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Sample records for candidate regions influencing

  1. Career Influences of Music Education Audition Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, David A.; Brewer, Wesley D.; Councill, Kimberly H.; Fredrickson, William E.; Hairston, Michelle; Perry, David L.; Porter, Ann M.; Schmidt, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In this descriptive study, we examined the influences and experiences motivating students to enter college-level music schools as reported by a population of precollegiate students auditioning (but not yet accepted) to music education degree programs. As a follow-up to a published pilot study, this research was designed to quantify the various…

  2. Identification of genes from the Treacher Collins candidate region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M.; Dixon, J.; Edwards, S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development. The TCOF1 locus has previously been mapped to chromosome 5q32-33. The candidate gene region has been defined as being between two flanking markers, ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) and Annexin 6 (ANX6), by analyzing recombination events in affected individuals. It is estimated that the distance between these flanking markers is 500 kb by three separate analysis methods: (1) radiation hybrid mapping; (2) genetic linkage; and (3) YAC contig analysis. A cosmid contig which spans the candidate gene region for TCOF1 has been constructed by screening the Los Alamos National Laboratory flow-sorted chromosome 5 cosmid library. Cosmids were obtained by using a combination of probes generated from YAC end clones, Alu-PCR fragments from YACs, and asymmetric PCR fragments from both T7 and T3 cosmid ends. Exon amplifications, the selection of genomic coding sequences based upon the presence of functional splice acceptor and donor sites, was used to identify potential exon sequences. Sequences found to be conserved between species were then used to screen cDNA libraries in order to identify candidate genes. To date, four different cDNAs have been isolated from this region and are being analyzed as potential candidate genes for TCOF1. These include the genes encoding plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX3), heparin sulfate sulfotransferase (HSST), a gene with homology to the ETS family of proteins and one which shows no homology to any known genes. Work is also in progress to identify and characterize additional cDNAs from the candidate gene region.

  3. International Practica Experiences as Events of Influence in a Teacher Candidates' Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, Nancy; Allison, John; Julien-Schultz, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Experience may influence beliefs and beliefs may influence practices. Following these premises, we investigated teacher candidates' post experience reflections nine months after an international practicum where they taught for three weeks in rural Kenya. Teacher candidates were placed in non-governmental organization (NGO) sponsored schools on the…

  4. Candidates of Halpha emitting regions in Magellanic Stream IV cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Masafumi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2012-01-01

    From H\\alpha narrow band observations, we identified three H\\alpha emitting regions in the direction of Magellanic Stream IV (MS IV). They consist of three parallel filaments with 2 arcmin width and 6 -- 30 arcmin length at 12 arcmin intervals. The mean surface brightness of them is $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$. Because of their low surface brightness, the regions were not detected in previous H\\alpha surveys. In HI map, the position of the filaments overlap MS, suggesting that they are parts of MS, but there also exists a local HI structure. If the filaments associate with MS, the sizes are 30 pc $\\times$ 100 -- 500 pc. The filaments lie at the leading edge of a downstream cloud, which supports a shock heating and its propagation (shock cascade) model for the ionizing source. If they are local objects, on the other hand, Fossil Str\\"omgren Trails of more than two stars is a possible interpretation, and the sizes would be 0.1 pc $\\times$ 0.3 -- 1.5 pc at 180 pc distance. The p...

  5. The Influence of Corporate Image and Specificity of Candidate Qualifications on Response to Recruitment Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, John A.; Paolillo, Joseph G. P.

    1982-01-01

    Examined possible impact of corporate image and the degree of specificity of candidate qualifications, on likelihood of reader response to recruitment advertisement. Data indicated that corporate image of advertiser significantly influenced likelihood of reader response whereas degree of specificity of candidate qualifications did not influence…

  6. Factors influencing Turkish teacher candidates' elective course preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Uçgun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By the Academic Year of 2006-2007, new curriculum has been begun to be applied in the Faculties of Education. When it is evaluated in terms of Turkish Language Teacher Training Departments, it is seen that the most attractive changes are the abolition of Side Branch application, the increase in the number of the courses which will contribute to teacher candidates’ profession and the enrichment in the content. In the curriculum are 5 elective courses beside necessary ones. The aim of this study is to determine what and how much effects the Turkish Language Teacher Candidates as they decide on the courses mentioned above. In the study, based on scanning method, of which subject is consists of 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students from Turkish Language Teacher Training Department, The Faculty of Education of Nigde University Likert-type Scale with four grades which was improved by Tezcan and Gumus (2008 has been used as data collection tool. According to the finding acquired from the study the factors effecting Turkish Language Teacher Candidates’ preferences about elective courses have been determined and ideas which are going to contribute to determination of elective courses and effective process of them have been suggested.

  7. Factors influencing candidates' choice of a pediatric dental residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A; Pollock, Matthew; Majewski, Robert; Tootla, Ruwaida; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the factors and program characteristics that influenced the program ranking decisions of applicants to pediatric dentistry residency programs. A questionnaire was sent to the first-year resident class in 2005 with a response rate of 69.2 percent (n=260). Approximately 55 percent were female (104/180) and 61 percent were non-His-panic white (110/180). The respondents reported that they applied to an average of nine programs, of which five were ranked. Most applicants were interested in a program that had a hospital component with a duration of two years. A program's ability to prepare the resident for an academic career was a minimal influence for 48.6 percent (87/179), and 57.5 percent (103/179) were not interested in a master's or Ph.D. degree. Factors associated with program ranking included modern clinical facilities, high ratio of dental assistants and faculty to residents, availability of assistants for sedation and general anesthesia cases, availability of a salary or stipend, and amount of clinical experience. Important non-clinical factors included hospitality during the interview, geographic location, and perceived reputation of the program. Opportunity to speak with the current residents in private, observing the interaction between residents and faculty, and touring the facilities were also highly considered. These findings may help program directors tailor their interviews and programs to suit the needs of applicants. PMID:17761626

  8. Genetic effects of polymorphisms in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken age at first egg

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    Zhou Min

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age at first egg (AFE, an important indicator for sexual maturation in female chickens, is controlled by polygenes. Based on our knowledge of reproductive physiology, 6 genes including gonadotrophin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I, neuropeptide Y (NPY, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, VIP receptor-1 (VIPR-1, and prolactin (PRL, were selected as candidates for influencing AFE. Additionally, the region between ADL0201 and MCW0241 of chromosome Z was chosen as the candidate QTL region according to some QTL databases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of mutations in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken AFE. Results Marker-trait association analysis of 8 mutations in those 6 genes in a Chinese native population found a highly significant association (P G840327C of the GnRH-I gene with AFE, and it remained significant even with Bonferroni correction. Based on the results of the 2-tailed χ2 test, mutations T32742394C, T32742468C, G32742603A, and C33379782T in the candidate QTL region of chromosome Z were selected for marker-trait association analysis. The haplotypes of T32742394C and T32742468C were significantly associated (P T32742394C and T32742468C were located in the intron region of the SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2 gene, which appeared to be associated in the endocytosis and development of the oocyte. Conclusion This study found that G840327C of the GnRH-I gene and the haplotypes of T32742394C-T32742468C of the SH3GL2 gene were associated with the chicken AFE.

  9. Candidate Smoke Region Segmentation of Fire Video Based on Rough Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidate smoke region segmentation is the key link of smoke video detection; an effective and prompt method of candidate smoke region segmentation plays a significant role in a smoke recognition system. However, the interference of heavy fog and smoke-color moving objects greatly degrades the recognition accuracy. In this paper, a novel method of candidate smoke region segmentation based on rough set theory is presented. First, Kalman filtering is used to update video background in order to exclude the interference of static smoke-color objects, such as blue sky. Second, in RGB color space smoke regions are segmented by defining the upper approximation, lower approximation, and roughness of smoke-color distribution. Finally, in HSV color space small smoke regions are merged by the definition of equivalence relation so as to distinguish smoke images from heavy fog images in terms of V component value variety from center to edge of smoke region. The experimental results on smoke region segmentation demonstrated the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  11. Boomers versus Millennials: Online Media Influence on Media Performance and Candidate Evaluations

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    Terri Towner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Facebook posts, YouTube videos, tweets and wooing political bloggers have become standard practice in marketing political campaigns. Research has demonstrated the effect of new media on a host of politically-related behavior, including political participation, knowledge acquisition, group formation and self-efficacy. Yet, issues related to media trust, media performance and candidate evaluations have not been fully explored. In addition, much of the political marketing research looks exclusively at the Millennial age cohort, ignoring other age groups, particularly Baby Boomers. This case study addresses whether attention to traditional (i.e., television, hard-copy newspapers and radio and online media sources (i.e., political candidate websites, television network websites, online newspapers, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Tumblr and political blogs about the 2012 U.S. presidential campaign influences Millennials and Baby Boomers’ media trust and performance ratings, as well as candidate evaluations. Panel surveys were completed by both age cohorts, Millennials (n = 431 and Baby Boomers (n = 360, during the last two weeks of the presidential election. Findings indicate that traditional sources, specifically television, rather than online sources are significantly linked to media trust and performance ratings among both Boomers and Millennials. Attention to traditional media for campaign information predicts Boomers’ candidate evaluations, whereas Millennials’ candidate evaluations are influenced by online sources, such as Facebook and candidate websites.

  12. Initial Teacher Education: Does Self-Efficacy Influence Candidate Teacher Academic Achievement and Future Career Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…

  13. Factors Influencing Entering Teacher Candidates' Preferences for Instructional Activities: A glimpse into their orientations towards teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Novodvorsky, Ingrid; Tomanek, Debra

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major factors that influence entering science teacher candidates' preferences for different types of instructional activities, and to analyze what these factors suggest about teacher candidates' orientations towards science teaching. The study involved prospective teachers enrolled in the introductory science teaching course in an undergraduate science teacher preparation program. Our analysis was based on data collected using a teaching and learning beliefs questionnaire, together with structured interviews. Our results indicate that entering science teacher candidates have strong preferences for a few activity types. The most influential factors driving entering science teacher candidates' selections were the potential of the instructional activities to motivate students, be relevant to students' personal lives, result in transfer of skills to non-science situations, actively involve students in goal-directed learning, and implement curriculum that represents what students need to know. This set of influencing factors suggests that entering science teacher candidates' orientations towards teaching are likely driven by one or more of these three central teaching goals: (1) motivating students, (2) developing science process skills, and (3) engaging students in structured science activities. These goals, and the associated beliefs about students, teaching, and learning, can be expected to favor the development or enactment of three major orientations towards teaching in this population of future science teachers: "motivating students," "process," and "activity-driven."

  14. Candidate region linkage analysis in twins discordant or concordant for depression symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene; Tan, Q; Kruse, T A;

    2009-01-01

    Genetic risk factors contribute considerably to both clinical affective disorders and subsyndromal mood level. There is moreover evidence to suggest that the genetic basis of bipolar disorder and unipolar depression overlap to some extent, and several linkage analyses have suggested evidence...... for a common susceptibility locus in affective disorders on chromosome 12q24. In this study we investigated the chromosome 12 candidate region for linkage to the mean level of depression symptomatology, over a 10-year follow-up, using a highly informative sample of concordant and discordant twin pairs selected...

  15. A Test of Seven Candidate Barcode Regions from the Plastome in Picea (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hua Ran; Pei-Pei Wang; Hui-Juan Zhao; Xiao-Quan Wang

    2010-01-01

    DNA barcoding, as a tool for species discrimination, has been used efficiently in animals, algae and fungi, but there are still debates on which DNA region(s) can be used as the standard barcode(s) for land plants. Gymnosperms, especially conifers, are important components of forests, and there is an urgent need for them to be identified through DNA barcoding because of their high frequency of collection in the field. However, the feasibility of DNA barcoding in gymnosperms has not been examined based on a dense species sampling. Here we selected seven candidate DNA barcodes from the plastome (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, atpF-atpH, psbA-trnH, and psbK-psbl) to evaluate their suitability in Picea (spruce). The results showed that none of them or their different combinations has sufficient resolution for spruce species, although matK+rbcL might be used as a two-locus barcode. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Picea might be caused by the paternal inheritance of the chloroplast genome, long generation time, recent radiation, and frequent inter-specific hybridization aided by wind pollination. Some of these factors could also be responsible for the difficulties in barcoding other plant groups. Furthermore, the potential of the nuclear LEAFY gene as a land plant barcode was discussed.

  16. Imputation-based analysis of association studies: candidate regions and quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Servin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new framework for the analysis of association studies, designed to allow untyped variants to be more effectively and directly tested for association with a phenotype. The idea is to combine knowledge on patterns of correlation among SNPs (e.g., from the International HapMap project or resequencing data in a candidate region of interest with genotype data at tag SNPs collected on a phenotyped study sample, to estimate ("impute" unmeasured genotypes, and then assess association between the phenotype and these estimated genotypes. Compared with standard single-SNP tests, this approach results in increased power to detect association, even in cases in which the causal variant is typed, with the greatest gain occurring when multiple causal variants are present. It also provides more interpretable explanations for observed associations, including assessing, for each SNP, the strength of the evidence that it (rather than another correlated SNP is causal. Although we focus on association studies with quantitative phenotype and a relatively restricted region (e.g., a candidate gene, the framework is applicable and computationally practical for whole genome association studies. Methods described here are implemented in a software package, Bim-Bam, available from the Stephens Lab website http://stephenslab.uchicago.edu/software.html.

  17. Saturation mapping of QTL regions and identification of putative candidate genes for drought tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T T; Klueva, N; Chamareck, V; Aarti, A; Magpantay, G; Millena, A C M; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T

    2004-08-01

    We have developed 85 new markers (50 RFLPs, 5 SSRs, 12 DD cDNAs, 9 ESTs, 8 HSP-encoding cDNAs and one BSA-derived AFLP marker) for saturation mapping of QTL regions for drought tolerance in rice, in our efforts to identify putative candidate genes. Thirteen of the markers were localized in the close vicinity of the targeted QTL regions. Fifteen of the additional markers mapped, respectively, inside one QTL region controlling osmotic adjustment on chromosome 3 ( oa3.1) and 14 regions that affect root traits on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12. Differential display was used to identify more putative candidate genes and to saturate the QTL regions of the genetic map. Eleven of the isolated cDNA clones were found to be derived from drought-inducible genes. Two of them were unique and did not match any genes in the GenBank, while nine were highly similar to cDNAs encoding known proteins, including a DnaJ-related protein, a zinc-finger protein, a protease inhibitor, a glutathione-S-transferase, a DNA recombinase, and a protease. Twelve new cDNA fragments were mapped onto the genetic linkage map; seven of these mapped inside, or in close proximity to, the targeted QTL regions determining root thickness and osmotic adjustment capacity. The gene I12A1, which codes for a UDP-glucose 4-epimerase homolog, was identified as a putative target gene within the prt7.1/brt7.1 QTL region, as it is involved in the cell wall biogenesis pathway and hence may be implicated in modulating the ability of rice roots to penetrate further into the substratum when exposed to drought conditions. RNAs encoding elongation factor 1beta, a DnaJ-related protein, and a homolog of wheat zinc-finger protein were more prominently induced in the leaves of IR62266 (the lowland rice parent of the mapping materials used) than in those of CT9993 (the upland rice parent) under drought conditions. Homologs of 18S ribosomal RNA, and mRNAs for a multiple-stress induced zinc-finger protein, a protease

  18. Characterisation of five candidate genes within the ETEC F4ab/ac candidate region in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Joller, David;

    2011-01-01

    dominant Mendelian trait. Indentifying the genetics behind this trait will greatly benefit pig welfare as well as the pig breeding industry by providing an opportunity to select against genetically susceptible animals, thereby reducing the number of diarrhoea outbreaks. The trait has recently been mapped...... between ETEC F4ab/ac resistant and ETEC F4ab/ac susceptible animals in any of the tested tissues. CONCLUSIONS: None of the identified polymorphisms are obvious causative mutations for ETEC F4ab/ac susceptibility, as they have no impact on the level of the overall mRNA expression nor predicted to influence...

  19. Young Stellar Populations in MYStIX Star Forming Regions: Candidate Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Romine, Gregory; Getman, Konstantin V; Kuhn, Michael A; Povich, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog (MIRES) and Chandra-based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1,109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few 'false positives' from contaminating populations. But the limite...

  20. Candidate Gene Discovery Procedure after Follow-Up Confirmatory Analyses of Candidate Regions of Interests for Alzheimer’s Disease in the NIMH Sibling Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye M. Baye

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a procedure to identify candidate genes under linkage peaks confirmed in a follow-up of candidate regions of interests (CRIs identified in our original genome scan in the NIMH Alzheimer’s diseases (AD Initiative families (Blacker et al. [1]. There were six CRIs identified that met the threshold of multipoint lod score (MLS of ≥ 2.0 from the original scan. The most significant peak (MLS = 7.7 was at 19q13, which was attributed to APOE. The remaining CRIs with ‘suggestive’ evidence for linkage were identified at 9q22, 6q27, 14q22, 11q25, and 3p26. We have followed up and narrowed the 9q22 CRI signal using simple tandem repeat (STR markers (Perry et al. [2]. In this confirmatory project, we have followed up the 6q27, 14q22, 11q25, and 3p26 CRIs with a total of 24 additional flanking STRs, reducing the mean interval marker distance (MID in each CRI, and substantially increase in the information content (IC. The linkage signals at 6q27, 14q22 and 11q25 remain ‘suggestive’, indicating that these CRIs are promising and worthy of detailed fine mapping and assessment of candidate genes associated with AD.

  1. The influence of social networking web sites on the evaluation of job candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Daniel; Ross, William H

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated how the content of social networking Web site (SNW) pages influenced others' evaluation of job candidates. Students (N = 148) evaluated the suitability of hypothetical candidates for an entry-level managerial job. A 2 x 4 design was employed: résumés were either marginally qualified or well qualified for the job. SNW printouts reflected (a) an emphasis on drinking alcohol, (b) a family orientation, or (c) a professional orientation; participants in a control group received no Web page information. In addition to a main effect for résumé quality, applicants with either a family-oriented or a professional-oriented SNW were seen as more suitable for the job and more conscientious than applicants with alcohol-oriented SNW pages. They were more likely to be interviewed. If hired, they were also likely to be offered significantly higher starting salaries. Results are discussed in terms of implications for both managers and applicants. PMID:20557256

  2. Influences to post-graduation career aspirations and attainment in STEM doctoral candidates and recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Deborah S.

    As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.

  3. Novel approach of crater detection by crater candidate region selection and matrix-pattern-oriented least squares support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Meng; Cao Yunfeng; Wu Qingxian

    2013-01-01

    Impacted craters are commonly found on the surface of planets,satellites,asteroids and other solar system bodies.In order to speed up the rate of constructing the database of craters,it is important to develop crater detection algorithms.This paper presents a novel approach to automatically detect craters on planetary surfaces.The approach contains two parts:crater candidate region selection and crater detection.In the first part,crater candidate region selection is achieved by Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) detector.Matrix-pattern-oriented least squares support vector machine (MatLSSVM),as the matrixization version of least square support vector machine (SVM),inherits the advantages of least squares support vector machine (LSSVM),reduces storage space greatly and reserves spatial redundancies within each image matrix compared with general LSSVM.The second part of the approach employs MatLSSVM to design classifier for crater detection.Experimental results on the dataset which comprises 160 preprocessed image patches from Google Mars demonstrate that the accuracy rate of crater detection can be up to 88%.In addition,the outstanding feature of the approach introduced in this paper is that it takes resized crater candidate region as input pattern directly to finish crater detection.The results of the last experiment demonstrate that MatLSSVM-based classifier can detect crater regions effectively on the basis of KLT-based crater candidate region selection.

  4. Novel candidate genes AuxRP and Hsp90 influence the chip color of potato tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Sołtys-Kalina, Dorota; Szajko, Katarzyna; Sierocka, Izabela; Śliwka, Jadwiga; Strzelczyk-Żyta, Danuta; Wasilewicz-Flis, Iwona; Jakuczun, Henryka; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia; Marczewski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers exhibit significant variation in reducing sugar content directly after harvest, cold storage and reconditioning. Here, we performed QTL analysis for chip color, which is strongly influenced by reducing sugar content, in a diploid potato mapping population. Two QTL on chromosomes I and VI were detected for chip color after harvest and reconditioning. Only one region on chromosome VI was linked with cold-induced sweetening. Using the RT-PCR technique, we sho...

  5. Isolation of candidate genes and physical mapping in the Familial Dysautonomia region of chromosome 9q31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaugenhaupt, S.A.; Liebert, C.B.; Monahan, M. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial Dysautonomia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the developmental loss of both sensory and autonomic neurons. We have mapped the DYS gene to human chromosome 9q31-33 by genetic linkage analysis of 26 Ashkenazi Jewish pedigrees. The gene is located in a 3 cM interval between D9S310 and D9S105. We have examined several new SSCP and repeat polymorphisms and have successfully narrowed the minimum candidate region to approximately 300 kb using linkage disequilibrium. A YAC contig that spans 1.5 Mb has been constructed using both Alu-PCR and STS screening methods. In addition, the YACs were used to isolate cosmids by direct hybridization to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory chromosome 9 flow-sorted cosmid library. Having cloned the minimal candidate region, we are now constructing a detailed transcription map of the DYS region of chromosome 9. Using exon amplification, we have rapidly identified exon sequences and have used these as probes to isolate three candidate genes. These genes are currently being sequenced and will be assessed for mutations using both SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A detailed physical map of the DYS region, as well as sequence and homology information for DYS candidate genes, will be presented.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA variant at HVI region as a candidate of genetic markers of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, Gun Gun; Purnamasari, Yunita; Setiadi, Rahmat

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maternally inherited. mtDNA mutations which can contribute to the excess of maternal inheritance of type 2 diabetes. Due to the high mutation rate, one of the areas in the mtDNA that is often associated with the disease is the hypervariable region I (HVI). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the genetic variants of human mtDNA HVI that related to the type 2 diabetes in four samples that were taken from four generations in one lineage. Steps being taken include the lyses of hair follicles, amplification of mtDNA HVI fragment using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), detection of PCR products through agarose gel electrophoresis technique, the measurement of the concentration of mtDNA using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, determination of the nucleotide sequence via direct sequencing method and analysis of the sequencing results using SeqMan DNASTAR program. Based on the comparison between nucleotide sequence of samples and revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) obtained six same mutations that these are C16147T, T16189C, C16193del, T16127C, A16235G, and A16293C. After comparing the data obtained to the secondary data from Mitomap and NCBI, it were found that two mutations, T16189C and T16217C, become candidates as genetic markers of type 2 diabetes even the mutations were found also in the generations of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. The results of this study are expected to give contribution to the collection of human mtDNA database of genetic variants that associated to metabolic diseases, so that in the future it can be utilized in various fields, especially in medicine.

  7. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  8. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stram, Daniel O; Berndt, Sonja I; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis A; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Isaacs, William B; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J M; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Easton, Douglas F; Henderson, Brian E; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Conti, David V; Haiman, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10(-4)-5.6 × 10(-3)) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10(-6)) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation.

  9. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stram, Daniel O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Timothy J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Isaacs, William B.; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Henderson, Brian E.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Conti, David V.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10−4–5.6 × 10−3) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10−6) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation. PMID:26162851

  10. Identification of novel autism candidate regions through analysis of reported cytogenetic abnormalities associated with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstman, JAS; Staal, WG; van Daalen, E; van Engeland, H; Hochstenbach, PFR; Franke, L

    2006-01-01

    The identification of the candidate genes for autism through linkage and association studies has proven to be a difficult enterprise. An alternative approach is the analysis of cytogenetic abnormalities associated with autism. We present a review of all studies to date that relate patients with cyto

  11. INFLUENCE OF AUTOMOTIVE CLUSTERS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin BORDEI

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the automotive sector in the process of regional development. The fundamental changes made by the component supplier sector improved the regional development and manufacturing process. Automotive industry is one of the modern sectors in many countries that benefits of a high technology impact and creates jobs that reduces unemployment across Europe. The auto industry changed cities, regions and countries into poles of development and it beco...

  12. Re-sequencing data for refining candidate genes and polymorphisms in QTL regions affecting adiposity in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Roux

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose an approach aiming at fine-mapping adiposity QTL in chicken, integrating whole genome re-sequencing data. First, two QTL regions for adiposity were identified by performing a classical linkage analysis on 1362 offspring in 11 sire families obtained by crossing two meat-type chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. Those regions, located on chromosome 7 and 19, contained a total of 77 and 84 genes, respectively. Then, SNPs and indels in these regions were identified by re-sequencing sires. Considering issues related to polymorphism annotations for regulatory regions, we focused on the 120 and 104 polymorphisms having an impact on protein sequence, and located in coding regions of 35 and 42 genes situated in the two QTL regions. Subsequently, a filter was applied on SNPs considering their potential impact on the protein function based on conservation criteria. For the two regions, we identified 42 and 34 functional polymorphisms carried by 18 and 24 genes, and likely to deeply impact protein, including 3 coding indels and 4 nonsense SNPs. Finally, using gene functional annotation, a short list of 17 and 4 polymorphisms in 6 and 4 functional genes has been defined. Even if we cannot exclude that the causal polymorphisms may be located in regulatory regions, this strategy gives a complete overview of the candidate polymorphisms in coding regions and prioritize them on conservation- and functional-based arguments.

  13. Solar influence on global and regional climates

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The literature relevant to how solar variability influences climate is vast—but much has been based on inadequate statistics and non-robust procedures. The common pitfalls are outlined in this review. The best estimates of the solar influence on the global mean air surface temperature show relatively small effects, compared with the response to anthropogenic changes (and broadly in line with their respective radiative forcings). However, the situation is more interesting when o...

  14. Vote Choice, Ideology, and Social Dominance Orientation Influence Preferences for Lower Pitched Voices in Political Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang; A. Klofstad, Casey

    2015-01-01

    these findings by demonstrating that conservatives and Republicans tend to view the world as much more competitive and threatening than liberals and Democrats. We utilize two existing data sources to show that political candidates with lower-pitched voices are preferred more among conservative Republicans than...

  15. Vote Choice, Ideology, and Social Dominance Orientation Influence Preferences for Lower Pitched Voices in Political Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Laustsen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are equipped with a psychological system of followership that evolved to regulate choices of leaders based partly on would-be leaders’ physiological features. One such feature is voice pitch, which is determined by the physiology of the throat. Recent studies find that political candidates in modern elections with lower-pitched voices are generally more successful. As lower-pitched voices are perceived as stronger and more dominant, these findings have been taken to indicate a general preference for dispositional abilities in leaders to protect and prevail in conflicts. Here we extend upon these findings by demonstrating that conservatives and Republicans tend to view the world as much more competitive and threatening than liberals and Democrats. We utilize two existing data sources to show that political candidates with lower-pitched voices are preferred more among conservative Republicans than among liberal Democrats. In a third study we show that preferences for lower-pitched candidate voices stem from individual differences in Social Dominance Orientation (SDO. Importantly, across all three studies subjects’ party affiliation, ideology, and SDO only predict preferences for male candidate voices. We conclude with a discussion of the results in relation to followership psychology and general debates on the rationality of the public with respect to elections.

  16. The northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) region, Mars: A prime candidate site for the future exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Barlow, N.G.; Baker, V.R.; Mahaney, W.C.; Anderson, R.C.; Hare, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The northwestern slope valleys region is a prime candidate site for future science-driven Mars exploration because it records Noachian to Amazonian Tharsis development in a region that encapsulates (1) a diverse and temporally extensive stratigraphic record, (2) at least three distinct paleohydrologic regimes, (3) gargantuan structurally controlled flood valleys that generally correspond with gravity and magnetic anomalies, possibly marking ancient magnetized rock materials exposed by fluvial activity, (4) water enrichment, as indicated by Mars Odyssey and impact crater analyses, (5) long-lived magma and ground water/ice interactions that could be favorable for the development and sustenance of life, and (6) potential paleosol development. This region has high probability to yield significant geologic, climatic, and exobiologic information that could revolutionize our understanding of Mars. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Confirmation and Ascertainment of the Candidate Genomic Regions of Complex Trait Loci - A None-Experimental Solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishi Wang

    Full Text Available Over the past half century, thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified by using animal models and plant populations. However, the none-reliability and imprecision of the genomic regions of these loci have remained the major hurdle for the identification of the causal genes for the correspondent traits. We used a none-experimental strategy of strain number reduction for testing accuracy and ascertainment of the candidate region for QTL. We tested the strategy in over 400 analyses with data from 47 studies. These studies include: 1 studies with recombinant inbred (RI strains of mice. We first tested two previously mapped QTL with well-defined genomic regions; We then tested additional four studies with known QTL regions; and finally we examined the reliability of QTL in 38 sets of data which are produced from relatively large numbers of RI strains, derived from C57BL/6J (B6 X DBA/2J (D2, known as BXD RI mouse strains; 2 studies with RI strains of rats and plants; and 3 studies using F2 populations in mice, rats and plants. In these cases, our method identified the reliability of mapped QTL and localized the candidate genes into the defined genomic regions. Our data also suggests that LRS score produced by permutation tests does not necessarily confirm the reliability of the QTL. Number of strains are not the reliable indicators for the accuracy of QTL either. Our strategy determines the reliability and accuracy of the genomic region of a QTL without any additional experimental study such as congenic breeding.

  18. Self-Confirmation and Ascertainment of the Candidate Genomic Regions of Complex Trait Loci - A None-Experimental Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lishi; Jiao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengchen; Gu, Weikuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past half century, thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified by using animal models and plant populations. However, the none-reliability and imprecision of the genomic regions of these loci have remained the major hurdle for the identification of the causal genes for the correspondent traits. We used a none-experimental strategy of strain number reduction for testing accuracy and ascertainment of the candidate region for QTL. We tested the strategy in over 400 analyses with data from 47 studies. These studies include: 1) studies with recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice. We first tested two previously mapped QTL with well-defined genomic regions; We then tested additional four studies with known QTL regions; and finally we examined the reliability of QTL in 38 sets of data which are produced from relatively large numbers of RI strains, derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), known as BXD RI mouse strains; 2) studies with RI strains of rats and plants; and 3) studies using F2 populations in mice, rats and plants. In these cases, our method identified the reliability of mapped QTL and localized the candidate genes into the defined genomic regions. Our data also suggests that LRS score produced by permutation tests does not necessarily confirm the reliability of the QTL. Number of strains are not the reliable indicators for the accuracy of QTL either. Our strategy determines the reliability and accuracy of the genomic region of a QTL without any additional experimental study such as congenic breeding. PMID:27203862

  19. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS): Characterization of the critical region and isolation of candidate genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, L.; Wapenaar, M.C.; Grillo, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder characterized by abnormalities in the development of the eye, skin, and brain. We defined the MLS critical region through analysis of hybrid cell lines retaining various deletion breakpoints in Xp22, including cell lines from 17 female patients showing features of MLS. Using a combination of YAC cloning and long-range restriction analysis, the MLS candidate region was estimated to be 450-550 kb. A minimally overlapping cosmid contig comprised of 20 cosmid clones was subsequently developed in this region. These cosmids are currently being used to isolate expressed sequences using cross-species conservation studies and exon-trapping. An evolutionarily conserved sequence isolated from a cosmid within the critical region has been used to isolate several overlapping cDNAs from a human embryonic library. Northern analysis using these cDNA clones identified a 5.2 kb transcript in all tissues examined. Sequence analysis revealed a 777 base pair open reading frame encoding a putative 258 amino acid protein. Using the exon-trapping method, fifty-four putative exons have been isolated from fourteen cosmids within the critical region. The expression patterns of the genes containing these exons are being analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using reverse-transcribed mRNA from several human tissues and primers corresponding to the exon sequences. Using this approach in combination with exon connection, we determined the four of the trapped exons belong to the same cDNA transcript, which is expressed in adult retina, lymphoblast, skeletal muscle, and fetal brain. To date, we have isolated and sequenced 1 kilobase of this gene, all of which appears to be open reading frame. Both of the genes isolated from the critical region are being analyzed as possible candidates for MLS.

  20. The Influence of Internet for Regional Economy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昭霞

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a kind of new technology that has exerted a tremendous influence in the all world since the late stage of the 20th. It has per- meated the all domain of the society and it has changed each field of the world. The paper probes into the theory from influencing angle of internet for regional economy, and it analyses the promoting function of network for regional economy development. It either reflects the times characteristic on regional economy research or affords a new thinking for regional economy research that the research about the relation of internet for regional economy development research.

  1. Candidate glutamatergic and dopaminergic pathway gene variants do not influence Huntington’s disease motor onset

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Di Pardo, Alba; Di Donato, Stefano; Gellera, Cinzia; Hayden, Michael R.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Nance, Martha; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Gomez-Tortosa, Estrella; Ayuso, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances. It is caused by the expansion of the HTT CAG repeat, which is the major determinant of age at onset (AO) of motor symptoms. Aberrant function of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and/or overexposure to dopamine has been suggested to cause significant neurotoxicity, contributing to HD pathogenesis. We used genetic association analysis in 1,628 HD patients to evaluate candidate...

  2. A linkage study of schizophrenia candidate regions in a Chinese multiplex pedigree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐劲松

    2006-01-01

    Objective This study is to explore the molecular ge- netic relationship between chromosome regions and susceptibility genes for familial schizophrenia in Chinese Hah population. Methods A multiplex schizophrenia family including 5 schizophrenia patients and their 21 relatives was included. The patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edi-

  3. Candidate regions for Waardenburg syndrome type II: Search for a second WS locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nance, W.E.; Pandya, A.; Blanton, S.H. [VA Commonwealth Univ, Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by deafness and pigmentary abnormalities such as heterochromia of irides, hypopigmented skin patches, white forlock and premature graying. Clinically the syndrome has been classified into three types. Type II differs from type I in that dystopia canthorum is generally absent, and type III has associated limb anomalies. Recently linkage analysis localized the gene for WSI to chromosome 2q. PAX-3, which is a human analogue of the murine pax-3 locus, maps to this region and mutations in this gene have been found to segregate with WSI. However genetic heterogeneity clearly exists: most if not all WSII families are unlinked to PAX-3 while most if not all WSI cases are linked. We ascertained a four-year-old female child with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 who had features of WS including bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pale blue irides and pinched nostrils as well as hypertelorism microcephaly, bilateral eyelid ptosis, digitalization of thumbs and fifth finger clinodactyly. High resolution chromosomal analysis revealed a de novo interstitial deletion of 13q22-33.2. There was no family history of WS or retardation. A similar deletion in the region of 13q21-32 has been described in a 13-year-old boy with features of WSII. These two cases strongly suggested that this chromosomal region may include a second locus for WS. We have identified eight families with clinical features of WS type I which have been excluded from linkage to the PAX-3 locus. We have typed these families for microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 13. Linkage between WSII and the chromosome 13 markers was excluded in these families. Hirschsprung disease has been associated with WS and it has recently been mapped to chromosome 10q11.2-q21.1. We are currently typing the 8 families for microsatellites in this region.

  4. YAC and cosmid contigs encompassing the Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) candidate region on 9q31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Masashi; Nakahori, Yutaka; Matsushita, Ikumi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy in Japan, is an autosomal recessive severe muscular dystrophy associated with an anomaly of the brain. We had mapped the FCMD gene to an approximately 5-cM interval between D9S127 and D9S2111 on 9q31-q33 and had also found evidence for linkage disequilibrium between FCMD and D9S306 in this candidate region. Through further analysis, we have defined another marker, D9S172, which showed stronger linkage disequilibrium than D9S306. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig spanning 3.5 Mb, which includes this D9S306-D9S172 interval on 9q31, has been constructed by a combination of sequence-tagged site, Alu-PCR, and restriction mapping. Also, cosmid clones subcloned from the YAC were assembled into three contigs, one of which contains D9S2107, which showed the strongest linkage disequilibrium with FCMD. These contigs also allowed us to order the markers as follows: cen-D9S127-({approximately}800 kb)-D9S306 (identical to D9S53)-({approximately}700 kb)-A107XF9-({approximately}500 kb)-D9S172-({approximately}30 kb)-D9S299 (identical to D9S774)-({approximately}120 kb)-WI2269-tel. Thus, we have constructed the first high-resolution physical map of the FCMD candidate region. The YAC and cosmid contigs established here will be a crucial resource for identification of the FCMD gene and other genes in this region. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Integrative taxonomy supports new candidate fish species in a poorly studied neotropical region: the Jequitinhonha River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugedo, Marina Lages; de Andrade Neto, Francisco Ricardo; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2016-06-01

    Molecular identification through DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to standardize a global biodiversity identification system using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene. We applied an integrative approach using DNA barcoding and traditional morphology-based bioassessment to identify fish from a neotropical region possessing low taxonomic knowledge: the Jequitinhonha River Basin (Southeastern Brazil). The Jequitinhonha River Basin (JRB) has a high rate of endemism and is considered an area of high priority for fish conservation, with estimates indicating the presence of around 110 native and non-indigenous species. DNA barcodes were obtained from 260 individuals belonging to 52 species distributed among 35 genera, 21 families and 6 orders, including threatened and rare species such as Rhamdia jequitinhonha and Steindachneridion amblyurum. The mean Kimura two-parameter genetic distances within species, genera and families were: 0.44, 12.16 and 20.58 %, respectively. Mean intraspecific genetic variation ranged from 0 to 11.43 %, and high values (>2 %) were recovered for five species. Species with a deep intraspecific distance, possibly flagging overlooked taxa, were detected within the genus Pimelodella. Fifteen species, only identified to the genus level, had unique BINs, with a nearest neighbor distance over 2 % and therefore, potential new candidate species supported by DNA barcoding. The integrative taxonomy approach using DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy may be a remedy to taxonomy impediment, accelerating species identification by flagging potential new candidate species and to adequately conserve the megadiverse neotropical ichthyofauna.

  6. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  7. Association between common germline genetic variation in 94 candidate genes or regions and risks of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaye, Lydia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan J;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the population that are associated with variations in the risks of many different diseases including cancers such as breast, prostate and colorectal. For ovarian cancer, the known highly penetrant....... To date, we have genotyped 340 SNPs from 94 candidate genes or regions, in up to 1,491 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 3,145 unaffected controls from three different population based studies from the UK, Denmark and USA. RESULTS: After adjusting for population stratification by genomic...... control, 18 SNPs (5.3%) were significant at the 5% level, and 5 SNPs (1.5%) were significant at the 1% level. The most significant association was for the SNP rs2107425, located on chromosome 11p15.5, which has previously been identified as a susceptibility allele for breast cancer from a genome wide...

  8. Predicted Coverage and Immuno-Safety of a Recombinant C-Repeat Region Based Streptococcus pyogenes Vaccine Candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Celia; Cosh, Samantha; Vu, Therese; Nichols, Jemma; Henningham, Anna; Hofmann, Andreas; Fane, Anne; Smeesters, Pierre R; Rush, Catherine M; Hafner, Louise M; Ketheesan, Natkuman; Sriprakash, Kadaba S; McMillan, David J

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal region of the M-protein of Streptococcus pyogenes is a major target for vaccine development. The major feature is the C-repeat region, consisting of 35-42 amino acid repeat units that display high but not perfect identity. SV1 is a S. pyogenes vaccine candidate that incorporates five 14mer amino acid sequences (called J14i variants) from differing C-repeat units in a single recombinant construct. Here we show that the J14i variants chosen for inclusion in SV1 are the most common variants in a dataset of 176 unique M-proteins. Murine antibodies raised against SV1 were shown to bind to each of the J14i variants present in SV1, as well as variants not present in the vaccine. Antibodies raised to the individual J14i variants were also shown to bind to multiple but different combinations of J14i variants, supporting the underlying rationale for the design of SV1. A Lewis Rat Model of valvulitis was then used to assess the capacity of SV1 to induce deleterious immune response associated with rheumatic heart disease. In this model, both SV1 and the M5 positive control protein were immunogenic. Neither of these antibodies were cross-reactive with cardiac myosin or collagen. Splenic T cells from SV1/CFA and SV1/alum immunized rats did not proliferate in response to cardiac myosin or collagen. Subsequent histological examination of heart tissue showed that 4 of 5 mice from the M5/CFA group had valvulitis and inflammatory cell infiltration into valvular tissue, whereas mice immunised with SV1/CFA, SV1/alum showed no sign of valvulitis. These results suggest that SV1 is a safe vaccine candidate that will elicit antibodies that recognise the vast majority of circulating GAS M-types. PMID:27310707

  9. Genetic Influence of Candidate Osteoporosis Genes in Saudi Arabian Population: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The purpose of the present study is to find the genes and SNP that influence BMD and postmenopausal Saudi women. Material and Methods. Two-hundred ethnic Saudi Arabian women with a diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis were the subjects of this study. Baseline blood hematology, biochemistry, and bone panel were done. Blood was collected, and three TaqMan-MGB probes were used to analyze SNP variants in ALOX15 (rs7220870, LRP5 (C 25752205 10, and TNFRSF11B (C 11869235 10. Results. The variant of ALOX15 17p13 showed that the BMD of the spine was lower in the AA allele (P value <0.002 and fractures were highest at 50% compared to CC allele. In the TNFRSF11B gene, BMD of the hip and spine was significantly higher in the GG allele and the history of fractures was significantly higher in GG group. With regard to the LRP5 (C 25752205 10 gene, there was no significant difference between allele groups. Conclusion(s. This study shows that the genetic influence of osteoporosis in the Caucasian and Saudi Arabians population is similar. We believe that the same genetic markers that influence osteoporosis in the Caucasian race could be used for further studies in the Saudi Arabian population.

