenance, loose connectors due to manufacturing defects such as wavy washer and worn bayonet retention, damaged connector elastomeric seals and cryogenic connector failure. A survey was also conducted of SAE Connector AE-8C1 committee members regarding their experience relative to the NASA concerns on connectors. The most common responses in order of occurrence were contact retention, plating issues, worn-out or damaged

  20. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination (United States)

    Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.


    Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the

  1. A Low Cost Spacecraft Architecture for Robotic Lunar Exploration Projects (United States)

    Lemke, Lawrence G.; Gonzales, Andrew A.


    A program of frequent, capable, but affordable lunar robotic missions prior to return of humans to the moon can contribute to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) NASA is tasked to execute. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and its secondary payload are scheduled to orbit the moon, and impact it, respectively, in 2008. It is expected that the sequence of missions occurring for approximately the decade after 2008 will place an increasing emphasis on soft landed payloads. These missions are requited to explore intrinsic characteristics of the moon, such as hydrogen distribution in the regolith, and levitated dust, to demonstrate the ability to access and process in-situ resources, and to demonstrate functions critical to supporting human presence, such as automated precision navigation and landing. Additional factors governing the design of spacecraft to accomplish this diverse set of objectives are: operating within a relatively modest funding profile, the need tb visit multiple sites (both polar and equatorial) repeatedly, and to use the current generation of launch vehicles. In the US, this implies use of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles, or EELVs, although this design philosophy may be extended to launch vehicles of other nations, as well. Many of these factors are seemingly inconsistent with each other. For example, the cost of a spacecraft usually increases with mass; therefore the desire to fly frequent, modestly priced spacecraft seems to imply small spacecraft (autonomous navigation and soft landing) also usually increases cost. A strategy for spacecraft design that meets these conflicting requirements is presented. Taken together, spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems constitute the majority of spacecraft mass; saving development and integration cost on these elements is critical to controlling cost. Therefore, a low cost, modular design for spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems is presented which may be easily scaled up or

  2. Four-spacecraft determination of magnetopause orientation, motion and thickness: comparison with results from single-spacecraft methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Haaland


    Full Text Available In this paper, we use Cluster data from one magnetopause event on 5 July 2001 to compare predictions from various methods for determination of the velocity, orientation, and thickness of the magnetopause current layer. We employ established as well as new multi-spacecraft techniques, in which time differences between the crossings by the four spacecraft, along with the duration of each crossing, are used to calculate magnetopause speed, normal vector, and width. The timing is based on data from either the Cluster Magnetic Field Experiment (FGM or the Electric Field Experiment (EFW instruments. The multi-spacecraft results are compared with those derived from various single-spacecraft techniques, including minimum-variance analysis of the magnetic field and deHoffmann-Teller, as well as Minimum-Faraday-Residue analysis of plasma velocities and magnetic fields measured during the crossings. In order to improve the overall consistency between multi- and single-spacecraft results, we have also explored the use of hybrid techniques, in which timing information from the four spacecraft is combined with certain limited results from single-spacecraft methods, the remaining results being left for consistency checks. The results show good agreement between magnetopause orientations derived from appropriately chosen single-spacecraft techniques and those obtained from multi-spacecraft timing. The agreement between magnetopause speeds derived from single- and multi-spacecraft methods is quantitatively somewhat less good but it is evident that the speed can change substantially from one crossing to the next within an event. The magnetopause thickness varied substantially from one crossing to the next, within an event. It ranged from 5 to 10 ion gyroradii. The density profile was sharper than the magnetic profile: most of the density change occured in the earthward half of the magnetopause.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and

  3. An AFDX Network for Spacecraft Data Handling (United States)

    Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Kollias, Vangelis; Sun, Zhili; Canamares, Ernest; Ricco, Philippe


    In aeronautical domain, ARINC-664 Part 7 specification (AFDX) [4] provides the enabling technology for interfacing equipment in Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architectures. The complementary part of AFDX for a complete interoperability - Time and Space Partitioning (ARINC 653) concepts [1]- was already studied as part of space domain ESA roadmap (i.e. IMA4Space project) Standardized IMA based architecture is already considered in aeronautical domain as more flexible, reliable and secure. Integration and validation become simple, using a common set of tools and data base and could be done by part on different means with the same definition (hardware and software test benches, flight control or alarm test benches, simulator and flight test installation). In some area, requirements in terms of data processing are quite similar in space domain and the concept could be applicable to take benefit of the technology itself and of the panel of hardware and software solutions and tools available on the market. The Mission project (Methodology and assessment for the applicability of ARINC-664 (AFDX) in Satellite/Spacecraft on-board communicatION networks), as an FP7 initiative for bringing terrestrial SME research into the space domain started to evaluate the applicability of the standard in space domain.

  4. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft (United States)

    Johnson, Gary B.


    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."

  5. A Technology Program that Rescues Spacecraft (United States)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Lesh, J. R.


    There has never been a long-duration deep space mission that did not have unexpected problems during operations. JPL's Interplanetary Network Directorate (IND) Technology Program was created to develop new and improved methods of communication, navigation, and operations. A side benefit of the program is that it maintains a cadre of human talent and experimental systems that can be brought to bear on unexpected problems that may occur during mission operations. Solutions fall into four categories: applying new technology during operations to enhance science performance, developing new operational strategies, providing domain experts to help find solutions, and providing special facilities to trouble-shoot problems. These are illustrated here using five specific examples of spacecraft anomalies that have been solved using, at least in part, expertise or facilities from the IND Technology Program: Mariner 10, Voyager, Galileo, SOHO, and Cassini/Huygens. In this era of careful cost management, and emphasis on returns-on-investment, it is important to recognize this crucial additional benefit from such technology program investments.

  6. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark


    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  7. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  8. Spacecraft with gradual acceleration of solar panels (United States)

    Merhav, Tamir R. (Inventor); Festa, Michael T. (Inventor); Stetson, Jr., John B. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft (8) includes a movable appendage such as solar panels (12) operated by a stepping motor (28) driven by pulses (311). In order to reduce vibration andor attitude error, the drive pulses are generated by a clock down-counter (312) with variable count ratio. Predetermined desired clock ratios are stored in selectable memories (314a-d), and the selected ratio (R) is coupled to a comparator (330) together with the current ratio (C). An up-down counter (340) establishes the current count-down ratio by counting toward the desired ratio under the control of the comparator; thus, a step change of solar panel speed never occurs. When a direction change is commanded, a flag signal generator (350) disables the selectable memories, and enables a further store (360), which generates a count ratio representing a very slow solar panel rotational rate, so that the rotational rate always slows to a low value before direction is changed. The principles of the invention are applicable to any movable appendage.

  9. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.


    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  10. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents (United States)

    Patlach, Robert


    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  11. Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.


    This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

  12. Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler, III: Analysis of the First 16 Months of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Barclay, Thomas; Burke, Christopher J; Caldwell, Douglas A; Christiansen, Jessie L; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E; Brown, Timothy M; Dupree, Andrea K; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gilliland, Ronald L; Isaacson, Howard; Latham, David W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Quinn, Samuel; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Borucki, William J; Ciardi, David R; Gautier, Thomas N; Haas, Michael R; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Lissauer, Jack J; Rapin, William; Basri, Gibor S; Boss, Alan P; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbonneau, David; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Clarke, Bruce D; Cochran, William D; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Devore, Edna; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Everett, Mark; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John C; Girouard, Forrest R; Gould, Alan; Hall, Jennifer R; Holman, Matthew J; Howard, Andrew W; Howell, Steve B; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A; Kinemuchi, K; Kjeldsen, Hans; Klaus, Todd C; Li, Jie; Lucas, Philip W; Morris, Robert L; Prsa, Andrej; Quintana, Elisa; Sanderfer, Dwight T; Sasselov, Dimitar; Seader, Shawn E; Smith, Jeffrey C; Steffen, Jason H; Still, Martin; Stumpe, Martin C; Tarter, Jill C; Tenenbaum, Peter; Torres, Guillermo; Twicken, Joseph D; Uddin, Kamal; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Welsh, William F


    New transiting planet candidates are identified in sixteen months (May 2009 - September 2010) of data from the Kepler spacecraft. Nearly five thousand periodic transit-like signals are vetted against astrophysical and instrumental false positives yielding 1,091 viable new planet candidates, bringing the total count up to over 2,300. Improved vetting metrics are employed, contributing to higher catalog reliability. Most notable is the noise-weighted robust averaging of multi-quarter photo-center offsets derived from difference image analysis which identifies likely background eclipsing binaries. Twenty-two months of photometry are used for the purpose of characterizing each of the new candidates. Ephemerides (transit epoch, T_0, and orbital period, P) are tabulated as well as the products of light curve modeling: reduced radius (Rp/R*), reduced semi-major axis (d/R*), and impact parameter (b). The largest fractional increases are seen for the smallest planet candidates (197% for candidates smaller than 2Re com...

  13. Applying a cloud computing approach to storage architectures for spacecraft (United States)

    Baldor, Sue A.; Quiroz, Carlos; Wood, Paul

    As sensor technologies, processor speeds, and memory densities increase, spacecraft command, control, processing, and data storage systems have grown in complexity to take advantage of these improvements and expand the possible missions of spacecraft. Spacecraft systems engineers are increasingly looking for novel ways to address this growth in complexity and mitigate associated risks. Looking to conventional computing, many solutions have been executed to solve both the problem of complexity and heterogeneity in systems. In particular, the cloud-based paradigm provides a solution for distributing applications and storage capabilities across multiple platforms. In this paper, we propose utilizing a cloud-like architecture to provide a scalable mechanism for providing mass storage in spacecraft networks that can be reused on multiple spacecraft systems. By presenting a consistent interface to applications and devices that request data to be stored, complex systems designed by multiple organizations may be more readily integrated. Behind the abstraction, the cloud storage capability would manage wear-leveling, power consumption, and other attributes related to the physical memory devices, critical components in any mass storage solution for spacecraft. Our approach employs SpaceWire networks and SpaceWire-capable devices, although the concept could easily be extended to non-heterogeneous networks consisting of multiple spacecraft and potentially the ground segment.

  14. Time Frequency Analysis of Spacecraft Propellant Tank Spinning Slosh (United States)

    Green, Steven T.; Burkey, Russell C.; Sudermann, James


    Many spacecraft are designed to spin about an axis along the flight path as a means of stabilizing the attitude of the spacecraft via gyroscopic stiffness. Because of the assembly requirements of the spacecraft and the launch vehicle, these spacecraft often spin about an axis corresponding to a minor moment of inertia. In such a case, any perturbation of the spin axis will cause sloshing motions in the liquid propellant tanks that will eventually dissipate enough kinetic energy to cause the spin axis nutation (wobble) to grow further. This spinning slosh and resultant nutation growth is a primary design problem of spinning spacecraft and one that is not easily solved by analysis or simulation only. Testing remains the surest way to address spacecraft nutation growth. This paper describes a test method and data analysis technique that reveal the resonant frequency and damping behavior of liquid motions in a spinning tank. Slosh resonant frequency and damping characteristics are necessary inputs to any accurate numerical dynamic simulation of the spacecraft.

  15. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials (United States)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.


    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  16. RFP to work on formation flying capabilities for spacecrafts for the GRACE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Thuesen, Gøsta; Kilsgaard, Søren;


    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency of USA, NASA, are working on formation flying capabilities for spacecrafts, GRACE Project. IAU and JPL are developing the inter spacecraft attitude link to be used on the two spacecrafts.......The National Aeronautics and Space Agency of USA, NASA, are working on formation flying capabilities for spacecrafts, GRACE Project. IAU and JPL are developing the inter spacecraft attitude link to be used on the two spacecrafts....

  17. Application of DSN spacecraft tracking technology to experimental gravitation (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Estabrook, F. B.


    Spacecraft tracking technology of the Deep Space Net (DSN) has been used in the past to measure the general-relativistic increase in round-trip group delay between earth and a spacecraft. As the DSN technology continues to improve, other gravitational experiments will become possible. Two possibilities are discussed in this paper. The first concerns the application of solar-system dynamics to the testing of general relativity. The second involves the detection of VLF gravitational radiation (0.1 to 0.0001 Hz) by means of Doppler tracking of spacecraft.

  18. Preliminary thermal design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft (United States)

    Arif, Hugh


    The COLD-SAT free-flying spacecraft was to perform experiments with LH2 in the cryogenic fluid management technologies of storage, supply and transfer in reduced gravity. The Phase A preliminary design of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) for the spacecraft exterior and interior surfaces and components of the bus subsystems is described. The TCS was composed of passive elements which were augmented with heaters. Trade studies to minimize the parasitic heat leakage into the cryogen storage tanks are described. Selection procedure for the thermally optimum on-orbit spacecraft attitude was defined. TRASYS-2 and SINDA'85 verification analysis was performed on the design and the results are presented.

  19. A Novel Attitude Determination Algorithm for Spinning Spacecraft (United States)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.


    This paper presents a single frame algorithm for the spin-axis orientation-determination of spinning spacecraft that encounters no ambiguity problems, as well as a simple Kalman filter for continuously estimating the full attitude of a spinning spacecraft. The later algorithm is comprised of two low order decoupled Kalman filters; one estimates the spin axis orientation, and the other estimates the spin rate and the spin (phase) angle. The filters are ambiguity free and do not rely on the spacecraft dynamics. They were successfully tested using data obtained from one of the ST5 satellites.

  20. Dynamics of a spinning spacecraft during extension of flexible appendages (United States)

    Turner, J.; Keat, J.; Messac, A.


    This paper addresses the problem of analyzing the deployment of flexible appendages from a central rigid hub of a spinning spacecraft. The rigorous mathematical modeling of mass flow and changing structural configuration of the spacecraft during deployment, while the vehicle experiences small elastic deflection and small angular rate, is presented. The equations of motion are obtained in terms of integro-partial differential equations. An approximate solution for the equations of motion is obtained by using a Raleigh-Ritz method and numerical results are presented for several deployment strategies. For every instantaneous physical configuration of the spacecraft, that extension rate which will lead to unstable behavior is also determined.

  1. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  2. Spacecraft Computers on the SeaStar Satellite


    Tantiphanwadi, Sawat


    The SeaStar spacecraft requires a high performance computer system to handle its various requirements. It must process not only the high-rate data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument, but also the spacecraft ground interface system and the attitude control system data. This paper will describe the spacecraft computer architecture and its hardware. With minimum peripheral changes, the same computer can be configured to perform the payload, or the ground interfac...

  3. An Efficient Approach for Candidate Set Generation


    Nawar Malhis; Arden Ruttan; Hazem H. Refai


    When Apriori was first introduced as an algorithm for discovering association rules in a database of market basket data, the problem of generating the candidate set of the large set was a bottleneck in Apriori's performance, both in space and computational requirements. At first, many unsuccessful attempts were made to improve the generation of a candidate set. Later, other algorithms that out performed Apriori were developed that generate association rules without using a candidate set. They...

  4. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates


    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael


    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  5. Thermal and Mechanical Performance of a Carbon/Carbon Composite Spacecraft Radiator (United States)

    Kuhn, Jonathan; Benner, Steve; Butler, Dan; Silk, Eric


    Carbon-carbon composite materials offer greater thermal efficiency, stiffness to weight ratio, tailorability, and dimensional stability than aluminum. These lightweight thermal materials could significantly reduce the overall costs associated with satellite thermal control and weight. However, the high cost and long lead-time for carbon-carbon manufacture have limited their widespread usage. Consequently, an informal partnership between government and industrial personnel called the Carbon-Carbon Spacecraft Radiator Partnership (CSRP) was created to foster carbon-carbon composite use for thermally and structurally demanding space radiator applications. The first CSRP flight opportunity is on the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Orbiter-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, scheduled for launch in late 1999. For EO-1, the CSRP designed and fabricated a Carbon-Carbon Radiator (CCR) with carbon-carbon facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core, which will also serve as a structural shear panel. While carbon-carbon is an ideal thermal candidate for spacecraft radiators, in practice there are technical challenges that may compromise performance. In this work, the thermal and mechanical performance of the EO-1 CCR is assessed by analysis and testing. Both then-nal and mechanical analyses were conducted to predict the radiator response to anticipated launch and on-orbit loads. The thermal model developed was based on thermal balance test conditions. The thermal analysis was performed using SINDA version 4.0. Structural finite element modeling and analysis were performed using SDRC/1-DEAS and UAI/NASTRAN, respectively. In addition, the CCR was subjected to flight qualification thermal/vacuum and vibration tests. The panel meets or exceeds the requirements for space flight and demonstrates promise for future satellite missions.

  6. Evaluation of Five Control Algorithms for Addressing CMG Induced Jitter on a Spacecraft Testbed (United States)

    Ahn, Edwin S.; Longman, Richard W.; Kim, Jae J.; Agrawal, Brij N.


    Spacecraft often experience jitter from reaction wheels, control moment gyros (CMGs), or from motion of other internal parts. One may isolate fine pointing equipment by passive techniques, but active vibration control employing knowledge of the periodic nature of jitter can improve performance. Previous work by the authors and co-workers tested active isolation using a 6 degree-of-freedom Stewart platform. A new class of applications is laser communication relay satellites, which replaces radio frequencies communication by laser communications. Laser beam jitter can be corrected by control of tip and tilt in fast steering mirrors. This paper develops experiments testing five candidate jitter cancellation algorithms on the Bifocal Relay Mirror Spacecraft, Three Axis Simulator 2 testbed at the Naval Postgraduate School. Jitter results from the CMGs. Multiple period repetitive control (MPRC) and matched basis function repetitive control (MBFRC) are tested. Both use disturbance period information from Hall effect sensors for the CMG three phase brushless DC motors. Filtered-X LMS, adaptive linear model predictive control, and the Clear Box algorithm with Adaptive Basis Method are also tested. The best disturbance rejection resulted from the last of these choices, with a 66 % overall amplitude reduction. Concerning MPRC it was discovered that repeating an addressed period can be used as a technique to decrease sensitivity to accurate knowledge of the disturbance period.

  7. The electrical power subsystem of the Pioneer F/G spacecraft. (United States)

    Reppucci, G. M.; Jesse, E.


    The Pioneer F/G spacecraft is the first to use radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) for a long duration interplanetary mission. This paper describes the design of the spacecraft power subsystem which meets the unique requirements of such a mission. The primary power source consists of four SNAP 19 RTG's. The 4.2 volt dc outputs of the RTG's are inverted to higher voltage ac by four inverters which are connected in parallel at their outputs. A power control unit (PCU) regulates the ac output of the inverters such that the RTG's are operated at near maximum power voltage throughout the mission. The PCU also contains charge and discharge controls for a silver cadmium battery which supplements the RTG's if load requirements temporarily exceed RTG power output. Battery reliability is enhanced by overcharge and cell reversal protection electronics which are provided for each cell. Multiple, low voltage, regulated dc outputs which supply power to the spacecraft subsystems are provided by a central transformer-rectifier-filter unit (CTRF). The CTRF operates directly from the regulated ac bus.

  8. The Spacecraft Materials Selector: An Artificial Intelligence System for Preliminary Design Trade Studies, Materials Assessments, and Estimates of Environments Present (United States)

    Pippin, H. G.; Woll, S. L. B.


    Institutions need ways to retain valuable information even as experienced individuals leave an organization. Modern electronic systems have enough capacity to retain large quantities of information that can mitigate the loss of experience. Performance information for long-term space applications is relatively scarce and specific information (typically held by a few individuals within a single project) is often rather narrowly distributed. Spacecraft operate under severe conditions and the consequences of hardware and/or system failures, in terms of cost, loss of information, and time required to replace the loss, are extreme. These risk factors place a premium on appropriate choice of materials and components for space applications. An expert system is a very cost-effective method for sharing valuable and scarce information about spacecraft performance. Boeing has an artificial intelligence software package, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST), to construct and operate knowledge bases to selectively recall and distribute information about specific subjects. A specific knowledge base to evaluate the on-orbit performance of selected materials on spacecraft has been developed under contract to the NASA SEE program. The performance capabilities of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base are described. The knowledge base is a backward-chaining, rule-based system. The user answers a sequence of questions, and the expert system provides estimates of optical and mechanical performance of selected materials under specific environmental conditions. The initial operating capability of the system will include data for Kapton, silverized Teflon, selected paints, silicone-based materials, and certain metals. For situations where a mission profile (launch date, orbital parameters, mission duration, spacecraft orientation) is not precisely defined, the knowledge base still attempts to provide qualitative observations about materials performance and likely

  9. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials in the Space Environment (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.


    When we think of space, we typically think of a vacuum containing very little matter that lies between the Earth and other planetary and stellar bodies. However, the space above Earth's breathable atmosphere and beyond contains many things that make designing durable spacecraft a challenge. Depending on where the spacecraft is flyng, it may encounter atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and other forms of radiation, charged particles, micrormeteoroids and debris, and temperature extremes. These environments on their own and in combination can cause degradation and failure of polymers, composites, paints and other materials used on the exterior of spacecraft for thermal control, structure, and power generation. This article briefly discusses and gives examples of some of the degradation experienced on spacecraft and night experiments as a result of the space environment and the use of ground and space data to predict durability.

  10. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high throughput, nominal 100 W Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This HET will be sized for small spacecraft (< 180 kg), including...

  11. Applicability of ISO 16697 Data to Spacecraft Fire Fighting Strategies (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.


    Presentation Agenda: (1) Selected variables affecting oxygen consumption during spacecraft fires, (2) General overview of ISO 16697, (3) Estimated amounts of material consumed during combustion in typical ISS enclosures, (4) Discussion on potential applications.

  12. Diagnosing Faults in Electrical Power Systems of Spacecraft and Aircraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft, and they exhibit a rich variety of failure modes. This paper discusses electrical power...

  13. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation Based on Pulsar Timing Information

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardt, Mike Georg; Prinz, Tobias; Breithuth, Ferdinand Maximilian; Walter, Ulrich


    We discuss the possibility of an autonomous navigation system for spacecraft that is based on pulsar timing data. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars that are observable as variable celestial sources of electromagnetic radiation. Their periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board the spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at some reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously with accuracies on the order of 5 kilometres. For a spacecraft at a distance of 10 astronomical units from Earth (e.g., Earth-Saturn), this means an improvement by a factor of 8 compared to conventional methods. Therefore this new technology is an alternative to standard navigation based on radio tracking by ground stations, without the disadvantages of uncertainty in...

  14. The Impact of Autonomy Technology on Spacecraft Software Architecture (United States)

    Gamble, E. B., Jr.


    Autonomy technology for high-level, closed-loop control of spacecraft offers considerable benefits to space-flight projects. Those benefits can enable whole new classes of missions; however, they are not without cost.

  15. Novel Metal Organic Framework Synthesis for Spacecraft Oxygen Capture Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek and University of Utah propose to develop novel metal organic framework (MOF) material to efficiently capture oxygen in spacecraft cabin environment. The...

  16. Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts (United States)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.


    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  17. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob


    A control synthesis for a spacecraft equipped with a set of magnetorquer coils is addressed. The electromagnetic actuation is particularly attractive for small low-cost spacecraft missions, due to their relatively low price, high reliability, light weight, and low power consumption. The interacti....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation.......A control synthesis for a spacecraft equipped with a set of magnetorquer coils is addressed. The electromagnetic actuation is particularly attractive for small low-cost spacecraft missions, due to their relatively low price, high reliability, light weight, and low power consumption. The interaction...

  18. Nuclear-powered Hysat spacecraft: comparative design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study shows that the all-nuclear spacecraft can have a substantial weight advantage over a hybrid (nuclear/solar) or all-solar spacecraft, owing to a further reduction in power requirement, and to the elimination of such equipment as the sensor gimbal and rotating joint assemblies. Because the need for a sun-oriented section is eliminated, the all-nuclear spacecraft can be designed as a monolithic structure, with the sensor and other payload firmly secured in a fixed position on the structure. This enhances attitude stability while minimizing structural weight and eliminating the need for flexible fluid lines. Sensor motion can be produced, varied, and controlled within the limits specified by the study contractors by moving the entire spacecraft in the prescribed pattern. A simple attitude control system using available hardware suffices to meet all requirements

  19. Wireless Data and Power Transfer on Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achieving low-cost space missions implies lowering all phases of mission development, including spacecraft design, assembly, integration and test. The concept of...

  20. Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance,...

  1. Spacecraft Water Regeneration by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop advanced catalysts for a volatile removal assembly used to purify spacecraft water. The innovation of the proposed...

  2. Foil Gas Bearing Supported Quiet Fan for Spacecraft Ventilation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a quiet fan for Environmental Control and Life Support systems to enhance the livable environment within the spacecraft has been a challenge. A Foil Gas...

  3. A Self-Regulating Freezable Heat Exchanger for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A spacecraft thermal control system must keep the vehicle, avionics and atmosphere (if crewed) within a defined temperature range. Since water is non-toxic and good...

  4. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft (United States)

    Gat, E.


    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  5. Passive Devices for Advanced Fluid Management aboard Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acute challenges are faced by the designers of fluid systems for spacecraft because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-g environment. For example,...

  6. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  7. Distributed Control Architectures for Precision Spacecraft Formations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc. (LaunchPoint) proposes to develop synthesis methods and design architectures for distributed control systems in precision spacecraft...

  8. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  9. Spacecraft control section for the improved Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS) (United States)

    Townsend, M. R.