  10. Sirolimus and Everolimus Pathway: Reviewing Candidate Genes Influencing Their Intracellular Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Simona; Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Carraro, Amedeo; Brunelli, Matteo; Stallone, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) and everolimus (EVR) are mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) largely employed in renal transplantation and oncology as immunosuppressive/antiproliferative agents. SRL was the first mTOR-I produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus and approved for several medical purposes. EVR, derived from SRL, contains a 2-hydroxy-ethyl chain in the 40th position that makes the drug more hydrophilic than SRL and increases oral bioavailability. Their main mechanism of action is the inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 and the regulation of factors involved in a several crucial cellular functions including: protein synthesis, regulation of angiogenesis, lipid biosynthesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and function, cell cycle, and autophagy. Most of the proteins/enzymes belonging to the aforementioned biological processes are encoded by numerous and tightly regulated genes. However, at the moment, the polygenic influence on SRL/EVR cellular effects is still not completely defined, and its comprehension represents a key challenge for researchers. Therefore, to obtain a complete picture of the cellular network connected to SRL/EVR, we decided to review major evidences available in the literature regarding the genetic influence on mTOR-I biology/pharmacology and to build, for the first time, a useful and specific "SRL/EVR genes-focused pathway", possibly employable as a starting point for future in-depth research projects. PMID:27187382

  11. Investigation of candidate regions influencing litter size in Danish landrace sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, D; Mark, T; Sørensen, P;

    2010-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size has been one of the main objectives in Danish pig breeding since 1992. This selection has lead to an average increase of 0.30 piglets per litter per year for Landrace and Yorkshire sows, resulting in an average litter size of 15.3 live born piglets in 2007......, with a standard deviation of 3.5 piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in identity by state relationships and allele effects associated with litter size across 17 selected microsatellite marker positions on chromosomes 11, 13, and 15. For this purpose, 357 Danish Landrace sows...... with high and low breeding values for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90 percent of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low estimated breeding values, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated...

  12. Craniosynostosis suggestive of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome: Clinical description of a large kindred and exclusion of candidate regions on 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Gernet, S.; Muehlbauer, W.; Fairley, J. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Bogenhausen, Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-05-03

    We describe the clinical manifestations of an autosomal dominant form of craniosynostosis in a large family with eight affected relatives. Unilateral or bilateral coronal synostosis, low frontal hair line, strabismus, ptosis, and partial cutaneous syndactyly of fingers and toes are findings suggestive of the diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. The disease locus was excluded from the two adjacent Saethre-Chotzen candidate regions on 7p by linkage analysis with markers D7S664 and D7S507. This indicates heterogeneity of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome with a locus outside the candidate regions on 7p. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Conserved regions ofPlasmodium vivax potential vaccine candidate antigens in Sri Lanka:Consciousin silico analysis of prospective conformational epitope regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanika Amarasinghe; Hashendra Kathriarachchi; Preethi Udagama

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To do mapping and modeling of conformationalB cell epitope regions of highly conserved and protective regions of three merozoitecandidate vaccine proteins ofPlasmodium vivax(P. vivax) ,ie. merozoite purface protein-1(PvMSP-1), apical membrane antigen -1 domainⅡ(PvAMA1-DⅡ) and regionⅡ of theDuffy binding protein(PvDBPⅡ), and to analyze the immunogenic properties of these predicted epitopes.Methods:3-D structures of amino acid haplotypes fromSriLanka(available inGeneBank) ofPvMSP-119(n=27),PvAMA1-DⅡ(n=21) andPvDBPⅡ(n=33) were modeled.SEPPA, selected as the best online server was used for conformational epitope predictions, while prediction and modeling of protein structure and properties related to immunogenicity was carried out withGeno3D server,SCRATCHProtein Server,NetSurfPServer and standalonesoftware,Genious5.4.4.Results:SEPPA revealed that regions of predicted conformational epitopes formed4 clusters inPvMSP-I19, and3 clusters each inPvAMA1-DⅡ andPvDBPⅡ, all of which displayed a high degree of hydrophilicity, contained solvent exposed residues, displayed high probability of antigenicity and showed positive antigenic propensity values, that indicated high degree of immunogenicity.Conclusions:Findings of this study revealed and confirmed that different parts of the sequences of each of the conserved regions of the three selected potential vaccine candidate antigens ofP. vivax are important with regard to conformational epitope prediction that warrants further laboratory experimental investigations in in vivo animal models.

  14. Four out of eight genes in a mouse chromosome 7 congenic donor region are candidate obesity genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahan, Kari A.; Fisler, Janis S.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified a region of mouse chromosome 7 that influences body fat mass in F2 littermates of congenic × background intercrosses. Current analyses revealed that alleles in the donor region of the subcongenic B6.C-D7Mit318 (318) promoted a twofold increase in adiposity in homozygous lines of 318 compared with background C57BL/6ByJ (B6By) mice. Parent-of-origin effects were discounted through cross-fostering studies and an F1 reciprocal cross. Mapping of the donor region revealed that it has a maximal size of 2.8 Mb (minimum 1.8 Mb) and contains a maximum of eight protein coding genes. Quantitative PCR in whole brain, liver, and gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) revealed differential expression between genotypes for three genes in females and two genes in males. Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B (St8sia2) showed reduced 318 mRNA levels in brain for females and males and in GWAT for females only. Both sexes of 318 mice had reduced Repulsive guidance molecule-a (Rgma) expression in GWAT. In brain, Family with sequence similarity 174 member b (Fam174b) had increased expression in 318 females, whereas Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (Chd2-2) had reduced expression in 318 males. No donor region genes were differentially expressed in liver. Sequence analysis of coding exons for all genes in the 318 donor region revealed only one single nucleotide polymorphism that produced a nonsynonymous missense mutation, Gln7Pro, in Fam174b. Our findings highlight the difficulty of using expression and sequence to identify quantitative trait genes underlying obesity even in small genomic regions. PMID:21730028

  15. Four out of eight genes in a mouse chromosome 7 congenic donor region are candidate obesity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahan, Kari A; Fisler, Janis S; Warden, Craig H

    2011-09-22

    We previously identified a region of mouse chromosome 7 that influences body fat mass in F2 littermates of congenic × background intercrosses. Current analyses revealed that alleles in the donor region of the subcongenic B6.C-D7Mit318 (318) promoted a twofold increase in adiposity in homozygous lines of 318 compared with background C57BL/6ByJ (B6By) mice. Parent-of-origin effects were discounted through cross-fostering studies and an F1 reciprocal cross. Mapping of the donor region revealed that it has a maximal size of 2.8 Mb (minimum 1.8 Mb) and contains a maximum of eight protein coding genes. Quantitative PCR in whole brain, liver, and gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) revealed differential expression between genotypes for three genes in females and two genes in males. Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B (St8sia2) showed reduced 318 mRNA levels in brain for females and males and in GWAT for females only. Both sexes of 318 mice had reduced Repulsive guidance molecule-a (Rgma) expression in GWAT. In brain, Family with sequence similarity 174 member b (Fam174b) had increased expression in 318 females, whereas Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (Chd2-2) had reduced expression in 318 males. No donor region genes were differentially expressed in liver. Sequence analysis of coding exons for all genes in the 318 donor region revealed only one single nucleotide polymorphism that produced a nonsynonymous missense mutation, Gln7Pro, in Fam174b. Our findings highlight the difficulty of using expression and sequence to identify quantitative trait genes underlying obesity even in small genomic regions.

  16. Influence of aerosol on regional precipitation in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Jing; MAO JieTai

    2009-01-01

    The possible anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional precipitation is analyzed based on the historical data of precipitation and visibility of North China. At first, the precipitation amounts from 1960 to 1979 are considered as natural background values in our study for relatively less intensive industrial activi-ties and light air pollution during that period of time, then the region is divided into different subregions by applying the clustering method including the significance test of station rainfall correlations to the time series of 10-day mean rainfall amounts in this period. Based on the rule that the precipitation characteristics are similar in the same clustering region, the correlation of precipitation amounts among all stations in each region is thus established. Secondly, for the period from 1990 to 2005, during which, the economy had experienced a rapid development in this region, the variations of visibility at each station are analyzed. The stations with the absolute change in visibility less than 0.1 km/a are used as the reference stations, at which it is assumed that precipitation has not been seriously influ-enced by anthropogenic aerosols. Then the rainfall amounts of reference stations are used to estimate the natural precipitation values of the other stations in each clustering region. The difference between estimated precipitation and measured precipitation amount is thought to result from changes in an-thropogenic aerosols. These changes in precipitation amounts caused by anthropogenic aerosols at each station are calculated using the 10-day mean rainfall values from 1990 to 2005. The analysis re-suits obtained with this method are remarkable if it passes the significance test, and therefore, the suppression of regional precipitation over the region by anthropogenic aerosol is proved. It is found that this effect is most remarkable in summer. The influence of anthropogenic aerosols on convective precipitation possibly plays an important

  17. A profile of UK unemployment: regional versus demographic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Sessions, J G

    1997-06-01

    "This paper profiles the incidence of unemployment in the [United Kingdom] over the period 1985-91 using data derived from the British Social Attitudes Survey. The approach of the paper is to quantify the differential probabilities of unemployment faced by particular groups within the population, focusing in particular on the relative effects of demographic and regional influences. Our results indicate that, even after controlling for a plethora of demographic characteristics, regional disparities in unemployment risk are prevalent, with individuals in Northern Ireland, Wales, the North and West Midlands of England facing a higher chance of unemployment ceteris paribus." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293417

  18. Influence of growing and exploatation of bovins on regional agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel Podar; Ioan Oroian; Friss Zsuzsa; Bianca Damian; I. Macarie; Daniela Ţerbea; Pop, Ioan A

    2011-01-01

    Scientists all over the are concerned regarding the influence of growing ruminants on regional agro-ecosystems due to green house gases resulted (CO 2, CH4, N2O5). Cattle have contributed to environmental pollution in old industrial farming systems, when the cattle number in Romania, reached 8 million, manure evacuation was not solved and manure was accumulating around the farm polluting the soil, water and air. Low density of ruminants existing in the agricultural sector of the country is no...

  19. A Candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 3′ Untranslated Region of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene for Fatness Quality and the Gene Expression in Berkshire Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Eun-A; Choe, Jee-Hwan; Hong, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Fatness qualities in pigs measured by the amount of fat deposition and composition of fatty acids (FAs) in pork have considerable effect on current breeding goals. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene plays a crucial role in the conversion of saturated FAs into monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), and hence, is among the candidate genes responsible for pig fatness traits. Here, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, c.*2041T>C) in the 3′ untranslated region by direct sequencing focuse...

  20. Local and regional factors influence the structure of treehole metacommunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegan Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. Results Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator. Several species were affected by water volume, and a non-exclusive group of species were influenced by leaf litter mass. Relative abundance of Aedes triseriatus was higher in treeholes with higher volumes of water, and relative abundances of three out of six other species were lower in treeholes with higher volumes of water. Leaf litter mass positively affected densities of Aedes triseriatus and relative abundance of several dipteran species. The density of the top predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus, affected the relative abundance of the two most common species, A. triseriatus and Culicoides guttipennis. Treeholes with T. rutilus had an average of two more species than treeholes without T. rutilus. We found little evidence of synchrony between pairs of treeholes, either spatially or temporally. There were high levels of spatial and temporal turnover, and spatial turnover increased with distance between patches. Conclusion The strong effects of water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator, along with the high temporal turnover strongly suggest that species presence and density are determined by local factors and changes in those factors over time. Both low water volume and high predator densities can eliminate populations in local patches, and those populations can recolonize patches when rain refills or predators exit treeholes. Population densities of the same species were not matched between pairs of

  1. Identification of candidate genes and mutations in QTL regions for chicken growth using bioinformatic analysis of NGS and SNP-chip data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAhsan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of chromosomal regions harboring genetic polymorphisms that regulate complex traits is usually followed by a search for the causative mutations underlying the observed effects. This is often a challenging task even after fine mapping, as millions of base pairs including many genes will typically need to be investigated. Thus to trace the causative mutation(s there is a great need for efficient bioinformatic strategies. Here, we searched for genes and mutations regulating growth in the Virginia chicken lines – an experimental population comprising two lines that have been divergently selected for body weight at 56 days for more than 50 generations. Several QTL regions have been mapped in an F2 intercross between the lines, and the regions have subsequently been replicated and fine mapped using an Advanced Intercross Line. We have further analyzed the QTL regions where the largest genetic divergence between the High-Weight selected (HWS and Low-Weight selected (LWS lines was observed. Such regions, covering about 37% of the actual QTL regions, were identified by comparing the allele frequencies of the HWS and LWS lines using both individual 60K SNP chip genotyping of birds and analysis of read proportions from genome resequencing of DNA pools. Based on a combination of criteria including significance of the QTL, allele frequency difference of identified mutations between the selected lines, gene information on relevance for growth, and the predicted functional effects of identified mutations we propose here a subset of candidate mutations of highest priority for further evaluation in functional studies. The candidate mutations were identified within the GCG, IGFBP2, GRB14, CRIM1, FGF16, VEGFR-2, ALG11, EDN1, SNX6 and BIRC7 genes. We believe that the proposed method of combining different types of genomic information increases the probability that the genes underlying the observed QTL effects are represented among the candidate mutations

  2. Local and regional factors influencing bacterial community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Eva S; Langenheder, Silke

    2012-02-01

    The classical view states that microbial biogeography is not affected by dispersal barriers or historical events, but only influenced by the local contemporary habitat conditions (species sorting). This has been challenged during recent years by studies suggesting that also regional factors such as mass effect, dispersal limitation and neutral assembly are important for the composition of local bacterial communities. Here we summarize results from biogeography studies in different environments, i.e. in marine, freshwater and soil as well in human hosts. Species sorting appears to be the most important mechanism. However, this result might be biased since this is the mechanism that is easiest to measure, detect and interpret. Hence, the importance of regional factors may have been underestimated. Moreover, our survey indicates that different assembly mechanisms might be important for different parts of the total community, differing, for example, between generalists and specialists, and between taxa of different dispersal ability and motility. We conclude that there is a clear need for experimental studies, first, to clearly separate regional and local factors in order to study their relative importance, and second, to test whether there are differences in assembly mechanisms depending on different taxonomic or functional groups.

  3. Influence of Subtropical Region Strawberry Cultivars on Jelly Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, Paula Nogueira; de Sousa Tavares, Bruna; de Almeida, Aline Botelho; Pio, Rafael; Peche, Pedro Maranha; de Souza, Vanessa Rios

    2016-06-01

    At the end of the production period of strawberries grown in subtropical regions, postharvest durability is severely diminished due to rising temperatures which compromises the commercialization of fresh fruit. An ideal option would be to process strawberries in the form of preserves, jams, and jellies. Along this line it becomes extremely important to conduct a survey of which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of jelly, as well as to understand what the consumer profile is for this product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different strawberry cultivars grown in subtropical regions of Brazil (Camarosa, Festival, San Andreas, Oso Grande, Camino Real, and Albion) on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use. The strawberry cultivars presented different physicochemical characteristics which resulted in jellies with different physicochemical and rheological characteristics. In this study, however, we verified that all cultivars have potential to be processed in the form of jelly due to good acceptance of all formulations prepared. In general consumers prefer a lighter-colored strawberry jelly, with a less intense red color, more acidic, and less consistent/firm. PMID:27115540

  4. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  5. Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Kracht, Steffen Skaarup; Esteso, G.;

    2009-01-01

    /resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used......Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility...

  6. Macrolevel factors of influence on industry competitiveness of Ukrainian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tkach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify processes and phenomena of macro level, which form current conditions of the industry competitiveness of Ukraine for working out practical recommendations of its innovation increasing. The results of the analysis. The influence of macro-environment on the industry competitiveness is shown. The main factors of industry competitiveness influence which issue on the national level (political, legal, economic, institutional, commercial, etc. are outlined. These factors are synergistically intertwined and form conditions of the industry competitiveness of regions. Considering the analysis of the results of international competitiveness rankings the author found out the following factors of lowering the competitive position of Ukraine: corruption, problematic access to business finance, inflation, political instability, tax burden, inefficient government bureaucracy and unstable exchange rate. On the basis of this, the trends of factors are explored over the past five years (2011-2015 and reasons of them are identified. The particular attention is paid to institutional factors as public-private partnership, state support of industrial development, features of the development of industrial parks in Ukraine and others. Moreover, the features of foreign policy of Ukraine and structure of exports of industrial goods are explored. The study demonstrated key macro threats in Ukraine. Practical recommendations of industry competitiveness increasing are given. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The development of Ukraine for the past five years (2011-2015 characterized by dynamic changes in all spheres of life. This affected the competitiveness of the country in general and its industry in particular. Macro-level influencing factors, which created unfavorable conditions for the formation of industrial competitiveness, are: macroeconomic instability and high levels of bureaucracy, corruption, lack of

  7. Influence of growing and exploatation of bovins on regional agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Podar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientists all over the are concerned regarding the influence of growing ruminants on regional agro-ecosystems due to green house gases resulted (CO 2, CH4, N2O5. Cattle have contributed to environmental pollution in old industrial farming systems, when the cattle number in Romania, reached 8 million, manure evacuation was not solved and manure was accumulating around the farm polluting the soil, water and air. Low density of ruminants existing in the agricultural sector of the country is not significant in terms of pollution. Currently cattle have positive effects on the environment by the use of legumes, grasses and manure production contributing to the increase of agricultural production: crop production (sugar beet, potato and cereals, animal production (milk, meat, leather production and industrial production also (biogas, befouls, alcohol, oil production.

  8. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P; Slayter, H S

    1991-06-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myosin, and had no effect on ATPase activity of purified S1 and myofibrils. However, it completely suppressed the movement of actin filaments in in vitro motility assays and reduced active shortening of sarcomeres of skinned cardiac myocytes by half. Suppression of motion by the anti-hinge antibody may reflect a mechanical constraint imposed by the antibody upon the mobility of the S2 region of myosin. The results suggest that the steps in the mechanochemical energy transduction can be separately influenced through S2.

  9. Influence of Motivation Theory and Supplemental Workshops on First-Time Passing Rates of HBCU Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Noran L.; Frizzell, Melanie M.; Brownlee-Williams, Yolanda; Thompson, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    The action research methodology for this study reports descriptive statistical findings from the performance of 19 Early Childhood Education African American teacher candidates matriculating through a state-approved program at an HBCU. Researcher-moderators provided a treatment plan of focused summer workshops, conceptualized based upon the…

  10. Influence of SNPs in nutrient-sensitive candidate genes and gene-diet interactions on blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Angquist, Lars; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup;

    2013-01-01

    after weight loss and in response to a given diet, among overweight European adults participating in the Diet Obesity and Genes study. By multiple linear regressions, 240 SNPs in twenty-four candidate genes were investigated for SNP main and SNP-diet interaction effects on total cholesterol, LDL...

  11. Evaluation of novel Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine candidates incorporating multiple conserved sequences from the C-repeat region of the M-protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michelle J; Georgousakis, Melina M; Vu, Therese; Henningham, Anna; Hofmann, Andreas; Rettel, Mandy; Hafner, Louise M; Sriprakash, Kadaba S; McMillan, David J

    2012-03-01

    A major challenge for Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine development is the identification of epitopes that confer protection from infection by multiple S. pyogenes M-types. Here we have identified and characterised the distribution of common variant sequences from individual repeat units of the C-repeat region (CRR) of M-proteins representing 77 different M-types. Three polyvalent fusion vaccine candidates (SV1, SV2 and SV3) incorporating the most common variants were subsequently expressed and purified, and demonstrated to be alpha-helical by Circular Dichroism (CD), a secondary conformational characteristic of the CRR in the M-protein. Antibodies raised against each of these constructs recognise M-proteins that vary in their CRR, and bind to the surface of multiple S. pyogenes isolates. Antibodies raised against SV1, containing five variant sequences, also kill heterologous S. pyogenes isolates in in vitro bactericidal assays. Further structural characterisation of this construct demonstrated the conformation of SV1 was stable at different pHs, and thermal unfolding of SV1 is a reversible process. Our findings demonstrate that linkage of multiple variant sequences into a single recombinant construct overcomes the need to embed the variant sequences in foreign helix promoting flanking sequences for conformational stability, and demonstrates the viability of the polyvalent candidates as global S. pyogenes vaccine candidates. PMID:22265945

  12. Exclusion of candidate genes from the chromosome 1q juvenile glaucoma region and mapping of the peripheral cannabis receptor gene (CNR2) to chromosome 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunden, S.L.F.; Nichols, B.E.; Alward, W.L.M. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma has been mapped by linkage to 1q21-q31. Several candidate genes were evaluated in the same family used to identify the primary linkage. Atrionatriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR1) and laminin C1 (LAMC1) have been previously mapped to this region and could putatively play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A third gene, the peripheral cannabis receptor (CNR2) was not initially mapped in humans but was a candidate because of the relief that cannabis affords some patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Microsatellites associated with NPR1 and LAMC1 revealed multiple recombinations in affected members of this pedigree. CNR2 was shown to be on chromosome 1 by PCR amplification of a 150 bp fragment of the 3{prime} untranslated region in monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids (NIGMS panel No. 2). These primers also revealed a two allele single strand conformation polymorphism which showed multiple recombinants with juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma in large pedigrees, segregating this disorder. The marker was then mapped to 1p34-p36 by linkage, with the most likely location between liver alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) and alpha-L-1 fucosidase (FUCA1).

  13. Genomewide high-density SNP linkage analysis of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families identifies various candidate regions and has greater power than microsatellite studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Neira Anna

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent development of new high-throughput technologies for SNP genotyping has opened the possibility of taking a genome-wide linkage approach to the search for new candidate genes involved in heredity diseases. The two major breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in 30% of hereditary breast cancer cases, but the discovery of additional breast cancer predisposition genes for the non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families has so far been unsuccessful. Results In order to evaluate the power improvement provided by using SNP markers in a real situation, we have performed a whole genome screen of 19 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families using 4720 genomewide SNPs with Illumina technology (Illumina's Linkage III Panel, with an average distance of 615 Kb/SNP. We identified six regions on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 11 and 14 as candidates to contain genes involved in breast cancer susceptibility, and additional fine mapping genotyping using microsatellite markers around linkage peaks confirmed five of them, excluding the region on chromosome 3. These results were consistent in analyses that excluded SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium. The results were compared with those obtained previously using a 10 cM microsatellite scan (STR-GWS and we found lower or not significant linkage signals with STR-GWS data compared to SNP data in all cases. Conclusion Our results show the power increase that SNPs can supply in linkage studies.

  14. Two new cases with microdeletion of 17q23.2 suggest presence of a candidate gene for sensorineural hearing loss within this region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Ronan, Anne; Ravn, Kristine;

    2011-01-01

    . In this report, we describe two new 17q23.2 deletion patients with mild intellectual disability and sensorineural hearing loss. They both had submicroscopic deletions smaller than the common deleted region for the 8 previously described 17q23.2 microdeletion cases. TBX4 was previously suggested...... as the responsible gene for the heart or limb defects observed in 17q23.2 deletion patients, but the present cases do not have these features despite deletion of this gene. The finding of sensorineural hearing loss in 5 of the 10 cases, including the present cases, with a microdeletion at17q23.2, strongly suggests...... the presence of a candidate gene for hearing loss within this region. We screened 41 patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss for mutations of TBX2 and detected no mutations....

  15. Localization of the candidate gene d-amino acid oxidase outside the refined 1-cM region of spinocerebellar ataxia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auburger, G.; Gispert, S.; Lunkes, A. [Univ. Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) is one form of the neurodegenerative autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias and has been linked to chromosome 12q in 25 previously described and 13 new families from a founder collective of {ge}500 patients in Holguin, Cuba. Although SCA2 in most patients cannot be distinguished from other spinocerebellar ataxias by clinical criteria, in some patients it exhibits a particular phenotype with early neuropathy/late slow saccades and late myoclonus. Autopsy in 11 patients demonstrated olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy with a selective sparing of the dentate nucleus. Complete allelic association within the Holguin population was established with the microsatellite D12S105, and the candidate region was determined to be within a 6-cM region distal to the marker D12S84, contrasting previous reports by Pulst and Lopes-Cendes and according to preliminary data between D12S84 and D12S1329. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Regional profiles of the candidate tau PET ligand 18F-AV-1451 recapitulate key features of Braak histopathological stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Adam J; Yu, Peng; Miller, Bradley B; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Dickson, James; Navitsky, Michael; Joshi, Abhinay D; Devous, Michael D; Mintun, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    SEE THAL AND VANDENBERGHE DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW057 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Post-mortem Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau tangle topographical distribution is one of the core neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The recent development of positron emission tomography tracers targeting neurofibrillary tangles has enabled the distribution of tau pathology to be imaged in living subjects. Methods for extraction of classic Braak staging from in vivo imaging of neurofibrillary tau tangles have not yet been explored. Standardized uptake value ratio images were calculated from 80-100 minute (18)F-AV-1451 (also known as T807) positron emission tomography scans obtained from n = 14 young reference subjects (age 21-39 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29-30) and n = 173 older test subjects (age 50-95 years) comprising amyloid negative cognitively normal (n = 42), clinically-diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (amyloid positive, n = 47, and amyloid negative, n = 40) and Alzheimer's disease (amyloid positive, n = 28, and amyloid negative, n = 16). We defined seven regions of interest in anterior temporal lobe and occipital lobe sections corresponding closely to those used as decision points in Braak staging. An algorithm based on the Braak histological staging procedure was applied to estimate Braak stages directly from the region of interest profiles in each subject. Quantitative region-based analysis of (18)F-AV-1451 images yielded region of interest and voxel level profiles that mirrored key features of neuropathological tau progression including profiles consistent with Braak stages 0 through VI. A simple set of decision rules enabled plausible Braak stages corresponding to stereotypical progression patterns to be objectively estimated in 149 (86%) of test subjects. An additional 12 (7%) subjects presented with predefined variant profiles (relative sparing of the hippocampus and/or occipital lobe). The estimated Braak

  17. Candidate gene resequencing to identify rare, pedigree-specific variants influencing healthy aging phenotypes in the long life family study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druley, Todd E; Wang, Lihua; Lin, Shiow J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Long Life Family Study (LLFS) is an international study to identify the genetic components of various healthy aging phenotypes. We hypothesized that pedigree-specific rare variants at longevity-associated genes could have a similar functional impact on healthy phenotypes. METHODS......: We performed custom hybridization capture sequencing to identify the functional variants in 464 candidate genes for longevity or the major diseases of aging in 615 pedigrees (4,953 individuals) from the LLFS, using a multiplexed, custom hybridization capture. Variants were analyzed individually...... that was significantly associated with three phenotypes (GSK3B with the Healthy Aging Index, NOTCH1 with diastolic blood pressure and TP53 with serum HDL). CONCLUSIONS: Sequencing analysis of family-based associations for age-related phenotypes can identify rare or novel variants....

  18. Linkage and association analyses identify a candidate region for apoB level on chromosome 4q32.3 in FCHL families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Ellen M; Rothstein, Joseph H; Igo, Robert P; Brunzell, John D; Motulsky, Arno G; Jarvik, Gail P

    2010-06-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a complex trait leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Elevated levels and size of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are associated with FCHL, which is genetically heterogeneous and is likely caused by rare variants. We carried out a linkage-based genome scan of four large FCHL pedigrees for apoB level that is independent of LDL: apoB level that is adjusted for LDL level and size. Follow-up included SNP genotyping in the region with the strongest evidence of linkage. Several regions with the evidence of linkage in individual pedigrees support the rare variant model. Evidence of linkage was strongest on chromosome 4q, with multipoint analysis in one pedigree giving LOD = 3.1 with a parametric model, and a log Bayes Factor = 1.5 from a Bayesian oligogenic approach. Of the 293 SNPs spanning the implicated region on 4q, rs6829588 completely explained the evidence of linkage. This SNP accounted for 39% of the apoB phenotypic variance, with heterozygotes for this SNP having a trait value that was approximately 30% higher than that of the high-frequency homozygote, thus identifying and considerably refining a strong candidate region. These results illustrate the advantage of using large pedigrees in the search for rare variants: reduced genetic heterogeneity within single pedigrees coupled with the large number of individuals segregating otherwise-rare single variants leads to high power to implicate such variants.

  19. Psychologists' Evaluation of Bariatric Surgery Candidates Influenced by Patients' Attachment Representations and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Floor; Hinnen, Chris; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Acherman, Yair; Brandjes, Dees P. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether patients self-reported attachment representations and levels of depression and anxiety influenced psychologists' evaluations of morbidly obese patients applying for bariatric surgery. A sample of 250 patients (mean age 44, 84 % female) who were referred for bariatric surg

  20. Identifying candidate genes for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP) in the critical region X(p22.1-p22.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, L.A.; Freedner, N.L.; Maizoub, J.A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP) is the most common inherited form of rickets, characterized by a proximal renal tubular phosphate leak leading to phosphate-wasting and abnormal 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolism. The primary defect is unknown, and the candidate gene approach has thus far been unsuccessful in identifying the gene. The HYP locus has been mapped to X(p22.1-p22.2) and more recently to a 500,000 base pair region spanned by two YACs, E01138 and A0472. In an effort to identify the HYP gene in the 500 kb region, we are taking the direct selection approach. Since the tissue expressing the HYP gene is unknown, we are using cDNA libraries from a number of tissues for direct selection, including kidney, liver, thyroid, brain, spinal cord, total fetus, bone, and an osteosarcoma cell line. The tissue cDNA is hybridized to the YACs A0472 and EO1138 (obtained courtesy of Fiona Francis, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London) in the presence of quenchers, which block repeated and ribosomal sequences on the YACs. A selected library is created from the tissues cDNAs that hybridize to the YACs. The selected cDNA library is first screened to eliminate inserts containing repeated and ribosomal sequences. The presence of the inserts on the YAC and on X(p22.1-p22.2) is then verified using mapping panels. Candidate cDNAs that make it through this analysis are sequenced. Our first attempts at making selected libraries resulted in a number of contaminants. Three separate libraries are currently under construction, using the following combinations of tissue cDNA libraries: (1) kidney, liver, and thyroid; (2) brain, spinal cord, and total fetus; and (3) bone and an osteosarcoma cell line. We will discuss transcripts obtained from these libraries.

  1. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  2. DYNAMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING U.S. AND REGIONAL CATFISH DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Jack E.; Ermita, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    Response to changes in factors influencing consumption of catfish and competing commodities differ between national, South Atlantic, and Southwest Central markets. A modified state adjustment model for catfish, beef, chicken, and other fish explicitly included age distribution, residence, occupation, education, and race/ethnic variables associated with habit formation. Nationally, per capita expenditures on catfish respond to present and past relative prices, and catfish, chicken, and other f...

  3. How do Regional Headquarters Influence Corporate Decisions in Networked MNCs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn; Nell, Phillip Christopher;

    2012-01-01

    In networked MNCs where knowledge and power are distributed, corporate strategy processes benefit from input arising from many different levels of the organization. Recently, the regional (i.e., supra-national) level has been emphasized as an important additional source of knowledge and input...

  4. Influence of microscale in snow distributed modelling in semiarid regions

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel Leiva, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the importance of the microscale snow distribution in the modelling of the snow dynamics in semiarid regions. Snow over these areas has particular features that further complicate its measuring, monitoring and modelling (e.g. several snowmelt cycles throughout the year and a very heterogeneous distribution). Most extended GIS-based calculation of snowmelt/accumulation models must deal with non-negligible scales effects below the cell size, which may result ...

  5. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P.; Slayter, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myos...

  6. Implementing regional innovation policies: doctrines and factors of influence

    OpenAIRE

    Høyer, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of regional innovation policies by focusing on a selected group of bureaucrats and evaluating the characteristics of the doctrines of action they utilize when creating innovation. The data used in the article were collected through in-depth interviews conducted with 21 employees in the Trade and Industry Departments in two county administrations, the offices of Innovation Norway in two counties and the Agricultural Departments of t...

  7. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  8. The study of mutations of low penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most widespread malignancy in the world. It is supposed, that all factors influencing on breast cancer onset can be divided into 4 groups: environmental factors, state of woman's health, heredity and concomitant disease. The inherited disposition towards breast cancer is complex, and many genetic variants and polymorphisms have been postulated to play a role in this condition. Despite genes with a high penetrance, known some genes with a low penetrance, such as ATM, CHEK2 and XRCC4. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The link between exposition to high doses of radiation and a subsequent development of breast cancer has been shown in numerous epidemiological studies. Because mutations in the known genes explain less than half of all multiple-case families, other genes involved in these repair pathways are now under current investigation in many different labs worldwide to define their role in breast cancer predisposition. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of low penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR, ARMAS-PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of CHEK2 and XRCC4 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  9. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the

  10. ANNUAL PARALLAX DETERMINATION TOWARD A NEW X-RAY-EMITTING CLASS 0 CANDIDATE WITH THE WATER MASER IN THE NGC 2264 STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our multi-epoch observation of the star-forming region NGC 2264 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry, we detected two water maser features. We have measured the annual parallax of the maser sources for the first time in NGC 2264 and derived 1.356 ± 0.098 mas, corresponding to the distance of 738−50+57 pc, which is consistent with its previously reported photometric observations. One of the maser features is located near a dust continuum core, CMM4S, positionally corresponding to the X-ray source FMS2-1269 listed in Flaccomio et al. Re-analyzing Chandra X-ray data, we found that FMS2-1269 is still surrounded by a dense envelope of a H2 column density, 5.4 × 1023 cm–2. We suggest that the maser detected near the CMM4S core is most likely associated with the X-ray-emitting Class 0 candidate FMS2-1269. The other maser feature is found to emerge from a high-velocity outflow of 150 km s–1 and is associated with the 3.6 cm radio continuum source NGC 2264 VLA 3 located close to IRS1

  11. High density genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing and association identifies common and low frequency SNPs, and novel candidate genes influencing cow milk traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Peters, Sunday O.; Akwanji, Kingsley A.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have increased the ability to detect sequence variations for complex trait improvement. A high throughput genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method was used to generate 515,787 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from which 76,355 SNPs with call rates >85% and minor allele frequency ≥1.5% were used in genome wide association study (GWAS) of 44 milk traits in 1,246 Canadian Holstein cows. GWAS was accomplished with a mixed linear model procedure implementing the additive and dominant models. A strong signal within the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 14 was associated with test day fat percentage. Several SNPs were associated with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, CLA:9c11t and gamma linolenic acid. Most of the significant SNPs for 44 traits studied are novel and located in intergenic regions or introns of genes. Novel potential candidate genes for milk traits or mammary gland functions include ERCC6, TONSL, NPAS2, ACER3, ITGB4, GGT6, ACOX3, MECR, ADAM12, ACHE, LRRC14, FUK, NPRL3, EVL, SLCO3A1, PSMA4, FTO, ADCK5, PP1R16A and TEP1. Our study further demonstrates the utility of the GBS approach for identifying population-specific SNPs for use in improvement of complex dairy traits. PMID:27506634

  12. Association and haplotype analysis of candidate genes in five genomic regions linked to sow maternal infanticide in a white Duroc × Erhualian resource population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Nengshui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal infanticide is an extreme and failed maternal behavior, which is defined as an active attack on piglets using the jaws, resulting in serious or fatal bite wounds. It brings big economic loss to the pig industry and severe problems to piglets' welfare. But little is known about the genetic background of this behavior. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for maternal infanticide were identified in a White Duroc × Erhualian intercross by a non-parametric linkage analysis (NPL in our previous study. In this study, associations of 194 microsatellite markers used in NPL analysis with maternal infanticide behavior were further analyzed by transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT. On this basis, seven genes (ESR2, EAAT2, BDNF, OXTR, 5-HTR2C, DRD1 and GABRA6 at five genomic regions were selected and further analyzed. Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in each gene with maternal infanticide behavior were evaluated. Results Microsatellite markers on pig chromosome (SSC 2, 13, 15, and X displayed significance at P ESR2 SNPs had nominal evidence for association (P A at EAAT2 g. 233G > A and allele T at DRD1 g.1013C > G > T also showed evidence of overtransmission to infanticidal sows. In the overall tests of association of haplotypes, candidate genes of ESR2, EAAT2 and DRD1 achieved overall significance level (P ESR2, EAAT2 and DRD1 showed higher frequencies to infanticidal sows (P Conclusions From association tests of SNPs and haplotypes, ESR2, EAAT2 and DRD1 showed significant associations with maternal infanticide. This result supported the existence of QTL for maternal infanticide behavior on SSC1, SSC2 and SSC16.

  13. MtrR control of a transcriptional regulatory pathway in Neisseria meningitidis that influences expression of a gene (nadA) encoding a vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloward, Jason M; Shafer, William M

    2013-01-01

    The surface-exposed NadA adhesin produced by a subset of capsular serogroup B strains of Neisseria meningitidis is currently being considered as a vaccine candidate to prevent invasive disease caused by a hypervirulent lineage of meningococci. Levels of NadA are known to be controlled by both transcriptional regulatory factors and a component of human saliva, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Herein, we confirmed the capacity of a DNA-binding protein termed FarR to negatively control nadA expression. We also found that a known transcriptional regulator of farR in N. gonorrhoeae termed MtrR can have a negative regulatory impact on farR and nadA expression, especially when over-expressed. MtrR-mediated repression of nadA was found to be direct, and its binding to a target DNA sequence containing the nadA promoter influenced formation and/or stability of FarR::nadA complexes. The complexity of the multi-layered regulation of nadA uncovered during this investigation suggests that N. meningitidis modulates NadA adhesin protein levels for the purpose of interacting with host cells yet avoiding antibody directed against surface exposed epitopes.

  14. Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Ren, Shenghan; Qu, Xiaochao; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-20

    A void region exists in some biological tissues, and previous studies have shown that inaccurate images would be obtained if it were not processed. A hybrid radiosity-diffusion method (HRDM) that couples the radiosity theory and the diffusion equation has been proposed to deal with the void problem and has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) simple models. However, the extent of the impact of the void region on the accuracy of modeling light propagation has not been investigated. In this paper, we first implemented and verified the HRDM in 3D models, including both the regular geometries and a digital mouse model, and then investigated the influences of the void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium. Our investigation results show that the influence of the region can be neglected when the size of the void is less than a certain range, and other cases must be taken into account.

  15. Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Ren, Shenghan; Qu, Xiaochao; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-20

    A void region exists in some biological tissues, and previous studies have shown that inaccurate images would be obtained if it were not processed. A hybrid radiosity-diffusion method (HRDM) that couples the radiosity theory and the diffusion equation has been proposed to deal with the void problem and has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) simple models. However, the extent of the impact of the void region on the accuracy of modeling light propagation has not been investigated. In this paper, we first implemented and verified the HRDM in 3D models, including both the regular geometries and a digital mouse model, and then investigated the influences of the void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium. Our investigation results show that the influence of the region can be neglected when the size of the void is less than a certain range, and other cases must be taken into account. PMID:23338186

  16. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  17. 影响猪肉质的主效基因和候选基因%Progress in major and candidate genes influencing meat quality traits in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤; 黄业传; 吴照明

    2012-01-01

    Abstract.. More attention was paid on meat quality by both consumers and producers. Meat quality traits influenced its economical value directly. The high development of molecular biology had stimulated people's care and accelerated their study for genes concerning meat quality. In this paper,the research advance of major genes such as hal gene, PRKAG3 gene, rendement napole gene(RN) and of candidate gene such as fat acid binding protein (FABPs),hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL),lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) were reviewed.%摘要:猪肉的品质问题已经引起了生产者和消费者的普遍关注,肉质性状直接影响到肉品的食用价值和经济价值。分子生物学技术的快速发展也促进了人们对于影响肉质相关基因的重视和研究。本文综述了与肉质相关的主效基因(MajorGene)烷氟基因(Halgene)、单磷酸腺苷蛋白激酶(AMPK)γ3亚基基因(PRKAG3)和酸肉基因(RendementNapoleGene,RN)以及脂肪酸结合蛋白基因(FatAcidBindingProteinFABPs)、激素敏感脂肪酶(Hormone—SensitiveLipase.HSL)基因和脂蛋白脂肪酶(LipoproteinLipase.LPL)基因等候选基因(candidategene)的研究进展。

  18. Genomewide high-density SNP linkage analysis of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families identifies various candidate regions and has greater power than microsatellite studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. González-Neira (Anna); J.M. Rosa-Rosa; A. Osorio (Ana); E. Gonzalez (Emilio); M.C. Southey (Melissa); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); H. Lynch (Henry); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); G. Pita (G.); P. Devilee (Peter); D. Goldgar (David); J. Benítez (Javier)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The recent development of new high-throughput technologies for SNP genotyping has opened the possibility of taking a genome-wide linkage approach to the search for new candidate genes involved in heredity diseases. The two major breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BR

  19. The influence of various dielectric parameters on the reststrahlen region of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Rooyen, I.J. van [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); National Laser Centre, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-02-01

    The reststrahlen region of SiC is analysed with the goal of establishing the origin of different shapes of this band, by varying the dielectric parameters involved when simulating the reststrahlen region as obtained by infrared reflectance. -- Research highlights: {yields} An anomalous peak observed in the reststrahlen band of SiC was investigated. {yields} The reflection spectrum of SiC in the reststrahlen region was simulated by theoretical calculations. {yields} The influence on the reststrahlen band of the dielectric parameters used in the simulations is discussed. {yields} Dielectric parameters used in the simulations did not yield the anomalous peak that is observed experimentally.

  20. The influence of various dielectric parameters on the reststrahlen region of SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reststrahlen region of SiC is analysed with the goal of establishing the origin of different shapes of this band, by varying the dielectric parameters involved when simulating the reststrahlen region as obtained by infrared reflectance. -- Research highlights: → An anomalous peak observed in the reststrahlen band of SiC was investigated. → The reflection spectrum of SiC in the reststrahlen region was simulated by theoretical calculations. → The influence on the reststrahlen band of the dielectric parameters used in the simulations is discussed. → Dielectric parameters used in the simulations did not yield the anomalous peak that is observed experimentally.

  1. Genome-wide association study of regional brain volume suggests involvement of known psychiatry candidate genes, identified new candidates for psychiatric disorders and points to potential modes of their action

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, B.; Rijpkema, M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Veltman, J; Brunner, H.; Hagoort, P.; G. FERNANDEZ

    2010-01-01

    Though most psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, it has been hard to identify genetic risk factors involved, which are most likely of small individual effect size. A possible way to aid identification of risk genes is the use of intermediate phenotypes. These are supposed to be closer to the biological substrate(s) of the disorder than psychiatric diagnoses, and therefore less genetically complex. Intermediate phenotypes can be defined e. g. at the level of brain function and of region...

  2. Fine-scale linkage mapping reveals a small set of candidate genes influencing honey bee grooming behavior in response to Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E Arechavaleta-Velasco

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees in North America have been experiencing high annual colony mortality for 15-20 years. Many apicultural researchers believe that introduced parasites called Varroa mites (V. destructor are the most important factor in colony deaths. One important resistance mechanism that limits mite population growth in colonies is the ability of some lines of honey bees to groom mites from their bodies. To search for genes influencing this trait, we used an Illumina Bead Station genotyping array to determine the genotypes of several hundred worker bees at over a thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a family that was apparently segregating for alleles influencing this behavior. Linkage analyses provided a genetic map with 1,313 markers anchored to genome sequence. Genotypes were analyzed for association with grooming behavior, measured as the time that individual bees took to initiate grooming after mites were placed on their thoraces. Quantitative-trait-locus interval mapping identified a single chromosomal region that was significant at the chromosome-wide level (p<0.05 on chromosome 5 with a LOD score of 2.72. The 95% confidence interval for quantitative trait locus location contained only 27 genes (honey bee official gene annotation set 2 including Atlastin, Ataxin and Neurexin-1 (AmNrx1, which have potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects. Atlastin and Ataxin homologs are associated with neurological diseases in humans. AmNrx1 codes for a presynaptic protein with many alternatively spliced isoforms. Neurexin-1 influences the growth, maintenance and maturation of synapses in the brain, as well as the type of receptors most prominent within synapses. Neurexin-1 has also been associated with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia in humans, and self-grooming behavior in mice.

  3. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.;

    2012-01-01

    of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution......There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species...... pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...

  4. Individual and coupled influences of AMO and ENSO on regional precipitation characteristics and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goly, Aneesh; Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the influences of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) on regional precipitation extremes and characteristics in the state of Florida is the focus of this study. Exhaustive evaluations of individual and combined influences of these oscillations using, descriptive indices-based assessment of statistically significant changes in rainfall characteristics, identification of spatially varying influences of oscillations on dry and wet spell transition states, antecedent precipitation prior to extreme events, intraevent temporal distribution of precipitation and changes in temporal occurrences of extremes including dry/wet cycles are carried out. Rain gage and gridded precipitation data analysis using parametric hypothesis tests confirm statistically significant changes in the precipitation characteristics from one phase to another of each oscillation and also in coupled phases. Spatially nonuniform and uniform influences of AMO and ENSO, respectively, on precipitation are evident. AMO influences vary in peninsular and continental parts of Florida and the warm (cool) phase of AMO contributes to increased precipitation extremes during wet (dry) season. The influence of ENSO is confined to dry season with El Niño (La Niña) contributing to increase (decrease) in extremes and total precipitation. Wetter antecedent conditions preceding daily extremes are dominant in AMO warm phase compared to the cool and are likely to impact design floods in the region. AMO influence on dry season precipitation extremes is noted for ENSO neutral years. The two oscillations in different phases modulate each other with seasonal and spatially varying impacts and implications on flood control and water supply in the region.

  5. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B; Jaffe, Daniel A; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Briggs, Nicole L; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K; Pekour, Mikhail S; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (∼2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. The regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (∼1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6-45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  6. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B; Jaffe, Daniel A; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Briggs, Nicole L; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K; Pekour, Mikhail S; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (∼2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. The regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (∼1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6-45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate. PMID:27398804

  7. Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Selahattin; Önen-Hall, A. Piril; Aydin, S. Nihal; Yakicier, Cengiz; Akarsu, Nurten; Tuncer, Murat

    2008-03-01

    The Cretaceous-Eocene volcano-sedimentary units of the Zonguldak region of the western Black Sea consist of subalkaline andesite and tuff, and sandstone dominated by smectite, kaolinite, accessory chlorite, illite, mordenite, and analcime associated with feldspar, quartz, opal-CT, amphibole, and calcite. Kaolinization, chloritization, sericitization, albitization, Fe-Ti-oxidation, and the presence of zeolite, epidote, and illite in andesitic rocks and tuffaceous materials developed as a result of the degradation of a glass shards matrix, enclosed feldspar, and clinopyroxene-type phenocrysts, due to alteration processes. The association of feldspar and glass with smectite and kaolinite, and the suborientation of feldspar-edged, subparallel kaolinite plates to fracture axes may exhibit an authigenic smectite or kaolinite. Increased alteration degree upward in which Al, Fe, and Ti are gained, and Si, Na, K, and Ca are depleted, is due to the alteration following possible diagenesis and hydrothermal activities. Micromorphologically, fibrous mordenite in the altered units and the presence of needle-type chrysotile in the residential buildings in which cancer cases lived were detected. In addition, the segregation pattern of cancer susceptibility in the region strongly suggested an environmental effect and a genetic influence on the increased cancer incidence in the region. The most likely diagnosis was Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is one of the hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, no mutations were observed in the p53 gene, which is the major cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The micromorphology observed in the altered units in which cancer cases were detected may have a role in the expression of an unidentified gene, but does not explain alone the occurrence of cancer as a primary cause in the region.

  8. Influence of a vacuum region on the stability of a high-beta screw pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ascertain the influence of a vacuum region on the stability of a high-β screw pinch, the stability properties of two confinement configurations are compared. Both configurations involve diffuse equilibrium profiles and a rigid, perfectly conducting cylindrical shell. In the first problem, perfectly conducting plasma extends to the rigid conducting wall; the plasma is extremely tenuous in the outer region of the pinch, however. In the second case, profiles identical to those of the first problem are chosen for the central portion of the pinch, but the outer tenuous plasma is replaced by a perfectly insulating vacuum region. The two configruations are found to be unstable for the same range of external parameter values; different modes are unstable in the two cases, however. Thus, the presence of a vacuum region does not affect the stability boundary of the pinch, but it does affect the nature of the unstable modes

  9. Modeling of budgetary funding influence on socio-demographic processes of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vladimirovna Vasil'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of modeling socio-demographic processes in a region based on the minimax approach. In this method, the simulated socio-demographic processes reflect the performance of a population fertility age model, reproductive systems and the structure of mortality, as management impact tools of fiscal spending on socially significant budget items (health, physical culture and sport, social policy, education, environmental protection are considered. Testing methodology on the examples of the Russian Federation subjects included in the Ural Federal District is presented. Peculiarities of influence of funding of each socially important item on the social and demographic processes in the regions of the Ural Federal District are shown. Priorities of distribution of funds based on the level of budgetary provision in the region to ensure optimization of socio-demographic development of the region are shaped.

  10. Influence of the TEC fluctuations in the polar region on precise GPS positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieradzki, Rafal; Paziewski, Jacek; Wielgosz, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    The ionospheric delay is an atmoshperic effect influencing on Global Navigation Satellite System signals. On the one hand it is a factor limiting the accuracy of the GNSS positioning, and on the other it makes satellite observations a very good source of the information on the ionospheric conditions. The degradation of the relative positioning accuracy and reliability can be connected with high gradients of the total electron content or with the TEC fluctuations. The latter of these effects mainly occurs in the equatorial and polar regions. The ionosphere near the geomagnetic poles is characterized by relatively small TEC values in comparison to the other regions. However, the connection between the magnetosphere and ionosphere systems in the polar regions allows particle precipitation and leads to very strong ionospheric dynamics. In this work, performance of the GNSS precise relative positioning under disturbed ionospheric conditions in the northern polar region is studied. The test results are based on processing 24-hour data sets from the selected permanent GPS stations located in Greenland. The studies cover several days of high and low solar activity, and also periods of a geomagnetic storm characterized by intensive TEC fluctuations. The data processing was carried out in static and kinematic modes. The GINPOS software developed at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn was used for positioning tests. The study confirms and presents the influence of the ionospheric and geomagnetic activity in the polar region on the results in coordinate and ambiguity domains.

  11. Turkey and the Arab Revolutions: Boundaries of Regional Power Influence in a Turbulent Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Öniş, Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The recent Turkish involvement in the Middle East constitutes an important test case for establishing the boundaries of regional power influence in a changing global context. The AKP government in Turkey has become a major supporter of political change and democratization in the era of the Arab revolutions. Accumulating empirical evidence suggests, however, that the highly assertive and pro-active foreign policy of the AKP government in recent years has not been effective in terms of facilita...

  12. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Caragh Brosnan; Vincent C. H. Chung; Anthony L. Zhang; Jon Adams

    2016-01-01

    High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education...

  13. Preliminary assessments of spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales region of the US-Mexican border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.A. [ManTech Environmental Technology Inc., P.O. Box 12313, 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mukerjee, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, MD-47, 27711 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Monroy, G.J. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 400 West Congress St., Suite 433, 85701 Tucson, AZ (United States); Keene, F.E. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 3033 North Central Ave., 85012 Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and particulate matter (PM) species were used from four sites, two on either side of the border. An examination of median levels and principal component analysis indicated the dominance of soil dusts and mobile sources. Pairwise comparisons of sites for VOCs associated with mobile sources revealed statistically significant differences between sites in the central Nogales area vs. the two sites furthest from the border. Particulate lead at Mexican sites was higher and significantly different vs. US sites. Although further analyses are necessary, findings suggest that local and immediate mobile/other anthropogenic and soil dust influences are present throughout Nogales, with particulate lead from leaded motor vehicle exhaust or soldering operations being a possible influence on the Mexican side.

  14. Gravitational microlensing of quasar Broad Line Regions: the influence of fractal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent models for the emission clouds within the Broad Line Region of quasars suggest that they are due to transient overdensities within an overall turbulent medium. If this were the case, the broad line emission would spatially appear fractal, possessing structure on a range of scales. This paper examines the influence of such fractal structure when a quasar is microlensed by a population of intervening masses. It is found that while the highest fractal levels can undergo significant microlensing magnification, when these light curves are superimposed to create an emission line profile, the resultant emission line profile remains relatively constant for physical models of the Broad Line Region. It is concluded that the detection of the possible fractal structure of Broad Line Regions via gravitational microlensing is not practical.

  15. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  16. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  17. Study on the Influence of Informal institution on Rural Legal Construction in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junlin; DU

    2015-01-01

    The Informal institution in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region has dual effects on rural legal construction. In the process of rural legal construction,it can make up for the defects of formal institution to reduce the cost of legal construction,and increase benefit. It also has negative influence on social function,and can’t be conducive to the social stability,development and harmony. Civil law is to be more valued,thus avoiding and hampering the implementation of national laws and even covering the operation of national laws,so it is impossible to achieve rule of law. The coordinated development of Informal institution and socio-economic development in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region will contribute to stable and harmonious social development in Northwest Region.

  18. Fiscality - A Relevant Factor Influencing Regional Development in Romania and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine taxation in the EU in correlation with regional development measures implemented. We started with the EU vision on regional development. If during the 2007-2013 period, were pursued three major objectives (convergence, regional competitiveness and territorial cooperation, in the current 2014-2020 funding period, money is allocated differently between countries that are deemed to be more developed, in transition and less developed. These categories are set according to GDP per capita. Next we exposed the fiscal changes made in the EU in 2010-2011 period and then we corelate them with the strategy for regional development for five member states: Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic , Hungary and Poland. We used data reported by Eurostat regarding the evolution of unemployment rate and for the foreign direct investments in 2007-2012 period. We also brought up and changes required by the new Romanian Fiscal Code. According to it, measures such as reduction of income tax for new micro enterprises or extending the VAT reverse charge mechanism in many sectors of activity, are meant to encourage foreign capital inflows and also to increase the level of regional development. As a general conclusion, we found that there is a direct link between fiscal policy and regional development; fiscal measures implemented influence the level of unemployment, economic growth, and competitiveness in the private sector.

  19. The political culture of the Chilean Socialist Party and its influence on the nomination of Michelle Bachelet as presidential candidate in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina-Montana, Maria-Loreto

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a conceptualisation of the political cultures of the Chilean Socialist Party (PSCh) in order to understand and develop an explanation of the nomination of Michelle Bachelet as presidential candidate in 2005 which avoids the oversimplifications of existing approaches. At the theoretical level, political culture is defined from the collective action perspective conceptualising it as a framework for action (Elkin, 1993: 123). This political culture is formed by patterns for p...

  20. The Influence of Traditional Customs and Practices on Girls' Secondary Education in Morogoro Region in Tanzania : A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the influence of traditional customs and practices on secondary education of the girls in Morogoro region, in Tanzania. To do so, the study first explored the traditional customs and practices present in the area, and then investigated the influences of practices to the secondary education of girls. The study involved four secondary schools of Morogoro region, two from the rural and two from urban areas of that region. The study employed a qualitative resear...

  1. Genomic scan of selective sweeps in thin and fat tail sheep breeds for identifying of candidate regions associated with fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Mohammad Hossein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most important and challenging areas of research in animal genetics. However, currently there are relatively few genomic regions identified that have been subject to positive selection. In this study, a genome-wide scan using ~50,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs was performed in an attempt to identify genomic regions associated with fat deposition in fat-tail breeds. This trait and its modification are very important in those countries grazing these breeds. Results Two independent experiments using either Iranian or Ovine HapMap genotyping data contrasted thin and fat tail breeds. Population differentiation using FST in Iranian thin and fat tail breeds revealed seven genomic regions. Almost all of these regions overlapped with QTLs that had previously been identified as affecting fat and carcass yield traits in beef and dairy cattle. Study of selection sweep signatures using FST in thin and fat tail breeds sampled from the Ovine HapMap project confirmed three of these regions located on Chromosomes 5, 7 and X. We found increased homozygosity in these regions in favour of fat tail breeds on chromosome 5 and X and in favour of thin tail breeds on chromosome 7. Conclusions In this study, we were able to identify three novel regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds. Two of these were associated with an increase of homozygosity in the fat tail breeds which would be consistent with selection for mutations affecting fat tail size several thousand years after domestication.

  2. Remote influences on freshwater flux variability in the Atlantic warm pool region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Chunzai

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of freshwater flux variability is both scientifically and socially important. Local freshwater flux response to a large Atlantic warm pool (AWP) is excessive freshwater or negative Evaporation minus Precipitation (EmP) anomalies, whereas the response is deficient to a small AWP. However, the EmP anomalies in the AWP region are also influenced by the SST anomalies in the tropical eastern Pacific and in the tropical South Atlantic. These remote influences operate through the inter-basin mode represented by the SST gradient between the tropical North Atlantic and eastern Pacific and the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM) defined as the SST gradient between the tropical North and South Atlantic. When either of these two modes is in the negative phase, the EmP and sea surface salinity anomalies in the AWP region can be positive although the AWP is large. This indicates that the remote influences of the inter-basin mode and/or the AMM can overwhelm the local effect and induce an opposite freshwater response. Additionally, although ENSO and the AMM sometimes coincide with AWP variability, an El Niño in the preceding winter or a positive AMM in the spring does not necessarily follow a large AWP in the summer.

  3. Influence of the deposition parameters on the transition region of hydrogenated silicon films growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Qing-Song; Wu Zhi-Meng; Geng Xin-Hua; Zhao Ying; Xi Jian-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline and amorphous silicon thin films were prepared by very high frequency plasmaenhanced chemical vapour deposition (VHF PECVD) by using a mixture of silane and hydrogen as source gas. The influence of deposition parameters on the transition region of hydrogenated silicon films growth was investigated by varying the silane concentration (SC), plasma power (Pw), working pressure (P), and substrate temperature (Ts).Results suggest that SC and Ts are the most critical factors that affect the film structure transition from microcrystalline to amorphous phase. A narrow region in the range of SC and Ts, in which the rapid phase transition takes place, was identified. It was found that at lower P or higher Pw, the transition region is shifted to larger SC. In addition, the dark conductivity and photoconductivity decrease with SC and show sharp changes in the transition region. It proposed that the transition process and the transition region are determined by the competition between the etching effect of atomic hydrogen and the growth of amorphous phase.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND FISCAL POLICY ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Bogdan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, stimulating private sector investment and it contributes to reducing unemployment and improving living standards. To achieve these goals accounting and tax policies are necessary to allow private operators to realize taxable income, to create jobs for people and to pay taxes and contributions due to the State budget. The State must reinvest a part of the resources collected to the community in order to improve infrastructure, education and health, thus contributing to regional development. Changes in tax law and accounting adopted in Romania during 2009-2014 are regarded as tax breaks for companies created to ensure economic growth, dynamic and sustainable through efficient use of regional and local potential. In this paper we analyze the influence of the accounting and fiscal system on the regional development given that these measures do not always achieve their objectives established companies having benefit from the application of various tax measures. The paper will present the main changes of the tax and accounting systems and their impact on the regional development in Romania and the consequences resulting in implementing these measures.

  5. Influence of Uncertainty in Atmospheric Transport Modeling on Regional and Continental Scale Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliasz, M.; Schuh, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric transport modeling and its uncertainty play a crucial role in inversion studies with a goal to estimate fluxes of trace gases like carbon dioxide from available concentration measurements. Lagrangian particle models (e.g., CSU LPDM, STILT, FLEXPART) driven by regional meteorological models (e.g., WRF, RAMS) are state of the art tools in regional CO2 research including not only inversion studies, but also designing of tower network, or testing and supporting flight scenarios. They are typically used backward in time as an adjoint transport model providing, for each data point, influence functions (footprints) for surface fluxes and inflow fluxes across a domain perimeter. Modeling system used at CSU is based on SiB-RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System with Simple Biosphere model) providing meteorological fields for the LPDM (Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model). Our LPDM can be run both in a forward and backward in time mode. Therefore, we recommend to use the comparison of forward and backward in time simulations as a method to evaluate internal model uncertainty. In addition the LPDM concentration fields can be compared to tracer concentrations simulated directly by RAMS, i.e. Eulerian grid model. We will discuss how simulated concentration fields, and in turn, the results of atmospheric inversions are affected by (1) model simplifications and optimizations, (2) time and space resolution of meteorological fields, and (3) selection of a domain for inversion study. The simulations are performed for the North America and smaller regional domains for a passive tracer and a tracers resulting from different CO2 fluxes (assimilation and respiration). Finally, we would like to propose a framework for inter comparison of different LPDMs coupled to regional meteorological models. This framework includes a sparse matrix format for influence functions to facilitate exchange and further applications of this product by different research groups.

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INFLUENCE OF INDIAN OCEAN SSTA ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE IN ASIAN MONSOON REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) exerts great influence on the generation of global weather and climate. Much progress has been made with respect to SSTA in the Pacific Ocean region in contrast to the Indian Ocean. The IAP9L model, which is developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science, is used to simulate the influence of the Indian Ocean SSTA on the general circulation and weather/climate anomalies in the monsoon region of Asia. It is found that the warm (cool) SSTA in the equatorial low latitudes of the Indian Ocean triggers winter (summer) teleconnection patterns in middle and higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere that are similar to PNA or EAP. They play a very important role in the anomaly of circulation or weather and climate in the middle and lower latitudes of the Asian summer monsoon region. With the warm (cool) SSTA forcing in the Indian Ocean, the Asian summer monsoon sets up at a late (early) date and withdraws at a early (late) date, lasting for a short (long) duration at a weak (strong) intensity. The Indian Ocean SSTA is shown to be an indicator for precipitation variation in China.

  7. The study of mutations of high penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common lethal malignancy of women all over the world. Despite considerable efforts, many predisposing factors remain poorly defined. Epidemiological studies have shown that higher age and a positive family history of breast cancer are associated with the highest risk. Familial clustering of breast cancer, often in conjunction with cancer at other sites, is frequently caused by a hereditary disposition. Known genes with a high penetrance such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Hereditary and environmental factors may have acted synergistically in many breast cancer cases, and a number of environmental factors may modulate the probability and progression of the disease. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of high penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  8. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackmon Barbara P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed.

  9. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  10. The influence of parents on cohabitation in Italy - Insights from two regional contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Schröder

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the demographic changes that affect all European countries, the diffusion of new living arrangements such as non-marital cohabitation is particularly interesting. In this article we concentrate on Italy, a country that is characterized by a low pace in the diffusion of cohabitation. Earlier studies found statistical evidence of the impact of parents' characteristics on young adults' decisions for cohabitation. However, there is only limited empirical knowledge about the actual mechanism through which parents influence the choices of their children. We employ qualitative research methods and focus on two regional contexts in order to analyze if and how parents intervene in the choices of young adults.

  11. Changes in the lichen flora influenced by the Bełchatów Industrial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of our study, i.e.. before opening the Bełchatów brown coal mine and the power station 155 species of lichens were registered in the period 1970-1985. A preliminary estimation of the influence of the Bełchatów Industrial Region (BIR on the lichen flora has been performed. More than 1% of the lichen flora has entirely disappcared, about 43% of the species have shown partial devastation of their localities and numerous localities of more than 35% of taxa have been threatened.

  12. Analysis of t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) chromosomal breakpoint regions and genetic association reveals novel candidate genes for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Christensen, Jane H; Mattheisen, Manuel;

    2015-01-01

    -linked Danish psychiatric and cytogenetic case registers to identify an individual with both t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) and BD. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was employed to map the chromosomal breakpoint regions of this proband. We accessed the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium BD (n = 16,731) and SZ (n = 21...

  13. A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Weiss

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available People who begin daily smoking at an early age are at greater risk of long-term nicotine addiction. We tested the hypothesis that associations between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR genetic variants and nicotine dependence assessed in adulthood will be stronger among smokers who began daily nicotine exposure during adolescence. We compared nicotine addiction-measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence-in three cohorts of long-term smokers recruited in Utah, Wisconsin, and by the NHLBI Lung Health Study, using a candidate-gene approach with the neuronal nAChR subunit genes. This SNP panel included common coding variants and haplotypes detected in eight alpha and three beta nAChR subunit genes found in European American populations. In the 2,827 long-term smokers examined, common susceptibility and protective haplotypes at the CHRNA5-A3-B4 locus were associated with nicotine dependence severity (p = 2.0x10(-5; odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.39 in subjects who began daily smoking at or before the age of 16, an exposure period that results in a more severe form of adult nicotine dependence. A substantial shift in susceptibility versus protective diplotype frequency (AA versus BC = 17%, AA versus CC = 27% was observed in the group that began smoking by age 16. This genetic effect was not observed in subjects who began daily nicotine use after the age of 16. These results establish a strong mechanistic link among early nicotine exposure, common CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes, and adult nicotine addiction in three independent populations of European origins. The identification of an age-dependent susceptibility haplotype reinforces the importance of preventing early exposure to tobacco through public health policies.

  14. Newly identified YSO candidates towards LDN 1188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton , G.; Verebélyi, E.; Kiss, Cs.; Smidla, J.

    2013-11-01

    We present an analysis of young stellar object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat, and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  15. Cloning of the human heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene from the Treacher Collins syndrome candidate region at 5q32-q33.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, J.; Loftus, S.K.; Gladwin, A.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-03-20

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. Previous studies have shown that the Treacher Collins syndrome locus is flanked by D5S519 and SPARC, and a yeast artificial chromosome contig encompassing this {open_quotes}critical region{close_quotes} has been completed. In the current investigation a cosmid containing D5S519 has been used to screen a human placental cDNA library. This has resulted in the cloning of the human heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene. Two different mRNA species that have identical protein coding sequences but that differ in the size and sequence of the 3{prime} untranslated regions (3{prime}UTR) have been identified. The smaller species has a 3{prime}UTR of 1035 bp, whereas that of the larger is 4878 bp. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  16. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  17. Numerical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal Performance: Influence of Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Hammond, G. E.; Freeze, G. A.; Hadgu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term waste isolation at a deep borehole disposal facility is most favorable at a site where the crystalline basement is hydraulically isolated and groundwater flow is negligible. Site suitability guidelines include evidence of lack of fluid flow in basement, for example lack of significant topographic relief, or evidence of ancient and/or saline groundwater at depth. However, lack of local topographic relief does not preclude regional hydraulic gradients created by recharge and discharge at distant outcrops; and precisely because of hydraulic isolation, the crystalline basement has the potential to be over- or under-pressured relative to overlying units. In the absence of previous boreholes in the area of a potential site, hydraulic gradients at depth are difficult to predict, and the possibility remains that a deep borehole drilled for the disposal of waste will encounter vertical or lateral driving forces for fluid flow. This study asks the question: How large a driving force can be tolerated while still maintaining repository performance? We use PFLOTRAN (an open source, massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code) and a 3-D model domain (representing a disposal borehole in crystalline basement overlain by sedimentary strata) to examine the influence of horizontal and vertical hydraulic gradients on the long-term performance of a deep borehole radioactive waste repository. Simulations include steady-state lateral hydraulic gradients and transient vertical hydraulic gradients, and predict radionuclide concentrations in an overlying aquifer to quantify the potential influence of regional hydraulic gradients on repository performance.

  18. Microbial diversity of a Brazilian coastal region influenced by an upwelling system and anthropogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano C Cury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upwelling systems are characterised by an intense primary biomass production in the surface (warmest water after the outcrop of the bottom (coldest water, which is rich in nutrients. Although it is known that the microbial assemblage plays an important role in the food chain of marine systems and that the upwelling systems that occur in southwest Brazil drive the complex dynamics of the food chain, little is known about the microbial composition present in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a molecular survey based on SSU rRNA gene from the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life present in a tropical upwelling region (Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim was to analyse the horizontal and vertical variations of the microbial composition in two geographically close areas influenced by anthropogenic activity (sewage disposal/port activity and upwelling phenomena, respectively. A lower estimated diversity of microorganisms of the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life was found in the water of the area influenced by anthropogenic activity compared to the area influenced by upwelling phenomena. We observed a heterogenic distribution of the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, especially in the Archaea and Eukarya domains. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla, whereas the microeukaryotic community was dominated by Metazoa, Fungi, Alveolata and Stramenopile. The estimated archaeal diversity was the lowest of the three domains and was dominated by uncharacterised marine Crenarchaeota that were most closely related to Marine Group I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The variety of conditions and the presence of different microbial assemblages indicated that the area of Arraial do Cabo can be used as a model for detailed studies that contemplate the correlation between pollution-indicating parameters and the depletion of microbial

  19. Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Repeat Region 529 bp (NCBI Acc. No. AF146527 as a Probe Candidate for Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Oktavianie A Pratama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available generated by an Adobe application 11.5606             Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is commonly asymptomatic. The availability of confirmative and accurate detection system is really needed. This research was aimed to develop a molecular diagnosis based on the conserved and high copy number repeat region of Toxoplasma gondii with hibridization method. Nucleic acid was isolated from tachyzoites. The repeat region of T. gondii was amplified using PuRe Taq Ready To Go-PCR Beads (Amersham Bioscience,  forward primer 5’- GAC TCG GGC CCA GCT GCG  -3’ and reverse primer 5’- CCT CTC CTA CCC CTC CTC -3’. The amplicon was sequenced using ABI Prism 3100-Avant Genetic Analyzer (PT. Charoen Pokphand, Jakarta. Probe was labeled using digoxigenin-11-dUTP. Application of probe to detect it’s complementary nucloeic acid was done by hibridization method. The research concluded that probe toxo-103 bp was highly homolog with several strain of T. gondii and it has no homology either with host’s genome or other parasites which have close genetic relationship with T. gondii.   Hybridization analysis showed that probe could detect the complementary nucleic acid up to 10 ng/ul concentration.       Normal 0 36 false false false

  20. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  1. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  2. Understanding Perception and Factors Influencing Private Voluntary Health Insurance Policy Subscription in the Lucknow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Mathur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Health insurance has been acknowledged by researchers as a valuable tool in health financing. In spite of its significance, a subscription paralysis has been observed in India for this product. People who can afford health insurance are also found to be either ignorant or aversive towards it. This study is designed to investigate into the socio-economic factors, individuals’ health insurance product perception and individuals’ personality traits for unbundling the paradox which inhibits people from subscribing to health insurance plans. Methods This survey was conducted in the region of Lucknow. An online questionnaire was sent to sampled respondents. Response evinced by 263 respondents was formed as a part of study for the further data analysis. For assessing the relationships between variables T-test and F-test were applied as a part of quantitative measuring tool. Finally, logistic regression technique was used to estimate the factors that influence respondents’ decision to purchase health insurance. Results Age, dependent family members, medical expenditure, health status and individual’s product perception were found to be significantly associated with health insurance subscription in the region. Personality traits have also showed a positive relationship with respondent’s insurance status. Conclusion We found in our study that socio-economic factors, individuals’ product perception and personality traits induces health insurance policy subscription in the region.

  3. Influence of conservation programs on amphibians using seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Caleb J.; Euliss, Ned H.; Mushnet, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive modification of upland habitats surrounding wetlands to facilitate agricultural production has negatively impacted amphibian communities in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America. In attempts to mitigate ecosystem damage associated with extensive landscape alteration, vast tracks of upland croplands have been returned to perennial vegetative cover (i.e., conservation grasslands) under a variety of U.S. Department of Agriculture programs. We evaluated the influence of these conservation grasslands on amphibian occupancy of seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. Using automated call surveys, aquatic funnel traps, and visual encounter surveys, we detected eight amphibian species using wetlands within three land-use categories (farmed, conservation grasslands, and native prairie grasslands) during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Seasonal wetlands within farmlands were used less frequently by amphibians than those within conservation and native prairie grasslands, and wetlands within conservation grasslands were used less frequently than those within native prairie grasslands by all species and life-stages we successfully modeled. Our results suggest that, while not occupied as frequently as wetlands within native prairie, wetlands within conservation grasslands provide important habitat for maintaining amphibian biodiversity in the Prairie Pothole Region

  4. Lifelong Learning and Employability in the Danube Region Countries: Influences and Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Nicoleta Bodea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A continuous challenge for education and lifelong learning is to assist individuals in acquiring skills and knowledge for successful work life, especially after the financial crisis which influenced negatively the employment growth in all European Union countries. The paper focuses on finding correlations between employability and lifelong learning in the Danube Region countries of the European Union and more explicitly in the ex-communist ones of this region. As research instruments, two online questionnaires were built based on a thorough literature review and a set of structured interviews and filled in by 390 IT students and 55 IT professors. The surveys’ results revealed a clear positive correlation between the level of education and the opinion about the importance of obtaining a job as a result of the educational endeavors. A special attention in the survey was given to social networks, which were acknowledged as modern facilitators of lifelong learning activities. The conclusions of the current study are particularly important in the Romanian context, as the employment rate of recent graduates is in a decreasing trend, but also for all the Danube Region ex-communist countries, which have to boost their employment rates as well, to assure their economical growth. Identification of factors stimulating employment of young people according with their education contributes at the sustainable economic growth of these countries, at the growth of graduates insertion in the labor market and at the diminution of labor migration.

  5. Refinement of the Citrus tristeza virus resistance gene (Ctv) positional map in Poncirus trifoliata and generation of transgenic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plant lines with candidate resistance genes in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mamta

    2006-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen of Citrus. A single dominant gene Ctv present in the trifoliate relative of Citrus, Poncirus trifoliata confers broad spectrum resistance against CTV. Refinement of genetic maps has delimited this gene to a 121 kb region, comprising of ten candidate Ctv resistance genes. The ten candidate genes were individually cloned in Agrobacterium based binary vector and transformed into three CTV susceptible grapefruit varieties. Two of the candidate R-genes, R-2 and R-3 are exclusively expressed in transgenic plants and in Poncirus trifoliata, while five other genes are also expressed in non-transformed Citrus controls. Northern blotting with a CTV derived probe for assessment of infection in virus inoculated plants over a span of three growth periods, each comprising of six to eight weeks, indicates either an absence of initiation of infection or it's slow spread in R-2 plant lines or an initial appearance of infection and it's subsequent obliteration in some R-1 and R-4 plant lines. Limited genome walk up- and downstream form R-1 gene, based on it's 100% sequence identity between Poncirus and Citrus, indicates promoter identity of 92% between the two varieties. Further upstream and downstream sequencing indicates the presence of an O-methyl transferase and a Copia like gene respectively in Citrus instead of the amino acid transporter like gene upstream and a sugar transporter like gene downstream in Poncirus. The possibility of recombinations in the resistance locus of Citrus and the need for consistent monitoring for virus infection and gene expression in the transgenic Citrus trees is discussed. PMID:16830176

  6. The influence of spectral nudging on typhoon formation in regional climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional climate models can successfully simulate tropical cyclones and typhoons. This has been shown and was evaluated for hindcast studies of the past few decades. But often global and regional weather phenomena are not simulated at the observed location, or occur too often or seldom even though the regional model is driven by global reanalysis data which constitute a near-realistic state of the global atmosphere. Therefore, several techniques have been developed in order to make the regional model follow the global state more closely. One is spectral nudging, which is applied for horizontal wind components with increasing strength for higher model levels in this study. The aim of this study is to show the influence that this method has on the formation of tropical cyclones (TC) in regional climate models. Two ensemble simulations (each with five simulations) were computed for Southeast Asia and the Northwestern Pacific for the typhoon season 2004, one with spectral nudging and one without. First of all, spectral nudging reduced the overall TC number by about a factor of 2. But the number of tracks which are similar to observed best track data (BTD) was greatly increased. Also, spatial track density patterns were found to be more similar when using spectral nudging. The tracks merge after a short time for the spectral nudging simulations and then follow the BTD closely; for the no nudge cases the similarity is greatly reduced. A comparison of seasonal precipitation, geopotential height, and temperature fields at several height levels with observations and reanalysis data showed overall a smaller ensemble spread, higher pattern correlations and reduced root mean square errors and biases for the spectral nudged simulations. Vertical temperature profiles for selected TCs indicate that spectral nudging is not inhibiting TC development at higher levels. Both the Madden–Julian Oscillation and monsoonal precipitation are reproduced realistically by the regional model

  7. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  8. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-05-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates’ development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the achievement of their chemistry pedagogical aspirations. Two theoretical frameworks, both having their origins in the pioneering work of Kurt Lewin, are used to conceptualize how a complex amalgam of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay among these factors influence teacher candidate developmental trajectories. The tenets of both Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model and Learning Environment research provide insights into how the factors influencing teacher candidate development can be understood and systematically documented to provide a template for reflective consideration of the practicum experience for both teacher candidates and those involved in fostering the development of chemistry teacher candidates.

  9. Sediment trace metal profiles in lakes of Killarney Park, Canada from regional to continental influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lakes in Killarney Provincial Park (KPP) located 40-60 km southwest of Sudbury, Ontario are beginning to recover after decades of being severely affected by acidification and atmospheric pollutants. Detailed profiles of acid-recoverable trace elements (As. Cd, Cu, Co. Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were obtained after aqua regia digestion and ICP-OES analysis of sediment cores taken from six Park lakes. Results permitted the identification of two types of profiles. The first type applies to elements such as Fe, Mn, As and Co for which historical deposition and recent recovery are strongly masked by diagenetic remobilization. The second type of profile applies to elements such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn on which the history of industrialisation in North America and mining activities in Sudbury can be superimposed. Based on sediment data of trace elements less affected by diagenetic remobilization (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), chemical recovery indices can be estimated from depth profiles. Indices of maximum (Cp) and surface (Cs) contamination were calculated by dividing the concentration of a given metal by the pre-industrial level. The ratio of the two indices provided a simple estimation of the chemical recovery of lakes that does not consider the influence of the watershed or the lake pH. Profiles of metals in sediment of KPP complement the water quality monitoring data and tend to indicate that this area is in transition from dominant influence of regional pollution sources to becoming controlled by continental atmospheric deposition. - Lakes in Killarney Park are in transition from being impacted by regional pollution to being controlled by continental atmospheric deposition

  10. The influence of regional basic science campuses on medical students' choice of specialty and practice location: a historical cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Brokaw James J; Mandzuk Christina A; Wade Michael E; Deal Dennis W; Johnson Mary T; White Gary W; Wilson Jeffrey S; Zollinger Terrell W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) employs eight regional basic science campuses, where half of the students complete their first two years of medical school. The other half complete all four years at the main campus in Indianapolis. The authors tested the hypothesis that training at regional campuses influences IUSM students to pursue primary care careers near the regional campuses they attended. Methods Medical school records for 2,487 graduates (classes of 198...

  11. Simultaneous Factor Analysis of Coupled Aerosol and VOC Mass Spectra in Regions of Biogenic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jay; Chang, Rachel; Hayden, Katherine; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Sjostedt, Steven; Vlasenko, Alexander; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that the traditional binary treatments of atmospheric organics as either gases or particles may be inadequate, highlighting the need for analytical techniques capable of simultaneously considering particle and gas-phase species. Organic mass spectra of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), respectively. The particle and VOC mass spectra were combined into a single dataset, which was analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling technique. The relative weights of the AMS and PTR-MS data were balanced in the PMF analysis according to the criteria that the scaled residuals within a solution be independent of the measuring instrument. Instrument relative weight is controlled by the application of a scaling factor to the PTR-MS uncertainties. The AMS and PTR-MS instruments were deployed from mid-May to mid-June at two sites in Canada: (1) Egbert, ON (2007), a semirural site ~70 km north of Toronto, and (2) Whistler, BC (2008), a remote site ~120 km north of Vancouver. The Egbert site is influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Toronto and populated regions to the south, biogenic emissions from boreal forests to the north, and biomass burning emissions. The Whistler site is strongly influenced by boreal forest terpene emissions, with lesser contributions from long-range transport and anthropogenic emissions.

  12. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  13. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  14. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh; Chung, Vincent C H; Zhang, Anthony L; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170

  15. Influences of updated land-use datasets on WRF simulations for two Austrian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Irene; Arnold Arias, Dèlia; Seibert, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out with the weather research and forecasting model to study the influence of different land-use datasets for two Austrian regions, the high-alpine Inn Valley area and the hilly Vienna Basin area. The three land-use datasets used were USGS, MODIS and a reclassified European dataset based on the CORINE CLC06 data. Simulations covered an episode in July 2007 applying a resolution of 0.8 km. Results were compared with surface observation data, radiosoundings, and satellite data. It was found that land-use both in the original CLC06 and the version where it had been reclassified to USGS classes for use in WRF was significantly more realistic than the built-in land-use datasets (USGS and MODIS). Synoptic processes during the episode considered were reproduced well by all simulations, where CLC06 and MODIS improved the model performance in both regions in terms of the surface temperatures and other meteorological parameters.

  16. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; van Heel, Auke J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyl)lanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g., in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called "hinge region" of nisin (residues NMK) was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  17. The influence of inter-annually varying albedo on regional climate and drought

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Xianhong

    2013-05-05

    Albedo plays an important role in land-atmosphere interactions and local climate. This study presents the impact on simulating regional climate, and the evolution of a drought, when using the default climatological albedo as is usually done in regional climate modelling, or using the actual observed albedo which is rarely done. Here, time-varying satellite derived albedo data is used to update the lower boundary condition of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model in order to investigate the influence of observed albedo on regional climate simulations and also potential changes to land-atmosphere feedback over south-east Australia. During the study period from 2000 to 2008, observations show that albedo increased with an increasingly negative precipitation anomaly, though it lagged precipitation by several months. Compared to in-situ observations, using satellite observed albedo instead of the default climatological albedo provided an improvement in the simulated seasonal mean air temperature. In terms of precipitation, both simulations reproduced the drought that occurred from 2002 through 2006. Using the observed albedo produced a drier simulation overall. During the onset of the 2002 drought, albedo changes enhanced the precipitation reduction by 20 % on average, over locations where it was active. The area experiencing drought increased 6.3 % due to the albedo changes. Two mechanisms for albedo changes to impact land-atmosphere drought feedback are investigated. One accounts for the increased albedo, leading to reduced turbulent heat flux and an associated decrease of moist static energy density in the planetary boundary layer; the other considers that enhanced local radiative heating, due to the drought, favours a deeper planetary boundary layer, subsequently decreasing the moist static energy density through entrainment of the free atmosphere. Analysis shows that drought related large-scale changes in the regional climate favour a

  18. Understanding Space Weather influence on earthquake triggering to shield people living in seismic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Inchin, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Khassanov, Eldar

    2016-07-01

    There is an idea at present that space weather can influence not only the technological infrastructure and people's health, but seismic activity as well. Space weather impact on the Earth results from magnetic reconnection between the Sun's and Earth's magnetic fields. The effectiveness of reconnection depends on sign and magnitude of Z-components in solar wind magnetic field and earth's magnetic field as measured in the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system. The more negative value of Zgsm in the solar wind magnetic field, and the more positive value of Zgsm in the geomagnetic field, the more solar wind energy penetrates into the earth's environment due to reconnection. It was found recently by Khachikyan et al. [2012, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude in a particular seismic region (seismic potential - Mmax) may be determined, in first approximation, on the base of maximal geomagnetic Zgsm value in this region, namely: Mmax = (5.22 +- 0.17) + (0.78 +- 0.06) x [abs (Zgsm)]. In this report we present statistical results on association between variations in space weather and global seismic activity, and demonstrate that a great Sumatra earthquake (M=9.1, on December 26, 2004, at 00:58:53 GMT) indeed occurred in region where the geomagnetic Zgsm components are largest at the globe. In the time of earthquake occurrence, geomagnetic Zgsm value in the epicenter (3.30N, 95.980E) was equal to ~37147 nT. A range of possible maximal magnitude, as estimated from above relation, could be of 8.8 - 9.2. The recorded magnitude M=9.1 is within this range.