    The upgraded spacecraft control section for the Small Astronomy Satellite is able to point its thrust axis to any direction in space; it can also spin or slow its outer body rotation to zero for star-locked pointing of side viewing experiments. A programmable telemetry system and delayed command system enhance the inherent capability of a spacecraft designed to be used for a variety of experiments, each of which can be built independently and attached just prior to final acceptance testing and launch. The design of this new spacecraft, whose first launch is scheduled for 1975, is provided in sufficient detail to permit the reader to ascertain its suitability for specific experiments. A summary of the spacecraft characteristics, project reliability requirements, and environmental test conditions are included in the appendices.

  10. Triple3 Redundant Spacecraft Subsystems (T3RSS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Redefine Technologies, along with researchers at the University of Colorado, will use three redundancy methods to decrease the susceptibility of a spacecraft, on a...

  11. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  12. Investigation of Correction Method of the Spacecraft Low Altitude Ranging

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jing-Lei; Wu, Shi-Tong; Huang, Wei


    gamma ray altitude control system is an important equipment for deep space exploration and sample return mission, its main purpose is a low altitude measurement of the spacecraft based on Compton Effect at the moment when it lands on extraterrestrial celestial or sampling returns to the Earth land, and an ignition altitude correction of the spacecraft retrograde landing rocket at different landing speeds. This paper presents an ignition altitude correction method of the spacecraft at different landing speeds, based on the number of particles gamma ray reflected field gradient graded. Through the establishment of a theoretical model, its algorithm feasibility is proved by a mathematical derivation and verified by an experiment, and also the adaptability of the algorithm under different parameters is described. The method provides a certain value for landing control of the deep space exploration spacecraft landing the planet surface.

  13. Spacecraft Thermal Control System Not Requiring Power Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The thermal management of spacecraft would be enhanced by dynamic control over surface emissivity in the mid-infrared. In this SBIR program, Triton Systems proposes...

  14. Aerogel Insulation for the Thermal Protection of Venus Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of NASA's primary goals for the next decade is the design, development and launch of a spacecraft aimed at the in-situ exploration of the deep atmosphere and...

  15. Application and use of nuclear power for future spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent plans for growth of civil and military applications of spacecraft and satellites has intensified interest in the use of nuclear power in space. Potential developers of nuclear power reactors and/or conversion systems have provided past papers describing various particular design aspects of their respective systems. This paper provides potential power system users with spacecraft integration concepts and limited data, that may help them identify where and how nuclear power may best be used to meet spacecraft systems power requirements. The paper discusses overall power system size, mass, thermal management, spacecraft configuration, and shielding of unmanned man-visited and continuously-manned systems. Discussion relative to safety imposed limitations and orbital maintenance limitations are included. 6 references

  16. The application and use of nuclear power for future spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent plans for growth of civil and military applications of spacecraft and satellites has intensified interest in the use of nuclear power in space. Potential developers of nuclear power reactors and/or conversion systems have provided past papers describing various particular design aspects of their respective systems. This paper provides potential power system users with spacecraft integration concepts and limited data, that may help them identify where and how nuclear power may best be used to meet spacecraft systems power requirements. The paper discusses overall power system size, mass, thermal management, spacecraft configuration, and shielding of unmanned, manvisited and continuously-manned systems. Discussion relative to safety imposed limitations and orbital maintenance limitations are included

  17. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek is developing a high throughput nominal 100-W Hall Effect Thruster. This device is well sized for spacecraft ranging in size from several tens of kilograms to...

  18. Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and...

  19. A Data Abstraction Architecture for Spacecraft Autonomy Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft generate huge amounts of data. A significant challenge for both human operators and autonomous control systems is ensuring that the right data (and...

  20. Modeling Vacuum Arcs On Spacecraft Solar Panel Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft charging and subsequent vacuum arcing poses a significant threat to satellites in LEO and GEO plasma conditions. Localized arc discharges can cause a...

  1. Reactor/Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are currently underway to assess the technological feasibility of a nuclear-reactor-powered spacecraft propelled by electric thrusters. The purpose of this study was to provide comparative information on a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system

  2. Monitoring and forecasting of great radiation hazards for spacecraft and aircrafts by online cosmic ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman


    Full Text Available We show that an exact forecast of great radiation hazard in space, in the magnetosphere, in the atmosphere and on the ground can be made by using high-energy particles (few GeV/nucleon and higher whose transportation from the Sun is characterized by a much bigger diffusion coefficient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore, high energy particles come from the Sun much earlier (8-20 min after acceleration and escaping into solar wind than the main part of smaller energy particles (more than 30-60 min later, causing radiation hazard for electronics and personal health, as well as spacecraft and aircrafts. We describe here principles of an automatic set of programs that begin with "FEP-Search", used to determine the beginning of a large FEP event. After a positive signal from "FEP-Search", the following programs start working: "FEP-Research/Spectrum", and then "FEP-Research/Time of Ejection", "FEP-Research /Source" and "FEP-Research/Diffusion", which online determine properties of FEP generation and propagation. On the basis of the obtained information, the next set of programs immediately start to work: "FEP-Forecasting/Spacecrafts", "FEP-Forecasting/Aircrafts", "FEP-Forecasting/Ground", which determine the expected differential and integral fluxes and total fluency for spacecraft on different orbits, aircrafts on different airlines, and on the ground, depending on altitude and cutoff rigidity. If the level of radiation hazard is expected to be dangerous for high level technology or/and personal health, the following programs will be used "FEP-Alert/Spacecrafts", "FEP-Alert/ Aircrafts", "FEP-Alert/Ground".

  3. Monitoring and forecasting of great radiation hazards for spacecraft and aircrafts by online cosmic ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that an exact forecast of great radiation hazard in space, in the magnetosphere, in the atmosphere and on the ground can be make by using high-energy particles (few GeV/nucleon and higher) whose transportation from the Sun is characterized by a much bigger diffusion coefficient then for small and middle energy particles. Therefore, high energy particles come from the Sun much earlier (8-20 min after acceleration and escaping onto solar wind) than the main part of smaller energy particles (more than 30-60min later), causing radiation hazard for electronics and personal health, as well as spacecraft and aircrafts. We describe here principles of an automatic set of programs that begin with ''FEP-Search'', used to determine the beginning of a large FEP event. After a positive signal from ''FEP-Research/Spectrum'', and then ''FEP-Research/Time of Ejection'', ''FEP-Research /Source'' and ''FEP-Research/Diffusion'', which online determine properties of FEP generation and propagation. On the basis of the Obtained information, the next set of programs immediately start to work: ''FEP-Forecasting/Spacecrafts'', ''FEP-Forecasting/Aircrafts'', ''FEP-Forecasting/Aircrafts'', ''FEP-Forecasting/Ground'', which determine the expected differential and integral fluxes and total fluency for spacecraft on different orbits, aircrafts on different airline, and on the ground, depending on altitude and cutoff rigidity. If the level of radiation hazard is expected to be dangerous for high level technology or/and personal health, the following programs will be used ''FEP=Alert/Spacecrafts'', ''FEP-Alert/Aircrafts'', ''FEP-Alert/Ground''. (orig.)

  4. Spacecraft Materials in the Space Flight Environment: International Space Station - May 2002 to May 2007 (United States)

    Golden, John; Lorenz, Mary J.; Alred, John; Koontz, Steven L.; Pedley, Michael


    The performance of ISS spacecraft materials and systems on prolonged exposure to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) space flight is reported in this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are presented. The space flight environments definitions (both natural and induced) used for ISS design, material selection, and verification testing are shown, in most cases, to be more severe than the actual flight environment accounting for the outstanding performance of ISS as a long mission duration spacecraft. No significant ISS material or system failures have been attributed to spacecraft-environments interactions. Nonetheless, ISS materials and systems performance data is contributing to our understanding of spacecraft material interactions in the spaceflight environment so as to reduce cost and risk for future spaceflight projects and programs. Orbital inclination (51.6o) and altitude (nominally near 360 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in an electrically conducting environment (the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere) with well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other charged and neutral ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1-4). The LEO micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an especially important determinant of spacecraft design and operations (5, 6). The magnitude of several environmental factors varies dramatically with latitude and longitude as ISS orbits the Earth (1-4). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes ISS to higher fluences of trapped energetic electrons, auroral electrons, solar cosmic rays, and galactic cosmic rays (1-4) than would be the case in lower inclination orbits, largely as a result of the overall shape and magnitude of

  5. Spacecraft Doppler Tracking as a Xylophone Detector of Gravitational Radiation (United States)

    Tinto, M.


    Spacecraft Doppler tracking is discussed for detecting gravitational waves in which Doppler data recorded on the ground are linearly combined with Doppler measurements made on board a spacecraft. A new method is derived for removing from combined data the frequency fluctuations due to the Earth troposphere, ionosphere, and mechanical vibrations of the antenna on the ground. The remaining non-zero gravitational wave signal could be used for detecting gravitational waves.

  6. Model predictive control system design and implementation for spacecraft rendezvous


    Hartley, E; Trodden, P.; Richards, A.; Maciejowski, J


    This paper presents the design and implementation of a model predictive control (MPC) system to guide and control a chasing spacecraft during rendezvous with a passive target spacecraft in an elliptical or circular orbit, from the point of target detection all the way to capture. To achieve an efficient system design, the rendezvous manoeuvre has been partitioned into three main phases based on the range of operation, plus a collision-avoidance manoeuvre to be used in event of a fault. Each h...

  7. Setpoint Weighted PID Controller for the Electromechanical Actuator in Spacecraft


    R. Sumathi; M Usha


    An intelligent control system for the rocket engine during electromechanical stage is designed and scrutinized in this paper. The rocket is the only vehicle that lift-offs the spacecraft in the space. But, the motion of the rocket can be influenced by internal and external disturbances. Furthermore, the rocket is a multi-input and multi-output nonlinear system whose dynamics are unstable and poorly understood. So the orientation of the spacecraft in precise position is so critical. Hence, att...

  8. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments


    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita,Osamu; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Jomaas, Grunde


    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is being developed to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for ...

  9. Local Vertical/Local Horizontal Attitude Control for Spartan Spacecraft


    Morrissey, James; Olney, David


    A Spartan spacecraft attitude control system was reconfigured to provide attitude pointing with respect to a Local Vertical/Local Horizontal reference frame even though the baseline system uses only an initial start attitude, sun sensors, and star tracker/gyros for defining the spacecraft attitude. No earth sensors of any kind are used. Deployed from the orbiter for two days, usually for solar and stellar inertial pointing, Spartan missions use pointing programs that must be written months pr...

  10. Evolution of the plasma environment of comet 67P from spacecraft potential measurements by the Rosetta Langmuir probe instrument (United States)

    Odelstad, E.; Eriksson, A. I.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Johansson, F.; Vigren, E.; André, M.; Tzou, C.-Y.; Carr, C.; Cupido, E.


    We study the evolution of the plasma environment of comet 67P using measurements of the spacecraft potential from early September 2014 (heliocentric distance 3.5 AU) to late March 2015 (2.1 AU) obtained by the Langmuir probe instrument. The low collision rate keeps the electron temperature high (˜5 eV), resulting in a negative spacecraft potential whose magnitude depends on the electron density. This potential is more negative in the northern (summer) hemisphere, particularly over sunlit parts of the neck region on the nucleus, consistent with neutral gas measurements by the Cometary Pressure Sensor of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis. Assuming constant electron temperature, the spacecraft potential traces the electron density. This increases as the comet approaches the Sun, most clearly in the southern hemisphere by a factor possibly as high as 20-44 between September 2014 and January 2015. The northern hemisphere plasma density increase stays around or below a factor of 8-12, consistent with seasonal insolation change.

  11. Bremsstrahlung x ray spectra of Jupiter and Saturn: Predictions for future planetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of X ray spectra due to bremsstrahlung from precipitating auroral electrons at Jupiter and Saturn are presented. The model assumes that a field-aligned potential drop accelerates a primary beam of electrons into the atmosphere where a population of secondary electrons having a power law energy dependence is generated. The spectrum at Jupiter is normalized to the soft X ray observations of Metzger et al (1983) at the low-energy end and constrained at the high-energy end by UV auroral energy requirements. The spectrum at Saturn is constructed by analogy to the Jovian case allowing for variation of the beam energy, energy flux, and scale size of the Saturnian aurora. The resulting indicate that a significant flux of X rays is emanating from both planets which may serve as a basis for conducting planetary X ray astronomy as part of future spacecraft missions to the planets

  12. The solar wind on 1 November 1984: observations by the AMPTE-UKS spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AMPTE-UKS spacecraft was well place to monitor the solar wind and its variations during the unusual compression of the earth's magnetosphere on 1 November 1984. Ions, electrons, magnetic fields and plasma waves observed between 0815 and 1300 UT upstream from the bow shock at geocentric distances of 14-19 Rsub(e) and magnetic local times ∼ 0900 MLT are reported and assessed with respect to magnetopause and bow-shock crossings closer to the earth by the AMPTE-CCE. (author)

  13. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams


    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  14. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates invo...