  19. Issue-Advocacy versus Candidate Advertising: Effects on Candidate Preferences and Democratic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Holbert, R. Lance; Szabo, Erin Alison; Kaminski, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of soft-money-sponsored issue-advocacy advertising in U.S. House and Senate campaigns, comparing its effects against candidate-sponsored positive advertising and contrast advertising on viewers' candidate preferences and on their attitude that reflect democratic values. Reveals no main effects for advertising approach on…

  20. Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity Influences Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate Region of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, Ingrid; Mortelliti, Alessio; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone) on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes]) within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate region of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types). Our results highlight the influence of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors influencing occupancy of the species of interest. PMID:26394327

  1. Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity Influences Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate Region of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Stirnemann

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes] within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate region of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types. Our results highlight the influence of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors influencing occupancy of the species of interest.

  2. Genetic variability in the tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin region influences susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulcahy, B.; Waldron-Lynch, F.; Adams, C.; O`Gara, F. [Cork Univ. Hospital (Ireland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class H1 tumor necrosis factor-tymphotoxin (TNF-LT) region (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different haplotypes were observed. One of these, the TNF a6, b5, c1, d3, e3 (H1) haplotype, was present in 35.3% of affected, but in only 20.5% of unaffected, individuals (P < .005). This haplotype accounted for 21.5% of the parental haplotypes transmitted to affected offspring and only 7.3 % not transmitted to affected offspring (P = .0003). The TNF a6 and TNF c1 alleles were individually associated with RA (P = .0005 and .0008, respectively), as were the HLA-DRB1 {open_quotes}shared epitope{close_quotes} (SE) (P = .0001) and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = .0018). Both univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of TNF c1 and SE in increasing risk to RA (P < .001). Stratification by the presence of SE indicated an independent effect of the TNFc1 allele (P = .0003) and the HLA A1, BS, DR3 extended haplotype (always TNFa2, b3, c1, d1, e3) (P = .0027) in SE heterozygotes, while the H1 haplotype was associated with RA in SE homozygotes (P = .0018). The TNF-LT region appears to influence susceptibility to RA, distinct from HLA-DR. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km2 under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  4. The farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and its influencing factors in Poyang Lake Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiqiu; Chen, Mengjiao; Lu, Yanfei; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Yujiao

    2016-01-01

    Individual farmers represent the main management entities of agricultural production under the family-contract responsibility system in China, and thus play crucial roles in the prevention and control of agricultural nonpoint source (ANPS) pollution. The analysis of the farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution as well as the factors affecting their perceptions can provide valuable information for relevant policy-making to preserve high quality water in Poyang Lake and regional quality of arable land. Through a survey titled 'Farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and farming behaviors in the Poyang Lake Region', the data related to the perceptions of farmers on ANPS pollution were collected. The factors that affect their awareness of ANPS pollution were identified with the method of boosted regression trees (BRT). The results indicated that the farmers had awareness of the risk of ANPS pollution to some extent, but they lacked adequate scientific knowledge. Generally, they had no consciousness about how to prevent and control ANPS pollution and did not understand techniques needed for proper scientifically sound application of fertilizers and pesticides. The main factors that influenced their perceptions of ANPS pollution are (from high to low): the ratio of total income which comes from farming, per capita farmland, age, education level, and household income. Some measures targeted to improve the prevention and control of ANPS pollution were proposed: developing modern agricultural techniques and promoting large-scale farming, increasing public campaigns related to ANPS pollution prevention and control with the goal of raising the level of awareness of farmers, and reforming the methods used to promote science and technology in agriculture and encourage the proper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. PMID:27054730

  5. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, A [Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Balzter, H [Department of Geography, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); George, C, E-mail: ab@ipf.tuwien.ac.a [Earth Observation, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km{sup 2} under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  6. Influence of building orientation on internal temperature in saharan climates, building located in Ghardaïa region (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkouche Sidi Mohammed El Amine; Benouaz Tayeb; Cherier Mohamed Kamel; Hamdani Maamar; Yaiche Mohamed Rédha; Khanniche Rachid

    2013-01-01

    In desert regions, the orientation of buildings has an important influence in the inside air temperature. In the present work, we carry out a study on the influence of the buildings orientation as well as the thermal insulation on the internal temperature. To do so, we have considered the case where only the exposed walls are isolated. The main objective of the current work is to determine the temperatures of the building in question with and without thermal insulation. This study aims ...

  7. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  8. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Fu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning was mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and Southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader, potentially including the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% to CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and

  9. Influence of configuration interaction on satellite lines of xenon and tin in the EUV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical line strengths and positions of satellite lines of xenon and tin ions are computed in the EUV region (transitions from doubly excited configurations or between singly excited configurations). Calculations are conducted with HULLAC parametric multi-configuration relativistic code. Influence of configuration interaction is investigated for doubly excited configurations of ions from Pd- to Rb-like. The emission close to 13.5 nm, which is of interest to the EUV lithography, is detailed. A strong narrowing of 4d-4f/4d-4p group of satellite lines is observed, compared to the calculation without configuration interaction. The emissivity is strongly enhanced in the centre of this group of lines. This strongly increases the EUV emission at 13.5 nm for tin at moderate to high densities. The EUV emission of xenon at 13.5 nm is enhanced by 4d-5p satellite lines of Xe 9+ and 10+. Radiative transitions between singly excited configurations and between doubly excited configurations also enhance the emission at 13.5 nm, especially 6g-4f transitions of Xe 9+, 10+ and 5g-4f transitions of Xe 11+

  10. Teaching "Candide": A Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Theodore E. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches to teaching Voltaire's "Candide", one deriving meaning from the textual fabric or "inside" of the story and the other focusing on the author's "external" intent in writing the story, are presented and compared. (MSE)

  11. Influence of high-order optical parameters of tissue on spatially resolved reflectance in the region close to the source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Tian; Ying Liu; Lijun Wang; Xiaojuan Zhang; Zonghui Gao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Influences of the scattering phase functions on spatially resolved diffuse reflectance from a homogenous semi-infinite medium close to source are studied with Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown that the influences of optical parameters higher than the second order on the diffuse reflectance are quite weak in the region from 0.3 to several transport mean free pathes when Henyey-Greenstein phase function or a combined phase function of two parameters are used. But this influence may be substantial if the double Henyey-Greenstein function is used to describe the scattering property of tissue.

  12. Influences of age, tongue region, and chorda tympani nerve sectioning on signal detection measures of lingual taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L; Heidt, Julie M; MacGillivray, Michael R; Dsouza, Merle; Tracey, Elisabeth H; Mirza, Natasha; Bigelow, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Although the ability to taste is critical for ingestion, nutrition, and quality of life, a clear understanding of the influences of age, sex, and chorda tympani (CT) resection on taste function in different regions of the anterior tongue is generally lacking. In this study we employed criterion-free signal detection analysis to assess electric and chemical taste function on multiple tongue regions in normal individuals varying in age and sex and in patients with unilateral CT resections. The subjects were 33 healthy volunteers, ranging from 18 to 87 years of age, and 9 persons, 27 to 77 years of age, with unilateral CT lesions. The influences of age, sex, tongue region, and chorda tympani resections on signal detection sensitivity (d') and response bias (β) measures was assessed in 16 tongue regions to weak electric currents and solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, and caffeine. Significant age-related decrements in d' were found for sucrose (p=0.012), sodium chloride (p=0.002), caffeine (p=0.006), and electric current (EC) (p=0.0001). Significant posterior to anterior, and medial to lateral, gradients of increasing performance were present for most stimuli. β was larger on the anterior than the posterior tongue for the electrical stimulus in the youngest subjects, whereas the opposite was true for sucrose in the oldest subjects. No sex differences were apparent. d' was depressed ipsilateral to the CT lesion side to varying degrees in all tongue regions, with the weakest influences occurring on the medial and anterior tongue. CT did not meaningfully influence β. This study is the first to employ signal detection analysis to assess the regional sensitivity of the tongue to chemical and electrical stimuli. It clearly demonstrates that tongue regions differ from one another in terms of their age-related sensitivity and their susceptibility to CT lesions.

  13. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  14. Postpartum practices of puerperal women and their influencing factors in three regions of Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Banghua

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Sitting month' is a Chinese tradition for women's postpartum custom. The present study aims to explore the postpartum dietary and health practices of puerperal women and identify their influential factors in three selected regions of Hubei, China. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in the selected urban, suburban and rural areas in the province of Hubei from 1 March to 30 May 2003. A total of 2100 women who had given birth to full-term singleton infants in the past two years were selected as the participants. Data regarding postpartum practices and potentially related factors were collected through questionnaire by trained investigators. Results During the puerperium, 18% of the participants never ate vegetables, 78.8% never ate fruit and 75.7% never drank milk. Behaviour taboos such as no bathing, no hair washing or teeth brushing were still popular among the participants. About half of the women didn't get out of the bed two days after giving birth. The average time they stayed in bed during this period was 18.0 h. One third of them didn't have any outdoor activities in that time periods. The educational background of both women and their spouses, location of their residence, family income, postnatal visit, nutrition and health care educational courses were found to be the influencing factors of women's postpartum practices. Conclusion Traditional postpartum dietary and health behaviours were still popular among women in Hubei. Identifying the factors associated with traditional postpartum practices is critical to develop better targeting health education programs. Updated Information regarding postpartum dietary and health practices should be disseminated to women.

  15. Estimating the Influence of Biological Ice Nuclei on Clouds with Regional Scale Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Matthias; Hoose, Corinna; Schaupp, Caroline; Möhler, Ottmar

    2014-05-01

    Cloud properties are largely influenced by the atmospheric formation of ice particles. Some primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), e.g. certain bacteria, fungal spores or pollen, have been identified as effective ice nuclei (IN). The work presented here quantifies the IN concentrations originating from PBAP in order to estimate their influences on clouds with the regional scale atmospheric model COSMO-ART in a six day case study for Western Europe. The atmospheric particle distribution is calculated for three different PBAP (bacteria, fungal spores and birch pollen). The parameterizations for heterogeneous ice nucleation of PBAP are derived from AIDA cloud chamber experiments with Pseudomonas syringae bacteria and birch pollen (Schaupp, 2013) and from published data on Cladosporium spores (Iannone et al., 2011). A constant fraction of ice-active bacteria and fungal spores relative to the total bacteria and spore concentration had to be assumed. At cloud altitude, average simulated PBAP number concentrations are ~17 L-1 for bacteria and fungal spores and ~0.03 L-1 for birch pollen, including large temporal and spatial variations of more than one order of magnitude. Thus, the average, 'diagnostic' in-cloud PBAP IN concentrations, which only depend on the PBAP concentrations and temperature, without applying dynamics and cloud microphysics, lie at the lower end of the range of typically observed atmospheric IN concentrations . Average PBAP IN concentrations are between 10-6 L-1 and 10-4 L-1. Locally but not very frequently, PBAP IN concentrations can be as high as 0.2 L-1 at -10° C. Two simulations are compared to estimate the cloud impact of PBAP IN, both including mineral dust as an additional background IN with a constant concentration of 100 L-1. One of the simulations includes additional PBAP IN which can alter the cloud properties compared to the reference simulation without PBAP IN. The difference in ice particle and cloud droplet concentration between

  16. Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, M; Tian, H; Cao, Y-X; He, X; Chen, L; Song, X; Ping, P; Huang, H; Sun, F

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are extensively transcribed from the genome, have been proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in regulating spermatogenesis in human males. Here, using microarray technology, we show altered expression of lncRNAs in the testes of infertile men with maturation arrest (MA) or hypospermatogenesis (Hypo), with 757 and 2370 differentially down-regulated and 475 and 163 up-regulated lncRNAs in MA and Hypo, respectively. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays on select lncRNAs, including HOTTIP, imsrna320, imsrna292 and NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes). Interestingly, NLC1-C, also known as long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA162 (LINC00162), was down-regulated in the cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in the testes of infertile men with mixed patterns of MA compared with normal control. The accumulation of NLC1-C in the nucleus repressed miR-320a and miR-383 transcript and promoted testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation by binding to Nucleolin. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which lncRNAs modulate miRNA expression at the transcriptional level by binding to RNA-binding proteins to regulate human spermatogenesis. PMID:26539909

  17. Physical mapping studies at D15S10: Implications for candidate gene identification in the Angelman syndrome/Prader-Willi syndrome chromosome region of 15q11-q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodage, T.; Lindeman, R.; Deng, Z.M.; Fimmel, A.; Trent, R.J. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia)); Smith, A. (Children' s Hospital, New South Wales (Australia))

    1994-01-01

    The Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) loci have been mapped to chromosome 15q11-q13. Chromosomal deletions of differing parental origin in the two syndromes have been interpreted as being due to genetic imprinting. Molecular analysis of patients with varying deletions has localized the AS locus to the interval between D15S113 and GABRB3 and the PWS locus between D15S13 and D15S113. In the present study, DNA cloning and physical mapping techniques have been used to characterize the AS/PWS chromosome region in the vicinity of D15S10, a locus that is telomeric to D15S113 and centromeric to GABRB3. A CpG island near TD3-21 at D15S10 has been cloned, allowing the identification of a widely expressed 4.5-kb transcript and providing a novel DNA marker, OP3, at this locus. OP3 and TD3-21 have been used to construct a long-range physical map extending over approximately 2800 kb. Clusters of rare-cutting restriction sites on this map locate four other CpG islands. Since these CpG islands lie within the minimum deletion intervals for AS and PWS, they mark the possible locations of candidate genes for the two syndromes. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  18. The influence of carbon exchange of a large lake on regional tracer-transport inversions: results from Lake Superior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large lakes may constitute a significant component of regional surface-atmosphere fluxes, but few efforts have been made to quantify these fluxes. Tracer-transport inverse models that infer the CO2 flux from the atmospheric concentration typically assume that the influence from large lakes is negligible. CO2 observations from a tall tower in Wisconsin segregated by wind direction suggested a CO2 signature from Lake Superior. To further investigate this difference, source-receptor influence functions derived using a mesoscale transport model were applied and results revealed that air masses sampled by the tower have a transit time over the lake, primarily in winter when the total lake influence on the tower can exceed 20% of the total influence of the regional domain. When the influence functions were convolved with air-lake fluxes estimated from a physical-biogeochemical lake model, the overall total contribution of lake fluxes to the tall tower CO2 were mostly negligible, but potentially detectable in certain periods of fall and winter when lake carbon exchange can be strong and land carbon efflux weak. These findings suggest that large oligotrophic lakes would not significantly influence inverse models that incorporate tall tower CO2.

  19. Dynamic Changes, Regional Differences, and Influencing Factors of CO2 Emission Performance in China%Dynamic Changes, Regional Differences, and Influencing Factors of CO2 Emission Performance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qunwei; Zhou Peng; Zhou Dequn

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to use DEA models with undesirable outputs to construct the Malmquist index that can be use to investigate the dynamic changes of CO2 emission performance. With the index, the authors have measured the CO2 emission performance of 28 provinces and autonomous regions in China from 1996 to 2007; with the convergence theory and panel data regression model, the authors analyze the regional differences and the influencing factors. It is found that the performance of CO2 emissions in China has been continuously improved mainly due to the technological progress, and the average improvement rate is 3.25%, with a cumulative improvement rate of 40.86%. In addition, the CO2 emission performance varies across four regions. As a whole, the performance score of eastern China is the highest. The northeastern and central China has relatively lower performance scores, and the western China is relatively backward. The regional differences are decreasing, and the performance of CO2 emissions is convergent. The influence of some factors on the performance of CO2 emissions is significant, such as the level of economic development, the level of industrial structure, energy intensity, and ownership structure. The influence of some factors, such as opening-up to the outside world, on the performance of CO2 emissions is not significant.

  20. Does the Selection of a Quiet Region Influence the Local Helioseismic Inferences?

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, S C; Jain, K; Hill, F

    2009-01-01

    We apply the ring-diagram technique to high resolution Dopplergrams in order to estimate the variation in oscillation mode parameters between active and quiet regions. We demonstrate that the difference in mode parameters between two quiet regions can be as large as those between a pair of active and quiet region. This leads us to conclude that the results derived on the basis of a single quiet region could be biased.

  1. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Population Health: Regional Approach for the Medical-Ecological Analysis (for Example, the Sumy Region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii O. Kornus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today is still insufficiently developed the methods of associative analysis of the medical, ecological and demographic parameters that would make it possible to determine the nature and extent of the influence of environmental factors on the population health, establish the basic laws of territorial differentiation of human diseases and to identify ways to optimize the environment. Identifying of such influence and its evaluation is the primary task of our study. The correlations between the environmental pollution of and level of morbidity prevalence of population of the Sumy region we obtained by the mathematical methods. In the analysis, we obtained the 143 pairs for which the correlation is significant at the level ≤0.05 and 50 pairs – for which the correlation is significant at the level ≤0.01, reflecting the most closely dependencies between prevalence of morbidity and the state of the environment. In the integrated form, the quality of drinking water is the most important factor, which closely correlated with the prevalence of diseases among the population of Sumy region. The influence of the ecological state of the air, including the gamma-background level, chemical and radioactive contamination of soils and crop production are also important, although less markedly.

  2. The Important Candidate Genes in Goats - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China SUPAKORN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 271 candidate genes have been detected in goats. However, comprehensive investigations have been carried out on the polymorphism of some genes, involved in the control of economic traits. Candidate genes have an effect on the physiological pathway, metabolism and expression of phenotypes. For growth traits, growth hormone (GH, growth hormone receptor (GHR, insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I, leptin (LEP, caprine pituitary specific transcription factor-1 (POU1F1, caprine myostatin (MSTN and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP genes are necessary for bone formation, birth weight, weaning weight, body condition and muscle growth. For reproduction, forkhead box L 2 (FOXL2, melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A, sex determination region of Y chromosome (SRY and amelogenin (AMEL genes influence sex determination and proliferation. The major candidate genes for milk yield and milk composition traits are the casein gene and their family. Keratin associated protein (KAP and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R genes are candidate genes for wool traits. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene is considered important for the immune system and disease resistance traits. The functions of these genes on economically important traits are different. Some genes have synergistic or antagonistic effects in nature for expression of phenotypic traits. On the other hand, some genes could control more than one trait. Also, the producers should be concerned with these effects because selection of a single trait by using only a gene could affect other traits. Therefore, the identification of candidate genes and their mutations which cause variations of gene expression and phenotype of economic traits will help breeders to search some genetic markers for these economic traits. It may be used as an aid in the selection of parent stock at an early age in the future.

  3. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  4. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  5. Regional Genetic Structure and Environmental Variables Influence our Conservation Approach for Feather Heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Continued alterations to the Australian environment compromise the long-term viability of many plant species. We investigate the population genetics of Ptilotus macrocephalus, a perennial herb that occurs in 2 nationally endangered communities on the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (VVP), Australia, to answer key questions regarding regional differentiation and to guide conservation strategies. We evaluate genetic structure and diversity within and among 17 P. macrocephalus populations from 3 regions of southeastern Australia using 17 microsatellite markers developed de novo. Genetic structure was present in P. macrocephalus between the 3 regions but not at the population level. Environmental factors, namely temperature and precipitation, significantly explained differentiation between the North region and the other 2 regions indicating isolation by environment. Within regions, genetic structure currently shows a high level of gene flow and genetic variation. Our results suggest that within-region gene flow does not reflect current habitat fragmentation in southeastern Australia whereas temperature and precipitation are likely to be responsible for the differentiation detected among regions. Climate change may severely impact P. macrocephalus on the VVP and test its evolutionary resilience. We suggest taking a proactive conservation approach to improve long-term viability by sourcing material for restoration to assist gene flow to the VVP region to promote an increased adaptive capacity. PMID:26865733

  6. Regional Genetic Structure and Environmental Variables Influence our Conservation Approach for Feather Heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Continued alterations to the Australian environment compromise the long-term viability of many plant species. We investigate the population genetics of Ptilotus macrocephalus, a perennial herb that occurs in 2 nationally endangered communities on the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (VVP), Australia, to answer key questions regarding regional differentiation and to guide conservation strategies. We evaluate genetic structure and diversity within and among 17 P. macrocephalus populations from 3 regions of southeastern Australia using 17 microsatellite markers developed de novo. Genetic structure was present in P. macrocephalus between the 3 regions but not at the population level. Environmental factors, namely temperature and precipitation, significantly explained differentiation between the North region and the other 2 regions indicating isolation by environment. Within regions, genetic structure currently shows a high level of gene flow and genetic variation. Our results suggest that within-region gene flow does not reflect current habitat fragmentation in southeastern Australia whereas temperature and precipitation are likely to be responsible for the differentiation detected among regions. Climate change may severely impact P. macrocephalus on the VVP and test its evolutionary resilience. We suggest taking a proactive conservation approach to improve long-term viability by sourcing material for restoration to assist gene flow to the VVP region to promote an increased adaptive capacity.

  7. Influence of land use and climate on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, G.M.; Linz, G.M.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Bleier, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by a variety of factors at both small and large scales that range from the presence of suitable nesting habitat, predators, and food supplies to climate conditions and land-use patterns. We evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on wetland breeding birds in the Canada section of Bird Conservation Region 11 (CA-BCR11), the Prairie Potholes. We used bird abundance data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, land-use data from the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, and weather data from the National Climatic Data and Information Archive to model effects of regional environmental variables on bird abundance. Models were constructed a priori using information from published habitat associations in the literature, and fitting was performed with WinBUGS using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Both land-use and climate variables contributed to predicting bird abundance in CA-BCR11, although climate predictors contributed the most to improving model fit. Examination of regional effects of climate and land use on wetland birds in CA-BCR11 revealed relationships with environmental covariates that are often overlooked by small-scale habitat studies. Results from these studies can be used to improve conservation and management planning for regional populations of avifauna. ?? 2007 NRC.

  8. Study on the Climate Changes Characteristics in the Hilly Region of the Loess Plateau and Its Influence on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the climate changes characteristics in the hilly region of the loess plateau and its influence on agricultural production.[Method] Taking Yan'an City as an example,and by dint of temperature and precipitation in nine meteorological stations from 1957 to 2007 and accumulated anomaly curve,linear regression and relevant analysis,the climate changes characteristics in 51 years in Yan'an were expounded.The climate changes in the hilly region of the loess plateau were studied and...

  9. Influence of temperature and exploitation period on fatigue crack growth parameters in different regions of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Camagic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of exploitation period and temperature on the fatigue crack growth parameters indifferent regions of a welded joint is analysed for new and exploited low-alloyed Cr-Mo steel A-387 Gr. B. The parent metal is a part of a reactor mantle which was exploited for over 40 years, and recently replaced with new material. Fatigue crack growth parameters, threshold value Kth, coefficient C and exponent m, have been determined, both at room and exploitation temperature. Based on testing results, fatigue crack growth resistance in different regions of welded joint is analysed in order to justify the selected welding procedure specification.

  10. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-01-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the…

  11. The Influence of Nationalism in Mercosur and in South America - can the regional integration project survive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America......The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America...

  12. Logit analysis of socio-economic factors influencing people to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acquah Henry D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that motivated majority of the people into fishing. Lack of storage facilities, access to credit, lack of government assistance and unpredictable changes in weather conditions on sea were the main constraints to fishing activities. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that household size and access to credit were significant factors that positively influenced people’s decision to become fishermen. The regression analysis further revealed that engaging in other income generating activity and being educated significantly reduces the probability to start fishing business.

  13. The influence of regional basic science campuses on medical students' choice of specialty and practice location: a historical cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brokaw James J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM employs eight regional basic science campuses, where half of the students complete their first two years of medical school. The other half complete all four years at the main campus in Indianapolis. The authors tested the hypothesis that training at regional campuses influences IUSM students to pursue primary care careers near the regional campuses they attended. Methods Medical school records for 2,487 graduates (classes of 1988–1997 were matched to the 2003 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile to identify the medical specialty and practice location of each graduate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of regional campus attendance on students' choice of medical specialty and practice location, while simultaneously adjusting for several covariates thought to affect these career outcomes. Results Compared to Indianapolis students, those who attended a regional campus were somewhat more likely to be white, have parents with middle class occupations, and score slightly lower on the Medical College Admission Test. Any such differences were adjusted for in the regression models, which predicted that four of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than Indianapolis to produce family practitioners, and that five of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than the others to have former students practicing in the region. When analyzed collectively, attendance at any regional campus was a significant predictor of a primary care practice located outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area. Conclusion Attending a regional campus for preclinical training appears to increase the likelihood of practicing primary care medicine in local communities.

  14. Alterations in candidate genes PHF2, FANCC, PTCH1 and XPA at chromosomal 9q22.3 region: Pathological significance in early- and late-onset breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roychoudhury Susanta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Younger women with breast carcinoma (BC exhibits more aggressive pathologic features compared to older women; young age could be an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. To find any existing differences in the molecular pathogenesis of BC in both younger and older women, alterations at chromosomal (chr. 9q22.32-22.33 region were studied owing to its association in wide variety of tumors. Present work focuses on comparative analysis of alterations of four candidate genes; PHF2, FANCC, PTCH1 and XPA located within 4.4 Mb region of the afore-said locus in two age groups of BC, as well as the interrelation and prognostic significance of alterations of these genes. Methods Deletion analysis of PHF2, FANCC, PTCH1 and XPA were examined in a subset of 47 early-onset (group-A: ≤ 40 years and 59 late-onset (group-B: > 40 years breast carcinomas using both microsatellite and exonic markers. Methylation Sensitive Restriction analysis (MSRA was done to check for promoter methylation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR and immunohistochemisty (IHC was done in some genes to see their relative mRNA and protein expressions respectively. Clinico-pathological correlation of different parameters as well as patient survival was calculated using different statistical softwares like EpiInfo 6.04b, SPSS 10.0 etc. Results Either age group exhibited high frequency of overall alterations in PHF2, FANCC and PTCH1 compared to XPA. Samples with alteration (deletion/methylation in these genes showed reduced level of mRNA expression as seen by Q-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of FANCC and PTCH1 also supported this observation. Poor patient survival was noted in both age groups having alterations in FANCC. Similar result was also seen with PTCH1 and XPA alterations in group-A and PHF2 alterations in group-B. This reflected their roles as prognostic tools in the respective groups in which they were altered. Conclusion Overall

  15. Assessment of regional influence from a petrochemical complex by modeling and fingerprint analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan-Chang; Chen, Sheng-Po; Tong, Yu-Huei; Fan, Chen-Lun; Chen, Wei-Hao; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S.

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate a strategy to investigate the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on its neighboring districts from a gigantic petrochemical complex. Monitoring of the VOCs in the region was achieved by a nine-station network, dubbed photochemical assessment measurement stations (PAMS), which produced speciated mixing ratios of 54 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) to represent VOCs with an hourly resolution within a 20 km radius. One-year (2013/10/1-2014/9/30) worth of PAMS data from the network were used in forms of total NMHCs (called PAMS-TNMHC) and speciated mixing ratios. Three dimensional modeling coupled with PAMS measurements successfully elucidated how the study domain was affected by the petrochemical complex and distant sources under three typical seasonal wind patterns: northeast monsoonal, southwest monsoonal, and local-circulation. More exquisite analysis of influence on the neighboring districts was permitted with the use of speciated mixing ratios of VOCs provided by the PAMS network. The ratios of ethylene/acetylene (E/A) > 3 and propylene/acetylene (P/A) > 1.5 were used as indicators to reveal the PAMS sites affected by the petrochemical emissions. Consequently, the hourly speciated data from the nine PAMS sites enabled a finer assessment of the districts affected by the complex to calculate the percent time of influence (dubbed TI%) for all the sites (districts). It was found that the region was more affected by the complex under both the northeast monsoonal and the local-circulation wind types with some of the PAMS sites greater than 5% for the TI%. By contrast, influence on the region was found minimal under the southwest monsoonal flow with the TI% small than 1.5% across all sites. This study successfully devised a method of assessment with the use of speciated measurements of selected VOCs and modeling to assess the influence of a prominent source on the neighboring districts by filtering out irrelevant sources under

  16. Toward a Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Regional Emission Sources on Ozone Production in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Wolfe, D. E.; Tevlin, A.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Murphy, J. G.; Fischer, E. V.; Brown, S. S.; Angevine, W. M.; Edwards, P.; Williams, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Photochemical ozone production results from the oxidation and reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2 + NO). As with many US urban regions, ozone levels observed in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Region of Colorado are influenced by urban emissions of NOx and VOCs. Despite nationwide decreases in these urban emissions, the Front Range of Colorado is one of the few US locations where ozone is currently increasing. It has also recently gone out of compliance with national ambient air quality standards for ozone during summer months. High ozone in Colorado may result from a number of factors, including long-range transport from Asia, increased influence of biomass burning, population increases, or increased emissions from oil and gas activities. The Front Range is home to the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin, which has recently been experiencing a rise in oil and natural gas (O&NG) activity associated with the increase in non-conventional drilling techniques. The VOC and NOx emissions from O&NG activity in close proximity to the urban area may uniquely influence ozone in this region. This presentation will focus on using reactive nitrogen (NOx, NOy) and ozone measurements from a tall (300 m) tower to study the influence of local emissions on Front Range ozone. The tower is located between the D-J Basin and agricultural areas to the north and the Denver metro area to the south. In-situ reactive nitrogen and ozone measurements were collected using a custom Cavity Ring-Down instrument. Additional CH4, CO, and NH3 measurements from the tower serve as tracers for O&NG, urban, and agricultural emissions. Concurrently measured aircraft data is used to confirm the relationships between the tracer species. This presentation will discuss methods for determining the contributions of different emission sources to Front Range ozone, with a focus on differentiating the influence of urban and O&NG sources.

  17. Influence of regional climates on the availability of decaying-log microsite for coniferestablishment on Vancouver Island, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki, Katsumata; 勝又, 暢之; Susumu, OKITSU; 沖津, 進; Yoshinori, Minami; 南, 佳典

    2009-01-01

    We examined the influence of regional climatic conditions on the availability of a decaying-log microsite for theestablishment of western hemlock( Tsuga heterophylla), western redcedar( Thuja plicata), and Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii). Field research was carried out at three sites located within different climatic zones onsouthern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We investigated whether trees( > 4 m tall) are establishedon the decaying-logs or not. We also compared the densit...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  19. Influence of natural and technological emergency situations on tourism and sustainable development in St.Petersburg and Leningrad region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnyparkov, A. L.; Petrova, E. G.; Vashchalova, T. V.; Gavrilova, S. A.; Danilina, A. V.; Gryaznova, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    St.Petersburg and Leningrad region belong to the most populated and tourist-active regions in the European part of Russia. St.Petersburg is a second important transportation connection point in Russia, there are many industrial and infrastructure facilities in Leningrad region such as chemical plants, mechanic engineering, power stations including a nuclear power station, etc. That is why a lot of technical objects and people can be influenced or damaged by natural hazards and various types of technological accidents can be triggered by natural phenomena that have place in the region. According to the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situation, Leningrad region has a medium level of frequency of emergency situations caused by natural triggers (two to four cases a year). The climatic and orographic conditions of the area contribute to the development of many different types of dangerous natural processes such as floods, storms, strong winds, extreme heat and frost, snowfalls, heavy rains, hale, etc. Hydro-meteorological phenomena are the most often among all natural triggers of emergency situations in the region; about 50% of them are caused by storms and strong winds and 25% by floods. The biggest number of natural emergency situations happens in St.Petersburg. Storms make the marine navigation more difficult and even block the port sometimes. In Leningrad region, 5-10 villages and cities (including St.Petersburg) are at risk to be flooded. In November 1999, the work of Leningradskaya nuclear power station was partly blocked due to the increasing in water level. The federal road Moscow-St.Petersburg is often under influence of heavy snowfalls that cause many problems for transport system of the region during the winter. The majority of technological emergency situations are caused by fires in industrial facilities and residential sector, trafic accidents and shipcrashes. Sometimes natural phenomena can also trigger technological accidents. However, their frequency is

  20. The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

    2013-05-01

    Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain

  1. Evaluating the regional influence of Santiago de Chile on air quality and meteorology during VOCALS-REX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Molina, L. T.; Spak, S.; Campos, T.; Mc Naughton, C.; Clarke, A.; Gallardo, L.

    2009-04-01

    The VOCALS campaign was carried out in Chile during October-November 2008, gathering hundreds of scientists from all over the world with the objective to study stratocumulus decks in the East South Pacific, off the coast of Chile and Peru. Surface and airborne platforms measured multiple chemical and meteorological parameters, with support from chemical weather forecast models. Anthropogenic influence on meteorology and climate was evidenced due to in situ measurements, and satellite observations, as was expected from the large point sources of sulfur due to smelters and power plants in the region. However certain conditions benefited long range transport from central Chile, which made the Santiago plume clearly discernible (high ozone, organic aerosol, low CO) as sampled by the NSF C-130 almost 2000 km north of the city. This research will highlight how model products can provide guidance on the sources of the air masses sampled during the campaign, and how the Santiago plume influences regional air quality and meteorology (focusing on effective cloud radii and brightness temperature differences satellite measurements). Ultimately the research shows that the campaign's objective of contrasting cloud properties between pristine and anthropogenically influenced airmasses provided a unique opportunity to isolate the signal of a large emerging South American megacity from remote regions of the East South Pacific.

  2. Using FLEXPART-WRF to Identify Source Regions Influencing Arctic Trace Gases and Aerosols During the Summer 2014 NETCARE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In July and August 2014 the Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (NETCARE) project conducted aircraft and ship based campaigns with the goal of identifying both emissions and atmospheric processes influencing Arctic trace gas and aerosol concentrations. The aircraft campaign was conducted using the Alfred Wegener Institute's POLAR 6 aircraft (based in Resolute Bay, Canada) and the ship based campaign was conducted onboard the CCGS Amundsen (icebreaker and Arctic Ocean research vessel). Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to study meteorology and transport patterns that influence airmasses sampled during the aircraft campaign (5-21 July 2012) and research Legs 1a and 1b for Amundsen (1a: 8 - 24 July Quebec City to Resolute and 24 July - 14 August Resolute to Kugluktuk). The FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model driven by WRF meteorology (FLEXPART-WRF) run in backwards mode is used to study source regions that influenced enhanced concentrations in trace gases including DMS and NH3 as well as aerosols. Links between biomass burning in Northern Canada and measurements during the campaign are discussed. Finally FLEXPART-WRF run in forward mode is used to study links between shipping emissions from the Amundsen and enhanced pollution sampled by the POLAR 6 aircraft when both were operating in the same region of Lancaster Sound during the campaigns.

  3. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  4. Evaluation of the Analysis Influence on Transport in Reanalysis Regional Water Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Robertson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Regional water cycles of reanalyses do not follow theoretical assumptions applicable to pure simulated budgets. The data analysis changes the wind, temperature and moisture, perturbing the theoretical balance. Of course, the analysis is correcting the model forecast error, so that the state fields should be more aligned with observations. Recently, it has been reported that the moisture convergence over continental regions, even those with significant quantities of radiosonde profiles present, can produce long term values not consistent with theoretical bounds. Specifically, long averages over continents produce some regions of moisture divergence. This implies that the observational analysis leads to a source of water in the region. One such region is the Unite States Great Plains, which many radiosonde and lidar wind observations are assimilated. We will utilize a new ancillary data set from the MERRA reanalysis called the Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) which provides the assimilated observations on MERRA's native grid allowing more thorough consideration of their impact on regional and global climatology. Included with the GIO data are the observation minus forecast (OmF) and observation minus analysis (OmA). Using OmF and OmA, we can identify the bias of the analysis against each observing system and gain a better understanding of the observations that are controlling the regional analysis. In this study we will focus on the wind and moisture assimilation.

  5. Influence of European Structural Funds on Social and Economic Performance in Spanish and Portuguese Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Piecuch, Jakub

    2006-01-01

    Spanish and Portuguese regions make up a distinct area in the European Community. Majority of them can be described as less developed economies with strong dependence on agricultural production. The position of those regions is somehow underprivileged due to their peripherality as well as topographic restrictions, which cause integration problems with the common market. In many of these areas of the Iberian Peninsula, small- scale and low tech agriculture still dominates. In most cases these ...

  6. Separated influence of crude oil prices on regional natural gas import prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the impact of global economic activity and international crude oil prices on natural gas import prices in three major natural gas markets using the panel cointegration model. It also investigates the shock impacts of the volatility and the increase and decrease of oil prices on regional natural gas import prices. The results show that both global economic activity and international crude oil prices have significant long-term positive effects on regional natural gas import prices. The volatility of international crude oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas import prices. The shock impact is weak in North America, lags in Europe and is most significant in Asia, which is mainly determined by different regional policies for price formation. In addition, the response of natural gas import prices to increases and decreases in international crude oil prices shows an asymmetrical mechanism, of which the decrease impact is relatively stronger. - Highlights: • Impacts of world economy and oil prices on regional natural gas prices are analysed • North American natural gas prices are mainly affected by world economy • Asian and European natural gas prices are mainly affected by oil prices • The volatility of oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas prices • The response of natural gas import prices to oil prices up and down shows asymmetry

  7. Helicobacter pylori cagA Promoter Region Sequences Influence CagA Expression and Interleukin 8 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui M; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Wen, Xiaogang; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-02-15

    Heterogeneity at the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene promoter region has been linked to variation in CagA expression and gastric histopathology. Here, we characterized the cagA promoter and expression in 46 H. pylori strains from Portugal. Our results confirm the relationship between cagA promoter region variation and protein expression originally observed in strains from Colombia. We observed that individuals with intestinal metaplasia were all infected with H. pylori strains containing a specific cagA motif. Additionally, we provided novel functional evidence that strain-specific sequences in the cagA promoter region and CagA expression levels influence interleukin 8 secretion by the host gastric epithelial cells.

  8. Influence of transport infrastructure on the industrial development of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Eduardovna Kolchinskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to build a model describing the relationship between the level of transport infrastructure development of the region and the level of industrial development in the region. Methods calculation of the integral indicators of a particular industry development regression analysis method of the production function constructing. For regression analysis the paper uses panel data models with random and fixed effects and the pooled panel data model. To check the quality of the regression model the Fisher and Student ttests were used. To test the model for heteroskedastic properties tests by Park Glazer GoldfeldQuandt and White were applied. Results models of linear and logarithmic specifications with random and fixed effects were built as well as pooled panel data models. Significant coefficients of transport infrastructure indicators were obtained in both cases only in the pooled panel data models. The model which considered the railway density index as one of the characteristics of the transport infrastructure of the region showed the negative coefficient of this variable. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of Russian regions statistics using regression models of panel data the dependence has been studied between the level of transport development in the region and the dynamics of industrial production in it. As the characteristic of transport infrastructure development the specially designed integral indicator was used i.e. the transport enterprises and communications functioning in the region summarizing several characteristics of enterprises in the industry. Practical value the obtained results can be used to predict effects of adopting decisions on improving the transport infrastructure in the Russian Federation regions. The results and conclusion can serve as a basis for further research on this topic and be applied in the characterization of the Russian economy. In addition the results can be used in the educational

  9. Evaluation in femoral neck fracture scintimetry: modes of region of interest selection and influence on results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different sized ROIs within the femoral head and different modes of calculation were used in [/sup 99m/Tc]MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture. In preoperative scintimetry, correction for increased trochanteric uptake gave the best discrimination, whereas in postoperative scintimetry the direct ratio fractured/intact femoral head was superior. The change in ROI size had little influence

  10. The Influence of Land Surface Changes on Regional Climate in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xingkui; ZHANG Feng; Jason K.LEVY

    2007-01-01

    Land surface changes effect the regional climate due to the complex coupling of land-atmosphere interactions. From 1995 to 2000, a decrease in the vegetation density and an increase in ground-level thermodynamic activity has been documented by multiple data sources in Northwest China, including meteorological, reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) satellite remote sensing data. As the ground-level thermodynamic activity increases, humid air from the surrounding regions converge toward desert (and semi-desert) regions, causing areas with high vegetation cover to become gradually more arid. Furthermore, land surface changes in Northwest China are responsible for a decrease in total cloud cover, a decline in the fraction of low and middle clouds, an increase in high cloud cover (due to thermodynamic activity) and other regional climatic adaptations. It is proposed that, beginning in 1995, these cloud cover changes contributed to a "greenhouse" effect, leading to the rapid air temperature increases and other regional climate impacts that have been observed over Northwest China.

  11. Influence of climate modes on tropical cyclone formation in the Australian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, A.

    2010-08-01

    Relationships between tropical cyclogenesis (TCG) in the Australian region and modes of various atmospheric and oceanic parameters are investigated for the period 1968-2006. Seven thermal and seven dynamic variables describing the state of moisture transport and wind flow patterns in the atmosphere were analysed. In order to identify the dominant modes of each variable, an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) is applied. The three leading modes of each variable were then considered. This study corroborates previous work showing that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading contributor to TCG in the all-Australian, Western and Eastern Australian regions. The ENSO-linked first EOF of the streamfunction at sigma level 0.2101 shows the strongest relationship with TCG variations in the all-Australian and Eastern regions correlating at 0.73 and 0.62, respectively. In the western Australian region, the first EOF of environmental vertical wind shear shows the strongest skill. TCG frequency in the Northern region is mainly affected by the large-scale wind patterns of the subtropics and mid-latitudes such as the subtropical jet and the Rossby wave train.