  15. The interaction of relativistic spacecrafts with the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem; Burkhart, Blakesley; Loeb, Abraham


    The Breakthrough Starshot initiative aims to launch a gram-scale spacecraft to a speed of $v\\sim 0.2$c, capable of reaching the nearest star system, $\\alpha$ Centauri, in about 20 years. However, a critical challenge for the initiative is the damage to the spacecraft by interstellar gas and dust during the journey. In this paper, we quantify the interaction of a relativistic spacecraft with gas and dust in the interstellar medium. For gas bombardment, we find that damage by track formation due to heavy elements is an important effect. We find that gas bombardment can potentially damage the surface of the spacecraft to a depth of $\\sim 0.1$ mm for quartz material after traversing a gas column of $N_{\\rm H}\\sim 2\\times 10^{18}\\rm cm^{-2}$ along the path to $\\alpha$ Centauri, whereas the effect is much weaker for graphite material. The effect of dust bombardment erodes the spacecraft surface and produces numerous craters due to explosive evaporation of surface atoms. For a spacecraft speed $v=0.2c$, we find that...

  16. Time maintenance system for the BMDO MSX spacecraft (United States)

    Hermes, Martin J.


    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is responsible for designing and implementing a clock maintenance system for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organizations (BMDO) Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft. The MSX spacecraft has an on-board clock that will be used to control execution of time-dependent commands and to time tag all science and housekeeping data received from the spacecraft. MSX mission objectives have dictated that this spacecraft time, UTC(MSX), maintain a required accuracy with respect to UTC(USNO) of +/- 10 ms with a +/- 1 ms desired accuracy. APL's atomic time standards and the downlinked spacecraft time were used to develop a time maintenance system that will estimate the current MSX clock time offset during an APL pass and make estimates of the clock's drift and aging using the offset estimates from many passes. Using this information, the clock's accuracy will be maintained by uplinking periodic clock correction commands. The resulting time maintenance system is a combination of offset measurement, command/telemetry, and mission planning hardware and computing assets. All assets provide necessary inputs for deciding when corrections to the MSX spacecraft clock must be made to maintain its required accuracy without inhibiting other mission objectives. The MSX time maintenance system is described as a whole and the clock offset measurement subsystem, a unique combination of precision time maintenance and measurement hardware controlled by a Macintosh computer, is detailed. Simulations show that the system estimates the MSX clock offset to less than+/- 33 microseconds.

  17. Coordinating Multiple Spacecraft Assets for Joint Science Campaigns (United States)

    Estlin, Tara; Chien, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel; de Granville, Charles; Doubleday, Josh; Anderson, Robert C.; Knight, Russell; Bornstein, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Tang, Benyang


    This paper describes technology to support a new paradigm of space science campaigns. These campaigns enable opportunistic science observations to be autonomously coordinated between multiple spacecraft. Coordinated spacecraft can consist of multiple orbiters, landers, rovers, or other in-situ vehicles (such as an aerobot). In this paradigm, opportunistic science detections can be cued by any of these assets where additional spacecraft are requested to take further observations characterizing the identified event or surface feature. Such coordination will enable a number of science campaigns not possible with present spacecraft technology. Examples from Mars include enabling rapid data collection from multiple craft on dynamic events such as new Mars dark slope streaks, dust-devils or trace gases. Technology to support the identification of opportunistic science events and/or the re-tasking of a spacecraft to take new measurements of the event is already in place on several individual missions such as the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission and the Earth Observing One (EO1) Mission. This technology includes onboard data analysis techniques as well as capabilities for planning and scheduling. This paper describes how these techniques can be cue and coordinate multiple spacecraft in observing the same science event from their different vantage points.

  18. Three Generations of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Spacecraft (United States)

    Zaleski, Ron


    The current Tracking and Data Relay Satellite configuration consists of nine in-orbit satellites (four first generation, three second generation and two third generation satellites) globally distributed in geosynchronous orbit to provide near continuous data relay service to missions like Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station. The 1st generation spacecraft were designed by TRW/Northrop Grumman with their launches of the five spacecraft ranging from 1983 through 1995. The 2nd and 3rd generation spacecraft were designed by Boeing with their launches ranging 2000 - 2002 and 2013 - 2017 respectively. TDRS-3 is now 27 years on orbit, continues to be a capable asset for the TDRS constellation. Lack of need for inclination control combined with large fuel reserves and redundancy on critical elements provides spacecraft that operate well past design life, all of which contributes to expanded TDRS constellation support capabilities. All spacecraft generations have issues. Significant issues will be summarized with the focus on the Boeing related problems. Degradations and failures are continually assessed and provide the foundation for yearly updates to spacecraft reliability models, constellation service projections and deorbit plans (in order to meet NASAs mandate of limiting orbital debris). Even when accounting for degradations and failures, the life expectancy for the Boeing delivered 2nd generation TDRS-8, 9 10 TDRS are anticipated to be 25+ years.

  19. Multi-Dimensional Recruiting: Electronic Evidence Breaking Traditions (United States)

    Watkins, Paul; Roberts, Ruth Ann


    An electronic performance portfolio can lift a candidate off the resume page and on to a virtual stage. A principal can literally watch as the teacher candidate performs on the classroom stage. Internet recruitment and candidate selection is becoming an important tool to make hiring decisions. To a great degree electronic performance portfolios…

  20. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence with Splunk (United States)

    Hwang, Victor


    So what is Splunk? Instead of giving the technical details, which you can find online, I'll tell you what it did for me. Splunk slapped everything into one place, with one uniform format, and gave me the ability to forget about all these annoying details of where it is, how to parse it, and all that. Instead, I only need to interact with Splunk to find the data I need. This sounds simple and obvious, but it's surprising what you can do once you all of your data is indexed in one place. By having your data organized, querying becomes much easier. Let's say that I want to search telemetry for a sensor_name gtemp_1 h and to return all data that is at most five minutes old. And because Splunk can hook into a real ]time stream, this data will always be up-to-date. Extending the previous example, I can now aggregate all types of data into one view based in time. In this picture, I've got transaction logs, telemetry, and downlinked files all in one page, organized by time. Even though the raw data looks completely than this, I've defined interfaces that transform it into this uniform format. This gives me a more complete picture for the question what was the spacecraft doing at this particular time? And because querying data is simple, I can start with a big block of data and whiddle it down to what I need, rather than hunting around for the individual pieces of data that I need. When we have all the data we need, we can begin widdling down the data with Splunk's Unix-like search syntax. These three examples highlights my trial-and-error attempts to find large temperature changes. I begin by showing the first 5 temperatures, only to find that they're sorted chronologically, rather than from highest temperatures to lowest temperatures. The next line shows sorting temperatures by their values, but I find that that fs not really what I want either. I want to know the delta temperatures between readings. Looking through Splunk's user manual, I find the delta function, which

  1. Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius (United States)

    Alikakos, J.; Boumis, P.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Goudis, C. D.


    During an [O III] survey of planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate supernova remants (SNRs) and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. We obtained images of the area of interest by acquiring observations in the emission lines of Hα + [N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4° × 1.0°, where both filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting that there is more than one SNR in the area. Deep long-slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux-calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting that they are related, while the infrared emission found in the area at 12 μm and 22 μm marginally correlates with the optical. The presence of the [O III] emission line in one of the candidate SNRs implies that the shock velocities in the interstellar "clouds" are between 120 km s-1 and 200 km s-1, while its absence in the other candidate SNRs indicates that the shock velocities there are slower. For all candidate remnants, the [S II] λλ 6716/6731 ratio indicates that the electron densities are below 240 cm-3, while the Hα emission is measured to be between 0.6 and 41 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. The existence of eight pulsars within 1.5° of the center of the candidate SNRs also implies that there are many SNRs in the area as well as that the detected optical emission could be part of a number of supernovae explosions.

  2. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration


    Event display (side view) of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. Electron clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  3. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.


    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  4. X2000 power system electronics development (United States)

    Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Franco, Lauro; Jones, Loren; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treichler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John


    The X2000 Power System Electronics (PSE) is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) task to develop a new generation of power system building blocks for potential use on future deep space missions. The effort includes the development of electronic components and modules that can be used as building blocks in the design of generic spacecraft power systems.

  5. Enabling Advanced Automation in Spacecraft Operations with the Spacecraft Emergency Response System (United States)

    Breed, Julie; Fox, Jeffrey A.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    True autonomy is the Holy Grail of spacecraft mission operations. The goal of launching a satellite and letting it manage itself throughout its useful life is a worthy one. With true autonomy, the cost of mission operations would be reduced to a negligible amount. Under full autonomy, any problems (no matter the severity or type) that may arise with the spacecraft would be handled without any human intervention via some combination of smart sensors, on-board intelligence, and/or smart automated ground system. Until the day that complete autonomy is practical and affordable to deploy, incremental steps of deploying ever-increasing levels of automation (computerization of once manual tasks) on the ground and on the spacecraft are gradually decreasing the cost of mission operations. For example, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) has been flying spacecraft with low cost operations for several years. NASA-GSFC's SMEX (Small Explorer) and MIDEX (Middle Explorer) missions have effectively deployed significant amounts of automation to enable the missions to fly predominately in 'light-out' mode. Under light-out operations the ground system is run without human intervention. Various tools perform many of the tasks previously performed by the human operators. One of the major issues in reducing human staff in favor of automation is the perceived increased in risk of losing data, or even losing a spacecraft, because of anomalous conditions that may occur when there is no one in the control center. When things go wrong, missions deploying advanced automation need to be sure that anomalous conditions are detected and that key personal are notified in a timely manner so that on-call team members can react to those conditions. To ensure the health and safety of its lights-out missions, NASA-GSFC's Advanced Automation and Autonomy branch (Code 588) developed the Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS). The SERS is a Web-based collaborative environment that enables

  6. Flight System Implementation of the Spacecraft Occulter System for Theia (United States)

    Tenerelli, Domenick; Theia


    The objective of the Theia program is to characterize Earth-like planets around nearby stars. Theia utilizes two formation-flying spacecraft in an L2 orbit - an observatory and a free flying occulter. Characterization involves looking for signs of life by observing molecular signatures and the presence of water vapor. A free flying occulter spacecraft provides starlight suppression by blocking the starlight while allowing planet light to pass. A diffraction limited monolithic optical telescope is provided for observing planet light passed by the occulter spacecraft. The occulter spacecraft and observatory are flown with a separation of 38, 700 km to 72,000 km (depending on telescope aperture). The Theia system design greatly simplifies design, manufacturing, modeling, and testing requirements compared to a stand-alone high performance internal coronagraph. Design advantages include having thermal/mechanical specifications approaching those of a conventional telescope requiring minimal actuator count. Standard materials and manufacturing approaches apply. End-to-end testing and facilities requirements are standard. The occulter is comprised of up to 30 petals constructed of a dimensionally stable material. Each petal is structurally reinforced for ground handling and testing purposes. An electro-mechanically actuated deployment utilizes standard space qualified mechanism designs to achieve up to a 50m deployed diameter. Multiple layers ensure performance over 5 years of micro-meteroid degradation. The occulter spacecraft is a modular design built of dimensionally stable composite material with 6 bays mounted to a propulsion sub-assembly. The occulter spacecraft uses ion thrusters to achieve its required delta-V over its lifetime and to maintain a position tolerance of 1 m with respect to the observatory. A traditional reaction wheel system is used to maintain orientation. The occulter and occulter spacecraft are compatible with the Atlas 5 launch vehicle.

  7. On the feasibility of detecting the ionospheric effects of solar energetic particle events at Mars using spacecraft-spacecraft radio links (United States)

    Withers, Paul


    Indirect evidence and theoretical modeling suggests that the effects of solar energetic particle (SEP) events on the ionosphere of Mars are substantial, but observations have not yet provided quantitative information on the magnitude or vertical distribution of the plasma produced below 100 km by SEP events. Strong radio wave absorption is anticipated during a SEP event due to the production of plasma at low altitudes where the neutral atmosphere is relatively dense. Here we test the feasibility of measuring the ionospheric effects of SEP events using power losses in spacecraft-spacecraft UHF radio links. Both lander-orbiter and orbiter-orbiter cases are considered for the UHF radio frequency of 400 MHz. A large SEP event should cause an ionospheric power loss at 400 MHz of 1.5 dB in lander-orbiter communications and, due to the longer path length, a larger power loss of 35 dB in orbiter-orbiter communications. Multiple SEP events occur each year that can cause a lander-orbiter power loss of 0.1 dB, which is shown to be theoretically detectable by current instrumentation, and an orbiter-orbiter power loss of 2 dB. The vertical profile of electron density at low altitudes can be determined from orbiter-orbiter power losses.