  12. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, Tommy; Thorling, L.;

    2012-01-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have...... trends according to data sampled from 1988–2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of...... Denmark compared with the southeastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long...

  13. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen

    2006-09-21

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  14. Influence of building orientation on internal temperature in saharan climates, building located in Ghardaïa region (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekkouche Sidi Mohammed El Amine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In desert regions, the orientation of buildings has an important influence in the inside air temperature. In the present work, we carry out a study on the influence of the buildings orientation as well as the thermal insulation on the internal temperature. To do so, we have considered the case where only the exposed walls are isolated. The main objective of the current work is to determine the temperatures of the building in question with and without thermal insulation. This study aims at assessing also the geographic parameter enhancing or damping the role of thermal inertia, providing a variety of results. As result, this work proves that stones play a contradictory role on thermal comfort. We have verified that thermal insulation is specified to reduce heat transfer through the building. Concerning the orientation, results indicates that the variation in orientation does not influence significantly the internal air temperature of a well thermally insulated building. Moreover, in hot period, whatever orientation considered, the phenomenon of overheating presents a serious problem to minimize consumption of energy and control of indoor temperature in case of building without insulation. The numerical data was compared to the experimental measurements in order to validate the mathematical model. In conclusion, to achieve a better thermal comfort arid and semi arid regions, the habitation will have to be situated in south flan of a hill to satisfy the two strategies (hot and cold.

  15. Influencing factors on regional differences in glyphosate use in North German arable farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andert, Sabine; Bürger, Jana; Gerowitt, Bärbel

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the worldwide mostly used herbicide substance. Glyphosate use in arable cropping is under strong discussion in scientific and public communities. In the present study, we investigated the use of glyphosate from 15 farms in four districts in North German arable farming from 2005 until 2014. Objective of our research is to reveal influencing factors on glyphosate use intensity. The farm structures differ between two West districts (Diepholz, Uelzen) and two East districts (Fläm...

  16. Study of the influence of solar variability on a regional (Indian) climate: 1901-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin

    2014-01-01

    We use Indian temperature data of more than 100 years to study the influence of solar activity on climate. We study the Sun-climate relationship by averaging solar and climate data at various time scales; decadal, solar activity and solar magnetic cycles. We also consider the minimum and maximum values of sunspot number (SSN) during each solar cycle. This parameter SSN is correlated better with Indian temperature when these data are averaged over solar magnetic polarity epochs (SSN maximum to...

  17. The influence of the ocean and the stratosphere on climate persistence in the North Atlantic region

    OpenAIRE

    Breiteig, Tarjei

    2009-01-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is generally regarded to largely be a product of processes internal to the troposphere. This thesis investigates various aspects of how the NAO and related climatical fields are influenced by two of the tropospheric boundary components; the stratosphere above and the ocean below. The thesis consists of five manuscripts, three considering the role of the stratosphere, and two considering the role of the ocean. Data provided by the NCEP/NCA...

  18. Influence of feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsum, van P.E.V.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impact modelling of hydrologic responses is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. Reducing this dependency was one of the goals of extending the regional hydrologic modelling system SIMGRO with a two-way coupling to the crop growth simulation model WOFOST. The couplin

  19. Investigating a solar influence on cloud cover using the North American Regional Reanalysis data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krahenbuhl Daniel Scott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial connection between cosmic rays, solar activity, and cloud cover is investigated using a climatological reconstructed reanalysis product: the North American Regional Reanalysis which provides high-resolution, low, mid-level, high, and total cloud cover data over a Lambert conformal conic projection permitting land/ocean discrimination. Pearson’s product-moment regional correlations were obtained between monthly cloud cover data and solar variability indicators, cosmic ray neutron monitors, several climatological indices, including the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, and between cloud layers. Regions of the mid-latitude oceans exhibited a positive correlation with cosmic ray flux. Additionally, this maritime low cloud cover exhibits the only failed correlation significance with other altitudes. The cross correlation reveals that cloud cover is positively correlated everywhere but for ocean low cloud cover, supporting the unique response of the marine layer. The results of this investigation suggest that with the assumption that solar forcing does impact cloud cover, measurements of solar activity exhibits a slightly higher correlation than GCRs. The only instance where GCRs exhibit a positive regional correlation with cloud cover is for maritime low clouds. The AMO exerts the greatest control of cloud cover in the NARR domain.

  20. Influences of the Learning Environment of a Regional University Campus on its International Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bronwyn; Sawyer, Janet; Gill, Rod; Medlin, John; Wilson, Digby

    2005-01-01

    Staff and students at small regional campuses often consider them to be a learning environment with many advantages. Students can benefit from the opportunities for enhanced access to staff provided by factors such as small classes and a compact campus. International students from non-English-speaking backgrounds are one group for whom these…

  1. The Influence of Filaments in the Private Flux Region on Divertor Particle and Power Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, J R; Thornton, A J; Walkden, N R

    2015-01-01

    The transport of particles via intermittent filamentary structures in the private flux region of plasmas in the MAST tokamak has been investigated using a fast framing camera recording visible light emission from the volume of the lower divertor, as well as Langmuir probes and IR thermography monitoring particle and power fluxes to plasma-facing surfaces in the divertor. The visible camera data suggests that, in the divertor volume, fluctuations in light emission above the X-point are strongest in the scrape-off layer (SOL). Conversely, in the region below the X-point, it is found that these fluctuations are strongest in the private flux region (PFR) of the inner divertor leg. Detailed analysis of the appearance of these filaments in the camera data suggests that they are approximately circular, around 1-2cm in diameter. The most probable toroidal mode number is between 2 and 3. These filaments eject plasma deeper into the private flux region, sometimes by the production of secondary filaments, moving at a sp...

  2. When it matters how you pronounce it: the influence of regional accents on job interview outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Tamara; Steffens, Melanie C; Mummendey, Amélie

    2011-11-01

    The visual dimension has featured prominently in person perception in the last 25 years. Alone, this dimension cannot give the complete 'picture' of others because language and speech (i.e., the auditory dimension) are also highly informative. Social-cognition research investigates the role of auditory information for impression formation. In a series of experiments, we tested perceived competence, hirability, and socio-intellectual status of different targets based on their regional accents. Given identical content of statements in different conditions of an alleged job interview, regional German accents (Saxon, Bavarian, and Berlin) resulted in lower perceived competence and hirability than standard German, even though the Bavarian accent at the same time resulted in higher ratings of socio-intellectual status compared to other regional accents (Experiment 1). These findings were confirmed when using a broader population sample and a 'matched guise' technique (Experiment 2). Our findings indicate that regional accents, similar to faces, can be very powerful in creating differentiated pictures of individuals. PMID:21988389

  3. Characterization of mesostasis regions in lunar basalts: Understanding late-stage melt evolution and its influence on apatite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Nicola J.; TartèSe, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; Westrenen, Wim; Griffiths, Alexandra A.; Barrett, Thomas J.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies geared toward understanding the volatile abundances of the lunar interior have focused on the volatile-bearing accessory mineral apatite. Translating measurements of volatile abundances in lunar apatite into the volatile inventory of the silicate melts from which they crystallized, and ultimately of the mantle source regions of lunar magmas, however, has proved more difficult than initially thought. In this contribution, we report a detailed characterization of mesostasis regions in four Apollo mare basalts (10044, 12064, 15058, and 70035) in order to ascertain the compositions of the melts from which apatite crystallized. The texture, modal mineralogy, and reconstructed bulk composition of these mesostasis regions vary greatly within and between samples. There is no clear relationship between bulk-rock basaltic composition and that of bulk-mesostasis regions, indicating that bulk-rock composition may have little influence on mesostasis compositions. The development of individual melt pockets, combined with the occurrence of silicate liquid immiscibility, exerts greater control on the composition and texture of mesostasis regions. In general, the reconstructed late-stage lunar melts have roughly andesitic to dacitic compositions with low alkali contents, displaying much higher SiO2 abundances than the bulk compositions of their host magmatic rocks. Relevant partition coefficients for apatite-melt volatile partitioning under lunar conditions should, therefore, be derived from experiments conducted using intermediate compositions instead of compositions representing mare basalts.

  4. Characterization of mesostasis regions in lunar basalts: Understanding late-stage melt evolution and its influence on apatite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Nicola J.; TartèSe, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; Westrenen, Wim; Griffiths, Alexandra A.; Barrett, Thomas J.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies geared toward understanding the volatile abundances of the lunar interior have focused on the volatile-bearing accessory mineral apatite. Translating measurements of volatile abundances in lunar apatite into the volatile inventory of the silicate melts from which they crystallized, and ultimately of the mantle source regions of lunar magmas, however, has proved more difficult than initially thought. In this contribution, we report a detailed characterization of mesostasis regions in four Apollo mare basalts (10044, 12064, 15058, and 70035) in order to ascertain the compositions of the melts from which apatite crystallized. The texture, modal mineralogy, and reconstructed bulk composition of these mesostasis regions vary greatly within and between samples. There is no clear relationship between bulk-rock basaltic composition and that of bulk-mesostasis regions, indicating that bulk-rock composition may have little influence on mesostasis compositions. The development of individual melt pockets, combined with the occurrence of silicate liquid immiscibility, exerts greater control on the composition and texture of mesostasis regions. In general, the reconstructed late-stage lunar melts have roughly andesitic to dacitic compositions with low alkali contents, displaying much higher SiO2 abundances than the bulk compositions of their host magmatic rocks. Relevant partition coefficients for apatite-melt volatile partitioning under lunar conditions should, therefore, be derived from experiments conducted using intermediate compositions instead of compositions representing mare basalts.

  5. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  6. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent has rapidly declined over the past few decades, and most climate models project a continuation of this trend during the 21st century in response to greenhouse gas forcing. A number of recent studies have shown that this sea-ice loss induces vertically propagating Rossby waves, which weaken the stratospheric polar vortex and increase the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). SSWs have been shown to increase the probability of a negative NAO in the following weeks, thereby driving anomalous weather conditions over Europe and other mid-latitude regions. In contrast, other studies have shown that Arctic sea-ice loss strengthens the polar vortex, increasing the probability of a positive NAO. Sun et al. (2015) suggest these conflicting results may be due to the region of sea-ice loss considered. They find that if only regions within the Arctic Circle are considered in sea-ice projections, the polar vortex weakens; if only regions outwith the Arctic Circle are considered, the polar vortex strengthens. This is because the anomalous Rossby waves forced in the former/latter scenario constructively/destructively interfere with climatological Rossby waves, thus enhancing/suppressing upward wave propagation. In this study, we investigate whether Sun et al.'s results are robust to a different model. We also divide the regions of sea-ice loss they considered into further sub-regions, in order to examine the regional differences in more detail. We do this by using the intermediate complexity climate model, IGCM4, which has a well resolved stratosphere and does a good job of representing stratospheric processes. Several simulations are run in atmosphere only mode, where one is a control experiment and the others are perturbation experiments. In the control run annually repeating historical mean surface conditions are imposed at the lower boundary, whereas in each perturbation run the model is forced by SST perturbations imposed in a specific

  7. Investigating the influence of regional climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this region is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the regional offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord region. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the region that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also influence radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar regions of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones

  8. Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on chlorophyll a in waterbodies at global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelmer, Whitney; Kao, Yu-Chun; Bunnell, David; Deines, Andrew M.; Bennion, David; Rogers, Mark W.; Brooks, Colin N.; Sayers, Michael J.; Banach, David M.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of primary production of lentic water bodies (i.e., lakes and reservoirs) is valuable to researchers and resource managers alike, but is very rarely done at the global scale. With the development of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to gather large amounts of data across the world, including understudied and remote regions. To determine which factors were most important in explaining the variation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), an indicator of primary production in water bodies, at global and regional scales, we first developed a geospatial database of 227 water bodies and watersheds with corresponding Chl-a, nutrient, hydrogeomorphic, and climate data. Then we used a generalized additive modeling approach and developed model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables for all 227 water bodies and for 51 lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes region in the data set. Our best global model contained two hydrogeomorphic variables (water body surface area and the ratio of watershed to water body surface area) and a climate variable (average temperature in the warmest model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables quarter) and explained ~ 30% of variation in Chl-a. Our regional model contained one hydrogeomorphic variable (flow accumulation) and the same climate variable, but explained substantially more variation (58%). Our results indicate that a regional approach to watershed modeling may be more informative to predicting Chl-a, and that nearly a third of global variability in Chl-a may be explained using hydrogeomorphic and climate variables.

  9. Preparing Preservice Teacher Candidates to Differentiate Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Bianca R.

    2013-01-01

    This action research study focused on how various grouping strategies influenced preservice teachers' differentiation of instruction. The participants included a third grade mentor teacher and three preservice teacher candidates. The candidate preparation curriculum consisted of seminars, daily field-based learning experiences, and ongoing…

  10. Fostering the Development of Chemistry Teacher Candidates: A Bioecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2012-01-01

    This ongoing research inquiry investigates through the analysis of teacher candidate experiences the factors influencing two groups of chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in their second and final year of an after-degree bachelor of education at a university in central Canada. The tenets of Bronfenbrenner's…

  11. Influence of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on photodestruction of ions at D-region altitudes of the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anatoli

    2016-07-01

    Influence of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on the photodetachment, dissociative photodetachment, and photodissociation rate coefficients (photodestruction rate coefficients) of O ^{-}, Cl ^{-}, O _{2} ^{-}, O _{3} ^{-}, OH ^{-}, NO _{2} ^{-}, NO _{3} ^{-}, O _{4} ^{-}, OH ^{-}(H _{2}O), CO _{3} ^{-}, CO _{4} ^{-}, ONOO ^{-}, HCO _{3} ^{-}, CO _{3} ^{-}(H _{2}O), NO _{3} ^{-}(H _{2}O), O _{2} ^{+}(H _{2}O), O _{4} ^{+}, N _{4} ^{+}, NO ^{+}(H _{2}O), NO ^{+}(H _{2}O) _{2}, H ^{+}(H _{2}O) _{n} for n=2-4, NO ^{+}(N _{2}), and NO ^{+}(CO _{2}) at D-region altitudes of the ionosphere is studied. A numerical one-dimensional time-dependent neutral atmospheric composition model has been developed to estimate this influence. The model simulations are carried out for the geomagnetically quiet time period of 15 October 1998 at moderate solar activity over the Boulder ozonesonde. If the solar zenith angle is not more than 90 ° then the most strongest influence of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on photodestruction of ions is found for photodissociation of CO _{4} ^{-} ions when CO _{3} ^{-} ions are formed. It follows from the calculations that decreases in the photodestruction rate coefficients of ions under consideration caused by this influence are less than 2 % at 70 km altitude and above this altitude if the solar zenith angle does not exceed 90 °.

  12. Influence of Atmospheric Solar Radiation Absorption on Photodestruction of Ions at D-Region Altitudes of the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on the photodetachment, dissociative photodetachment, and photodissociation rate coefficients (photodestruction rate coefficients) of O-, Cl-, O2 -, O3 -, OH-, NO2 -, NO3 -, O4 -, OH-(H2O), CO3 -, CO4 -, ONOO-, HCO3 -, CO3 -(H2O), NO3 -(H2O), O2 +(H2O), O4 +, N4 +, NO+(H2O), NO+(H2O)2, H+(H2O) n for n = 2-4, NO+(N2), and NO+(CO2) at D-region altitudes of the ionosphere is studied. A numerical one-dimensional time-dependent neutral atmospheric composition model has been developed to estimate this influence. The model simulations are carried out for the geomagnetically quiet time period of 15 October 1998 at moderate solar activity over the Boulder ozonesonde. If the solar zenith angle is not more than 90° then the strongest influence of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on photodestruction of ions is found for photodissociation of CO4 - ions when CO3 - ions are formed. It follows from the calculations that decreases in the photodestruction rate coefficients of ions under consideration caused by this influence are less than 2 % at 70 km altitude and above this altitude if the solar zenith angle does not exceed 90°.

  13. Influence of Civil Authority on Rural Grass-roots Democracy and Social Autonomy in Northwest Minority Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junlin; DU

    2014-01-01

    System of villagers autonomy is one of the basic political systems in China and one of those systems ensuring that the people are the masters of the country. Northwest minorities generally live in the remote northwestern China where economy and education are relatively underdeveloped compared with those in central and eastern China and civil authority has great influence on rural grass-roots democracy as well as social autonomy there,which causes difficulties to the development of rural democracy and social autonomy. Assisting northwest minority regions in overcoming the difficulties of developing grass-roots democracy and social autonomy,carrying out effective measures to properly guide the development and influence of civil authority and finally achieving the construction of new socialist countryside have great significance in ensuring that people there are the masters of their country.

  14. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Eva L; Poulsen, Pernille;

    2005-01-01

    major genetic component (h(2)) of total (h(2)(young) = 0.83, h(2)(elderly) = 0.86) and regional fat percentages (trunk, h(2)(young) = 0.82, h(2)(elderly) = 0.85; lower body, h(2)(young) = 0.83, h(2)(elderly) = 0.81; and trunk/lower body, h(2)(young) = 0.83, h(2)(elderly) = 0.71) in both the young and...... and etiologic components of variance were estimated for total and regional fat percentages using biometric modeling. RESULTS: The intraclass correlations demonstrated higher correlations for all fat percentages among monozygotic twins as compared with dizygotic twins. The biometric modeling revealed a...... elderly twins. DISCUSSION: The h(2) estimates emphasize that body fat and distribution as determined by DXA scan are under extensive genetic control....

  15. What Factors Influence Firm Perceptions of Labour Market Constraints to Growth in the MENA Region?

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, Ali; Ghazalian, Pascal L.

    2015-01-01

    Labour market constraints constitute prominent obstacles to firm development and economic growth of countries located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper aims at examining the implications of firm characteristics, national locations, and sectoral associations for the perceptions of firms concerning two basic labour market constraints: labour regulations and labour skill shortages. The empirical analysis is carried out using firm-level dataset sourced from the World B...

  16. Influence of inhomogeneity of grain-boundary region of nanocrystalline materials on elastic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stepanov; Y.; N.; Alymov; M.; I.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that Young's modulus of materials decreases with the decreasing of the grain size. Obviously, the primary factor of this decrease is presence of grain-boundary region, which Young's modulus other than in the bulk of crystallites. There is a set of various expressions for calculation of Young's modulus of polycrystals, obtained under the assumption, that it is possible to consider a polycrystal as a composite consisting of a crystalline matrix and a intercrystalline layers (grain-boundary region). Calculations showed incorrectness of application of a majority of these expressions and a large error in the calculations for the nanocrystalline materials. By us, on the basis of the same assumptions, is also obtained analytical expression for calculating Young's modulus of materials with grain size more than 30 nm, which is more exact, than all others.It is necessary to consider under the calculation of effective Young's modulus nanocrystalline materials with grain size of less than 30nm, that grain-boundary region itself is not uniform. It is reliably established,that the triple joints of grain boundaries have a structure and properties, different from the structure and the properties of grain boundaries, which these joints connect. For nanocrystalline materials the volume fraction of the triple joints in the grain-boundary region can reach 50% and even more. Therefore assumption was made, that the nanocrystalline materials should be represented as consisting of three phases (triple joints,grain boundary between the triple joints and crystallite). On the basis of this idea is obtained analytical expression for calculating of Young's modulus nanocrystalline materials. The analysis shows that Young's modulus calculated by this analytical expression coordinated with the theory and the experiment.

  17. Influence of ocean winds on the pelagic ecosystem in upwelling regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Checkley, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Upwelling of nutrient-rich, subsurface water sustains high productivity in the ocean's eastern boundary currents. These ecosystems support a rate of fish harvest nearly 100 times the global mean and account for >20% of the world's marine fish catch. Environmental variability is thought to be the major cause of the decadal-scale biomass fluctuations characteristic of fish populations in these regions, but the mechanisms relating atmospheric physics to fish production remain unexplained. Two at...

  18. Regional water quality patterns in an alluvial aquifer: direct and indirect influences of rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillieux, A; Campisi, D; Jammet, N; Bucher, S; Hunkeler, D

    2014-11-15

    The influence of rivers on the groundwater quality in alluvial aquifers can be twofold: direct and indirect. Rivers can have a direct influence via recharge and an indirect one by controlling the distribution of fine-grained, organic-carbon rich flood deposits that induce reducing conditions. These direct and indirect influences were quantified for a large alluvial aquifer on the Swiss Plateau (50km(2)) in interaction with an Alpine river using nitrate as an example. The hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of water were characterized using a network of 115 piezometers and pumping stations covering the entire aquifer. Aquifer properties, land use and recharge zones were evaluated as well. This information provided detailed insight into the factors that control the spatial variability of groundwater quality. Three main factors were identified: (1) diffuse agricultural pollution sources; (2) dilution processes resulting from river water infiltrations, revealed by the δ(18)OH2O and δ(2)HH2O contents of groundwater; and (3) denitrification processes, controlled by the spatial variability of flood deposits governed by fluvial depositional processes. It was possible to quantify the dependence of the nitrate concentration on these three factors at any sampling point of the aquifer using an end-member mixing model, where the average nitrate concentration in recharge from the agricultural area was evaluated at 52mg/L, and the nitrate concentration of infiltrating river at approximately 6mg/L. The study shows the importance of considering the indirect and direct impacts of rivers on alluvial aquifers and provides a methodological framework to evaluate aquifer scale water quality patterns.

  19. Variations in CYP78A13 coding region influence grain size and yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Fang, Jun; Ou, Shujun; Gao, Shaopei; Zhang, Fengxia; Du, Lin; Xiao, Yunhua; Wang, Hongru; Sun, Xiaohong; Chu, Jinfang; Wang, Guodong; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-04-01

    Grain size is one of the most important determinants of crop yield in cereals. Here, we identified a dominant mutant, big grain2 (bg2-D) from our enhancer-trapping population. Genetic analysis and SiteFinding PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed that BG2 encodes a cytochrome P450, OsCYP78A13. Sequence search revealed that CYP78A13 has a paralogue Grain Length 3.2 (GL3.2, LOC_Os03g30420) in rice with distinct expression patterns, analysis of transgenic plants harbouring either CYP78A13 or GL3.2 showed that both can promote grain growth. Sequence polymorphism analysis with 1529 rice varieties showed that the nucleotide diversity at CYP78A13 gene body and the 20 kb flanking region in the indica varieties were markedly higher than those in japonica varieties. Further, comparison of the genomic sequence of CYP78A13 in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar 9311 showed that there were three InDels in the promoter region and eight SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) in its coding sequence. Detailed examination of the transgenic plants with chimaeric constructs suggested that variation in CYP78A13 coding region is responsible for the variation of grain yield. Taken together, our results suggest that the variations in CYP78A13 in the indica varieties hold potential in rice breeding for application of grain yield improvement.

  20. Identification and comparative analysis of factors influencing road safety in US regions and in Polish voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WACHNICKA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of road safety at national level have been run for many years and large number of publications concerning them appeared so far. How interdisciplinary the issue is, has been shown by literature studies done by the author of the paper. It appears that economists, mathematicians, doctors as well as engineers have studied the issue. It is not an easy one, as results of many analyses lead to conflicting conclusions and often fail to provide straightforward answers to questions asked. The administrative actions taken to improve road safety, uniform for the whole country, frequently fail to give expected results, including Poland’s case. Therefore there is a need to analyse what makes some provinces, and not the others, report improvement in road safety. This paper presents part of the work on author’s doctoral thesis, which analyses how regional characteristics may impact road safety in respective regions. However, during collection of data for the purpose of the doctoral thesis it turned out that many variables mentioned in literature as significant had not been collected on regional level in Europe, including Poland. There are, though, available data on respective American states, so the search for the best describing independent variables started from the analyses of US data. The analyses showed the impact of factors such as annual income per capita, transport activity, density of population, seatbelt rates, road and vehicle density, rate of doctors.

  1. Do Regional Disparities in Research on Climate and Water Influence Adaptive Capacity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiparsky, M.; Brooks, C. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States); Gleick, P.H. [Pacific Institute, 654 13th Street, Oakland, CA, 94612 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    As part of a long-term effort to both improve access to information on climate change and freshwater resources, and to understand the state of the science, we compiled an electronic bibliography of scientific literature in that area. We analyzed the distribution of information on climatic impacts on freshwater resources, with an emphasis on differences between developed and developing regions as well as differences in the types and focus of research carried out among regions. There has been more research overall in developed countries than in the developing world. Proportionally more of the available research on natural and human systems pertains to developed regions, while most of the analysis done in developing countries is limited to higher-level climatology and hydrology. We argue that scientific information and understanding are important elements of the ability to adapt to potential climatic changes. The distribution of the scientific literature in our database suggests that the types of science most directly relevant to adaptive capacity are skewed towards developed countries, which may exacerbate existing disparities in adaptive capacity, and ultimately worsen the consequences of climatic impacts in developing countries.

  2. Aerosol Size Distribution in a City Influenced by Both Rural and Urban Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Polanco, J.; Lozano, A.

    2006-12-01

    Most atmospheric studies have focused on sites located in either rural or urban areas. However, there are regions affected by air from both, such as the city of El Paso. Adjacent to the neighboring city of Juarez, Mexico, and in close proximity to rural areas, it is affected by desert particles and both biogenic, anthropogenic emissions. Aerosol properties largely depend upon particle size and this makes it the most important parameter for characterizing the aerosol. We focus on studies using inverse reconstruction models for particle size distribution using aerosol optical depth data. Our methodology uses Twomey's regularization technique that suppresses ill-posedness by imposing smoothing and non-negativity constraints on the desired size distributions. We have also applied T-matrix codes to study the scattering from irregularly shaped particles that exhibit rotational symmetry. Furthermore, our studies include analysis of aerosol size distributions using optic probes and soot photometers, sampled from aircraft at different heights. This work will lead to better characterization of aerosols and their impact in our rural-urban interface region. In addition, it will provide a more accurate assessment of regional transport and better boundary conditions for air quality models.

  3. Regional and local phenomena influencing the thermal state in the Flysch belt of the northeastern part of Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcin, Dušan; Bilčík, Dušan; Kutas, Roman; Hlavňová, Petra; Bezák, Vladimír; Kucharič, Ľudovít

    2014-12-01

    The locality of the northeastern most part of Slovakian Flysch belt belongs to interesting areas in terms of the interpretation of geothermal conditions in mutual relation with the lithosphere structure and their tectonic development. The evaluation of the geothermal energy sources parameters of this locality is likewise worthwhile. The region under study has the centre in position of the borehole Zboj ZB-1 and spreads out Slovakia also in Poland and Ukraine. Our contribution provides the analyses of existing geothermal data enhanced by the construction of temperature field models corresponding to the global and local aspects that influence the temperature and heat flow density distributions. The analyses are related to the structures and effects of separate phenomena along as well as across the Carpathian arc. The model calculations were carried out both by analytical and numerical methods of solving the heat transfer equations including their steady state forms and transient cases too. Besides the regional trend of thermal activity decrease in direction from East-Slovakian Basin to the outer Carpathian units the combined local influences are applied: subsurface thermophysical parameters of rock complexes distributions, non-stationary sources from supposed subvolcanic bodies in close surroundings of borehole Zboj ZB-1, and the effects of the hydrological factors. Considering the observed higher thermal activity in arched zone along the Carpathian structures we discussed the thermal effects of rock complexes supposed as a source of regional Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly and the transfer of heat from East-Slovakian Basin to Outer Carpathian Flysch units. The analysis and the modelling results suggest that the mentioned activity is caused by the influences of source type phenomena mainly related to deep fault systems at the margin of the European Platform. That means the anomalies in heat flow density distribution can reach the value 70 mW/m2 and more in the zone

  4. Study of the influence of solar variability on a regional (Indian) climate: 1901-2007

    CERN Document Server

    Aslam, O P M

    2014-01-01

    We use Indian temperature data of more than 100 years to study the influence of solar activity on climate. We study the Sun-climate relationship by averaging solar and climate data at various time scales; decadal, solar activity and solar magnetic cycles. We also consider the minimum and maximum values of sunspot number (SSN) during each solar cycle. This parameter SSN is correlated better with Indian temperature when these data are averaged over solar magnetic polarity epochs (SSN maximum to maximum). Our results indicate that the solar variability may still be contributing to ongoing climate change and suggest for more investigations.

  5. Newly identified YSO candidates towards the LDN 1188

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Gábor; Kiss, Csaba; Smidla, József

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  6. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sørensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30–55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988–2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the southeastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952

  7. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hansen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a~drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30–55 % from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentration was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48 % of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33 % of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18 % of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988–2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the south-eastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from

  8. Seed production and recruitment in primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests: Influence of regional climate and years after cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D. Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Harvesting proposals (e.g. variable retention for Nothofagus pumilio forests are based on canopy opening, to increase recruitment and enhance seedling growth, by modifying light and soil moisture. Seed production and seedling recruitment will define the success of harvesting, where remnant forest structure are the main influence factors, as well as biotic and abiotic factors. The objective was to analyse seed production, seedling recruitment and recruitment efficiency in primary and harvested forests through variable retention along the first 10 years after harvesting, as well as the influence of regional climate. Area of study: The study were conducted in a pure Nothofagus pumilio forest located in central Tierra del Fuego (54°18’ S, 67°49’ W, where harvested stands with variable retention and unmanaged forests were sampled in long-term permanent plots. Material and methods: Data of forest regeneration plots were used (n = 72 (2007 a 2014, and forest structure and seed production (2006 a 2013 were also measured. Regional climate was characterised for these years from satellite images (Sea Surface Temperature and climate re-analysis models (rainfall and temperature of land surface. Main results: Harvesting modified forest structure; however, aggregated retention maintained some characteristics of the primary unmanaged forests. These changes influenced seed production and recruitment. Seed production and recruitment were related to crown cover and the amount of seed production; however, recruitment efficiency was not affected by harvesting. The studied variables significantly changed along the years after harvesting. Seed production and recruitment were also related to regional climate factors, where it was possible to explain their variations through temperature (e.g. summer temperature and rainfall (e.g. winter rainfall for the different retention types in harvested forests and the primary forests. Research highlights

  9. Late fertility decline in the Netherlands: the influence of religious denomination, socio-economic group and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poppel Fwa

    1985-11-01

    The factors affecting the modern decline in fertility in the Netherlands are explored using data from censuses from 1930 to 1971 and additional unpublished sources. Particular attention is paid to the influence of religion, socioeconomic status, and region. The author concludes that "a theory formulated by Lesthaeghe and Wilson on the relation between modes of production and secularization and the pace of fertility decline in Western Europe offers--in combination with van Heek's views on the special position of Dutch Roman Catholicism--a starting point for an explanation of why the fertility decline of Roman Catholics, self-employed and agricultural labourers lagged behind." (summary in FRE)

  10. Strategic Factors Influencing National and Regional Systems of Innovation: A Case of Weaker NSI with Stronger RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pir Roshanuddin Shah Rashdi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of relationship between NSI ((National System of Innovation and RSI (Regional System of Innovation are not well reported with innovation policy research. That is, whether the NSI is the system on top of RSI, or the importance of regions make stronger NSIs. Therefore, it raises concern regarding development of strategic relationship between these two. For this, two cases ? Catalonia (Spain and N Ireland (the UK, have been selected based on theoretical sampling. Key economic indicators have been identified and have been quantitatively analyzed. The evidence suggests that strong NSI has positive influence on RSI. In addition to that, the concentration of knowledge and promotion of institutions may be strategically established and then needed resources may be injected to produce high quality human resources. There is, however, need for more comprehensive studies to be conducted in order to validate the results of this research

  11. Regional variability in secondary remodeling within long bone cortices of catarrhine primates: the influence of bone growth history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Shannon C; Terranova, Carl J; Zihlman, Adrienne L; Enlow, Donald H; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-09-01

    Secondary intracortical remodeling of bone varies considerably among and within vertebrate skeletons. Although prior research has shed important light on its biomechanical significance, factors accounting for this variability remain poorly understood. We examined regional patterning of secondary osteonal bone in an ontogenetic series of wild-collected primates, at the midshaft femur and humerus of Chlorocebus (Cercopithecus) aethiops (n = 32) and Hylobates lar (n = 28), and the midshaft femur of Pan troglodytes (n = 12). Our major objectives were: 1) to determine whether secondary osteonal bone exhibits significant regional patterning across inner, mid-cortical and outer circumferential cortical rings within cross-sections; and if so, 2) to consider the manner in which this regional patterning may reflect the influence of relative tissue age and other circumstances of bone growth. Using same field-of-view images of 100-microm-thick cross-sections acquired in brightfield and circularly polarized light microscopy, we quantified the percent area of secondary osteonal bone (%HAV) for whole cross-sections and across the three circumferential rings within cross-sections. We expected bone areas with inner and middle rings to exhibit higher %HAV than the outer cortical ring within cross-sections, the latter comprising tissues of more recent depositional history. Observations of primary bone microstructural development provided an additional context in which to evaluate regional patterning of intracortical remodeling. Results demonstrated significant regional variability in %HAV within all skeletal sites. As predicted,%HAV was usually lowest in the outer cortical ring within cross-sections. However, regional patterning across inner vs. mid-cortical rings showed a more variable pattern across taxa, age classes, and skeletal sites examined. Observations of primary bone microstructure revealed that the distribution of endosteally deposited bone had an important influence on

  12. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation. PMID:21637994

  13. Environmental Determinants Influencing Seasonal Variations of Bird Diversity and Abundance in Wetlands, Northern Region (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ayine Nsor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed major environmental determinants influencing bird community in six wetlands over a 2-year period. A combination of visual and bird sounding techniques was used to determine the seasonal variations in bird abundance, while ordination techniques were performed to determine the influence of environmental factors on bird assemblage. A total of 1,169 birds from 25 species and 885 individuals from 23 species were identified in the wet and dry season, respectively. The shallow close marshes supported the greatest number of birds (P<0.05 compared to the riparian wetlands. Bird diversity was significantly higher in the wet season than in the dry season (F=4.101,P<0.05. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis and marsh warbler (Acrocephalus palustris were the most abundant. Using the IUCN “Red List” database guide, we noted that 96.2% of birds identified were least concern (LC. The yellow weaver bird (Ploceous megarhrynchus was the only vulnerable species (VU and represented 3.8%. From the three variables tested, bushfire and farming practices were the major threats and cumulatively explained 15.93% (wet season and 14.06% (dry season variations in bird diversity and abundance. These findings will help wetland managers design conservation measures to check current threats on birds from becoming vulnerable in the future.

  14. The influence of climate variability on chemical composition of European wines: a regional scale study (Italy and Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbante, Carlo; Polo, Fabio; Cozzi, Giulio; Ogrinc, Nives; Turetta, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is having an increasing influence on vine phenology and grape composition, affecting vinifications, wine chemistry and the quality of productions. Wine grape cultivation provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, on a regional level and on a shorter time scale, the seasonal weather conditions modify the quality of yields determining the final properties of wine. In the present research, we studied wines from Italy and Slovenia with the purpose of differentiating them by the different vintages (from 2009 to 2012), which are supposed to be influenced by temperature and rain during each year's growing season. Specific chemical techniques were used, in particular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic mass spectrometry (IRMS), both of which are usually employed to detect wine adulterations and to establish the geographical provenance of wines. In particular, we investigated the relationship between macro- and micro-elements, Rare Earth Elements and stable isotopes [δ13C, δ18O, (D/H)I, (D/H)II]. The datasets were examined via statistical techniques to show their relation to weather conditions as well as their mutual connection. Italian and Slovenian wines were distinguished, with the exception of few samples, by both TEs and REEs results. This separation, due to different elemental compositions, may be justified as being part of two distinct environmental and geographical belongings (terroir) but also to the processes of wine production, from the harvest to the bottling, which have certainly interfered and characterized the products. In the case of Italian wines the weather conditions were evidenced with an important separation of stable isotopes which they confirmed to be very sensitive Regarding Slovenian wines, the studied regions were characterized of

  15. Regional and hemispheric influences on measured spring peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mixing ratios at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Christopher S.; Cape, J. Neil; Jones, Matthew R.; Leeson, Sarah R.; Coyle, Mhairi; Braban, Christine F.; Heal, Mathew R.; Twigg, Marsailidh M.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents 15-min averaged measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) obtained during spring 2014 (24/04/2014 - 06/05/2014) at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite (southeast Scotland). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the conditions producing the distribution of PAN mixing ratios at the supersite in spring 2014. Air mass back trajectories showed the majority of air masses to have spent substantial time over the UK, continental Europe or Scandinavia prior to arrival at Auchencorth. The median and 95th percentile PAN mixing ratios observed were 0.46 ppb and 1.03 ppb, respectively. The median mixing ratio was elevated compared with previous PAN measurements during springtime (April-May) in southeast Scotland (corresponding median mixing ratios April-May 1994-1998: 0.1-0.3 ppb), which is hypothesised to be due to conditions conducive to regional (European) photochemical PAN production. Additionally, PAN mixing ratios during regionally influenced conditions (0.4-1.5 ppb) were substantially more elevated from hemispheric background mixing ratios (0.4-0.6 ppb) than for ozone (O3, regional: 10-45 ppb, hemispheric: 30-40 ppb). PAN and O3 both impact upon vegetation and human health and it is necessary to understand the extent to which hemispheric and regional processes contribute to their abundances in different locations. Regional processes can both increase and decrease PAN and O3 mixing ratios compared to imported hemispheric background mixing ratios. This study concludes that during the measurement period in spring 2014 at the Auchencorth supersite, regional PAN and O3 modifying processes enhanced PAN mixing ratios more than for O3.

  16. THE RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDENTULISM AND PROSTHETIC STATUS OF THE ADULT POPULATION IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the level of edentulism and prosthetic status of the adult population in different regions of Georgia and to assess the influencing risk- factors. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I- (20-34), II-(35-44), III-(45-64), IV- (65-74) in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Statistically reliable data received showed the different extent of teeth loss in various regions of Georgia. ≤10 teeth loss were characteristic for Mtskheta (60.2%) and Samtskhe-Javakheti (50.7%),whilst ≥20 teeth lost were noticed more in Achara(2.9%), Samtskhe-Javakheti(2.6%), Shida Qartli (2,5%). Therefore, prosthetic status was mostly presented with one or more bridges or artificial crowns, removable dentures were seen less. Differences in prosthetic status is generally related to low medical education background in all regions, though lack of money was considered as essential obstacle for dental visit for Mtskheta, Imereti and Samtskhe-Javakheti population. Education and family income dictate attitudes towards prosthetic dental care and choice of crown types. On the other hand, material disparity represents the main obstacle to prosthetic procedures, especially implants. PMID:27249432

  17. Analysis of the Influence of the Electrical Asynchrony on Regional Mechanics of the Infarcted Left Ventricle Using Electromechanical Heart Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Xin

    Asynchronous electrical activation, as induced by myocardial infarction, causes various abnormalities in left ventricle function. The influence of the electrical asynchrony on regional mechanics of the left ventricle is simulated using a mechanical heart model and an electrical heart model. The mechanical model accounts for the ventricular geometry, the fiber nature of the myocardial tissue, and the dependency of the activation sequence of the ventricular wall. The electrical model is based on a heart-torso model with realistic geometry, and different action potential waveforms with variables in duration are used to simulate the abnormal electrical activation after myocardial infarction. Regional deformation, strain and stress are calculated during systole phase. The preliminary results show that asynchronous electrical activation, as an important factor, significantly affects regional mechanical performance of the infarcted left ventricle, it indicates heterogeneous contraction pattern and elevated systolic stresses near the injured region. The simulated results are compared with solutions obtained in the literature. This simulation suggests that such coupled heart models can be used to assess the mechanical function of the left ventricle with diseases such as myocardial infarction, and more realistic models of cardiac function are essential for clinical evaluation of heart disease.

  18. Influence of extended drought on water quality in tropical reservoirs in a semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Girão Braga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimDrought periods often occur in Brazilian semiarid region and are supposed to induce water quality degradation by changes in physical, chemical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems. Reservoirs in this region are used as drinking-water supplies and are exposed to wide volume fluctuations during drought periods due to lack of precipitation and high evaporation rates. This study aimed to identify patterns on water quality of two reservoirs during a long drought period. It was expected that more arid and shallower conditions would favor algal growth by enhancing nutrient availability, causing a decrease on water quality.MethodsThe study was based on monthly sampling over 20 months (May 2011 to December 2012 at two tropical reservoirs on Brazilian semiarid region. Precipitation and volume data were obtained from environmental agencies. Transparency was measured on field using a Secchi disk and conductivity, nutrients, suspended solids and chlorophyll-a were analyzed on laboratory. Temporal changes in all environmental variables were analyzed in each reservoir using two-way cluster analysis and also principal component analysis (PCA.ResultsThe volume of both reservoirs decreased considerably over the study because of low or shortage of precipitation. It was possible to detect two opposite patterns of chlorophyll-a in each reservoir throughout the drought season: in the first one phytoplankton growth was favored, while in the second one chlorophyll-a decreased by high inorganic turbidity. Both reservoirs tended to increase their turbidity and conductivity during the drought period due to shallow conditions, which probably contributed to sediment resuspension.ConclusionsWater level reduction during the extended drought period, contributed for water quality degradation due to high algal biomass and also high turbidity found during drought period. Local factors, as the nature of suspended solids, play an important role on predicting water

  19. Late Holocene anthropogenic and climatic influences on the regional vegetation of Mexico's Cuenca Oriental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tripti; Byrne, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Scholars continue to debate the relative magnitude of pre- and post-Conquest anthropogenic landscape transformation in many regions of Mesoamerica. These debates have important implications for our understanding of the role of anthropogenic practices in the development, or at times degradation, of regional environments. Paleoecological records that provide long-term perspectives on climate change and human land-use patterns are critical to addressing these uncertainties. However, many regions of Mexico including the Cuenca Oriental, a semi-arid basin in the rain shadow of the Sierra Madre Oriental, remain poorly studied. We present a new paleoecological record from sediment cores recovered from Lake Aljojuca, located in the southern part of the basin. Stable isotope analyses of authigenic carbonates provide an independent record of past climate, while pollen and microscopic charcoal provide insights into past vegetation and fire history. The Aljojuca record is one of the only well-dated multi-proxy paleolimnological records from the Cuenca Oriental, and is one of few charcoal studies from highland Mexico. Zea mays pollen and increased fire activity at 2700 calendar years before present (cal yr. BP) suggest Formative period human settlement around the lake. Between 1700 and 800 cal yr BP, a drying climate combined with human uses of fire likely resulted in increases in the extent of xeric scrub vegetation. The Aljojuca record also documents important landscape changes during the historic period (~ 430 cal yr. BP-present) likely related to the introduction of invasive species and agricultural intensification. The Aljojuca record provides a unique perspective on human-environment relationships and highlights differences between landscape transformations in the pre- and post-Conquest periods.

  20. Glycopyrrolate does not influence the visual or motor-induced increase in regional cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokamp, Kim Z; Olesen, Niels D; Larsson, Henrik B W;

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine may contribute to the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during cerebral activation since glycopyrrolate, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholine, abolishes the exercise-induced increase in middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity. We tested the hypothesis that cholinergic...... vasodilatation is important for the increase in rCBF during cerebral activation. The subjects were 11 young healthy males at an age of 24 ± 3 years (mean ± SD). We used arterial spin labeling and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate rCBF with and without...

  1. Influence of row spacing reduction on maize grain yield in regions with a short summer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangoi Luís; Ender Márcio; Guidolin Altamir Frederico; Almeida Milton Luiz de; Heberle Pedro Canísio

    2001-01-01

    The interest in reducing maize row spacing in the short growing season regions of Brazil is increasing due to potential advantages such as higher radiation use efficiency. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of row spacing reduction on grain yield of different maize cultivars planted at different dates. The trial was conducted in Lages, in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, during 1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons, in a split-split plot design. Early (October 1st) and nor...

  2. Analysis of a high-resolution regional climate simulation for Alpine temperature. Validation and influence of the NAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proemmel, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    To determine whether the increase in resolution of climate models improves the representation of climate is a crucial topic in regional climate modelling. An improvement over coarser-scale models is expected especially in areas with complex orography or along coastlines. However, some studies have shown no clear added value for regional climate models. In this study a high-resolution regional climate model simulation performed with REMO over the period 1958-1998 is analysed for 2m temperature over the orographically complex European Alps and their surroundings called the Greater Alpine Region (GAR). The model setup is in hindcast mode meaning that the simulation is driven with perfect boundary conditions by the ERA40 reanalysis through prescribing the values at the lateral boundaries and spectral nudging of the large-scale wind field inside the model domain. The added value is analysed between the regional climate simulation with a resolution of 1/6 and the driving reanalysis with a resolution of 1.125 . Before analysing the added value both the REMO simulation and the ERA40 reanalysis are validated against different station datasets of monthly and daily mean 2m temperature. The largest dataset is the dense, homogenised and quality controlled HISTALP dataset covering the whole GAR, which gave the opportunity for the validation undertaken in this study. The temporal variability of temperature, as quantified by correlation, is well represented by both REMO and ERA40. However, both show considerable biases. The REMO bias reaches 3 K in summer in regions known to experience a problem with summer drying in a number of regional models. In winter the bias is strongly influenced by the choice of the temperature lapse rate, which is applied to compare grid box and station data at different altitudes, and has the strongest influence on inner Alpine subregions where the altitude differences are largest. By applying a constant lapse rate the REMO bias in winter in the high

  3. The business cycles and the influence of economic confidence indicators in the European region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Constantinescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic confidence level is expressed by managers that are active in significant economic sectors. The financial markets consider these economic confidence indicators as leading instruments that can point the direction of the real economy. The level of trust in the economy is important because, similar with the stock investors behavior, the private sector managers or the consumers can act and carry a restrictive or a euphoric business policy, actions that could in fact affect the environment in a negative way and could unbalance the economic equilibrium.The role of this study is to propose a methodology of analyzing the influence of the economic confidence indicators over the stock market, an industry that can be overlooked as a transmission environment for the investment sentiment. We plan to study and comment the relation between these indicators, the stock market and future macroeconomic results like the GDP, the industrial production or the unemployment rate.

  4. [Influence of green roof application on water quantity and quality in urban region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Min; Li, Xing-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Yu, Hui; Hao, You-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Green roof is widely used in advanced stormwater management as a major measure now. Taking Huxi catchment in Chongqing University as the study area, the relationships between green roof installation with runoff volume and water quality in urban region were investigated. The results showed that roof greening in the urban region contributed to reducing the runoff volume and pollution load. In addition, the spatial distribution and area of green roof also had effects on the runoff water quality. With the conditions that the roof area was 25% of the total watershed area, rainfall duration was 15 min and rainfall intensity was 14.8 mm x h(-1), the peak runoff and total runoff volume were reduced by 5.3% and 31%, the pollution loads of total suspended solid (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 40.0%, 31.6% and 29.8%, their peak concentrations decreased by 21.0%, 16.0% and -12.2%, and the EMCs (event mean concentrations) were cut down by 13.1%, 0.9% and -1.7%, respectively, when all impervious roofs were greened in the research area. With the increase of roof greening rate, the reduction rates of TSS and TP concentrations increased, while the reduction rate of TN concentration decreased on the whole. Much more improvement could be obtained with the use of green roofs near the outlet of the watershed.

  5. Radiographic evaluation of the influence of age and smoking on thoracic and regional pulmonary dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeckman, P.; Vanclooster, R.; Demedts, M.; Clarysse, I.

    1983-01-01

    Chest roentgenograms were taken at full inspiration (TLC) and expiration (RV) in healthy, nonsmoking and smoking, young and old subjects in the upright posture. Linear distances (D) were measured in apicodiaphragmatic and transverse thoracic directions and extensions ((Dsub(TLC)-Dsub(RV))/Dsub(TLC) and (Dsub(TLC)-Dsub(RV))/Dsub(RV)) and volumes were calculated. In the apico-diaphragmatic direction a subdivision was made into an apico-fissural (A-F) distance and a fissuro-diaphragmatic (F-D) distance by means of the minor fissure. Overall volumes at TLC were identical in the four groups but differences were present in distances, extensions and volumes above and below the fissure. Aging caused mainly an increase in D(A-F) and a decrease in D(F-D) at TLC as well as at RV, indicating hyperinflation and airtrapping of the upper zone and hypoinflation and flattening of the lower zone. Smoking caused an increase in D(F-D) at RV, indicating airtrapping in the lower zone. In both groups E(F-Dsub(R)) was reduced, but in old subjects this was due to a decrease in regional TLC and in young smokers to an increase in regional RV. In old, smoking subjects a combination of the effects of aging and smoking was present.

  6. [Influence of green roof application on water quantity and quality in urban region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Min; Li, Xing-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Yu, Hui; Hao, You-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Green roof is widely used in advanced stormwater management as a major measure now. Taking Huxi catchment in Chongqing University as the study area, the relationships between green roof installation with runoff volume and water quality in urban region were investigated. The results showed that roof greening in the urban region contributed to reducing the runoff volume and pollution load. In addition, the spatial distribution and area of green roof also had effects on the runoff water quality. With the conditions that the roof area was 25% of the total watershed area, rainfall duration was 15 min and rainfall intensity was 14.8 mm x h(-1), the peak runoff and total runoff volume were reduced by 5.3% and 31%, the pollution loads of total suspended solid (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 40.0%, 31.6% and 29.8%, their peak concentrations decreased by 21.0%, 16.0% and -12.2%, and the EMCs (event mean concentrations) were cut down by 13.1%, 0.9% and -1.7%, respectively, when all impervious roofs were greened in the research area. With the increase of roof greening rate, the reduction rates of TSS and TP concentrations increased, while the reduction rate of TN concentration decreased on the whole. Much more improvement could be obtained with the use of green roofs near the outlet of the watershed. PMID:25345054

  7. Influence of Olive Cultivar on Oil Attributes in the Arid Region of Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Asheri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive cultivation has economic and health implications. The quality of harvested oil is affected by the type of cultivar and the climate in which the trees are cultivated. This study was carried out to determine quality indices (peroxide value, K232, and K270, fatty acid composition, and pigment profiles in some cultivars grown in an arid region in central Iran. These are cultivated in completely different climatic conditions than the major olive growing areas of Iran. The results have illustrated that there are significant differences between the cultivars in oil quality, pigments content, and fatty acid composition. Oil quality of all studied cultivars falls within the established ranges for extra virgin olive oil. Oleic acid levels of the ‘Beledy’ and ‘Leccino’ cultivars are below the International Olive Council (IOC established limit. Oils of the ‘Mari’, ‘Koroneiki’, and ‘Mission’ cultivars had the highest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content. However, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content for Mission oil was considerably higher than ‘Koroneiki’ and ‘Mari’ oils. The ratio of MUFA/PUFA for ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ was higher among all the cultivars studied. Furthermore, these two cultivars presented higher oleic/linoleic acid ratio and lower Cox values. Based on our findings, ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ are among the best performing cultivars for producing olive oil in intensely hot and arid regions.

  8. Wave propagation in a solar quiet region and the influence of the magnetic canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis; Tziotziou, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We seek indications or evidence of transmission/conversion of magnetoacoustic waves at the magnetic canopy, as a result of its impact on the properties of the wave field of the photosphere and chromosphere. Methods. We use cross-wavelet analysis to measure phase differences between intensity and Doppler signal oscillations in the Halpha, CaII H, and G-band.We use the height of the magnetic canopy to create appropriate masks to separate internetwork (IN) and magnetic canopy regions. We study wave propagation and differences between these two regions. Results. The magnetic canopy affects wave propagation by lowering the phase differences of progressive waves and allowing the propagation of waves with frequencies lower than the acoustic cut-off. We also find indications in the Doppler signals of Halpha of a response to the acoustic waves at the IN, observed in the CaII H line. This response is affected by the presence of the magnetic canopy. Conclusions. Phase difference analysis indicates the existence of...

  9. Broadband ultrasound attenuation imaging: influence of location of region of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilakis, J; Papadakis, A; Perisinakis, K; Gourtsoyiannis, N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of three different regions of interest (ROIs) varying in size and shape on broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) measurements of the calcaneus. Two hundred and sixty-five postmenopausal Caucasian women participated in this study. In 43 women osteoporotic fractures were documented on spinal radiographs. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine and the femur were made using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BUA measurements were obtained at a circular ROI automatically determined by the imaging system (ROIc), at a manually traced irregular ROI encompassing the posterior part of the calcaneus (ROIi), and at an anatomical square ROI located in the posterior part of the calcaneus (ROIs). Reproducibility was better in ROIc than in ROIi and ROIs. High correlations were found between BUA measurements with ROIc and ROIs (r = 0.981, P ROIc and ROIi (r = 0.965, P ROIc compared with ROIi and ROIs. No significant difference was found between the areas under the ROC curve at ROIi, ROIc, and ROIs for women with fractures. The results show that superior reproducibility makes ROIc the most appropriate region of BUA measurement in a comparison with ROIi and ROIs. PMID:11471598

  10. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  11. Influence of PAS domain flanking regions on oligomerisation and redox signalling by NifL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Little

    Full Text Available Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS domains constitute a typically dimeric, conserved α/β tertiary fold of approximately 110 amino acids that perform signalling roles in diverse proteins from all kingdoms of life. The amino terminal PAS1 domain of NifL from Azotobacter vinelandii accommodates a redox-active FAD group; elevation of cytosolic oxygen concentrations result in FAD oxidation and a concomitant conformational re-arrangement that is relayed via a short downstream linker to a second PAS domain, PAS2. At PAS2, the signal is amplified and passed on to effector domains generating the 'on' (inhibitory state of the protein. Although the crystal structure of oxidised PAS1 reveals regions that contribute to the dimerisation interface, 21 amino acids at the extreme N-terminus of NifL, are unresolved. Furthermore, the structure and function of the linker between the two PAS domains has not been determined. In this study we have investigated the importance to signalling of residues extending beyond the core PAS fold. Our results implicate the N-terminus of PAS1 and the helical linker connecting the two PAS domains in redox signal transduction and demonstrate a role for these flanking regions in controlling the oligomerisation state of PAS1 in solution.

  12. Demographic Factors Influencing Consumer Preferences of Seafood Consumption: Central Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orkan Özer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze seafood consumption level of consumers in Central Anatolia Region (Province Ankara and their consumption behavior. Proportional sampling method was used in determining sample size and sample size was determined as 167. Data were collected from randomly chosen individuals with face-to-face interviews. As a result of study, in order to determine possible effects of socio-economic properties of consumers on seafood consumption, CHAID analysis which is one of the decision tree analyses was used. According to the results of analysis; it can be said that dependent variables of income, education and age have effect on attitude and behavior of consumers while gender have no effect on consumption behaviors.

  13. Does serotonin influence aggression? Comparing regional activity before and during social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Summers, C.H.; Korzan, W.J.; Lukkes, J.L.;

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin is widely believed to exert inhibitory control over aggressive behavior and intent. In addition, a number of studies of fish, reptiles, and mammals, including the lizard Anolis carolinensis, have demonstrated that serotonergic activity is stimulated by aggressive social interaction...... in both dominant and subordinate males. As serotonergic activity does not appear to inhibit agonistic behavior during combative social interaction, we investigated the possibility that the negative correlation between serotonergic activity and aggression exists before aggressive behavior begins. To do...... this, putatively dominant and more aggressive males were determined by their speed overcoming stress ( latency to feeding after capture) and their celerity to court females. Serotonergic activities before aggression are differentiated by social rank in a region-specific manner. Among aggressive males...

  14. Influence of stellar component on the conditions for thermal instability in the Galactic center Minispiral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneriath, D.; Rozanska, A.; Czerny, B.; Adhikari, T.; Karas, V.

    2015-07-01

    Previously we demonstrated that collisions between clumps of gas in the Circum-Nuclear Disc can reduce their angular momentum and set some of the clumps on a plunging trajectory towards the supermassive black hole. If the central luminosity is determined by the gas accretion mechanism, then there exists a certain range of accretion rate and efficiency that allow the thermal instability to sustain the mass inflow through the two-temperature medium. Here we explore the stellar component of the nuclear star cluster which acts as an additional source of heating and contributes an additional energy input into the gaseous environment in the Galactic center Minispiral region. Under these conditions we discuss the values of relevant parameters that can support or suppress the thermal instability.

  15. Influence of vortical flow structures on the glottal jet location in the supraglottal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniesburges, Stefan; Hesselmann, Christina; Becker, Stefan; Schlücker, Eberhard; Döllinger, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Within the fully coupled multiphysics phonation process, the fluid flow plays an important role for sound production. This study addresses phenomena in the flow downstream of synthetic self-oscillating vocal folds. An experimental setup consisting of devices for producing and conditioning the flow including the main test channel was applied. The supraglottal channel was designed to prevent an acoustic coupling to the vocal folds. Hence, the oscillations were aerodynamically driven. The cross-section of the supraglottal channel was systematically varied by increasing the distance between the lateral channel walls. The vocal folds consisted of silicone rubber of homogenous material distribution generating self-sustained oscillations. The airflow was visualized in the immediate supraglottal region using a laser-sheet technique and a digital high-speed camera. Furthermore, the flow was studied by measuring the static pressure distributions on both lateral supraglottal channel walls. The results clearly showed different flow characteristics depending on the supraglottal configuration. In all cases with supraglottal channel, the jet was located asymmetrical and bent in medial-lateral direction. Furthermore, the side to which the jet was deflected changed in between the consecutive cycles showing a bifurcational behavior. Previously, this phenomenon was explained by the Coanda effect. However, the present data suggest that the deflection of the jet was mainly caused by large air vortices in the supraglottal channel produced by the flow field of previous oscillations. In contrast, for the case without supraglottal channel, the air jet was found totally symmetrical stabilized by the constant pressure in the ambient region. The emitted sound signal showed additional subharmonic tonal peaks for the asymmetric flow cases, which are characteristics for diplophonia. PMID:23911009

  16. Modeling the influence of land surface flux on the regional climate of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Ma, Yaoming

    2016-07-01

    Land surface heat fluxes over the heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau can serve as boundary conditions for modeling the regional climate and the Asian monsoon system. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric modeling system has enabled us to model the land surface heat flux through sensitivity experiments that utilize in situ observation data and the regional land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are foundational to understanding the water and energy cycles present during the Asian monsoon period. A series of sensitivity experiments based on the WRF model and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving the land surface heat fluxes (surface net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) over a heterogeneous land surface. The sensitivity experiments were simulated over the field area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period Asia-Australia Monsoon Project on the Tibetan Plateau (CEOP-CAMP/Tibet), located on the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. A WRF modeling period from July to August 2007 was selected for the summer monsoon conditions. To validate the modeling results, the ground-measured or calculated variables (e.g., net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) were compared to the simulated values. The modeling results show that the derived model land surface heat fluxes are in agreement with the land surface observations over the study area in summer. Therefore, the WRF model sensitivity experiments were successful in simulating the land surface heat fluxes over the study area.

  17. Modeling the influence of various water stressors on regional water supply infrastructures and their embodied energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-06-01

    Water supply consumes a substantial amount of energy directly and indirectly. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of water stressors on the embodied energy of water supply (EEWS). To achieve this goal, the EEWS in 75 North Carolina counties was estimated through an economic input-output based hybrid life cycle assessment. Ten water stressor indicators related to population, economic development, climate, water source, and land use were obtained for the 75 counties. A multivariate analysis was performed to understand the correlations between water stressor indicators and the EEWS. A regression analysis was then conducted to identify the statistically significant indicators in describing the EEWS. It was found that the total amount of water supply energy varies significantly among selected counties. Water delivery presents the highest energy use and water storage presents the least. The total embodied energy was found to be highly correlated with total population. The regression analysis shows that the total embodied energy can be best described by total population and temperature indicators with a relatively high R square value of 0.69.

  18. Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewari A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, flower bud size and twig water potential were monitored over two years in a wild population of R. arboreum (Uttarakhand, India and related with environmental variables (rainfall, soil moisture and temperature. Results showed that a rise in twig ψ to -0.7MPa, one week after moderate winter precipitation resulted in flower bud enlargement. In both years flowering was triggered after twig ψ reached the threshold of -0.5 Mpa, though the starting date differed between years. Floral bud size was correlated positively with twig ψ (r = 0.43, df =162, p < 0.001 and soil moisture (r = 0.61, df = 71, p < 0.001, while temperature did not influence flower bud size, soil moisture and twig ψ. Flower bud size increment was related with increase in twig ψ and soil moisture. Based on our results, we concluded that water availability plays an important role in inducing flowering in R. arboreum.

  19. Influence of tides and gravity waves on layering processes in the polar summer mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE have been studied at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, Norway, using VHF radar observations since 1994. One remarkable feature of these observations is the fact that {during 50% of the time,} the radar echoes occur in the form of two or more distinct layers. In the case of multiple PMSE layers, statistical analysis shows that the lower layer occurs at a mean height of ~83.4 km, which is almost identical to the mean height of noctilucent clouds (NLC derived from observation with the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at the same site. To investigate the layering processes microphysical model simulations under the influence of tidal and gravity waves were performed. In the presence of long period gravity waves, these model investigations predict an enhanced formation of multiple PMSE layer structures, where the lower layer is a consequence of the occurrence of the largest particles at the bottom of the ice cloud. This explains the coincidence of the lowermost PMSE layers and NLC. During periods with enhanced amplitudes of the semidiurnal tide, the observed NLC and PMSE show pronounced tidal structures comparable to the results of corresponding microphysical simulations. At periods with short period gravity waves there is a tendency for a decreasing occurrence of NLC and for variable weak PMSE structures.

  20. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF CA3 REGION OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS IN VD RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bing; XU Neng-gui; HE Li-lei; TANG Chun-zhi; SHAO Ying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on learning and memory abilities and ultrastructure of synapses in CA3 region of the hippocampus in vascular dementia (VD) rats. Methods: A total of 32 SD rats were randomized into control (sham-operation, n = 7), model (n = 7), EA (n = 9) and medication (n=9) groups. VD model was established by occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries (electrocoagulation) and bilateral common carotid arteries (occlusion for 5 min and reperfusion for 10 min, repeated the procedure for 3 times to induce global ischemia). EA (150 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Baihui"(百会GV 20), "Geshu"(膈俞 BL 17), "Pishu"(脾俞 BL 20) and "Shenshu"(肾俞 BL 23) for 20 min, once daily and continuously for 15 days. In medication group, the rats were fed with Nimotong (12 mg/kg), once daily and continuously for 15 days. Morris water maze method was used to test the animals' learning and memory abilities (latencies to find the hidden platform determined by place navigation trials, and latencies to cross on the location of the removed platform determined by spatial probe trials) after the treatment. Ultrastructural changes (numerical density, NA,surface density, Sv and volume density, Vv) of Gray type 1 synapses in CA3 region of the hippocampus were observed by using transmission electronic microscope and automatic image analysis system. Results: 1 ) Place navigation test showed that in comparison with control group, the average escape latency of VD group was significantly longer (P<0.01), while in comparison with VD group, the latencies of both EA and medication groups decreased significantly ( P<0.01 ). No significant difference was found between EA and medication groups in the escape latency (P>0.05). 2) Spatial probe-test displayed that in comparison with control group, the times which the animals crossed the target platform in VD group decreased significantly (P<0.01), while compared with VD group, those of both EA and

  1. Influence of feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walsum, P. E. V.

    2011-11-01

    Climate change impact modelling of hydrologic responses is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. Reducing this dependency was one of the goals of extending the regional hydrologic modelling system SIMGRO with a two-way coupling to the crop growth simulation model WOFOST. The coupling includes feedbacks to the hydrologic model in terms of the root zone depth, soil cover, leaf area index, interception storage capacity, crop height and crop factor. For investigating whether such feedbacks lead to significantly different simulation results, two versions of the model coupling were set up for a test region: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous simulation of the crop growth, the "dynamic" model WOFOST. The used parameterization methods of the static/dynamic vegetation models ensure that for the current climate the simulated long-term average of the actual evapotranspiration is the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios. Owing to the higher temperatures in combination with a higher CO2-concentration of the atmosphere, a forward time shift of the crop development is simulated in the dynamic model; the used arable land crop, potatoes, also shows a shortening of the growing season. For this crop, a significant reduction of the potential transpiration is simulated compared to the static model, in the example by 15% in a warm, dry year. In consequence, the simulated crop water stress (the unit minus the relative transpiration) is lower when the dynamic model is used; also the simulated increase of crop water stress due to climate change is lower; in the example, the simulated increase is 15 percentage points less (of 55) than when a static model is used. The static/dynamic models also simulate different absolute values of the transpiration. The difference is most pronounced for potatoes at locations with ample moisture supply; this supply can either come from storage release of a

  2. Influence of feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. van Walsum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impact modelling of hydrologic responses is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. Reducing this dependency was one of the goals of extending the regional hydrologic modelling system SIMGRO with a two-way coupling to the crop growth simulation model WOFOST. The coupling includes feedbacks to the hydrologic model in terms of the root zone depth, soil cover, leaf area index, interception storage capacity, crop height and crop factor. For investigating whether such feedbacks lead to significantly different simulation results, two versions of the model coupling were set up for a test region: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous simulation of the crop growth, the "dynamic" model WOFOST. The used parameterization methods of the static/dynamic vegetation models ensure that for the current climate the simulated long-term average of the actual evapotranspiration is the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios. Owing to the higher temperatures in combination with a higher CO2-concentration of the atmosphere, a forward time shift of the crop development is simulated in the dynamic model; the used arable land crop, potatoes, also shows a shortening of the growing season. For this crop, a significant reduction of the potential transpiration is simulated compared to the static model, in the example by 15% in a warm, dry year. In consequence, the simulated crop water stress (the unit minus the relative transpiration is lower when the dynamic model is used; also the simulated increase of crop water stress due to climate change is lower; in the example, the simulated increase is 15 percentage points less (of 55 than when a static model is used. The static/dynamic models also simulate different absolute values of the transpiration. The difference is most pronounced for potatoes at locations with ample moisture supply; this supply can either come

  3. Influence of Large-scale Climate Modes on Atmospheric Rivers That Drive Regional Precipitation Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, B.; Molotch, N. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Neiman, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow channels of enhanced meridional water vapor transport between the tropics and extratropics that drive precipitation extremes in the west coast areas of North America and other continents. The influence of large-scale climate modes on ARs is analyzed in terms of modulation on AR frequency and AR-related snow water equivalent (SWE) anomalies, with a focus on understanding the causes of the anomalously snowy winter season of 2010/2011 in California's Sierra Nevada. Mean SWE on 1 April 2011 was ~70% above normal averaged over 100 snow sensors. AR occurrence was anomalously high during the season, with 20 AR dates from November to March and 14 dates in the month of December 2010, compared to the mean occurrence of 9 dates per season. Most of the season's ARs occurred during negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. Analysis of all winter ARs in California during water years 1998-2011 indicates more ARs occur during the negative phase of AO and PNA, with the increase between positive and negative phases being ~90% for AO, and ~50% for PNA. The circulation pattern associated with concurrent negative phases of AO and PNA, characterized by cyclonic anomalies centered northwest of California, provides a favorable dynamical condition for ARs. The analysis suggests that the massive Sierra Nevada snowpack during the 2010/2011 winter season is primarily related to anomalously high frequency of ARs favored by the joint phasing of -AO and -PNA, and that a secondary contribution is from increased snow accumulation during these ARs favored by colder air temperatures associated with -AO, -PNA and La Niña. The results have implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal predictability of AR activities and related weather and water extremes.

  4. How the loop and middle regions influence the properties of Helicobacter pylori VacA channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombola, F; Pagliaccia, C; Campello, S; Telford, J L; Montecucco, C; Papini, E; Zoratti, M

    2001-01-01

    VacA is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by Helicobacter pylori in several strain-specific isoforms, which have been classified in two main families, m1 and m2, according to the sequence of a variable "midregion." Both forms are associated with gastric pathologies and can induce vacuolation of cultured cells. The comparison of two representative toxins, m1 17874 and m2 9554, has indicated that the m2 form is less powerful in vacuolation assays and that its effects are more strongly cell type dependent. To rationalize these differences and to investigate structure-function relationships in this toxin, we have compared the properties of the channels formed by these two variants and by a construct derived from 17874 by deleting a loop that connects the two toxin domains, which is shorter in 9554 than in 17874. Although the channels formed by all three proteins are similar, m2 9554 channels have, on average, a lower conductance and are less anion-selective and more voltage-dependent than the m1 pores. Furthermore, the rate of incorporation of 9554 VacA into planar bilayers depends on lipid composition much more strongly than that of 17874. The comparison with the behavior of the loop deletion mutant indicates that this latter property, as well as a portion of the conductance decrease, may be attributed to the reduction in loop length. The differences in pore properties are proposed to account in part for the different cytotoxicity exhibited by the two toxin isoforms. We furthermore present evidence suggesting that the conformation of the membrane-embedded toxin may be influenced by the lipid composition of the membrane itself. PMID:11720986

  5. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  6. Dissociation of dorsal hippocampal regional activation under the influence of stress in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes ePassecker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress has deleterious effects on brain, body and behaviour in humans and animals alike. The present work investigated how 30-minute acute photic stress exposure impacts on spatial information processing in the main subregions of the dorsal hippocampal formation (CA1, CA3 and Dentate Gyrus, a brain structure prominently implicated in memory and spatial representation. Recordings were performed from spatially tuned hippocampal and dentate gyrus cells in rats while animals foraged in a square arena for food. The stress procedure induced a decrease in firing frequencies in CA1 and CA3 place cells while sparing locational characteristics. In contrast to the CA1-CA3 network, acute stress failed to induce major changes in the DG neuronal population. These data demonstrate a clear dissociation of the effects of stress on the main hippocampal sub-regions. Our findings further support the notion of decreased hippocampal excitability arising from stress in areas CA1 and CA3, but not in dentate gyrus.

  7. The macroeconomic analysis of public goods and their influence in the region of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPÍŠIL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the region of Czech Republic, the provision of public goods is one of the State’s most important activities with society-wide impacts. Therefore, the debate on the structure and scope of public budgets is legitimate and ongoing on a society-wide scale. Mainstream fiscal theory considers public goods to be one of the failures of market equilibrium, classifying them as being close to positive externalities. In this case, the activity of the State brings benefits to other entities that are not involved in this activity and do not even directly pay for it. The main characteristics of these goods include irreducibility of their amount in society, non-excludability and non-rivalry. There are a number of goods between purely private and purely public goods which, to varying extents, exhibit both elements. Today, the majority of goods provided by the public sector are of such a nature; as a result, the form of allocation and the subsequent redistribution of resources are crucial when analysing public goods. The present paper analyses public goods in the Czech Republic from an economic and legal perspective using Cost-Benefit Analysis, including their efficiency and society-wide benefits.

  8. Geologic and anthropogenic factors influencing karst development in the Frederick region of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Karst features pervade the outcrop belts of Triassic, Ordovician, and Cambrian rocks in the Frederick Valley region of Maryland's western Piedmont. Detailed stratigraphic analysis and geologic and karst mapping demonstrate that individual stratigraphic units have differing susceptibilities of karst feature creation. Although the Triassic Leesburg Member of the Bull Run Formation and Rocky Springs Station Member of the Cambrian Frederick Formation have many surface depressions within their outcrop belts, the Lime Kiln Member of the Frederick Formation and the Ceresville, Fountain Rock, and Woodsboro members of the Ordovician Grove Formation have the greatest potential for development of catastrophic collapse sinkholes. Although these four members have the highest relative susceptibility, human activity can increase the potential for sinkhole activation in all units. Rerouting of surface drainage patterns, unlined drainage, and storm-water management areas and removal of significant overburden deposits significantly increase sinkhole development, but mainly, these units are inherently more susceptible to begin with. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of regional hydrology on nesting behavior and nest fate of the American alligator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Cristina A.; Bass, Oron L.; Nuttle, William; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Whelan, Kevin R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions are critical to the nesting behavior and reproductive success of crocodilians. In South Florida, USA, growing human settlement has led to extensive surface water management and modification of historical water flows in the wetlands, which have affected regional nesting of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Although both natural and anthropogenic factors are considered to determine hydrologic conditions, the aspects of hydrological patterns that affect alligator nest effort, flooding (partial and complete), and failure (no hatchling) are unclear. We deconstructed annual hydrological patterns using harmonic models that estimated hydrological matrices including mean, amplitude, timing of peak, and periodicity of surface water depth and discharge and examined their effects on alligator nesting using survey data from Shark Slough, Everglades National Park, from 1985 to 2005. Nest effort increased in years with higher mean and lesser periodicity of water depth. A greater proportion of nests were flooded and failed when peak discharge occurred earlier in the year. Also, nest flooding rates were greater in years with greater periodicity of water depth, and nest failure rate was greater when mean discharge was higher. This study guides future water management decisions to mitigate negative impacts on reproduction of alligators and provides wildlife managers with a tool for assessing and modifying annual water management plans to conserve crocodilians and other wetland species.

  10. Solar influence on the MLT region: NOx production during solar proton events and ion chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region is always driven by forcing from solar radiation and energetic particles. The resulting ionisation, dissociation and excitation of the constituents lead to production of reactive species such as NOx(N,NO,NO2) and HOx(H,OH,HO2), both directly from dissociation as well as indirectly from subsequent ion chemistry reactions. While the ions and HOx are short lived and disappear when the forcing is over, NOx is transported downwards and contributes to ozone depletion. Approximately, the production rate of NOx is proportional to the ionisation rate, while the loss primarily results from the photolytic dissociation of NO. High ionisation rates usually occur during Solar Proton Events (SPEs) and geomagnetic storms (aurora and radiation belt particles) where energetic electrons and protons penetrate the earth's atmosphere in polar latitudes. The production rates of NOx are modeled using an ion chemistry model and their dependency on various parameters such as altitude and ionisation rate is discussed.

  11. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  12. Modelling the influence of peri-urban trees in the air quality of Madrid region (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Rocio, E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vivanco, Marta G., E-mail: m.garcia@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ignacio, E-mail: ignacio.gonzalez@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, Victoria, E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Palomino, Inmaculada, E-mail: inma.palomino@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garrido, Juan Luis, E-mail: juanluis.garrido@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, Susana, E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Salvador, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.salvador@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Artinano, Begona, E-mail: b.artinano@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O{sub 3} concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O{sub 3} since removing this green area increased O{sub 3} levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas. - Highlights: > Role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O{sub 3} pollution in Madrid (Spain). > The CHIMERE air quality model was adapted to Mediterranean conditions. > Preserving the peri-urban forest lowers O{sub 3} concentrations over the surrounding areas. > Evergreen broadleaf and deciduous forests removed more atmospheric O{sub 3} than conifers. - Peri-urban forests contribute to ameliorate ozone air pollution.

  13. Minding the gap: Frequency of indels in mtDNA control region sequence data and influence on population genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) result in sequences of various lengths when homologous gene regions are compared among individuals or species. Although indels are typically phylogenetically informative, occurrence and incorporation of these characters as gaps in intraspecific population genetic data sets are rarely discussed. Moreover, the impact of gaps on estimates of fixation indices, such as FST, has not been reviewed. Here, I summarize the occurrence and population genetic signal of indels among 60 published studies that involved alignments of multiple sequences from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of vertebrate taxa. Among 30 studies observing indels, an average of 12% of both variable and parsimony-informative sites were composed of these sites. There was no consistent trend between levels of population differentiation and the number of gap characters in a data block. Across all studies, the average influence on estimates of ??ST was small, explaining only an additional 1.8% of among population variance (range 0.0-8.0%). Studies most likely to observe an increase in ??ST with the inclusion of gap characters were those with control region DNA appears small, dependent upon total number of variable sites in the data block, and related to species-specific characteristics and the spatial distribution of mtDNA lineages that contain indels. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Factors Influencing the Improved Academic Success in Literacy at the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) Schools in the Delta Region According to Adult Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly J.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored factors that have influenced literacy success of Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) students in the low-income, poverty stricken Delta Region of Arkansas. The study examined progress made since implementation of the KIPP Program and the influence the program had made upon student achievement in literacy at the…

  15. The influence of climate change to European Lakes, with a special emphasis in the Balkan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are almost one and half million lakes in Europe, if small water bodies with an area down to 0.001 km2 are included. The total area of lakes is over 200.000 km2, in addition the man-made reservoirs cover almost 100.000 km2. The largest lakes are located in the zone extending from southwestern Sweden through Finland to Russia, but there are many important lakes also in central and southern Europe. The Balkan countries have altogether about ten thousand lakes with a total area of over 4000 km2 and total volume of almost loo km3. Over half of the total volume is in Lake Ohrid, which ranks the seventh in Europe both as to the volume and as to the maximum depth. However, there are around thirty lakes in Europe with their surface area larger than that of Lake Ohrid. In addition to the lakes, the Balkan countries also have thousands of reservoirs with a total water storage capacity of over 50 km3. The response of European lakes to climate change can be discussed by dividing the lakes into five categories: 1) deep temperate lakes, 2) shallow temperate lakes, 3) mountain lakes, 4) boreal lakes and 5) arctic lakes. The lakes in the Balkan region fall belong into the first three categories. Most of the deep temperate lakes are warm monomictic; convective overturn occurs in winter or early spring. The future climate change may suppress this overturn, giving these lakes the classification of oligomictic. This implies the enhancement of anoxic bottom conditions and an increased risk of eutrophication. The oxygen conditions can also be expected to deteriorate due to increased bacterial activity in deep waters and superficial bottom sediment. In shallow temperate lakes, higher water temperatures in the future will induce intensified primary production and bacterial decomposition. The probability of harmful extreme events, e.g. the mass production of algae, will increase. The impacts may extend to fishing and recreational use. In lakes with relatively long water retention

  16. Influence of particle properties on the wall region in packed capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stefan; Stoeckel, Daniela; Smarsly, Bernd M; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2012-12-14

    Analytical columns (4.6 mm i.d.) packed with core-shell particles have shown a significantly reduced eddy dispersion contribution to band broadening compared to conventional fully porous particles. It has been speculated if this is caused by the narrow particle size distribution (PSD) of the core-shell particles, as an intrinsic advantage, or by an improved packing structure that specifically reduces the transcolumn velocity biases caused by wall effects. A recent simulation study has pointed against the former proposition [A. Daneyko et al., Anal. Chem. 83 (2011) 3903]. It is more likely that the slurry packing process for core-shell particles results in bed morphologies with reduced wall effects compared to the fully porous particles with a wide PSD. To access the latter proposition experimentally we slurry packed capillary columns (100 μm i.d.) with different fully porous (wide PSDs) and core-shell (narrow PSDs) particles and imaged their bed structures three-dimensionally using confocal laser scanning microscopy. This allowed us to resolve and analyze the bed morphology in these columns locally on all length scales contributing to eddy dispersion. On the transcolumn scale we observed a systematic difference between core-shell and fully porous particles: In the vicinity of the column wall the core-shell particles packed denser (closer to the bulk packing densities) and with a higher regularity than the fully porous particles. The bulk regions of all packings were effectively indistinguishable. This provides experimental evidence that the reduced eddy dispersion contribution with core-shell packings should be attributed to a higher transcolumn homogeneity rather than to an improved bed morphology on smaller length scales, e.g., to a reduced short-range disorder.

  17. INFLUENCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON THE CONTENT OF ARSENIC IN CULTIVATED SOILS IN ZGORZELEC-BOGATYNIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kucharczak-Moryl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the area of influence of Mine and Power Plant “Turów” which, through the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants contribute to soil contamination, among other things by arsenic. The aim of this study was to determine the total content of this metal in samples of anable soils collected in the area of the impact of the above-mentioned emitters. At the same time their grain-size distribution and their physico-chemical properties, as pH and percentage of organic matter were determined. Soils collected from a depth of 0.0 to 0.3 m below ground surface, and from 0.3 to 0.6 m b.g.s. came from the area of direct impact of the mine and power plant (area of Bogatynia and the region of Zgorzelec ,located out of the direct impact of emitters. Total arsenic content was determined by ICP- AES using a plasma spectrometer Varian Liberty Series II. All soil samples, independently of the place of origin, showed acid pH, and organic matter content in both research areas was higher at a depth of 0.0 to 0.3 m. In accordance with the classification of PTG 2008, soils from the area of Zgorzelec were classified as very light, light and medium (loose sand, loamy sand, sandy loam and light loam, with a high content of sand fraction it was also found. The soils of Bogatynia region were classified as medium and heavy silty (loamy silt and clayey silt, with a high content of silt fraction . Increased levels of arsenic in cultivated soils in the area of influence of the Mine and Power Plant, on the one hand they are connected with its anthropogenic its release during the combustion of coal, and on the other hand it is the influence of physico-chemical properties of soils. It is the reason of increased accumulation of this metal, mostly at a depth of 0.3 to 0.6 m. Significant, 3 times, higher level of this metal was showed in the area of direct impact of Mine and Power Plant “Turów”, compared with the area of Zgorzelec, apart from

  18. Optimization of 2.5 μm VECSEL: influence of the QW active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, P.; Rattunde, M.; Adler, S.; Bächle, A.; Diwo-Emmer, E.; Aidam, R.; Manz, C.; Köhler, K.; Wagner, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using the (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material system, VECSELs covering the 2 - 3 μm wavelength range can be realized. The best laser performance of GaSb-based VECSELs was achieved so far at emission wavelengths around 2.0 μm with a slope efficiency of more than 30 %, a low threshold pump power density of 1.1 kW/cm2 at 20°C heatsink temperature and concomitant a high output power exceeding 7 W in CW operation (depending on the mounting technology). These parameters were degrading significantly for longer wavelength devices emitting around 2.5 μm and 2.8 μm. But for applications like the generation of MWIR light (3-8 μm) by pumping ZGP-OPOs, high-power VECSELs around 2.5 μm are required to suppress absorption losses, while for medical laser treatment, high-power operation near the water absorption peak at around 2.9 μm is desirable. We will present results of our ongoing research strand for further optimization of the semiconductor heterostructure design of >= 2.5 μm emitting GaSb-based VECSELs. By using a low quantum deficit design (i.e. optical pumping at around 1.5 μm) in combination with highly strained QWs (compressive strain 2.1 %) we were able to realize a 2.5 μm emitting VECSEL with a slope efficiency above 30 %, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency exceeding 50 %, and a low threshold pump power density of 0.8 kW/cm2. These values are as good as those for the best performing 2.0 μm VECSELs. With a frontside SiC heatspreader and operated in a standard linear cavity, over 7 W of CW output power were achieved for this 2.5 μm emitting VECSEL structure when operated at 20°C. Furthermore, we will compare laser structures with different emission wavelengths and discuss the role of the QW strain, band-offset and active region composition on laser performance.