  8. Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.


    Sv limit for the exposure of the blood forming organs (this limit is strictly for LEO but can be used as a guideline for the Mars mission analysis). The current estimates require aluminum shield thicknesses above 50 g/sq cm., which is impractical. In such a heavily shielded vehicle, the neutrons produced throughout the vehicle also contribute significantly to the exposure and this demands greater care in describing the angular dependence of secondary particle production processes. As such the continued testing of databases and transport procedures in laboratory and spaceflight experiments has continued. This has been the focus of much of the last year's activity and has resulted in improved neutron prediction capability. These new methods have also improved our understanding of the surface environment of Mars. The Mars 2003 NRA HEDS related surface science requirements were driven by the need to validate predictions on the upward flux of neutrons produced in the Martian regolith and bedrock made by the codes developed under this project. The codes used in the surface environment definition are also being used to look at in situ resources for the development of construction material for Martian surface facilities. For example, synthesis of polyimides and polyethylene as binders of regolith for developing basic structural elements has been studied and targets built for accelerator beam testing of radiation shielding properties. Preliminary mechanical tests have also been promising. Improved spacecraft materials have been identified (using the criteria reported by this project at the last conference) as potentially important for future shielding materials. These are liquid hydrogen, hydrogenated nanofibers, liquid methane, LiH, Polyethylene, Polysulfone, and Polyetherimide (in order of decreasing shield performance). Some of the materials are multifunctional and are required for other onboard systems. We are currently preparing software for trade studies with these materials

  9. Experimental study of electrostatic discharges of spacecraft solar array protective coatings under radiation (United States)

    Khasanshin, Rashid; Novikov, Lev

    Action of charged particles on low-conductive dielectrics causes formation of areas with a high charge density inside; their fields may give rise to development of electrostatic discharge between the charged area and the surface of the dielectric. Discharge channels are growing due to breakdown of dielectric and formation of a conducting phase. Generation of the channels is a complex stochastic process accompanied by such physical and chemical processes as ionization, gas formation, heating, and so on, which cause formation of conducting phase in a glass. That is why no quantitative theory describing formation of conductive channels has been formulated yet. The study of electrostatic discharges in dielectrics under radiation is essential both from a scientific point of view and for the solution of applied problems. In particular, interaction of a spacecraft with ambient plasma causes accumulation of electric charges on its surface producing, as a consequence, electric potential between the spacecraft surface and the plasma. For example, potentials on the surface of satellites operating on a geostationary orbit reach up to 20 kV. Elec-trostatic discharges caused by such potentials can produce not only the considerable electromag-netic interference, but also lead to the destruction of hardware components and structural ele-ments. Electrostatic charging due to electrons from the Earth’s radiation belts causes degradation of solar arrays as a result of surface and internal electrostatic discharges. In the work, surface of K-208 spacecraft solar array protective coatings irradiated by 20 and 40 keV electrons and protons has studied using by AFM methods. Traces of electrostatic dis-charges at different radiation flux densities were analyzed.

  10. Photo multiplier tubes candidates for the Cherenkov telescope array project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMTs) are the most wide spread detectors for fast low-level light signals. They are commonly used as standard light sensors for camera systems in imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Years ago, an improvement program for the PMT candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project was initialized with the companies Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (Japan) and Electron Tubes Enterprises Ltd. (England). CTA is the next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for high energy gamma ray astrophysics. Therefore, we need PMTs with outstanding good parameters concerning quantum efficiency, pulse width, after-pulsing and transit time spread. The currently available ''super-bialkali'' PMTs show a peak Quantum Efficiency of 40% and have an enhanced collection efficiency of up to 95-98% for wavelengths≥400 nm. The pulse width averages around 3ns at a gain of 40000. Also, the after-pulsing for a set threshold level of ≥4 photo electrons is reduced down to 0,02%. We report on the measurement results of PMT R-12292-100 from Hamamatsu as the final version and the intermediate version PMT D569/3SA from Electron Tubes Enterprises as candidate PMTs for the CTA project.

  11. Controlling Charging and Arcing on a Solar Powered Auroral Orbiting Spacecraft (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Rhee, Michael S.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement satellite (GPM) will be launched into a high inclination (65 degree) orbit to monitor rainfall on a global scale. Satellites in high inclination orbits have been shown to charge to high negative potentials, with the possibility of arcing on the solar arrays, when three conditions are met: a drop in plasma density below approximately 10,000 cm(exp -3), an injection of energetic electrons of energy more that 7-10 keV, and passage through darkness. Since all of these conditions are expected to obtain for some of the GPM orbits, charging calculations were done using first the Space Environment and Effects (SEE) Program Interactive Spacecraft Charging Handbook, and secondly the NASA Air-force Spacecraft Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP-2k). The object of the calculations was to determine if charging was likely for the GPM configuration and materials, and specifically to see if choosing a particular type of thermal white paint would help minimize charging. A detailed NASCAP-2k geometrical model of the GPM spacecraft was built, with such a large number of nodes that it challenged the capability of NASCAP-2k to do the calculations. The results of the calculations were that for worst-case auroral charging conditions, charging to levels on the order of -120 to -230 volts could occur on GPM during night-time, with differential voltages on the solar arrays that might lead to solar array arcing. In sunlit conditions, charging did not exceed -20 V under any conditions. The night-time results were sensitive to the spacecraft surface materials chosen. For non-conducting white paints, the charging was severe, and could continue unabated throughout the passage of GPM through the auroral zone. Somewhat conductive (dissipative) white paints minimized the night-time charging to levels of -120 V or less, and thus were recommended for GPM thermal control. It is shown that the choice of thermal control paints is important to prevent arcing on high

  12. Comprehension of Spacecraft Telemetry Using Hierarchical Specifications of Behavior (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Joshi, Rajeev


    A key challenge in operating remote spacecraft is that ground operators must rely on the limited visibility available through spacecraft telemetry in order to assess spacecraft health and operational status. We describe a tool for processing spacecraft telemetry that allows ground operators to impose structure on received telemetry in order to achieve a better comprehension of system state. A key element of our approach is the design of a domain-specific language that allows operators to express models of expected system behavior using partial specifications. The language allows behavior specifications with data fields, similar to other recent runtime verification systems. What is notable about our approach is the ability to develop hierarchical specifications of behavior. The language is implemented as an internal DSL in the Scala programming language that synthesizes rules from patterns of specification behavior. The rules are automatically applied to received telemetry and the inferred behaviors are available to ground operators using a visualization interface that makes it easier to understand and track spacecraft state. We describe initial results from applying our tool to telemetry received from the Curiosity rover currently roving the surface of Mars, where the visualizations are being used to trend subsystem behaviors, in order to identify potential problems before they happen. However, the technology is completely general and can be applied to any system that generates telemetry such as event logs.

  13. Model of spacecraft atomic oxygen and solar exposure microenvironments (United States)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Pippin, H. G.


    Computer models of environmental conditions in Earth orbit are needed for the following reasons: (1) derivation of material performance parameters from orbital test data, (2) evaluation of spacecraft hardware designs, (3) prediction of material service life, and (4) scheduling spacecraft maintenance. To meet these needs, Boeing has developed programs for modeling atomic oxygen (AO) and solar radiation exposures. The model allows determination of AO and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposures for spacecraft surfaces (1) in arbitrary orientations with respect to the direction of spacecraft motion, (2) overall ranges of solar conditions, and (3) for any mission duration. The models have been successfully applied to prediction of experiment environments on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and for analysis of selected hardware designs for deployment on other spacecraft. The work on these models has been reported at previous LDEF conferences. Since publication of these reports, a revision has been made to the AO calculation for LDEF, and further work has been done on the microenvironments model for solar exposure.

  14. Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong J. W.


    Full Text Available This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (~millihertz gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity $2 Delta v/c = Delta u/ u_0$, where $Delta u$ is the Doppler shift and $ u_0$ is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude $h$ incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order $h$ in the time series of $Delta u/ u_0$. Unlike other detectors, the ~1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series, some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.

  15. Design and Flight Performance of NOAA-K Spacecraft Batteries (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Chetty, P. R. K.; Spitzer, Tom; Chilelli, P.


    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the POES series of spacecraft, named as NOAA-KLMNN, is in orbit and four more are in various phases of development. The NOAA-K spacecraft was launched on May 13, 1998. Each of these spacecraft carry three Nickel-Cadmium batteries designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. The battery, which consists of seventeen 40 Ah cells manufactured by SAFT, provides the spacecraft power during the ascent phase, orbital eclipse and when the power demand is in excess of the solar array capability. The NOAA-K satellite is in a 98 degree inclination, 7:30AM ascending node orbit. In this orbit the satellite experiences earth occultation only 25% of the year. This paper provides a brief overview of the power subsystem, followed by the battery design and qualification, the cell life cycle test data, and the performance during launch and in orbit.

  16. Autonomous Onboard Point Source Detection by Small Exploration Spacecraft (United States)

    Huffman, W.; Thompson, D. R.; Bue, B.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Boland, J.


    Small spacecraft platforms are a promising low-cost approach to accelerate exploration of small bodies, addressing the space community's interest in origin science, planetary resources, and planetary defense. However, they can be challenging platforms for detecting and imaging low brightness targets. Difficulties include constrained bandwidth, which limits the volume of data that can be downlinked; attitude instability, which limits exposure time; small instrument apertures, which reduce sensitivity; and cosmic ray contamination, which creates illusory sources. Mission designers can address all these problems simultaneously by shifting image analysis across the communications gap. Spacecraft can use onboard data analysis to detect sources directly, or downlink parsimonious summary products for detection on the ground. One promising approach is to acquire stacks of short consecutive exposures, and then coregister and coadd them onboard. This work analyzes a coaddition algorithm that is designed to be robust against small spacecraft challenges. We evaluate factors affecting performance, such as attitude control and camera noise systematics, in regimes typical of small spacecraft missions. We motivate the algorithm design by considering its application to NEAScout, a mission representing a new generation of small (sub-50 kg) exploration spacecraft having very small instrument apertures and data rates below 1 kbyte s-1. Here, onboard analysis allows detection and rendezvous with far smaller and fainter objects, dramatically reducing the cost and complexity of primitive bodies exploration.

  17. Electromagnetic effects on the orbital motion of a charged spacecraft (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia Ahmed; Khalil, Khalil Ibrahim


    This paper deals with the effects of electromagnetic forces on the orbital motion of a spacecraft. The electrostatic charge which a spacecraft generates on its surface in the Earth's magnetic field will be subject to a perturbative Lorentz force. A model incorporating all Lorentz forces as a function of orbital elements has been developed on the basis of magnetic and electric fields. This Lorentz force can be used to modify or perturb the spacecraft's orbits. Lagrange's planetary equations in the Gauss variational form are derived using the Lorentz force as a perturbation to a Keplerian orbit. Our approach incorporates orbital inclination and the true anomaly. The numerical results of Lagrange's planetary equations for some operational satellites show that the perturbation in the orbital elements of the spacecraft is a second order perturbation for a certain value of charge. The effect of the Lorentz force due to its magnetic component is three times that of the Lorentz force due to its electric component. In addition, the numerical results confirm that the strong effects are due to the Lorentz force in a polar orbit, which is consistent with realistic physical phenomena that occur in polar orbits. The results confirm that the magnitude of the Lorentz force depends on the amount of charge. This means that we can use artificial charging to create a force to control the attitude and orbital motion of a spacecraft.

  18. Electromagnetic effects on the orbital motion of a charged spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the effects of electromagnetic forces on the orbital motion of a spacecraft. The electrostatic charge which a spacecraft generates on its surface in the Earth's magnetic field will be subject to a perturbative Lorentz force. A model incorporating all Lorentz forces as a function of orbital elements has been developed on the basis of magnetic and electric fields. This Lorentz force can be used to modify or perturb the spacecraft's orbits. Lagrange's planetary equations in the Gauss variational form are derived using the Lorentz force as a perturbation to a Keplerian orbit. Our approach incorporates orbital inclination and the true anomaly. The numerical results of Lagrange's planetary equations for some operational satellites show that the perturbation in the orbital elements of the spacecraft is a second order perturbation for a certain value of charge. The effect of the Lorentz force due to its magnetic component is three times that of the Lorentz force due to its electric component. In addition, the numerical results confirm that the strong effects are due to the Lorentz force in a polar orbit, which is consistent with realistic physical phenomena that occur in polar orbits. The results confirm that the magnitude of the Lorentz force depends on the amount of charge. This means that we can use artificial charging to create a force to control the attitude and orbital motion of a spacecraft

  19. Micrometeoroid impact charge yield for common spacecraft materials (United States)

    Collette, A.; Grün, E.; Malaspina, D.; Sternovsky, Z.


    The impact ionization charge yield is experimentally measured from four common materials used in space and specifically on the two STEREO spacecraft (germanium-coated black Kapton, beryllium copper, multilayer insulation, and solar cells). Cosmic dust particle impacts on spacecraft have been detected by electric field and plasma and radio wave instruments. The accurate interpretation of these signals is complicated by many factors, including the details of the spacecraft antenna system, the local spacecraft plasma environment, and our understanding of the physics of the impact process. The most basic quantity, the amount of charge liberated upon impact, is generally considered poorly constrained and is suspected to depend on the target material. Here we show that for common materials used on spacecraft this variability is small for impacts around 10 km/s, and the impact charge yield can be approximated by 80 fC for a 1 pg projectile. At higher speeds (˜50 km/s), variation of up to a factor of 5 is observed. The measured yields in the 10-50 km/s range are compared to measurements and predictions from the literature and are found to be lower than predicted by at least a factor of 12 at 10 km/s and at least a factor of 1.7 at 50 km/s. Impact charge is also found to depend on angle of incidence; the data suggest a maximum at 45°.

  20. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    package with different solders of different melting temperatures. High Pb containing alloys where the lead levels can be above 85% by weight, is one of the solders currently being used in this technology. Responding to market pressure i.e. need for green electronic products there is now an increasing...... pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...

  1. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration


    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  2. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration


    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  3. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration


    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector and the LAr calorimeter where its detailed structure is highlighted. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  4. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration


    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red, the clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen.

  5. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits




    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  6. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;


    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these...... genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these...... genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  7. Scattering Properties of Candidate Planetary Regolith Materials (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. A.


    The laboratory investigation of the scattering properties of candidate planetary regolith materials is an important technique for understanding the physical properties of a planetary regolith. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  9. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  10. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates (United States)


    ... accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION:...

  11. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates (United States)


    ... establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non- federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request...

  12. Multi-spacecraft observations of recurrent {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bučík, R.; Innes, D. E.; Mall, U.; Korth, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mason, G. M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Gómez-Herrero, R., E-mail: [Space Research Group, University of Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares (Spain)


    We study the origin of {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particles (<1 MeV nucleon{sup –1}) that are observed consecutively on STEREO-B, Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), and STEREO-A spacecraft when they are separated in heliolongitude by more than 90°. The {sup 3}He-rich period on STEREO-B and STEREO-A commences on 2011 July 1 and 2011 July 16, respectively. The ACE {sup 3}He-rich period consists of two sub-events starting on 2011 July 7 and 2011 July 9. We associate the STEREO-B July 1 and ACE July 7 {sup 3}He-rich events with the same sizeable active region (AR) producing X-ray flares accompanied by prompt electron events, when it was near the west solar limb as seen from the respective spacecraft. The ACE July 9 and STEREO-A July 16 events were dispersionless with enormous {sup 3}He enrichment, lacking solar energetic electrons and occurring in corotating interaction regions. We associate these events with a small, recently emerged AR near the border of a low-latitude coronal hole that produced numerous jet-like emissions temporally correlated with type III radio bursts. For the first time we present observations of (1) solar regions with long-lasting conditions for {sup 3}He acceleration and (2) solar energetic {sup 3}He that is temporarily confined/re-accelerated in interplanetary space.

  13. Multi-Spacecraft Observations of Recurrent 3He-Rich Solar Energetic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bucik, R; Mall, U; Korth, A; Mason, G M; Gomez-Herrero, R


    We study the origin of 3He-rich solar energetic particles (<1 MeV/nucleon) that are observed consecutively on STEREO-B, ACE, and STEREO-A spacecraft when they are separated in heliolongitude by more than 90{\\deg}. The 3He-rich period on STEREO-B and STEREO-A commences on 2011 July 1 and 2011 July 16, respectively. The ACE 3He-rich period consists of two sub-events starting on 2011 July 7 and 2011 July 9. We associate the STEREO-B July 1 and ACE July 7 3He-rich events with the same sizeable active region producing X-ray flares accompanied by prompt electron events, when it was near the west solar limb as seen from the respective spacecraft. The ACE July 9 and STEREO-A July 16 events were dispersionless with enormous 3He enrichment, lacking solar energetic electrons and occurring in corotating interaction regions. We associate these events with a small, recently emerged active region near the border of a low-latitude coronal hole that produced numerous jet-like emissions temporally correlated with type III r...

  14. Vaccine candidates for malaria: what's new? (United States)

    Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Takafumi


    Although it is more than a decade since the parasite genome information was obtained, standardized novel genome-wide selection/prioritization strategies for candidacy of malaria vaccine antigens are still sought. In the quest to systematically identify candidates, it is impossible to overemphasize the usefulness of wheat germ cell-free technology in expressing quality proteins for the post-genome vaccine candidate discovery. PMID:26559316

  15. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman


    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  16. Nano dust impacts on spacecraft and boom antenna charging

    CERN Document Server

    Pantellini, Filippo; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Zaslavsky, Arnaud


    High rate sampling detectors measuring the potential difference between the main body and boom antennas of interplanetary spacecraft have been shown to be efficient means to measure the voltage pulses induced by nano dust impacts on the spacecraft body itself (see Meyer-Vernet et al, Solar Phys. 256, 463 (2009)). However, rough estimates of the free charge liberated in post impact expanding plasma cloud indicate that the cloud's own internal electrostatic field is too weak to account for measured pulses as the ones from the TDS instrument on the STEREO spacecraft frequently exceeding 0.1 V/m$. In this paper we argue that the detected pulses are not a direct measure of the potential structure of the plasma cloud, but are rather the consequence of a transitional interruption of the photoelectron return current towards the portion of the antenna located within the expanding cloud.

  17. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5 (United States)


    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  18. Using IoT Device Technology in Spacecraft Checkout Systems (United States)

    Plummer, Chris


    The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a common theme in both the technical and popular press in recent years because many of the enabling technologies that are required to make IoT a reality have now matured. Those technologies are revolutionising the way industrial systems and products are developed because they offer significant advantages over older technologies. This paper looks at how IoT device technology can be used in spacecraft checkout systems to achieve smaller, more capable, and more scalable solutions than are currently available. It covers the use of IoT device technology for classical spacecraft test systems as well as for hardware-in-the-loop simulation systems used to support spacecraft checkout.

  19. Efficient Spectral Endmember Detection Onboard the EO-1 Spacecraft (United States)

    Bornstein, Ben; Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel; Bue, Brian; Chien, Steve; Castano, Rebecca


    Spaceflight and planetary exploration place severe constraints on the available bandwidth for downlinking large hyperspectral images. In addition, communications with spacecraft often occur intermittently, so mission-relevant hyperspectral data must wait for analysis on the ground before it can inform spacecraft activity planning. Onboard endmember detection can help alleviate these problems. It enables novelty detection and target identification for scheduling follow-up activities such as additional observation by narrow field of view instruments. Additionally, endmember analysis can facilitate data summary for downlink. This work describes a planned experiment of selective downlink by the EO-1 autonomous spacecraft. Here an efficient superpixel endmember detection algorithm keeps to the limited computational constraints of the flight processor. Tests suggest the procedure could enable significant improvements in downlink efficiency.

  20. Attitude synchronization for multiple spacecraft with input constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Jianting


    Full Text Available The attitude synchronization problem for multiple spacecraft with input constraints is investigated in this paper. Two distributed control laws are presented and analyzed. First, by introducing bounded function, a distributed asymptotically stable control law is proposed. Such a control scheme can guarantee attitude synchronization and the control inputs of each spacecraft can be a priori bounded regardless of the number of its neighbors. Then, based on graph theory, homogeneous method, and Lyapunov stability theory, a distributed finite-time control law is designed. Rigorous proof shows that attitude synchronization of multiple spacecraft can be achieved in finite time, and the control scheme satisfies input saturation requirement. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  1. Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Spacecraft Exercise Treadmill Devices (United States)

    Fialho, Ian; Tyer, Craig; Murphy, Bryan; Cotter, Paul; Thampi, Sreekumar


    A novel, passive system has been developed for isolating an exercise treadmill device from a spacecraft in a zero-G environment. The Treadmill 2 Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (T2-VIS) mechanically isolates the exercise treadmill from the spacecraft/space station, thereby eliminating the detrimental effect that high impact loads generated during walking/running would have on the spacecraft structure and sensitive microgravity science experiments. This design uses a second stage spring, in series with the first stage, to achieve an order of magnitude higher exercise- frequency isolation than conventional systems have done, while maintaining desirable low-frequency stability performance. This novel isolator design, in conjunction with appropriately configured treadmill platform inertia properties, has been shown (by on-orbit zero-G testing onboard the International Space Station) to deliver exceedingly high levels of isolation/ stability performance.

  2. Kalman Filter Estimation of Spinning Spacecraft Attitude using Markley Variables (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph E.; Harman, Richard


    There are several different ways to represent spacecraft attitude and its time rate of change. For spinning or momentum-biased spacecraft, one particular representation has been put forward as a superior parameterization for numerical integration. Markley has demonstrated that these new variables have fewer rapidly varying elements for spinning spacecraft than other commonly used representations and provide advantages when integrating the equations of motion. The current work demonstrates how a Kalman filter can be devised to estimate the attitude using these new variables. The seven Markley variables are subject to one constraint condition, making the error covariance matrix singular. The filter design presented here explicitly accounts for this constraint by using a six-component error state in the filter update step. The reduced dimension error state is unconstrained and its covariance matrix is nonsingular.

  3. New Strategy of IPACS Design and Energy Management for Spacecrafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-rui


    The design problem of an integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS) for spacecrafts is investigated. A Lyapunov-typed IPACS controller is designed for a spacecraft equipped with 4 flywheels (3 orthogonal + 1 skew). This controller keeps in the nonlinear properties of original systems, so the control result can be more precise. A control law of the flywheels is also proposed to accomplish the attitude control and energy storage simultaneously. Aiming at the limitations existing in the power conversion characteristic and the wheel's motor, a new strategy of energy management is proposed. The strategy can not only make the charged/discharged energy reaching balance in each orbital period, but also sufficiently utilize the power provided by the solar arrays. Therefore, the size and mass of solar arrays can be decreased, and the cost of spacecraft can be economized. A simulation example illustrates the validity of the designed IPACS.

  4. Neural optimal control of flexible spacecraft slew maneuver (United States)

    Nayeri, M. Reza Dehghan; Alasty, Aria; Daneshjou, Kamran


    This paper deals with the problem of optimal large-angle single-axis maneuvers of a flexible spacecraft with simultaneous vibration suppression of elastic modes. A spacecraft model with a cylindrical hub and one flexible appendage and tip mass is considered. Gravity gradient torque is considered as a disturbance torque. Multilayer perceptron neural networks are used to design a Neural Optimal Controller (NOC) for this multivariable non-linear maneuver. For NOC training, an off-line training procedure based on backpropagation through time algorithm is developed to minimize the general quadratic cost function in forward and backward pass stages. The proposed controller is also applicable to simultaneous multi-axis reorientation of a flexible spacecraft. Simulation results are presented to show that very fast reference pitch angle trajectory tracking and vibration suppression are accomplished.

  5. The Variability of Space Radiation Hazards towards LEO Spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variability of space radiation hazard towards the low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is reviewed. Three major space radiations, i.e. galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar proton events (SPEs), and trapped particles form potential hazards for LEO spacecraft. We focused on trapped particle hazard due to its major role for LEO spacecraft anomaly. We examined the trapped particle variability distribution in solar cycle 23. The year of 2000 and 2008 were chosen to best represent solar maximum and minimum in that cycle. Monthly average particles fluxes plotted in both years showed a quite similar value for all peak values during solar maximum. We also examined events of LEO satellites anomaly for both years by using space weather and geomagnetic parameters as well as the distribution of particles fluxes during those events. Analysis showed that all parameter indicators in the year 2000 were in a critical condition, whereas for the year of 2008, the anomaly occurs was in a normal state

  6. Posture metrology for aerospace camera in the assembly of spacecraft (United States)

    Yang, ZaiHua; Yang, Song; Wan, Bile; Pan, Tingyao; Long, Changyu


    During the spacecraft assembly process, the posture of the aerospace camera to the spacecraft coordinate system needs to be measured precisely, because the posture data are very important for the earth observing. In order to measure the angles between the camera optical axis and the spacecraft coordinate system's three axes x, y, z, a measurement scheme was designed. The scheme was based on the principle of space intersection measurement with theodolites. Three thodolites were used to respectively collimate the camera axis and two faces of a base cube. Then, through aiming at each other, a measurement network was built. Finally, the posture of the camera was measured. The error analysis and measurement experiments showed that the precision can reach 6″. This method has been used in the assembly of satellite GF-2 with satisfactory results.