  19. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  20. Study on Influence Mechanism of Regional Intellectual Capital on Regional Innovation Capability%智力资本对区域创新能力的影响机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 常燕

    2011-01-01

    构建了智力资本对区域创新能力的影响机理模型,并分别从智力资本的三个方面——人力资本、关系资本、结构资本分析研究了它们各自对区域创新能力的影响机理.研究认为,区域智力资本对区域创新能力的作用机理表现为直接作用和间接作用:通过直接改变区域创新投入、区域创新环境和区域创新绩效来改变区域创新能力;通过对区域创新投入和区域创新环境发生作用来间接改变区域创新绩效,最终改变区域创新能力.%This paper constructs a mechanism model of influencing of intellectual capital on regional innovation capability.and analyzes the influences mechanism of these three dimensions of intellectual capitaK namely human capital, relationship capital and structure capital) on regional innovation capability separately. And it holds that there exist direct and indirect effects of regional intellectual capital on regional innovation capability: human capital , relationship capital and structure capital influence regional innovation capability through changing regional innovation investment, regional innovation environment and regional innovation performance directly ; they influence regional innovation capability through changing regional innovation investment and regional innovation environment indirectly.

  1. An empirical research on the influencing factors of regional CO2 emissions: Evidence from Beijing city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We adapt STIRPAT model to regional context and conduct PLS regress analysis. ► Energy technology related patent is innovatively used to measure technical factors. ► Urbanization level has the greatest interpretative ability for CO2 emissions. ► We do not find evidence of Environmental Kuznets Curve in Beijing. ► Beijing should focus more on tertiary industry and residential energy consumption. -- Abstract: In order to further study the realization of carbon intensity target, find the key influencing factors of CO2 emissions, and explore the path of developing low-carbon economy, this paper empirically studied the influences of urbanization level, economic level, industry proportion, tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output on CO2 emissions in Beijing using improved STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The model is examined using partial least square regression. Results show that urbanization level, economic level and industry proportion positively influence the CO2 emissions, while tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output negatively do. Urbanization level is the main driving factor of CO2 emissions, and tertiary industry proportion is the main inhibiting factor. In addition, along with the growth of per capita GDP, the increase of CO2 emissions does not follow the Environmental Kuznets Curve model. Based on these empirical findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, we provide some policy recommendations on how to reduce carbon intensity. Beijing should pay more attention to tertiary industry and residential energy consumption for carbon emission reduction. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive evaluation index of social development. Investing more capital on carbon emission reduction science and technology, and promoting R and D output is also an efficient way to reduce CO2 emissions.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON ARRIVALS IN RURAL TOURISTIC PENSIONS IN CRISANA REGION FROM ROMANIA - PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Ionel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present an econometric analysis of the number of arrivals in rural touristic pensions based on several indicators that we believe may affect in a positive or negative fluctuations of tourists. The analysis we perform for the period January 2006 - December 2013 with a quarterly frequency. We ordered and monthly values of most of the indicators selected, but we tried from start a reduction effect of seasonality.Given the emerging crisis in the second half of 2008, we expect basically after 2008 appear a decrease arrivals in rural touristic pensions, and after 2010, the year a slight recovery from the crisis appear improved this activity.For analysis we selected eight indicators: The average national unemployment; The average national inflation; The volume index of turnover for services provided to the population (hotels and restaurants; The volume index of turnover for services provided to the population (tourist assistance activities; Net use index of accommodation in rural guesthouses nationwide; Net use index of accommodation places in the region Crişana; Average gross salary at national level; GDP. So, in this study we have tried to analyze the influence of macroeconomic factors on rural touristic pensions arrivals in Romania Crisana region. This analysis will help owners of pensions in the management.In this paper we try to find the difficulties, limitations of rural tourism development in Crisana region from perspective of local government. In this paper we try to show as well the main factors of the emergence and development of rural tourism in order to establish priorities in the joint action of local people, entrepreneurs, tourists and local and national administrations. In many countries, the tourism industry fall within government priority. Tourism has been identified as one of the primary industries with potential to support local communities in developing economic diversity.

  3. Influence of regional climate change on meteorological characteristics and their subsequent effect on ozone dispersion in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Jian, Shan-Ping; Yang, Zhih-Min; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Tsuang, Ben-Jei

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the influence of regional climate change on local meteorological conditions and their subsequent effect on local ozone (O3) dispersion in Taiwan. The 33-year NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 (NNR2) data set (1979-2011) was analyzed to understand the variations in regional-scale atmospheric conditions in East Asia and the western North Pacific. To save computational processing time, two scenarios representative of past (1979-86) and current (2004-11) atmospheric conditions were selected but only targeting the autumn season (September, October and November) when the O3 concentrations were at high levels. Numerical simulations were performed using weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for the past and current scenarios individually but only for the month of October because of limited computational resources. Analysis of NNR2 data exhibited increased air temperature, weakened Asian continental anticyclone, enhanced northeasterly monsoonal flow, and a deepened low-pressure system forming near Taiwan. With enhanced evaporation from oceans along with a deepened low-pressure system, precipitation amounts increased in Taiwan in the current scenario. As demonstrated in the WRF simulation, the land surface physical process responded to the enhanced precipitation resulting in damper soil conditions, and reduced ground temperatures that in turn restricted the development of boundary layer height. The weakened land-sea breeze flow was simulated in the current scenario. With reduced dispersion capability, air pollutants would tend to accumulate near the emission source leading to a degradation of air quality in this region. The conditions would be even worse in southwestern Taiwan due to the fact that stagnant wind fields would occur more frequently in the current scenario. On the other hand, in northern Taiwan, the simulated O3 concentrations are lower during the day in the current

  4. Towards integrating the influence of erosion on within field variability of C input, stock and stability in regional SOC estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersmans, J.; Quine, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Improved management of the SOC pool has become an important issue for policymakers in order to maintain soil quality and reduce climate change. Hence, there exists an increased interest in accurate mapping of SOC at the regional scale. Most of these studies are limited to topsoil, consider only factors present at the landscape scale (e.g. climate, land use, soil type) and are at rather coarse resolution. Consequently, the variability of SOC at smaller scales in complex terrain driven by soil erosion, such as stable subsoil carbon buried in depositional areas, is still rather understudied and is not (well) presented in these estimates. Nevertheless, incorporating this smaller level of spatial detail will most probably have a major influence on regional SOC stock dynamics' calculations and mapping. In the present study we aim to unravel the variation in quantity and quality of SOC depth distributions along typical hillslope transects under cropland (Devon, UK) and relate these to soil redistribution rates and variations in C input, i.e. below and above ground biomass productivity. The radionuclide isotope Caesium-137 (137Cs) was used as proxy for erosion. The results show contrasting vertical patterns in SOC stock and stability depending on the rate and type of erosion. For example, sites characterized by deposition due to water erosion (i.e. foot slope) have much higher SOC values near the surface, but show a fast decline with depth, while sites characterized by deposition due to tillage erosion (i.e. most concave position) have moderated SOC surface values that stay constant until a depth of 50 cm, but with increasing stability with depth. The above ground biomass productivity is most linked to water erosion, since we found lowest above ground biomass at the steepest slope position and the highest above ground biomass at the foot slopes. Furthermore, root biomass in the most concave section is significantly higher as compared to any other topo-position. The present

  5. Influences of climate change on California and Nevada regions revealed by a high-resolution dynamical downscaling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Lin-Lin [University of California, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, Davis, CA (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, Shu-Hua; Hart, Quinn; Zhang, Ming-Hua [University of California, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, Davis, CA (United States); Cayan, Dan [University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States); Lin, Mei-Ying [Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute, Taichung (China); Liu, Yubao [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, Jianzhong [California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the influence of climate change to California and Nevada regions was investigated through high-resolution (4-km grid spacing) dynamical downscaling using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. The dynamical downscaling was performed to both the GFS (Global forecast model) reanalysis (called GFS-WRF runs) from 2000-2006 and PCM (Parallel Climate Model) simulations (called PCM-WRF runs) from 1997-2006 and 2047-2056. The downscaling results were first validated by comparing current model outputs with the observational analysis PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) dataset. In general, the dominant features from GFS-WRF runs and PCM-WRF runs were consistent with each other, as well as with PRISM results. The influences of climate change on the California and Nevada regions can be inferred from the model future runs. The averaged temperature showed a positive trend in the future, as in other studies. The temperature increases by around 1-2 C under the assumption of business as usual over 50 years. This leads to an upward shifting of the freezing level (the contour line of 0 C temperature) and more rain instead of snow in winter (December, January, and February). More hot days (>32.2 C or 90 F) and extreme hot days (>37.8 C or 100 F) are predicted in the Sacramento Valley and the southern parts of California and Nevada during summer (June, July, and August). More precipitation is predicted in northern California but not in southern California. Rainfall frequency slightly increases in the coast regions, but not in the inland area. No obvious trend of the surface wind was indicated. The probability distribution functions (PDF) of daily temperature, wind and precipitation for California and Nevada showed no significant change in shape in either winter or summer. The spatial distributions of precipitation frequency from GFS-WRF and PCM-WRF were highly correlated (r = 0.83). However, overall positive shifts were seen in

  6. Crop and agrotechnology influence on CO2 emission in case of representative agrolandscapes of Moscow region, RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    Agroecosystems have a very important role in the regional balance of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, the volume of existing data on the different crops and agrotechnologies influence on the GHG emission sharply varies. The European territory of Russia (ETR) is one of regions with strong deficit of this information. At the same time ETR is characterized by high heterogeneity of soil cover patterns, land-use technologies and land agroecological quality. Our research has been done in the fields of Precision farming experiment of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (RTSAU) that soil cover and landscape patterns are typical for Moscow region of RF. The investigated fields include four 1-ha plots with winter wheat and potatoes with versions of traditional tillage and no-till. Each key plot comprises the representative sites for analysis the autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, and control ones. Carbon dioxide fluxes have been weekly measured in June - September 2012, by the portable infrared system gas analyzer LI-COR LI-6400XT. The carried out research has shown the crop strong influence on the soil CO2 emission. In case of field with winter wheat in June - August it was in 1.5-2.5 times higher (2,93 μmol m-2 s-1) than in potatoes one. The maximum difference has been fixed at the first half of August after the wheat harvest. July is characterize by gradual decrease soil carbon dioxide emission from 1.56 μmol m-2 s-1 to 1.06 μmol m-2 s-1. Comparative analysis of the model sites with differentiation of the autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration showed the absolute dominance of microorganism contribution: 1.56 μmol m-2 s-1 (76.3% of the total respiration). It is especially important that no-till sites have CO2 "microbial" emission in 24.8% less the traditional tillage ones. The carried out in June-September comparative analysis of investigated sites with forest control ones has shown the following set with increasing soil CO2 emission: "winter wheat

  7. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  8. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wojciechowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Nowadays, people decide to have a baby by first analysing their financial situation. Tradition is no longer a factor which determines the decision whether or not to have a baby. A prognosis of the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS shows that the population of Poland will fall from 38 to 36 million by 2035. The aim of this study is to assess the procreation behaviour of women in Greater Poland Region. materials and methods. For the research purpose, 3,120 women of reproductive age were examined by using an author designed questionnaire and a synthetic Family Financial Standard Index. results: 74.6% of the respondents lived in an urban area, 25.4% of women come from a rural area. 49% of examined women did not want to have a bigger family, 45% would like to have another child. Analysis of the reasons why women did not want to have another baby revealed that predominance of the financial factor – 67%, living conditions – 18.4% and health– 13.2%. Only 11.9% of the women declared their high financial status, 4.8% of families received family allowance from the government; 88.4% of the examined families did not receive any social benefits. Bad housing situation was declared by 5% of the respondents, 26.7% of the interviewees lived with family members, i.e. parents or grandparents. Analysis of the data concerning religious bonds showed that 67.6% of women declared their indifference to religion. conclusions. The economic factor was an important reason limiting procreation. The bad situation on the real estate market combined with an insufficient range of social welfare led to a decrease in the birth-rate in the Greater Poland region. The impact of religion on family planning was less important. The influence of the analysed socio-economic factors on family planning was similar in rural and urban areas.

  9. Influence of social activity on regional cerebral blood flow and mental function in the normal aged volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Katsube, Tomoko; Kitani, Kohaku; Okada, Masanori (Shimane Medical University (Japan))

    1983-12-01

    The infuence of social activity on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and mental function was studied by Xe133 inhalation method in normal aged volunteers. Subjects: The first group consisted of 33 aged volunteers living in nursing home and exposed to little social stimuli. There were 15 males (mean age of 77 years) and 18 females (77 years). The second group consisted of 49 aged community volunteers who were confirmed socially active. There were 25 males (76 years) and 24 females (72 years). All subjects were healthy persons without a past history of cerebral diseases and lung diseases. There were no difference in blood pressure and hematocrit between the two groups. The rCBF was measured by 16-ch-Novo-cerebrograph. Verbal intelligence was evaluated by the Hasegawa Simple Intelligence Scale for Aged. Performance intelligence was evaluated with the Kohs' Block Design Test. The mean rCBF in group I showed significantly lower value than that of group II, especially in the frontotemporal region. The performance intelligence was decreased in group I. However, there were no significant difference in the verbal intelligence between the two groups. 2) The aging effect on rCBF and intelligences was more prominent in group II. 3) In males, hemispheric rCBF of group I decreased bilaterally associated with the decrease of both intelligences. While the left hemispheric rCBF in females was relatively preserved as well as the preservation of verbal intelligence. These results indicate that the social environmental factors may have significant influence to aging of the brain especially in the males.

  10. Factors Influencing Anti-Malarial Prophylaxis and Iron Supplementation Non-Compliance among Pregnant Women in Simiyu Region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambili, Benatus; Kimambo, Ronald; Peng, Yun; Ishunga, Elison; Matasha, Edna; Matumu, Godfrey; Noronha, Rita; Ngilangwa, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and iron-deficient anemia during pregnancy pose considerable risks for the mother and newborn. Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and iron supplement to prevent anemia to all pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) services is highly recommended. However, their compliance remains low. This study aimed at identifying factors influencing non-compliance of medications among pregnant women. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Simiyu region in northwest Tanzania using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 430 women who were pregnant or gave birth 12 months prior to data collection. Data were analyzed using non-parametric statistical analysis with STATA 10. Overall, 284 (66%) and 195 (45%) of interviewed women received IPTp-SP and iron supplementation during their ANC visits, respectively. The majority (85%) of women whom received medications were aware if they had received IPTp-SP or iron supplementation. Of those received IPTp-SP, only 11% took all the three doses, while the remaining 89% took only two doses or one dose. For women who received iron supplementation, 29% reported that they did not take any dose at all. Reasons given for not complying with regiments included not liking the medications and disapproval from male partners. Our findings suggest that IPTp-SP and iron supplement compliance among pregnant women in Simiyu region is low. Intensification of community education, further qualitative research and administration of medication through directly-observed therapy (DOT) are recommended to address the problem. PMID:27347981

  11. The influence of social activity on regional cerebral blood flow and mental function in the normal aged volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infuence of social activity on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and mental function was studied by Xe133 inhalation method in normal aged volunteers. Subjects: The first group consisted of 33 aged volunteers living in nursing home and exposed to little social stimuli. There were 15 males (mean age of 77 years) and 18 females (77 years). The second group consisted of 49 aged community volunteers who were confirmed socially active. There were 25 males (76 years) and 24 females (72 years). All subjects were healthy persons without a past hitory of cerebral diseases and lung diseases. There were no difference in blood pressure and hematocrit between the two groups. Method: The rCBF was measured by 16-ch-Novo-cerebrograph. Verbal intelligence was evaluated by the Hasegawa Simple Intelligence Scale for Aged. Performance intelligence was evaluated with the Kohs' Block Design Test. Results: 1) The mean rCBF in group I showed significantly lower value than that of group II, especially in the frontotemporal region. The performance intelligence was decreased in group I. However, there were no significant difference in the verbal intelligence between the two groups. 2) The aging effect on rCBF and intelligences was more prominent in group II. 3) In males, hemispheric rCBF of group I decreased bilaterally associated with the decrease of both intelligences. While the left hemispheric rCBF in females was relatively preserved as well as the preservation of verbal intelligence. These results indicate that the social environmental factors may have significant influence to aging of the brain especially in the males. (author)

  12. Investigating the Influence of Anthropogenic Forcing on Observed Mean and Extreme Sea Level Pressure Trends over the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armineh Barkhordarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether the observed mean sea level pressure (SLP trends over the Mediterranean region in the period from 1975 to 2004 are significantly consistent with what 17 models projected as response of SLP to anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, GS. Obtained results indicate that the observed trends in mean SLP cannot be explained by natural (internal variability. Externally forced changes are detectable in all seasons, except spring. The large-scale component (spatial mean of the GS signal is detectable in all the 17 models in winter and in 12 of the 17 models in summer. However, the small-scale component (spatial anomalies about the spatial mean of GS signal is only detectable in winter within 11 of the 17 models. We also show that GS signal has a detectable influence on observed decreasing (increasing tendency in the frequencies of extremely low (high SLP days in winter and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability. While the detection of GS forcing is robust in winter and summer, there are striking inconsistencies in autumn, where analysis points to the presence of an external forcing, which is not GS forcing.

  13. Consolida regalis Gray seed production as influenced by the habitat and crop plant in the western Podlasie region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Skrajna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in 2007–2009 in the Western Podlasie region to examine the seed production potential of Consolida regalis under different habitat conditions. Consolida regalis populations from 15 sites representing the habitat amplitude of this species were examined. Thirty morphologically different plants were sampled from each habitat and soil samples were taken to determine soil contents of available phosphorus (P, potassium (K and magnesium (Mg as well as pH. The results were statistically analysed. The seed production potential of the species studied was most strongly correlated with soil contents of magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, phosphorus (P and soil pH. By contrast, the kind of crop plant and its cover were insignificant. Of the plant characteristics, plant height and traits associated with inflorescence structure had a significant influence on seed production potential. The populations with the greatest seed production potential produced an average of 1287 and 965 se- eds per plant. These populations were associated with the most fertile sites (good wheat soil complex where the differences in seed production potential resulted from the nutrient contents and soil pH. By contrast, the least seeds were produced by plants growing on poor and acidic light soils. The average seed number per plant ranged from 42 to 83. Low concentrations of the nutrients examined were determined, with the soil content of magnesium being very low.

  14. Influence of fault geometry and fault interaction on strain partitioning within western Sichuan and its adjacent region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There are several major active fault zones in the western Sichuan and its vicinity. Slip rates and seismicity vary on different fault zones. For example, slip rates on the Xianshuihe fault zone are higher than 10 mm/a. Its seismicity is also intense. Slip rates on the Longmenshan fault zone are low. However, Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake occurred on this fault zone in 2008. Here we study the impact of fault geometry on strain partitioning in the western Sichuan region using a three-dimensional viscoe- lastoplastic model. We conclude that the slip partitioning on the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault presents as segmented, and it is related to fault geometry and fault structure. Slip rate is high on fault segment with simple geometry and structure, and vice versa. Strain rate outside the fault is localized around the fault segment with complex geometry and fault structure. Strain partitioning on the central section of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault zone is influenced by the interaction between the Anninghe-Zemuhe fault and the Daliangshan fault zone. Striking of the Longmenshan fault zone is nearly orthogonal to the direction of eastward extrusion in the Tibetan Plateau. It leads to low slip rate on the fault zone.

  15. Hydrologic Conditions that Influence Streamflow Losses in a Karst Region of the Upper Peace River, Polk County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.A.; Lewelling, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Peace River from Bartow to Fort Meade, Florida, is described as a groundwater recharge area, reflecting a reversal from historical groundwater discharge patterns that existed prior to the 1950s. The upper Peace River channel and floodplain are characterized by extensive karst development, with numerous fractures, crevasses, and sinks that have been eroded in the near-surface and underlying carbonate bedrock. With the reversal in groundwater head gradients, river water is lost to the underlying groundwater system through these karst features. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the hydrologic conditions that influence streamflow losses in the karst region of the upper Peace River. The upper Peace River is located in a basin that has been altered substantially by phosphate mining and increases in groundwater use. These alterations have changed groundwater flow patterns and caused streamflow declines through time. Hydrologic factors that have had the greatest influence on streamflow declines in the upper Peace River include the lowering of the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer beneath the riverbed elevation due to below-average rainfall (droughts), increases in groundwater use, and the presence of numerous karst features in the low-water channel and floodplain that enhance the loss of streamflow. Seepage runs conducted along the upper Peace River, from Bartow to Fort Meade, indicate that the greatest streamflow losses occurred along an approximate 2-mile section of the river beginning about 1 mile south of the Peace River at Bartow gaging station. Along the low-water and floodplain channel of this 2-mile section, there are about 10 prominent karst features that influence streamflow losses. Losses from the individual karst features ranged from 0.22 to 16 cubic feet per second based on measurements made between 2002 and 2007. The largest measured flow loss for all the karst features was about 50 cubic

  16. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  17. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, David G; Williams, Robert W; Lu, Lu; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis. We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1, and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum. PMID:26190982

  18. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Ashbrook

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis.We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1 and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum.

  19. 40 shades of black: regional differences in vegetation response to a changing human influence in the Low Countries during the Dark Ages (AD 300-1000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T. I. J.; Donders, Timme H.; Hoek, Wim Z.

    2016-04-01

    During the Dark Ages, which includes the Late Roman Period (LRP, AD 300-500) and the Early Middle Ages (EMA, AD 500-1000), large scale vegetation development in Northwestern Europe is generally characterized by a forest regeneration. This forest redevelopment phase was not uniformous across the Netherlands. A comparison between existing pollen records shows that forest redevelopment started earlier and was more severe in the southern part of the Netherlands than in the northeastern Netherlands. The prevailing view advocates that the forest redevelopment is the result of a diminishing human influence on the landscape due to the collapse of the Roman Empire. Following this view, regional changes in forest regeneration are explained by varying population densities. However, existing climate-records indicate a colder and wetter climate during the Dark Ages and the geomorphological record points to a changing landscape. How and to what extent these climatic and environmental changes contributed to the changes in vegetation development or even to the decline of the Roman Empire is largely unknown. To understand the relative importance of the factors (climate, environment, economy and demography) influencing vegetation development it is important to accurately map regional differences in vegetation both on a regional and extra-regional scale. For an extra-regional overview all available pollen records in the Netherlands from this period are compiled to show differences in amplitude of the vegetation development during the Dark Ages. On a regional scale, vegetation reconstruction maps have been produced reflecting the influence of geological/geomorphological factors.

  20. Clinical indicators of child development in the capitals of nine Brazilian states: the influence of regional cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laranjeira de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the interaction between mother or caregiver and infant through the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development and investigating whether local and cultural influences during infant development affect these clinical indicators. INTRODUCTION: The Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development was created in order to fully assess infants' development and the subjective relationship between the babies and their caregivers. The absence of two or more Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Developments suggests a possibly inadequate mental development. Given the continental size of Brazil and its accentuated cultural differences, one might question how trustworthy these indicators can be when applied to each of the geographical regions of the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 737 infants from the capitals of 9 Brazilian states. The size of the initial sample population was based on a pilot study carried out in the cities of São Paulo and Brasília. The ages of children were grouped: 0-3 months, 4-7 months, 8-11 months and 12-18 months. The chi-square test was used together with analyses by the statistical software SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of results from the different municipalities against the total sample did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Municipalities represented were Belém (p=0.486, Brasília (p=0.371, Porto Alegre (p=0.987, Fortaleza (p=0.259, Recife (p=0.630, Salvador (0.370, São Paulo (p=0.238, Curitiba (p=0.870, and Rio de Janeiro (p= 0.06. DISCUSSION: Care for mental development should be considered a public health issue. Its evaluation and follow-up should be part of the already available mother-child assistance programs, which would then be considered to provide "full" care to children. CONCLUSIONS: Local habits and culture did not affect the results of the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development indicators. Clinical Indicators of

  1. Assessing the Influence of the PTTC Principal's Competency in ICT on the Teachers' Integration of ICT in Teaching Science in PTTCs in Nyanza Region, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwenga, Ezekiel; Nyabero, Charles; Okioma, Lazarous

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the influence of Primary Teacher Training College (PTTC) principal's competency in ICT on the teacher's integration of ICT in teaching science in PTTC's in Nyanza region in Kenya. The one research question and one research hypothesis guided the study. The population comprised of 21 principals and 159 tutors. Data…

  2. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  3. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Scott; Schrlau, Jill; Butler, Jack; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Harding, Anna; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant's contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337

  4. Regional MT survey across an archaean craton in south Australia. Influence of sedimentary basins and plate boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Long-period MT data at more than 200 stations have been collected across the Late Archaean - Early Proterozoic Gawler Craton, South Australia, during numerous field campaigns between 2002 and 2009. The total site coverage spans an area of approximately 800x500 km providing a unique dataset to image one of the oldest cratons in the world. The Gawler Craton is known for its mineral exploration potential, i.e. the IOCG Olympic Dam deposit (Heinson et al, 2006). MT data can help constrain the position of lithospheric structures which could provide clues to the genesis of mineral deposits throughout the region. Moreover, large parts of the craton are covered with sediments ranging from tens to thousands of meters in thickness. The sedimentary basins have a significant influence on the MT responses and if not taken into account can lead to erroneous results in a smooth inversion scheme due to their high conductances. We present 3D inversion models using a subset of sites in the period range of 10-10000s in order to image the subsurface resistivity distribution of the Gawler Craton. Initial 2D and 3D inversions of a subset of MT sites indicates an electrically resistive Archaean core. The thick sedimentary basins surrounding most of the Gawler Craton are taken into account by using starting models with the basins included as a priori information. Together with the inclusion of bathymetry data of the Southern Sea the inverse procedure has more constraints and is able to produce better results than an unconstrained inversion. The results provide additional constrains to the understanding of the evolution of the Archaean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton by imaging the crust and upper mantle. Tectonic models are largely based on limited outcrop due to thick regolith cover and domain boundaries inferred from potential field data. These can now be validated with the use of large-scale MT modelling.

  5. Influence of coupling on atmosphere, sea ice and ocean regional models in the Ross Sea sector, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdain, Nicolas C. [LGGE, UMR 5183, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France); LEGI, UMR 5519, CNRS-UJF-INPG, Grenoble (France); Mathiot, Pierre; Barnier, Bernard [LEGI, UMR 5519, CNRS-UJF-INPG, Grenoble (France); Gallee, Hubert [LGGE, UMR 5183, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-15

    Air-sea ice-ocean interactions in the Ross Sea sector form dense waters that feed the global thermohaline circulation. In this paper, we develop the new limited-area ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model TANGO to simulate the Ross Sea sector. TANGO is built up by coupling the atmospheric limited-area model MAR to a regional configuration of the ocean-sea ice model NEMO. A method is then developed to identify the mechanisms by which local coupling affects the simulations. TANGO is shown to simulate realistic sea ice properties and atmospheric surface temperatures. These skills are mostly related to the skills of the stand alone atmospheric and oceanic models used to build TANGO. Nonetheless, air temperatures over ocean and winter sea ice thickness are found to be slightly improved in coupled simulations as compared to standard stand alone ones. Local atmosphere ocean feedbacks over the open ocean are found to significantly influence ocean temperature and salinity. In a stand alone ocean configuration, the dry and cold air produces an ocean cooling through sensible and latent heat loss. In a coupled configuration, the atmosphere is in turn moistened and warmed by the ocean; sensible and latent heat loss is therefore reduced as compared to the stand alone simulations. The atmosphere is found to be less sensitive to local feedbacks than the ocean. Effects of local feedbacks are increased in the coastal area because of the presence of sea ice. It is suggested that slow heat conduction within sea ice could amplify the feedbacks. These local feedbacks result in less sea ice production in polynyas in coupled mode, with a subsequent reduction in deep water formation. (orig.)

  6. Impacts of pore to regional scale variations in authigenic composition and texture on anthropogenically influenced fluid-rock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Diagenetic history plays a dominant role in determining the suitability of subsurface rock units as hosts for fluids that have societal importance. The performance of subsurface aquifers and storage facilities for CO2, natural gas, and liquid waste, is largely tied to the evolution of pore space and distribution and composition of authigenic minerals. While geoscientists may be well aware of the importance and nuances of diagenesis, project managers and decision-makers are unlikely to have a geologic understanding of determining factors such as burial history, fluid flow, and mineral thermodynamics. Thus, if falls to the geoscientists to effectively communicate meaningful conceptual models that adequately capture diagenetic heterogeneity and the potential for temporal changes with anthropogenically-induced changes in subsurface chemistry. This can be particularly difficult in subsurface systems that are sparsely sampled. Here, we look at the example of the basal Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone and overlying Eau Claire Formation in the Illinois Basin, the respective reservoir and seal for the largest ongoing demonstration of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the United States. Relatively few cores are available to study the pore-scale composition and structure of these units, and those that are available show a complex and spatially variable diagenetic history. Compilation of past studies and new analyses from the Illinois Basin are combined to illustrate the burial history and fluid flow record that will influence how these units respond to the massive volumes of supercritical CO2 injected into the subsurface. Pore to regional scale differences in authigenic mineral composition and texture result in significantly different predicted fluid-rock interactions and various potential consequences of injection. This project provides examples of both successes and challenges associated with communicating the diagentic complexity to stakeholders and the potential

  7. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter hazy pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2015-08-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter hazy pollutions (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship to the atmospheric circulations in middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter hazy pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. Both the visibility and number of hazy days can be estimated well by using the six indices and fitting and the cross-validation with leave-N-out method, respectively. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter hazy pollutions in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. However, we also noted that the statistic estimation models would be largely influenced by the artificial control of a pollutant discharge. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take actions in advance in dealing with probably severe hazy pollutions in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  8. Somatic point mutations in mtDNA control region are influenced by genetic background and associated with healthy aging: a GEHA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Giuseppina; Romeo, Giuseppe; Dato, Serena;

    2010-01-01

    Tissue specific somatic mutations occurring in the mtDNA control region have been proposed to provide a survival advantage. Data on twins and on relatives of long-lived subjects suggested that the occurrence/accumulation of these mutations may be genetically influenced. To further investigate....... We found a significant correlation of the mtDNA control region heteroplasmy between sibs, confirming a genetic influence on this phenomenon. Furthermore, many subjects showed heteroplasmy due to mutations different from the C150T transition. In these cases heteroplasmy was correlated within sibpairs...... in Finnish and northern Italian samples, but not in southern Italians. This suggested that the genetic contribution to control region mutations may be population specific. Finally, we observed a possible correlation between heteroplasmy and Hand Grip strength, one of the best markers of physical performance...

  9. Influences of Holocene sea level, regional tectonics, and fluvial, gravity and slope currents induced sedimentation on the regional geomorphology of the continental slope off northwestern India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Almeida, F.

    off Bombay and Saurashtra regions. Significant changes in the depth and orientation of the shelf edge adjacent to Saurashtra and the Bombay High areas in relict carbonate facies are recorded. At locations, shelf edge depth is much more (up to 150 m...

  10. Interrelation between seismicity parameters and delimiting potential seismic sources in a seismic statistical region and its influence on seismic risk estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-qiong; WU Xuan

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, we have discovered the abnormal area distribution features of maximum variation values of ground motion parameter uncertainty with different probabilities of exceedance in 50 years within the range of 100°~120°E,29°~42°N for the purpose to solve the problem that abnormal areas of maximum variation values of ground motion parameter uncertainties emerge in a certain cities and towns caused by seismicity parameter uncertainty in a seismic statistical region in an inhomogeneous distribution model that considers tempo-spatial nonuniformity of seismic activity. And we have also approached the interrelation between the risk estimation uncertainty of a site caused by seismicity parameter uncertainty in a seismic statistical region and the delimitation of potential sources, as well as the reasons for forming abnormal areas. The results from the research indicate that the seismicity parameter uncertainty has unequal influence on the uncertainty of risk estimation at each site in a statistical region in the inhomogeneous distribution model, which relates to the scheme for delimiting potential sources. Abnormal areas of maximum variation values of ground motion parameter uncertainty often emerge in the potential sources of Mu≥8 (Mu is upper limit of a potential source) and their vicinity. However, this kind of influence is equal in the homogeneous distribution model. The uncertainty of risk estimation of each site depends on its seat. Generally speaking, the sites located in the middle part of a statistical region are only related to the seismicity parameter uncertainty of the region, while the sites situated in or near the juncture of two or three statistical regions might be subject to the synthetic influences of seismicity parameter uncertainties of several statistical regions.

  11. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  12. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  13. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  14. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  15. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    This work is a further development in the study of weather pathogenic index (WPI) and negative influence of urbanization processes on the state of people's health with adaptation disorder. This problem is socially significant. According to the data of the WHO, in the world there are from 20 to 45% of healthy people and from 40 to 80% of people with chronic diseases who suffer from the raised meteosensitivity. As a result of our researches of meteosensitivity of people during their short-duration on mountain resorts there were used negative adaptive reactions (NAR) under 26 routine tests, stress-reactions under L.H. Garkavi's hemogram, vegetative indices, tests of neuro-vascular reactivity, signs of imbalance of vegetative and neurohumoral regulation according to the data of biorhythm fractal analysis and sudden aggravations of diseases (SAD) as an indicator of negative climatic and urbanization influence. In 2010-2011 the Caucasian mountain resorts were having long periods of climatic anomalies, strengthening of anthropogenic emissions and forest fires when record-breaking high waves of NAR and SAD were noticed. There have also been specified indices ranks of weather pathogenicity from results of comparison of health characteristics with indicators of synoptico-dynamic processes according to Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF); air ionization N+, N-, N+/N- spectra of aerosol particles (the size from 500 to 20000 nanometers) and concentrations of chemically active gases (O3, NO, NO2, ), volatile phytoorganic substances in the surface atmosphere, bactericidal characteristics of vegetation by criterion χ2 (not above 0,05). It has allowed us to develop new physiological optimum borders, norm and pessimum, to classify emergency ecologo-weather situations, to develop a new techniques of their forecasting and prevention of meteopathic reactions with meteosensitive patients (Method of treatment and the early (emergency) and planned prevention meteopatic reactions

  16. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plavcova, Eva [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Kysely, Jan [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    The study examines simulation of atmospheric circulation, represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity), and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in regional climate models (RCMs) over Central Europe. We explore control simulations of five high-resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project driven by re-analysis (ERA-40) and the same global climate model (ECHAM5 GCM) plus of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The aims are to (1) identify errors in RCM-simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (2) identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices, and (3) compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. Although most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong flow days and of strong cyclonic vorticity. Some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow, mainly in summer. Except for HIRHAM, however, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. The influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs, as demonstrated in a set of RCA simulations with different driving data. The driving data control on circulation in RCA is particularly weak for the BCM GCM, in which case RCA substantially modifies (but does not improve) the circulation from the driving data in both winter and summer. Those RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation are HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM. Relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures were found in the observed data for Central Europe. The links differ by season and are usually stronger for

  17. A multi-model analysis of the resolution influence on precipitation climatology in the Gulf Stream region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuelei; Huang, Bohua; Kirtman, Ben P.; Kinter, James L.; Chiu, Long S.

    2016-05-01

    Using climate simulations from coupled and uncoupled general circulation models, this study investigates the influence of horizontal resolution in both atmospheric and oceanic model components on the mean precipitation over the Gulf Stream (GS) region. For this purpose, three sets of model experiments are analyzed. The first two examine the effects of increasing horizontal resolution of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) gradually from 100 to 10 km under fixed oceanic settings. Specifically, the AGCM is either forced with prescribed observed sea surface temperature (SST) (the first case) or coupled to a non-eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) at a fixed horizontal resolution near 100 km (the second case). The third set of experiments examines the effects of the oceanic resolution with a pair of long-term simulations by another coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM), in which the OGCM is run respectively at non-eddy-resolving (100 km) and eddy-resolving (10 km) resolutions, while the AGCM resolution remains fixed at 50 km for both runs. In general, all simulations qualitatively reproduce the gross features of the mean GS precipitation and its annual cycle. At similar AGCM resolutions, the uncoupled models produce a GS rain band that is more realistic in both structure and strength compared to the coupled models with non-eddy-resolving oceans. This is because the prescribed observed SST better represents the gradient near the oceanic front than the non-eddy-resolving OGCMs simulate. An increase from the baseline AGCM resolution produces enhanced climatological GS precipitation, both large-scale and convective, with the latter more tightly confined to the oceanic front. The enhancement, however, is moderate and further increases in resolution achieves diminishing results. On the other hand, an increase in oceanic resolution from non-eddy-resolving to eddy resolving scheme results in more consistent simulations with

  18. Study on the atmospheric boundary layer and its influence on regional air quality over the Pearl River delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the structure of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL and its influence on regional air quality over the Pearl River delta (PRD, two ABL intensive observations were conducted at Panyu (urban station and Xinken (non-urban station, near estuary of PRD during October 2004 and July 2006, respectively. Based on the ABL intensive observation data analysis, the typical weather condition type associated with poor air quality over PRD could be summarized into two kinds: the warmed period before cold front (WPBCF and the subsidence period controlled by tropical cyclone (SPCTC. Two typical polluted cases (affected by WPBCF and SPCTC, respectively and one clean (not-polluted case were chosen for detail analysis. It was found that the continuously low or calm ground wind would lead to pollutant accumulation. The local circulation, such as sea–land breezes and heat–island circulation, played an important role in these polluted cases. The recirculation was significant in polluted cases; steady transport occurred in the clean case. Ventilation index (VI was quite different between polluted cases and the clean case: in WPBCF cases, the peak VI was from 184 to 3555 m2 s−1; on SPCTC days, the peak VI was from 1066 to 4363 m2 s−1; on the clean day, the peak VI was 10 885 m2 s−1 and much larger than all polluted cases. The 24-h average VI on polluted days was from 169 to 2858 m2 s−1 and also much smaller than that of the clean day. VI is a good reference index for pollution judgment. The peak mixing heights were smaller than 700 m in WPBCF cases, and were smaller than 800 m in SPCTC cases. During WPBCF polluted case, only surface inversion layer appeared. In the period of land breeze, surface inversion layer height was about 50 m, but in the period of sea breeze, surface inversion layer height would increase, and reach the maximum height, which was about 600 m. During SPCTC polluted case, there were several inversion layers that appeared at different

  19. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  20. Influence of university network structures on forming the network environment of regional economy (on the example of national research universities of Tatarstan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya-Anna Alekseevna Kaibiyainen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to elaborate theoretical and applied aspects of the processes of forming the new network institutional environment of the Russian regional economy under the influence of the developing integral educational network structures basing on the study of the experience of national research universities of Tatarstan Republic Methods general scientific logical methods of analysis and synthesis induction and deduction scientific abstraction as well as the method of systemicfunctional analysis. Results the practical examples are revealed and analyzed of introducing the new network integral principles into the functioning of national research universities which have a real economic effect and influencing such indicators of regional economy as the growth of employment reduction of unemployment etc. Scientific novelty problems of network structures development in the Russian education have not been thoroughly studied yet. The article analyzes the experience reveals and describes the methods and techniques of forming the network educational structures in the functioning of national research universities in Tatarstan Republic Practical value the author shows the ability of network university structures not only to play a significant role forming the new institutional environment of the regional economy but also to influence the macro and microeconomic indicators of development of the region and the country. nbsp

  1. Sacral landscape and its influence on the tourism space development in the region (based on the example of Western Pomerania region NW Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Duda

    2014-01-01

    Formed through the centuries, cultural landscape of the region includes not only the material realm in the form of numerous historical buildings, monuments and other evidences of local society’s development, but also significant immaterial realm, which manifests itself in the form of spiritual heritage, faith, tradition, customs and language. Interesting, often unique in terms of religious and historical point of view, religious buildings, as well as traditional pilgrimage routes and local sh...

  2. Characterization of a human X-linked gene from the DXS732E locus in the candidate region for the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) gene (Xq13.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gault, J.; Zonana, J. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Zeltinger, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A conserved mouse genomic clone was used to identify a homologous human genomic clone (the DXS732E locus), which was subsequently employed to isolate cDNAs from a human fetal brain library. Nine unique overlapping cDNAs were isolated, and sequences analysis of 3.9 kb identified a putative 1 kb ORF. GRAIL analysis of the sequence supported the hypothesis that the putative ORF was coding sequence, and Prosite analysis of the putative ORF identified potential glycosylation and phosphorylation sites. The 5{prime} end of the gene maps within a CpG island, and comparison of cDNA sequences indicate the gene is alternatively spliced at its 3{prime} end. Northern analysis and RT-PCR indicate that two different sized messages appear to be expressed with the gene expressed in human fetal kidney, intestine, brain, and muscle. The gene is expressed in 77 day human skin, a time when hair follicle formation occurs. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) results in the abnormal morphogenesis of hair, teeth and eccrine sweat glands. A positional cloning strategy towards cloning the EDA gene had been used, and deletion and X-autosome translocation patients have been useful in further delimiting the EDA region. The present gene at the DXS732E locus is partially deleted in one EDA patient who does not have other apparent abnormalities. No rearrangements of the gene have been detected in two female X-autosome translocation EDA patients, nor in four additional male patients with submicroscopic molecular deletions.

  3. Regional dynamics and external influences in the discussions about the model of economic integration in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    BRICEÑO-RUIZ, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current scenario of regional economic integration in Latin America. Thus, it is argued that economic integration in this region is currently developing in three axes: an open integration axis (represented by the Pacific Alliance); a revisionist axis (symbolized by the Southern Common Market –Mercosur-) and an anti-systemic axis (represented by the Bolivarian Alliance for the People of our America –ALBA-). In each of these initiatives, diverse models of regional economi...