  7. Investigation of parameters of chorus wave packets measured by the cluster spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Chorus emissions are generated by a nonlinear mechanism involving wave-particle interaction with energetic electrons. Discrete chorus wave packets are narrow-band tones usually rising in frequency. Measurements of the Cluster spacecraft lead to the discovery of strong temporal and spatial variations of the amplitude in the source region. We investigate amplitudes and frequency sweep rates of chorus wave packets measured by the WBD instrument onboard Cluster. These parameters are related to the total electron density measured by the WHISPER active sounder. We compare the Cluster measurements with estimates based on the backward wave oscillator (BWO) model. Both show an increasing frequency sweep rate with the decreasing cold plasma density. Furthermore, investigations of chorus amplitudes and frequency sweep rates allow us to experimentally obtain important parameters of the BWO theory.

  8. Laboratory Spacecraft Data Processing and Instrument Autonomy: AOSAT as Testbed (United States)

    Lightholder, Jack; Asphaug, Erik; Thangavelautham, Jekan


    Recent advances in small spacecraft allow for their use as orbiting microgravity laboratories (e.g. Asphaug and Thangavelautham LPSC 2014) that will produce substantial amounts of data. Power, bandwidth and processing constraints impose limitations on the number of operations which can be performed on this data as well as the data volume the spacecraft can downlink. We show that instrument autonomy and machine learning techniques can intelligently conduct data reduction and downlink queueing to meet data storage and downlink limitations. As small spacecraft laboratory capabilities increase, we must find techniques to increase instrument autonomy and spacecraft scientific decision making. The Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT) CubeSat centrifuge will act as a testbed for further proving these techniques. Lightweight algorithms, such as connected components analysis, centroid tracking, K-means clustering, edge detection, convex hull analysis and intelligent cropping routines can be coupled with the tradition packet compression routines to reduce data transfer per image as well as provide a first order filtering of what data is most relevant to downlink. This intelligent queueing provides timelier downlink of scientifically relevant data while reducing the amount of irrelevant downlinked data. Resulting algorithms allow for scientists to throttle the amount of data downlinked based on initial experimental results. The data downlink pipeline, prioritized for scientific relevance based on incorporated scientific objectives, can continue from the spacecraft until the data is no longer fruitful. Coupled with data compression and cropping strategies at the data packet level, bandwidth reductions exceeding 40% can be achieved while still downlinking data deemed to be most relevant in a double blind study between scientist and algorithm. Applications of this technology allow for the incorporation of instrumentation which produces significant data volumes on small spacecraft

  9. Monitoring Spacecraft Telemetry Via Optical or RF Link (United States)

    Fielhauer, K. B.; Boone, B. G.


    A patent disclosure document discusses a photonic method for connecting a spacecraft with a launch vehicle upper-stage telemetry system as a means for monitoring a spacecraft fs health and status during and right after separation and deployment. This method also provides an efficient opto-coupled capability for prelaunch built-in-test (BIT) on the ground to enable more efficient and timely integration, preflight checkout, and a means to obviate any local EMI (electromagnetic interference) during integration and test. Additional utility can be envisioned for BIT on other platforms, such as the International Space Station (ISS). The photonic telemetry system implements an optical free-space link with a divergent laser transmitter beam spoiled over a significant cone angle to accommodate changes in spacecraft position without having to angle track it during deployment. Since the spacecraft may lose attitude control and tumble during deployment, the transmitted laser beam interrogates any one of several low-profile meso-scale retro-reflective spatial light modulators (SLMs) deployed over the surface of the spacecraft. The return signal beam, modulated by the SLMs, contains health, status, and attitude information received back at the launch vehicle. Very compact low-power opto-coupler technology already exists for the received signal (requiring relatively low bandwidths, e.g., .200 kbps) to enable transfer to a forward pass RF relay from the launch vehicle to TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System) or another recipient. The link would be active during separation and post-separation to monitor spacecraft health, status, attitude, or other data inventories until attitude recovery and ground control can be re-established. An optical link would not interfere with the existing upper stage telemetry and beacon systems, thus meeting launch vehicle EMI environmental constraints.

  10. Active Solar Sail Designs for Chip-Scale Spacecraft


    Weis, Lorraine; Peck, Mason


    Centimeter-scale spacecraft, known as ”Chipsats,” have very high surface-area-to-mass ratios, which accentuates solar radiation pressure (SRP) effects. In contrast to traditional. large solar sails, chip-scale solar sails have the potential to be highly agile in terms of attitude because of their structural rigidity and low moments of inertia. This ability to easily reorient a solar sail greatly expands the orbits that a solar-sail spacecraft can achieve. Solar sail actuation through electroc...

  11. Application of an onboard processor to the OAO C spacecraft (United States)

    Stewart, W. N.; Hartenstein, R. G.; Trevathan, C.


    The design of a stored program computer for spacecraft use and its application on the fourth Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) is reported. The computer is a medium scale, parallel machine with a memory capacity of 16384 words of 18 bits each. It possesses a comprehensive instruction repertoire and operates on 45 W of power (including the dc-to-dc converter). The machine operates at a 500-kHz rate and executes an add instruction in 10 microseconds. Its primary functions on OAO C will be auxiliary command storage, spacecraft monitoring and malfunction reporting, data compression and status summary, and possible performance of emergency corrective action for certain anomalous situations.

  12. Active Control of Solar Array Dynamics During Spacecraft Maneuvers (United States)

    Ross, Brant A.; Woo, Nelson; Kraft, Thomas G.; Blandino, Joseph R.


    Recent NASA mission plans require spacecraft to undergo potentially significant maneuvers (or dynamic loading events) with large solar arrays deployed. Therefore there is an increased need to understand and possibly control the nonlinear dynamics in the spacecraft system during such maneuvers. The development of a nonlinear controller is described. The utility of using a nonlinear controller to reduce forces and motion in a solar array wing during a loading event is demonstrated. The result is dramatic reductions in system forces and motion during a 10 second loading event. A motion curve derived from the simulation with the closed loop controller is used to obtain similar benefits with a simpler motion control approach.

  13. Effects of directed and kinetic energy weapons on spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A P


    The characteristics of the various directed energy beams are reviewed, and their damaging effects on typical materials are examined for a wide range of energy pulse intensities and durations. Representative cases are surveyed, and charts are presented to indicate regions in which damage to spacecraft structures, particularly radiators for power plants, would be likely. The effects of kinetic energy weapons, such as bird-shot, are similarly examined. The charts are then applied to evaluate the effectiveness of various measures designed to reduce the vulnerability of spacecraft components, particularly nuclear electric power plants.

  14. Research on Cable Assembly Technology Facing Tridimention Layout in Spacecraft (United States)

    Song, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Zaicheng; Zhang, Yidan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhibin

    According to the requirement for cables tridimensional layout in spacecraft, the research on new transmission line support (NTLS) is carried out. NTLS is namely T support. Based on the analysis of NTLS's physical parameters, the scheme of cable installing is established. Experimentations of statics and vibration prove the feasibility and dependability of the scheme. The results of experimentation indicate that the scheme of cable installing on T support is reasonable along with the requirement of cables tridimensional layout is satisfied. Therefore the efficiency of spacecraft assembly and integration is greatly enhanced.

  15. Multimode attitude and orbit control for the Atmosphere Explorer spacecraft (United States)

    Stewart, B.


    The orbit profile for the Atmosphere Explorer requires a velocity adjust capability of 2000 ft/sec/sec and individual maneuvers of up to 24 ft/sec in magnitude. This requirement is met by a monopropellant hydrazine propulsion subsystem which also provides, by virtue of the tank arrangement, a means of adjusting the spacecraft center of mass in orbit, thereby minimizing external disturbance torques. The attitude control subsystem is of the momentum bias type. A large internal flywheel furnishes gyroscopic stiffness and permits rapid changes in operating mode (despun to spinning mode) by controlled interchange of momentum between the flywheel and the spacecraft main body.

  16. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel (United States)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.


    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at

  17. CLIpSAT for Interplanetary Missions: Common Low-cost Interplanetary Spacecraft with Autonomy Technologies (United States)

    Grasso, C.


    Blue Sun Enterprises, Inc. is creating a common deep space bus capable of a wide variety of Mars, asteroid, and comet science missions, observational missions in and near GEO, and interplanetary delivery missions. The spacecraft are modular and highly autonomous, featuring a common core and optional expansion for variable-sized science or commercial payloads. Initial spacecraft designs are targeted for Mars atmospheric science, a Phobos sample return mission, geosynchronous reconnaissance, and en-masse delivery of payloads using packetized propulsion modules. By combining design, build, and operations processes for these missions, the cost and effort for creating the bus is shared across a variety of initial missions, reducing overall costs. A CLIpSAT can be delivered to different orbits and still be able to reach interplanetary targets like Mars due to up to 14.5 km/sec of delta-V provided by its high-ISP Xenon ion thruster(s). A 6U version of the spacecraft form fits PPOD-standard deployment systems, with up to 9 km/s of delta-V. A larger 12-U (with the addition of an expansion module) enables higher overall delta-V, and has the ability to jettison the expansion module and return to the Earth-Moon system from Mars orbit with the main spacecraft. CLIpSAT utilizes radiation-hardened electronics and RF equipment, 140+ We of power at earth (60 We at Mars), a compact navigation camera that doubles as a science imager, and communications of 2000 bps from Mars to the DSN via X-band. This bus could form the cornerstone of a large number asteroid survey projects, comet intercept missions, and planetary observation missions. The TugBot architecture uses groups of CLIpSATs attached to payloads lacking innate high-delta-V propulsion. The TugBots use coordinated trajectory following by each individual spacecraft to move the payload to the desired orbit - for example, a defense asset might be moved from GEO to lunar transfer orbit in order to protect and hide it, then returned

  18. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration


    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  19. SCL: An off-the-shelf system for spacecraft control (United States)

    Buckley, Brian; Vangaasbeck, James


    In this age of shrinking military, civil, and commercial space budgets, an off-the-shelf solution is needed to provide a multimission approach to spacecraft control. A standard operational interface which can be applied to multiple spacecraft allows a common approach to ground and space operations. A trend for many space programs has been to reduce operational staff by applying autonomy to the spacecraft and to the ground stations. The Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) system developed by Interface and Control Systems, Inc. (ICS) provides an off-the-shelf solution for spacecraft operations. The SCL system is designed to provide a hyper-scripting interface which remains standard from program to program. The spacecraft and ground station hardware specifics are isolated to provide the maximum amount of portability from system to system. Uplink and downlink interfaces are also isolated to allow the system to perform independent of the communications protocols chosen. The SCL system can be used for both the ground stations and the spacecraft, or as a value added package for existing ground station environments. The SCL system provides an expanded stored commanding capability as well as a rule-based expert system on-board. The expert system allows reactive control on-board the spacecraft for functions such as electrical power systems (EPS), thermal control, etc. which have traditionally been performed on the ground. The SCL rule and scripting capability share a common syntax allowing control of scripts from rules and rules from scripts. Rather than telemeter over sampled data to the ground, the SCL system maintains a database on-board which is available for interrogation by the scripts and rules. The SCL knowledge base is constructed on the ground and uploaded to the spacecraft. The SCL system follows an open-systems approach allowing other tasks to communicate with SCL on the ground and in space. The SCL system was used on the Clementine program (launched January 25

  20. Electron cross talk and asymmetric electron distributions near the Earth's bowshock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Mitchell


    Full Text Available Electron distributions in the magnetosheath display a number of far from equilibrium features. It has been suggested that one factor influencing these distributions may be the large distances separating locations at which electrons with different energies and pitch angles must cross the bowshock in order to reach a given point in the magnetosheath. The overall heating requirements at these distant locations depends strongly on the shock geometry. In the absence of collisions or other isotropization processes this suggests that the convolution of electrons arriving from different locations should give rise to asymmetries in the distribution functions. Moreover, such cross-talk could influence the relative electron to ion heating, rendering the shock heating problem intrinsically non-local in contrast to classic shock physics. Here, we study electron distributions measured simultaneously by the Plasma Electron and Current Experiment (PEACE on board the Cluster spacecraft and the Electrostatic Analyser (ESA on board THEMIS b during a time interval in which both the Cluster spacecraft and THEMIS b are in the magnetosheath, close to the bowshock, and during which the local magnetic field orientation makes it likely that electron trajectories may connect both spacecraft. We find that the relevant portions of the velocity distributions of such electrons measured by each spacecraft display remarkable similarities. We map trajectories of electrons arriving at each spacecraft back to the locations at which they crossed the bowshock, as a function of pitch angle and energy. We then use the Rankine-Hugoniot relations to estimate the heating of electrons and compare this with temperature asymmetries actually observed. We conclude that the electron distributions and temperatures in the magnetosheath depend heavily on non-local shock properties.

  1. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia. (United States)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P; Owen, M J; Ophoff, R A; O'Donovan, M C; Corvin, A; Cichon, S; Sullivan, P F


    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why historical candidate gene studies did not achieve their primary aims is inadequate statistical power. However, the considerable efforts embodied in these early studies unquestionably set the stage for current successes in genomic approaches to schizophrenia. PMID:25754081

  2. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures (United States)

    Bao, Han P.


    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  3. Multi-spacecraft observation of plasma dipolarization/injection in the inner magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Apatenkov


    Full Text Available Addressing the origin of the energetic particle injections into the inner magnetosphere, we investigate the 23 February 2004 substorm using a favorable constellation of four Cluster (near perigee, LANL and Geotail spacecraft. Both an energy-dispersed and a dispersionless injection were observed by Cluster crossing the plasma sheet horn, which mapped to 9–12 RE in the equatorial plane close to the midnight meridian. Two associated narrow equatorward auroral tongues/streamers propagating from the oval poleward boundary could be discerned in the global images obtained by IMAGE/WIC. As compared to the energy-dispersed event, the dispersionless injection front has important distinctions consequently repeated at 4 spacecraft: a simultaneous increase in electron fluxes at energies ~1..300 keV, ~25 nT increase in BZ and a local increase by a factor 1.5–1.7 in plasma pressure. The injected plasma was primarily of solar wind origin. We evaluated the change in the injected flux tube configuration during the dipolarization by fitting flux increases observed by the PEACE and RAPID instruments, assuming adiabatic heating and the Liouville theorem. Mapping the locations of the injection front detected by the four spacecraft to the equatorial plane, we estimated the injection front thickness to be ~1 RE and the earthward propagation speed to be ~200–400 km/s (at 9–12 RE. Based on observed injection properties, we suggest that it is the underpopulated flux tubes (bubbles with enhanced magnetic field and sharp inner front propagating earthward, which accelerate and transport particles into the strong-field dipolar region.

  4. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan


    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  5. Application of the NASCAP Spacecraft Simulation Tool to Investigate Electrodynamic Tether Current Collection in LEO (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; HabashKrause, Linda


    Recent interest in using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) for orbital maneuvering in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has prompted the development of the Marshall ElectroDynamic Tether Orbit Propagator (MEDTOP) model. The model is comprised of several modules which address various aspects of EDT propulsion, including calculation of state vectors using a standard orbit propagator (e.g., J2), an atmospheric drag model, realistic ionospheric and magnetic field models, space weather effects, and tether librations. The natural electromotive force (EMF) attained during a radially-aligned conductive tether results in electrons flowing down the tether and accumulating on the lower-altitude spacecraft. The energy that drives this EMF is sourced from the orbital energy of the system; thus, EDTs are often proposed as de-orbiting systems. However, when the current is reversed using satellite charged particle sources, then propulsion is possible. One of the most difficult challenges of the modeling effort is to ascertain the equivalent circuit between the spacecraft and the ionospheric plasma. The present study investigates the use of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) to calculate currents to and from the tethered satellites and the ionospheric plasma. NASCAP is a sophisticated set of computational tools to model the surface charging of three-dimensional (3D) spacecraft surfaces in a time-varying space environment. The model's surface is tessellated into a collection of facets, and NASCAP calculates currents and potentials for each one. Additionally, NASCAP provides for the construction of one or more nested grids to calculate space potential and time-varying electric fields. This provides for the capability to track individual particles orbits, to model charged particle wakes, and to incorporate external charged particle sources. With this study, we have developed a model of calculating currents incident onto an electrodynamic tethered satellite system, and first results are shown

  6. Autonomous spacecraft landing through human pre-attentive vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we exploit a computational model of human pre-attentive vision to guide the descent of a spacecraft on extraterrestrial bodies. Providing the spacecraft with high degrees of autonomy is a challenge for future space missions. Up to present, major effort in this research field has been concentrated in hazard avoidance algorithms and landmark detection, often by reference to a priori maps, ranked by scientists according to specific scientific criteria. Here, we present a bio-inspired approach based on the human ability to quickly select intrinsically salient targets in the visual scene; this ability is fundamental for fast decision-making processes in unpredictable and unknown circumstances. The proposed system integrates a simple model of the spacecraft and optimality principles which guarantee minimum fuel consumption during the landing procedure; detected salient sites are used for retargeting the spacecraft trajectory, under safety and reachability conditions. We compare the decisions taken by the proposed algorithm with that of a number of human subjects tested under the same conditions. Our results show how the developed algorithm is indistinguishable from the human subjects with respect to areas, occurrence and timing of the retargeting. (paper)

  7. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology (United States)


    This is the final report on the Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) simulations study of Spacecraft Application of Advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology. This work was conducted for the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) under contract NAS9-17781. GPS, in addition to its baselined capability as a highly accurate spacecraft navigation system, can provide traffic control, attitude control, structural control, and uniform time base. In Phase 1 of this program, another contractor investigated the potential of GPS in these four areas and compared GPS to other techniques. This contract was for the Phase 2 effort, to study the performance of GPS for these spacecraft applications through computer simulations. TI had previously developed simulation programs for GPS differential navigation and attitude measurement. These programs were adapted for these specific spacecraft applications. In addition, TI has extensive expertise in the design and production of advanced GPS receivers, including space-qualified GPS receivers. We have drawn on this background to augment the simulation results in the system level overview, which is Section 2 of this report.

  8. Autonomous spacecraft landing through human pre-attentive vision. (United States)

    Schiavone, Giuseppina; Izzo, Dario; Simões, Luís F; de Croon, Guido C H E


    In this work, we exploit a computational model of human pre-attentive vision to guide the descent of a spacecraft on extraterrestrial bodies. Providing the spacecraft with high degrees of autonomy is a challenge for future space missions. Up to present, major effort in this research field has been concentrated in hazard avoidance algorithms and landmark detection, often by reference to a priori maps, ranked by scientists according to specific scientific criteria. Here, we present a bio-inspired approach based on the human ability to quickly select intrinsically salient targets in the visual scene; this ability is fundamental for fast decision-making processes in unpredictable and unknown circumstances. The proposed system integrates a simple model of the spacecraft and optimality principles which guarantee minimum fuel consumption during the landing procedure; detected salient sites are used for retargeting the spacecraft trajectory, under safety and reachability conditions. We compare the decisions taken by the proposed algorithm with that of a number of human subjects tested under the same conditions. Our results show how the developed algorithm is indistinguishable from the human subjects with respect to areas, occurrence and timing of the retargeting. PMID:22617300

  9. Solid state microdosimeter for radiation monitoring in spacecraft and avionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument is described which is designed to characterize the complex radiation environments inside spacecraft and airplanes in terms of the risk of SEEs in the present and planned microelectronic systems and in terms of the risk to flight crews and passengers

  10. The numerical simulation of liquid sloshing on board spacecraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, A.E.P.; Gerrits, J.; Luppes, R.; Helder, J.A.; Vreeburg, J.P.B.


    The subject of study is the influence of sloshing liquid on the dynamics of spacecraft. A combined theoretical and experimental approach has been followed. On the one hand, CFD simulations have been carried out to predict the combined liquid/solid body motion. Basically a volume-of-fluid (VOF) appro

  11. Spacecraft Power. America in Space: The First Decade. (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    The various electric power sources suitable for use aboard spacecraft are described in this booklet. These power sources include batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, RTGs (radioisotope thermoelectric generator), and nuclear fission power plants. The introductory sections include a discussion of power requirements and the anatomy of a space power…

  12. Uncertainty-based Optimization Algorithms in Designing Fractionated Spacecraft (United States)

    Ning, Xin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui


    A fractionated spacecraft is an innovative application of a distributive space system. To fully understand the impact of various uncertainties on its development, launch and in-orbit operation, we use the stochastic missioncycle cost to comprehensively evaluate the survivability, flexibility, reliability and economy of the ways of dividing the various modules of the different configurations of fractionated spacecraft. We systematically describe its concept and then analyze its evaluation and optimal design method that exists during recent years and propose the stochastic missioncycle cost for comprehensive evaluation. We also establish the models of the costs such as module development, launch and deployment and the impacts of their uncertainties respectively. Finally, we carry out the Monte Carlo simulation of the complete missioncycle costs of various configurations of the fractionated spacecraft under various uncertainties and give and compare the probability density distribution and statistical characteristics of its stochastic missioncycle cost, using the two strategies of timing module replacement and non-timing module replacement. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the comprehensive evaluation method and show that our evaluation method can comprehensively evaluate the adaptability of the fractionated spacecraft under different technical and mission conditions.

  13. Investigation of pyrotechnic shock. [for spacecraft structural tests (United States)

    Prescott, S. N.


    Review of comparative pyrotechnic shock outputs of various electro-explosive release devices that have been obtained in tests of an instrumented spacecraft structure. This research uses pyrotechnic shock spectra levels as an indicator of shock environment severity in support of a program of pyrotechnic device analysis and redesign intended to reduce shock generation.

  14. A novel single thruster control strategy for spacecraft attitude stabilization (United States)

    Godard; Kumar, Krishna Dev; Zou, An-Min


    Feasibility of achieving three axis attitude stabilization using a single thruster is explored in this paper. Torques are generated using a thruster orientation mechanism with which the thrust vector can be tilted on a two axis gimbal. A robust nonlinear control scheme is developed based on the nonlinear kinematic and dynamic equations of motion of a rigid body spacecraft in the presence of gravity gradient torque and external disturbances. The spacecraft, controlled using the proposed concept, constitutes an underactuated system (a system with fewer independent control inputs than degrees of freedom) with nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, using thruster gimbal angles as control inputs make the system non-affine (control terms appear nonlinearly in the state equation). This necessitates the control algorithms to be developed based on nonlinear control theory since linear control methods are not directly applicable. The stability conditions for the spacecraft attitude motion for robustness against uncertainties and disturbances are derived to establish the regions of asymptotic 3-axis attitude stabilization. Several numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed controller and validate the theoretical results. The control algorithm is shown to compensate for time-varying external disturbances including solar radiation pressure, aerodynamic forces, and magnetic disturbances; and uncertainties in the spacecraft inertia parameters. The numerical results also establish the robustness of the proposed control scheme to negate disturbances caused by orbit eccentricity.

  15. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (United States)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander


    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  16. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng


    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  17. Multi-spacecraft analysis of terrestrial bow shock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupařová, Oksana; Krupař, Vratislav; Santolík, Ondřej; Souček, Jan; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Maksimovic, M.

    Venice: CAA - ESA, 2015. s. 58. [ Cluster Workshop /25./. 12.10.2015–16.10.2015, Venice] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : bowshock * multiple spacecraft * Cluster Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics cluster _workshops/25/ Cluster 25_abstract_book4.pdf

  18. Video-Game-Like Engine for Depicting Spacecraft Trajectories (United States)

    Upchurch, Paul R.


    GoView is a video-game-like software engine, written in the C and C++ computing languages, that enables real-time, three-dimensional (3D)-appearing visual representation of spacecraft and trajectories (1) from any perspective; (2) at any spatial scale from spacecraft to Solar-system dimensions; (3) in user-selectable time scales; (4) in the past, present, and/or future; (5) with varying speeds; and (6) forward or backward in time. GoView constructs an interactive 3D world by use of spacecraft-mission data from pre-existing engineering software tools. GoView can also be used to produce distributable application programs for depicting NASA orbital missions on personal computers running the Windows XP, Mac OsX, and Linux operating systems. GoView enables seamless rendering of Cartesian coordinate spaces with programmable graphics hardware, whereas prior programs for depicting spacecraft trajectories variously require non-Cartesian coordinates and/or are not compatible with programmable hardware. GoView incorporates an algorithm for nonlinear interpolation between arbitrary reference frames, whereas the prior programs are restricted to special classes of inertial and non-inertial reference frames. Finally, whereas the prior programs present complex user interfaces requiring hours of training, the GoView interface provides guidance, enabling use without any training.

  19. Automating software design and configuration for a small spacecraft (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy


    The Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats (OPEN) is a framework for the development of low-cost spacecraft. It will allow users to build a 1-U (10 cm x 10 cm x 11 cm, 1.33 kg) CubeSat-class spacecraft with a parts budget of approximately $5,000. Work is underway to develop software to assist users in configuring the spacecraft and validating its compliance with integration and launch standards. Each prospective configuration requires a unique software configuration, combining pre-built modules for controlling base components, custom control software for custom developed and payload components and overall mission management and control software (which, itself will be a combination of standard components and mission specific control logic). This paper presents a system for automating standard component configuration and creating templates to facilitate the creation and integration of components that must be (or which the developer desires to be) custom-developed for the particular mission or spacecraft.

  20. Quaternion Feedback Control for Rigid-body Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This paper addresses three-axis attitude control for a Danish spacecraft, Roemer. The algorithm proposed is based on an approximation of the exact feedback linearisation for quaternionic attitude representation. The proposed attitude controller is tested in a simulation study. The environmental...