  4. Assessing the influence of water level on schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake region before and after the construction of Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a severe public health problem in the Dongting Lake region, and its distribution, prevalence, and intensity of infection are particularly sensitive to environmental changes. In this study, the human and bovine schistosomiasis variations in the Dongting Lake region were studied from 1996 to 2010, and the relationships between schistosomiasis and water level were examined. Furthermore, based on these results, the potential effects of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis were investigated. Results showed an increase in human schistosomiasis and in the scope of seriously affected regions, along with a decrease in bovine schistosomiasis. Human schistosomiasis was negatively correlated with water level during wet season (from May to October), particularly the average water level in October. This finding indicated that the decreasing water level may be highly related to the increasing of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake region. Based on this result and the variation of schistosomiasis before and after the construction and operation of TGD, the impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir is believed to decrease the water level and increase the contact between people and schistosomiasis. Therefore, the TGD, which is operated by regulating water and scheduling water operations, is not good for the control of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake region. Although the extent of the influence of the TGD on schistosomiasis remains unclear, the influence of the TGD on preventing and controlling schistosomiasis should not be ignored. PMID:26661964

  5. Decoding the dual-coding region: key factors influencing the translational potential of a two-ORF-containing transcript

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Liang

    2010-01-01

    A dual-coding region is defined as a stretch of DNA that encodes amino acids in overlapping reading frames. Dual-coding regions are often found in bacteriophages and viruses (e.g., HIV) with tiny genome sizes; such an arrange-ment is believed to greatly increase genetic information storage efficiency.

  6. Influence of the valine zipper region on the structure and aggregation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Natalie A; Reynolds, T Steele; Middaugh, C Russell; Laurence, Jennifer S

    2012-11-01

    Protein aggregation is a major problem for biopharmaceuticals. While the control of aggregation is critically important for the future of protein pharmaceuticals, mechanisms of aggregate assembly, particularly the role that structure plays, are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that partially folded intermediates critically influence the aggregation pathway. We have previously reported the use of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) as a partially folded model system to investigate protein aggregation. This domain contains three regions with differing structural propensity: a N-terminal polybasic region, a central helical leucine zipper region, and a C-terminal extended valine zipper region. Additionally, a centrally positioned cysteine residue readily forms an intermolecular disulfide bond that reduces aggregation. Computational analysis of ATF5 predicts that the valine zipper region facilitates self-association. Here we test this hypothesis using a truncated mutant lacking the C-terminal valine zipper region. We compare the structure and aggregation of this mutant to the wild-type (WT) form under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Our data indicate that removal of this region results in a loss of α-helical structure in the leucine zipper and a change in the mechanism of self-association. The mutant form displays increased association at low temperature but improved resistance to thermally induced aggregation. PMID:23067245

  7. Influence of the valine zipper region on the structure and aggregation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Natalie A; Reynolds, T Steele; Middaugh, C Russell; Laurence, Jennifer S

    2012-11-01

    Protein aggregation is a major problem for biopharmaceuticals. While the control of aggregation is critically important for the future of protein pharmaceuticals, mechanisms of aggregate assembly, particularly the role that structure plays, are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that partially folded intermediates critically influence the aggregation pathway. We have previously reported the use of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) as a partially folded model system to investigate protein aggregation. This domain contains three regions with differing structural propensity: a N-terminal polybasic region, a central helical leucine zipper region, and a C-terminal extended valine zipper region. Additionally, a centrally positioned cysteine residue readily forms an intermolecular disulfide bond that reduces aggregation. Computational analysis of ATF5 predicts that the valine zipper region facilitates self-association. Here we test this hypothesis using a truncated mutant lacking the C-terminal valine zipper region. We compare the structure and aggregation of this mutant to the wild-type (WT) form under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Our data indicate that removal of this region results in a loss of α-helical structure in the leucine zipper and a change in the mechanism of self-association. The mutant form displays increased association at low temperature but improved resistance to thermally induced aggregation.

  8. Numerical simulation of the influence of lower-crustal flow on the deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; CAO Jian-ling; ZHANG Huai; ZHANG Guo-min; SHI Yao-lin; SHEN Xu-hui

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of distribution of active fault and regional rheological structure, a three-dimensional finite element model of Sichuan-Yunnan region, China, is constructed to simulate contemporary crustal motion and stress distribution and discuss the dynamic mechanism of crustal motion and deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region. Linear Maxwell visco-elastic model is applied, which includes the active fault zones, the elastic upper crust and viscous lower crust and upper mantle. Four different models with different boundary conditions and deep structure are calculated. Some conclusions are drawn through comparison. Firstly, the crustal rotation about the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya in the Sicuan-Yunnan region may be controlled by the special dynamic boundary condition. The drag force of the lower-crust on the upper crust is not negligible. At the same time, the main active fault zones play an important role in the contemporary crustal motion and deformation in Sichuan-Yunnan region.

  9. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  10. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  11. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  12. Factors influencing elective science students’ perception of their Biology classroom environment in low and high academic achieving schools in the Central Region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Otami, Deodat Charles; Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey; Anthony-Krueger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated factors influencing elective science students’ perception of their Biology classroom environment in low and high academic achieving senior secondary schools in the Central Region of Ghana. The cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Participants were 356 third-year elective science students, selection through a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were obtained using the Biology Classroom Environment Questionnaire (BCEQ). This was after the senior secondary ...

  13. The influence of regional health system characteristics on the surgical management and receipt of post operative radiation therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Aneja, Sanjay; Khullar, Dhruv; Yu, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a known optimal treatment protocol for the management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), many patients fail to receive complete surgical resection or postoperative radiation therapy (PORT). The underlying reasons behind this disparity are unclear. Our study investigates the influence of regional health system resources on the surgical management and PORT receipt in patients with GBM. Surgical intervention, PORT receipt and patient data for patients diagnosed with GBM were obtained from...

  14. MM5 Simulations of the China Regional Climate During the LGM.Ⅰ: Influence of CO2 and Earth Orbit Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU yu; HE Jinhai; LI Weiliang; CHEN Longxun

    2008-01-01

    Using a regional climate model MM5 nested to an atmospheric global climate model CCM3, a series of simulations and sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the relative Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate response to different mechanisms over China. Model simulations of the present day (PD) climate and the LGM climate change are in good agreement with the observation data and geological records, especially in the simulation of precipitation change. Under the PD and LGM climate, changes of earth orbital parameters have a small influence on the annual mean temperature over China.However, the magnitude of the effect shows a seasonal pattern, with a significant response in winter. Thus,this influence cannot be neglected. During the LGM, CO2 concentration reached its lowest point to 200 ppmv. This results in a temperature decrease over China. The influences of CO2 concentration on climate show seasonal and regional patterns as well, with a significant influence in winter. On the contrary, CO2concentration has less impact in summer season. In some cases, temperature even increases with decreasing in CO2 concentration. This temperature increase is the outcome of decrease in cloud amount; hence increase the solar radiation that reached the earth's surface. This result suggests that cloud amount plays a very important role in climate change and could direct the response patterns of some climate variables such as temperature during certain periods and over certain regions. In the Tibetan Plateau, the temperature responses to changes of the above two factors are generally weaker than those in other regions because the cloud amount in this area is generally more than in the other areas. Relative to the current climate, changes in orbital parameters have less impact on the LGM climate than changes in CO2 concentration. However,both factors have rather less contributions to the climate change in the LGM. About 3%-10% changes in the annual mean temperature are

  15. 国家油菜区试品系的主要营养品质及评价%Nutritional quality and evaluation of candidate cultivars in regional trials of oilseed rape in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨湄; 郑畅; 黄凤洪; 周琦; 刘昌盛; 王会

    2012-01-01

    Content of minor nutritional compositions (total phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, beta - carotene and lutein) of rapeseed oils from 50 Brassica napus L. lines in regional trials were determined to construct an identification model for rapeseed oil quality. Among them, total phenolics were tested by Folin - Ciocalteau colouri-metric method, phytosterols contents were determined by GC , and others including tocopherols, beta - carotene and lutein were determined by RP - UPLC. Results showed that the content of oil qualities ranged from 8. 02 to 61.90 mg tanin acid per 100g oil for total phenolics, 260. 86 to 685. 21mg per kilogram for tocopherols, 608. 23 to 1 218.51mg per 100g for phytosterols, 36.09 to 170.07mg per kilogram for lutein, and 2.06 to 4. 19mg per kilogram beta - carotene. Their average contents were 35. 68mg per 100g, 826. 16mg per 100g, 378. 52mg per kilogram, 2.39mg per kilogram, 104.06mg per kilogram, and 8. 21 mg per kilogram respectively. There were significant differences ( p < 0.01) among the lines in the content of these minor components. Rapeseed nutritional quality could be evaluated by factor analysis and modeling, and be divided into two classes by cluster analysis. Cluster analysis and the grade of 8 other samples showed that the model could be used to evaluate nutritional quality of rapeseed variety.%以50个2009/2010年度参加全国区试的油菜品系为试材,压榨取油后分别采用福林酚法测定菜籽多酚总量,高效液相色谱法测定维生素E、叶黄素、贝塔胡萝卜素含量,气相色谱法测定植物甾醇含量.结果表明,50个品系的菜籽多酚、维生素E、植物甾醇、叶黄素、贝塔胡萝卜素含量范围分别为8.02 ~ 61.90mg/100g、260.86 ~685.21 mg/kg、608.23 ~1 218.51mg/100g、36.09 ~ 170.07mg/kg、2.06~4.19mg/kg,平均值分别为40.17mg/100g、476.96mg/kg、879.82mg/100g、85.40mg/kg、2.54mg/kg.品系间主要微量营养成分含量存在显著差异(p<0.01).通

  16. Comet candidates among quasi-Hilda objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; García-Migani, E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present the results of a search for quasi-Hilda comets. We wanted to find objects that have recently arrived from the Centaur zone that could became active near the perihelion of their orbits. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-seven objects from the ASTORB database were selected following a dynamical criteria to constrain the unstable quasi-Hilda region. These objects were integrated backward 50 000 yr in order to identify those that have recently arrived from the outer regions of the solar system. Results: The backward integration showed that 11 objects could be Centaurs or transneptunian objects that ended their dynamical evolution as quasi-Hilda comets. The dynamical evolution of these objects from a statistical point of view was studied by computing the time-averaged distribution of a number of clones as a function of the aphelion and perihelion distances. All the candidates show a dynamical behavior that is expected for comets injected in the inner solar system from the Centaur or transneptunian regions and reaching the quasi-Hilda region.

  17. Candidate chemosensory cells in the porcine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Patricia; Breer, Heinz; Hass, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    A continuous chemosensory monitoring of the ingested food is of vital importance for adjusting digestive processes according to diet composition. Although any dysfunction of this surveillance system may be the cause of severe gastrointestinal disorders, information about the cellular and molecular basis of chemosensation in the gastrointestinal tract is limited. The porcine alimentary canal is considered as an appropriate model for the human gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the gastric mucosa of swine for cells which express gustatory transduction elements such as TRPM5 or PLCβ2, and thus may represent candidate "chemosensors". It was found that the porcine stomach indeed contains cells expressing gustatory marker molecules; however, the morphology and topographic distribution of putative chemosensory cells varied significantly from that in mice. Whereas in the murine stomach these cells were clustered at a distinct region near the gastric entrance, no such compact cell cluster was found in the pig stomach. These results indicate substantial differences regarding the phenotype of candidate chemosensory cells of mice and swine and underline the importance of choosing the most suitable model organisms. PMID:21667283

  18. Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ninni; Ghisletta, Paolo; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-02-01

    We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of chronological age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development. PMID:26584866

  19. Influence of Regional Difference in Bone Mineral Density on Hip Fracture Site in Elderly Females by Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z L; Li, P F; Pang, Z H; Zheng, X H; Huang, F; Xu, H H; Li, Q L

    2015-11-01

    Hip fracture is a kind of osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients. Its important monitoring indicator is to measure bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. The stress characteristics and material distribution in different parts of the bones can be well simulated by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Our previous studies have demonstrated a linear positive correlation between clinical BMD and the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur. However, the correlation between the density variation between intertrochanteric region and collum femoris region of the model and the fracture site has not been studied yet. The present study intends to investigate whether the regional difference in the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur can be used to predict hip fracture site in elderly females. The CT data of both hip joints were collected from 16 cases of elderly female patients with hip fractures. Mimics 15.01 software was used to reconstruct the model of proximal femur on the healthy side. Ten kinds of material properties were assigned. In Abaqus 6.12 software, the collum femoris region and intertrochanteric region were, respectively, drawn for calculating the corresponding regional density of the model, followed by prediction of hip fracture site and final comparison with factual fracture site. The intertrochanteric region/collum femoris region density was [(1.20 ± 0.02) × 10(6)] on the fracture site and [(1.22 ± 0.03) × 10(6)] on the non-fracture site, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Among 16 established models of proximal femur on the healthy side, 14 models were consistent with the actual fracture sites, one model was inconsistent, and one model was unpredictable, with the coincidence rate of 87.5 %. The intertrochanteric region or collum femoris region with lower BMD is more prone to hip fracture of the type on the corresponding site. PMID:27352330

  20. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  1. The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

  2. The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-01-01

    The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2) on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

  3. Influence of the datasets size on the stability of the LR in the lower region of the within source distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraksim, Rudolf; Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the statistical evaluation of the fingermark evidence using the likelihood ratio (LR) approach. It studies the influence of the quantity of data used to model the within (WS) and between (BS) source variability. The LR system built for the experiment uses an Automated Fingerp

  4. The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.

    2012-03-01

    The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

  5. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  6. The influence of active region information on the prediction of solar flares: an empirical model using data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Núñez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the occurrence of solar flares is a challenge of great importance for many space weather scientists and users. We introduce a data mining approach, called Behavior Pattern Learning (BPL, for automatically discovering correlations between solar flares and active region data, in order to predict the former. The goal of BPL is to predict the interval of time to the next solar flare and provide a confidence value for the associated prediction. The discovered correlations are described in terms of easy-to-read rules. The results indicate that active region dynamics is essential for predicting solar flares.

  7. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  8. A Candidate Protoplanet in the Taurus Star Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Terebey, S; Padgett, D L; Hancock, T; Brundage, Michael

    1998-01-01

    HST/NICMOS images of the class I protostar TMR-1 (IRAS04361+2547) reveal a faint companion with 10.0" = 1400 AU projected separation. The central protostar is itself resolved as a close binary with 0.31" = 42 AU separation, surrounded by circumstellar reflection nebulosity. A long narrow filament seems to connect the protobinary to the faint companion TMR-1C, suggesting a physical association. If the sources are physically related then we hypothesize that TMR-1C has been ejected by the protobinary. If TMR-1C has the same age and distance as the protobinary then current models indicate its flux is consistent with a young giant planet of several Jovian masses.

  9. Relaxor type perovskites: Primary candidates of nano-polar regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Krupanidhi

    2003-10-01

    Relaxor properties of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) and non-lead perovskite thin films have been analysed in terms of large frequency dispersion of dielectric response at low temperatures. A wide spectrum of dielectric relaxation was observed in the frequency-dependent response of the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity. Transformation from normal ferroelectric to relaxor behaviour has been observed in the case of the Ca substituting the BaTiO3 thin films. A number of techniques were exploited to investigate the wide spectrum of relaxation times in pulsed laser ablated thin films. and electric field induced complex dielectric properties of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) thin films were studied as function of frequencies at different temperatures. Nonlinear behaviour of dielectric susceptibility with respect to the amplitude of the drive was observed at lower temperatures. The frequency dependence of transition temperature (temperature of the maximum of dielectric constant) was studied using the Vogel-Fulcher relation.

  10. Comparative Analyses of Physics Candidates Scores in West African and National Examinations Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utibe, Uduak James; Agah, John Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study is a comparative analysis of physics candidates' scores in West African and National Examinations Councils. It also investigates influence of gender. Results of 480 candidates were randomly selected form three randomly selected Senior Science Colleges using the WASSCE and NECOSSCE computer printout sent to the schools, transformed using…

  11. What makes the difference? Analysing the regional component of the influence of university's structural configuration on its performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Mabel; Benneworth, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the analysis of how universities should maximise their specific regional contribution alongside their traditional teaching and research goals. However, due to the institutional heterogeneity it is necessary to understand the process by which universities create reg

  12. Influences of subtropical jet and Tibetan Plateau on precipitation pattern in Asia : Insights from regional climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    Large topographic features, like the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Rocky Mountains, have significant impacts on Earth's climate. Numerical experiments were carried out using a regional climate model in order to study the sensitivity of rainfall distribution to the TP's thermal/dynamic effects and mer

  13. Influence of the Leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    resulted in a previously undetected accumulation of frameshift mutations within the ‘spacer’ region. These mutations block the inappropriate fusion of amino acid sequences to the amino-terminus of the capsid protein precursor. Modification, by site-directed mutagenesis, of the Lab initiation codon...

  14. Influence of age on the prognostic value of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Frank P.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim; Struck, Joachim; de Jong, Paul E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gans, Rijk O.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Bakker, Stephan J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Experimental studies have shown that adrenomedullin (ADM) has an important role in circulatory homeostasis. Mid-regional pro-ADM (MR-proADM) is a stable form of ADM. Observational studies found an important association with age, body mass index and kidney function. The aim of this study wa

  15. Influence of Tropical Cyclones Period 1970 TO 2010 IN the Region of Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit-Jalisco Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of tropical cyclones (TC) that made landfall in populated areas along the Pacific coast of Mexico, especially in the region of Bahia de Banderas. During the period of 1970-2010 and used a database of international natural disasters to identify impacts. Were more than 13 events during the reporting period, of which 10 are examined more precipitation accumulated and 6 that caused further damage to the affected population in these cases ranged from 5000 to more than 15 000 inhabitants. Strong winds and heavy rainfall in periods of one to three days were associated with property damage and loss of life. The results of the study indicate that excessive accumulations of rain and daily intensity are important factors connected with the occurrence of disasters in densely populated areas. Six of the first 10 Tropical Cyclone associated with major disasters occurred in conditions of El Niño and four neutral conditions. With the analysis of satellite images using GOES-10 in the IDV software maps were obtained in the coastal impacts of Banderas Bay and describes the main features of each meteorological phenomena. In which concludes that no tropical cyclone entered directly to the Banderas Bay region, but its effects were very relevant, taking into account the topography, land use change and the vulnerability of the region. Tropical Cyclones that have affected the region of Bay of Banderas

  16. TM6, a novel nuclear matrix attachment region, enhances its flanking gene expression through influencing their chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lusha; Xu, Rui; Lu, Longtao; Zhang, Jiedao; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) regulate the higher-order organization of chromatin and affect the expression of their flanking genes. In this study, a tobacco MAR, TM6, was isolated and demonstrated to remarkably increase the expression of four different promoters that drive gusA gene and adjacent nptII gene. In turn, this expression enhanced the transformation frequency of transgenic tobacco. Deletion analysis of topoisomerase II-binding site, AT-rich element, and MAR recognition signature (MRS) showed that MRS has the highest contribution (61.7%) to the TM6 sequence-mediated transcription activation. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) accessibility assay showed that 35S and NOS promoter regions with TM6 are more sensitive than those without TM6. The analysis also revealed that TM6 reduces promoter DNA methylation which can affect the gusA expression. In addition, two tobacco chromatin-associated proteins, NtMBP1 and NtHMGB, isolated using a yeast one-hybrid system, specifically bound to the TM6II-1 region (761 bp to 870 bp) and to the MRS element in the TM6II-2 (934 bp to 1,021 bp) region, respectively. We thus suggested that TM6 mediated its chromatin opening and chromatin accessibility of its flanking promoters with consequent enhancement of transcription.

  17. Dark matter candidates and methods for detecting them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of experiments employing Ge and Si ionization detectors have excluded large regions in the plane of masses and scattering cross-sections for weakly-interacting dark matter (DM) candidates. It is judged that, before a realistic detection experiment for supersymmetric DM candidates can be conducted, significant development efforts will have to be completed for suitable cryogenic or ionization detectors. Pilot experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of axion searches with microwave cavities, but these are at least two orders of magnitude too low in sensitivity.

  18. The influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dallmeyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the general circulation model ECHAM5/JSBACH, we investigate the biogeophysical effect of large-scale afforestation and deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain on present-day and mid-Holocene climate. We demonstrate that the applied land cover change does not only modify the local climate but also change the climate in North Africa and the Middle East via teleconnections. Deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain enhances the rainfall in North Africa. In parts of the Sahara summer precipitation is more than doubled. In contrast, afforestation strongly decreases summer rainfall in the Middle East and even leads to the cessation of the rainfall-activity in some parts of this region.

    Regarding the local climate, deforestation results in a reduction of precipitation and a cooler climate as grass mostly has a higher albedo than forests. However, in the core region of the Asian monsoon the decrease of evaporative cooling in the monsoon season overcompensates this signal and results in a net warming. Afforestation has mainly the opposite effect, although the pattern of change is less clear. It leads to more precipitation in most parts of the Asian monsoon domain and a warmer climate except for the southern regions where a stronger evaporation decreases near-surface temperatures in the monsoon season.

    When prescribing mid-Holocene insolation, the pattern of local precipitation change differs. Afforestation particularly increases monsoon rainfall in the region along the Yellow River which was the settlement area of major prehistoric cultures. In this region, the effect of land cover change on precipitation is half as large as the orbitally-induced precipitation change. Thus, our model results reveal that mid- to late-Holocene land cover change could strongly have contributed to the decreasing Asian monsoon precipitation during the Holocene known from reconstructions.

  19. Localized occipital region abnormity of infantile EEG and its influence factors%小儿脑电波局限性异常及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore pediatric EEG in localized region abnormity and influence factors. Methods 51 children with EEG abnormity were retrospectively analyzed. Results In this group,there are 45 children with EEG abnormity in normal situation,and 6 of 51 childrened appear abnormity in induced tests. All the 51 childrened appeal abnormai brain wave in occipital region in varying degree. Conclusion Pediatric occipital region localization abnormal EEG may be hints related to children paroxysmal disorder, Miscellaneous factors can influence children paroxysmal disorder include all kinds of etiology, pathologic physiology signs and symptoms, age and individual variation ect.%目的 探讨小儿脑电波局限性异常及其影响囚素.方法 回顾性分析51例小儿脑电波枕区局限性异常的检查结果.结果 51例小儿脑电图常规描记异常45例,另6例在诱发试验中出现异常.51例患儿均在枕区出现不同程度的异常脑波.结论 小儿局限性枕区脑电波异常提示可能与发作性疾病有一定关系.

  20. Can Clean Energy Policy Improve the Quality of Alpine Grassland Ecosystem? A Scenario Analysis to Influence the Energy Changes in the Three-River Headwater Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, ecological services and functions of alpine grassland in the Three-River Headwater Region (TRHR, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, have been severely degraded due to overgrazing and overuse of yak dung as a fuel. Therefore, the eco-migration project has been implemented by the national government for improving eco-environmental quality in this region. This paper examines the carbon cycle change from clean energy use of households and assesses its influence on the local grassland ecosystem. Based on the data of household fuels from questionnaire surveys and local statistical yearbooks, we have calculated carbon emission and the ecological benefits by using clean energies. The results showed that total carbon in the process from Net Primary Productivity (NPP of the ecosystem to dung fuel decreases sharply, and carbon emission from dung is approximate 6% of ecosystem NPP. Reducing the use of yak dung as a fuel has no significant influence on carbon emission, but improves the ecological benefits of the grassland ecosystem, because it is a very important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. With the most abundant solar energy resources in China, the region should make full use of its advantage for improving ecosystem service values of alpine grassland by making more dung returns to grassland. In conclusion, a clean energy policy (CEP can effectively improve the ecological services and functions of alpine grassland in the TRHR.

  1. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not expenditures. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section...

  2. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not contributions. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section...

  3. Ionospheric D-region temperature relaxation and its influences on radio signal propagation after solar X-flares occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčetić Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper our attention is focused on relations between radio signal propagation characteristics and temperature changes in D-region after solar X-flare occurrence. We present temperature dependencies of electron plasma frequency, the parameter that describes medium conditions for propagation of an electromagnetic wave, and the refractive index which describes how this wave propagates. As an example for quantitative calculations based on obtained theoretical equations we choose the reaction of the D-region to the solar X-flare occurred on May 5th, 2010. The ionospheric modelling is based on the experimental data obtained by low ionosphere observations using very low frequency radio signal. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-44002, 176002, 176004 i br. TR-32030

  4. Characterizing anthropogenic sources of pollution and their influence on regional air quality and meteorology during the VOCALS-REX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Spak, S.; Molina, L. T.; Saide, P.

    2010-12-01

    During the VOCALS REX campaign multiple anthropogenic sources of aerosol (both primary and secondary) were related to small effective radii of cloud droplets observed both in situ, and from satellite sources. Also enhanced concentrations of secondary pollutants such as ozone and sulfate were observed. Some of these sources come from copper smelters, power plants, and large urban areas. These impacts on the properties of marine stratocumulus is relevant on the region's radiative balance. For this project the contribution of urban, industrial, and power sector emissions will be compared to attribute these to observed values using WRF-Chem using a new Chilean National Emissions Inventory developed for this project. Finally regional ozone formation from Santiago and it's impact to observed enhancements off the coast of Northern Chile will be assessed. Modeled plumes will be compared to satellite observations of anthropogenic impacted clouds. Considering the projected increase of coal power plants in northern Chile, some projected impacts will also be shown.

  5. An analysis of determinants influencing use of ayurvedic medication in Pune region utilizing a questionnaire survey instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyawahare Neeraj

    2009-01-01

    The survey revealed that consumption of Ayurvedic medication in Pune region is increasing, wherein safety and faith are important parameters, however, like allopathic medication; people usually stick to the prescription issued by the physician. The increasing trend of self medication and lack of knowledge of herb drug interaction especially in non graduates are the major concerns need to be addressed for better outcome of the therapy.

  6. The influence of active region information on the prediction of solar flares: an empirical model using data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, M.; Fidalgo, R.; Baena, M.; Morales, R.

    2005-01-01

    International audience Predicting the occurrence of solar flares is a challenge of great importance for many space weather scientists and users. We introduce a data mining approach, called Behavior Pattern Learning (BPL), for automatically discovering correlations between solar flares and active region data, in order to predict the former. The goal of BPL is to predict the interval of time to the next solar flare and provide a confidence value for the associated prediction. The discovered ...

  7. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  8. Molecular clouds under the influence of massive stars in the Galactic HII region G353.2+0.9

    CERN Document Server

    Giannetti, A; Massi, F; Tieftrunk, A; Beltran, M T

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic HII region G353.2+0.9 is excited by the massive open cluster Pismis-24. By analyzing (sub-)mm molecular-line and -continuum we study the detailed morphology of the gas and dust, as well as their physical parameters and their variation across the PDR. We observed various molecules and transitions to derive the physical properties of the molecular gas through line ratios, and both LTE and non-LTE analyses. The physical properties of the gas were derived with a Bayesian approach for the non-LTE analysis. Based on the continuum data at 870 micron, we derived the dust mass and the column density of H2, and thus the molecular abundances. The total mass of the gas in the region is ca. 2000 Mo, while that of the dust is ca. 21 Mo. A velocity gradient in the region suggests that the expansion of the ionized gas is pushing the molecular gas away from the observer. We unambiguously identify the ionization front, at the location of which we detect an increase in gas density and temperature. We find at least ...

  9. INFLUENCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON THE CONTENT OF ARSENIC IN CULTIVATED SOILS IN ZGORZELEC-BOGATYNIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Kucharczak-Moryl; Andrzej Moryl; Romuald Żmuda

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in the area of influence of Mine and Power Plant “Turów” which, through the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants contribute to soil contamination, among other things by arsenic. The aim of this study was to determine the total content of this metal in samples of anable soils collected in the area of the impact of the above-mentioned emitters. At the same time their grain-size distribution and their physico-chemical properties, as pH and percentage of organic ...

  10. Postnatal Age Influences Hypoglycemia-induced Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Activation in the Brain Regions of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Raghavendra; Sperr, Dustin; Ennis, Kathleen; Tran, Phu

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation plays a significant role in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury in adult rats. To determine the influence of postnatal age on PARP-1 activation, developing and adult male rats were subjected to acute hypoglycemia of equivalent severity and duration. The expression of PARP-1 and its downstream effectors, apoptosis inducing factor (Aifm1), caspase 3 (Casp3), NF-κB (Nfkb1) and bcl-2 (Bcl2), and cellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer expression...

  11. Short term influence of mechanical factors on regional musculoskeletal pain: a study of new workers from 12 occupational groups

    OpenAIRE

    Nahit, E; Macfarlane, G; Pritchard, C; Cherry, N; Silman, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the influence of short term exposure to mechanical factors on regional musculoskeletal pain.
METHODS—Full time newly employed workers were recruited from 12 occupational groups and information collected by questionnaire. Subjects indicated on a blank body manikin any low back, shoulder, wrist or forearm or both, or knee pain which had occurred during the past month and had lasted more than 1 day. Data were also collected with a previously validated questionnaire on wor...

  12. Candidate worldviews for design theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2008-01-01

    Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... at the same time. Examples are given of how the first steps of the method may be carried out and a number of candidate worldviews are outlined and briefly discussed. In its own way, each worldview answers certain fundamental questions about the nature of design. These include the ontological question of what...

  13. A New Optical Survey of Supernova Remnant Candidates in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    We present a survey of optically emitting supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31 based on H$\\alpha$ and [SII] images in the Local Group Survey. Using these images, we select objects that have [SII]:H$\\alpha$ $>$ 0.4 and circular shapes. We find 76 new SNR candidates. We also inspect 234 SNR candidates presented in previous studies, finding that only 80 of them are SNR candidates according to our criteria. Combining them with the new candidates, we produce a master catalog of 156 SNR candidates in M31. We classify these SNR candidates according to two criteria: the SNR progenitor type [Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs] and the morphological type. Type Ia and CC SNR candidates make up 23% and 77%, respectively, of the total sample. Most of the CC SNR candidates are concentrated in the spiral arms, while the Type Ia SNR candidates are rather distributed over the entire galaxy, including the inner region. The CC SNR candidates are brighter in H$\\alpha$ and [SII] than the Type Ia SNR candidates. We derive a cumulativ...

  14. Multilocus phylogeography of a widespread savanna-woodland-adapted rodent reveals the influence of Pleistocene geomorphology and climate change in Africa's Zambezi region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Molly M; Šumbera, Radim; Mazoch, Vladimír; Ferguson, Adam W; Phillips, Caleb D; Bryja, Josef

    2015-10-01

    Understanding historical influences of climate and physiographic barriers in shaping patterns of biodiversity remains limited for many regions of the world. For mammals of continental Africa, phylogeographic studies, particularly for West African lineages, implicate both geographic barriers and climate oscillations in shaping small mammal diversity. In contrast, studies for southern African species have revealed conflicting phylogenetic patterns for how mammalian lineages respond to both climate change and geologic events such as river formation, especially during the Pleistocene. However, these studies were often biased by limited geographic sampling or exclusively focused on large-bodied taxa. We exploited the broad southern African distribution of a savanna-woodland-adapted African rodent, Gerbilliscus leucogaster (bushveld gerbil) and generated mitochondrial, autosomal and sex chromosome data to quantify regional signatures of climatic and vicariant biogeographic phenomena. Results indicate the most recent common ancestor for all G. leucogaster lineages occurred during the early Pleistocene. We documented six divergent mitochondrial lineages that diverged ~0.270-0.100 mya, each of which was geographically isolated during periods characterized by alterations to the course of the Zambezi River and its tributaries as well as regional 'megadroughts'. Results demonstrate the presence of a widespread lineage exhibiting demographic expansion ~0.065-0.035 mya, a time that coincides with savanna-woodland expansion across southern Africa. A multilocus autosomal perspective revealed the influence of the Kafue River as a current barrier to gene flow and regions of secondary contact among divergent mitochondrial lineages. Our results demonstrate the importance of both climatic fluctuations and physiographic vicariance in shaping the distribution of southern African biodiversity. PMID:26340076

  15. The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: An ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Mahmood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have suggested a systematic geographic pattern of esophageal cancer (EC and gastric cancer (GC incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between these cancers and the region's dietary and socioeconomic risk factors and to map EC and GC after adjustment for the risk factors and the removal of random and geographic variations from area specific age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs. We obtained cancer data from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran, and dietary patterns from the control group in a case control study conducted in the study region. Regression models were fitted to identify significant covariates, and clusters of elevated rates were identified. We found evidence of systematic clustering for EC and GC in men and women and both sexes combined. EC and GC SIRs were lower in urban areas, and were also lower in areas of high income. EC SIRs were lower in areas with higher proportions of people having unrestricted food choice and higher in areas with higher proportions of people with restricted food choice. EC and GC were associated with aggregated risk factors, including income, urbanisation, and dietary patterns. These variables represent the influence of improved lifestyle which has coincided with a decrease in upper gastrointestinal cancer frequency over recent decades but which has not necessarily been uniform throughout the region.

  16. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  17. An amino acid outside the pore region influences apamin sensitivity in small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Andreas; Ferraro, Teresa; D'hoedt, Dieter; Stocker, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK, K(Ca)) are a family of voltage-independent K+ channels with a distinct physiology and pharmacology. The bee venom toxin apamin inhibits exclusively the three cloned SK channel subtypes (SK1, SK2, and SK3) with different affinity, highest for SK2, lowest for SK1, and intermediate for SK3 channels. The high selectivity of apamin made it a valuable tool to study the molecular makeup and function of native SK channels. Three amino acids located in the outer vestibule of the pore are of particular importance for the different apamin sensitivities of SK channels. Chimeric SK1 channels, enabling the homomeric expression of the rat SK1 (rSK1) subunit and containing the core domain (S1-S6) of rSK1, are apamin-insensitive. By contrast, channels formed by the human orthologue human SK1 (hSK1) are sensitive to apamin. This finding hinted at the involvement of regions beyond the pore as determinants of apamin sensitivity, because hSK1 and rSK1 have an identical amino acid sequence in the pore region. Here we investigated which parts of the channels outside the pore region are important for apamin sensitivity by constructing chimeras between apamin-insensitive and -sensitive SK channel subunits and by introducing point mutations. We demonstrate that a single amino acid situated in the extracellular loop between the transmembrane segments S3 and S4 has a major impact on apamin sensitivity. Our findings enabled us to convert the hSK1 channel into a channel that was as sensitive for apamin as SK2, the SK channel with the highest sensitivity.

  18. Influence of promoter/enhancer region haplotypes on MGMT transcriptional regulation: a potential biomarker for human sensitivity to alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.

    2014-01-01

    The O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes the direct reversal DNA repair protein that removes alkyl adducts from the O 6 position of guanine. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region. However, the haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs and their functional/biological significance are currently unknown. We hypothesized that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT transcription and can thus alter human sensitivity to alkylating agents. To identify the haplotype structure encompassing the MGMT P/E region SNPs, we sequenced 104 DNA samples from healthy individuals and inferred the haplotypes using the data generated. We identified eight SNPs in this region, namely T7C (rs180989103), T135G (rs1711646), G290A (rs61859810), C485A (rs1625649), C575A (rs113813075), G666A (rs34180180), C777A (rs34138162) and C1099T (rs16906252). Phylogenetics and Sequence Evolution analysis predicted 21 potential haplotypes that encompass these SNPs ranging in frequencies from 0.000048 to 0.39. Of these, 10 were identified in our study population as 20 paired haplotype combinations. To determine the functional significance of these haplotypes, luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were transfected into glioblastoma cells and their effect on MGMT promoter activity was determined. Compared with the most common (reference) haplotype 1, seven haplotypes significantly upregulated MGMT promoter activity (18–119% increase; P < 0.05), six significantly downregulated MGMT promoter activity (29–97% decrease; P < 0.05) and one haplotype had no effect. Mechanistic studies conducted support the conclusion that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, differentially regulate MGMT transcription and could thus play a significant role in human sensitivity to environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents. PMID:24163400

  19. Ellen Rehm. The Classification of Objects from the Black Sea Region Made or Influenced by the Achaemenids

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Que veut dire influence dans un art achéménide si éclectique ? L’A. part des caractéristiques les plus locales et se rapproche en trois étapes de l’art du centre achéménide. Les noms qu’elle a choisis pour ces trois étapes – « court-style art » (« Hofstil »), « satrapal art » et « Perso-barbarian art » – sont expressément « catchy » pour permettre une référence rapide. L’A. en livre un historique et il va sans dire qu’il n’est pas toujours facile de ranger les objets dans l’une ou l’autre cat...

  20. Factors influencing integration of TB services in general hospitals in two regions of China: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Guanyang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the majority of China, the Centre for Disease Control (CDC at the county level provides both clinical and public health care for TB cases, with hospitals and other health facilities referring suspected TB cases to the CDC. In recent years, an integrated model has emerged, where the CDC remains the basic management unit for TB control, while a general hospital is designated to provide clinical care for TB patients. This study aims to explore the factors that influence the integration of TB services in general hospitals and generate knowledge to aid the scale-up of integration of TB services in China. Methods This study adopted a qualitative approach using interviews from sites in East and West China. Analysis was conducted using a thematic framework approach. Results The more prosperous site in East China was more coordinated and thus had a better method of resource allocation and more patient-orientated service, compared with the poorer site in the West. The development of public health organizations appeared to influence how effectively integration occurred. An understanding from staff that hospitals had better capacity to treat TB patients than CDCs was a strong rationale for integration. However, the economic and political interests might act as a barrier to effective integration. Both sites shared the same challenges of attracting and retaining a skilled workforce for the TB services. The role of the health bureau was more directive in the Western site, while a more participatory and collaborative approach was adopted in the Eastern site. Conclusion The process of integration identifies similarities and differences between sites in more affluent East China and poorer West China. Integration of TB services in the hospitals needs to address the challenges of stakeholder motivations and resource allocation. Effective inter-organizational collaboration could help to improve the efficiency and quality of TB service. Key

  1. Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Miller, Kate C.; Erslev, Eric A.; Anderson, Megan L.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yeck, William L.; Harder, Steven H.; Siddoway, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    The crustal structure of north-central Wyoming records a history of complex lithospheric evolution from Precambrian accretion to Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide shortening. We present two active source P wave velocity model profiles collected as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment in 2010. Analyses of these velocity models and single-fold reflection data, together with potential field modeling of regional gravity and magnetic signals, constrain crustal structure and thickness of the Bighorn region. We image a west dipping reflection boundary and model a sharp magnetic contact east of the Bighorn Arch that together may delineate a previously undetected Precambrian suture zone. Localized patches of a high-velocity, high-density lower crustal layer (the "7.× layer") occur across the study area but are largely absent beneath the Bighorn Arch culmination. Moho topography is relatively smooth with no large-scale offsets, with depths ranging from ~50 to 37 km, and is largely decoupled from Laramide basement topography. These observations suggest that (1) the edge of the Archean Wyoming craton lies just east of the Bighorn Mountains, approximately 300 km west of previous interpretations, and (2) Laramide deformation localized in an area with thin or absent 7.× layer, due to its relatively weak lower crust, leading to detachment faulting. Our findings show that Precambrian tectonics in northern Wyoming may be more complicated than previously determined and subsequent Laramide deformation may have been critically dependent on laterally heterogeneous crustal structure that can be linked to Precambrian origins.

  2. Modelling the influence of land-use changes on biophysical and biochemical interactions at regional and global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, N; Bala, G; Nemani, R

    2015-09-01

    Land-use changes since the start of the industrial era account for nearly one-third of the cumulative anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In addition to the greenhouse effect of CO2 emissions, changes in land use also affect climate via changes in surface physical properties such as albedo, evapotranspiration and roughness length. Recent modelling studies suggest that these biophysical components may be comparable with biochemical effects. In regard to climate change, the effects of these two distinct processes may counterbalance one another both regionally and, possibly, globally. In this article, through hypothetical large-scale deforestation simulations using a global climate model, we contrast the implications of afforestation on ameliorating or enhancing anthropogenic contributions from previously converted (agricultural) land surfaces. Based on our review of past studies on this subject, we conclude that the sum of both biophysical and biochemical effects should be assessed when large-scale afforestation is used for countering global warming, and the net effect on global mean temperature change depends on the location of deforestation/afforestation. Further, although biochemical effects trigger global climate change, biophysical effects often cause strong local and regional climate change. The implication of the biophysical effects for adaptation and mitigation of climate change in agriculture and agroforestry sectors is discussed.

  3. The Heterogeneity and Its Influencing Factors of Soil Nutrients in Peak-Cluster Depression Areas of Karst Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; CHEN Hong-song; WANG Ke-lin; SU Yi-rong; ZHANG Ji-guang; YI Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    By selecting a typical peak-cluster depression area of karst region in Southwest China, we evaluated the effect of land use types and topographic factors on soil nutrients. Grid and line sampling methods were used to sample soil in depression and slope lands respectively, and classical statistical tools were applied to analyze the spatial variability character of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), pH, and C/N. It was found that land use type was the dominant factor that effected the spatial heterogeneity of SOC, TN, TP, TK, AN, and AP. The content of SOC, TN, and AN decreased with the increase of land use intensity. Due to high fertilizer input, TP and AP in tillage fields were higher than those in the other land use types. TK had no obvious change trend among various land use types. Topographic factors had a significant effect on SOC, TN, TP, AN, AP, AK, and pH. Habitat factor was the dominant factor that effected AK. Altitude factor was the dominant factor for pH. However, all of these factors had no significant effect on C/N. Tillage practice had important effect on soil nutrients loss and soil degradation in the fragile karst ecosystem, and the input of organic manure should be increased in this region.

  4. The Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Object (MECO) Model of Galactic Black Hole Candidates and Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, S L; Robertson, Stanley L.; Leiter, Darryl J.

    2006-01-01

    The spectral, timing, and jet formation properties of neutron stars in low mass x-ray binary systems are influenced by the presence of central magnetic moments. Similar features shown by the galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) strongly suggest that their compact cores might be intrinsically magnetic as well. We show that the existence of intrinsically magnetic GBHC is consistent with a new class of solutions of the Einstein field equations of General Relativity. These solutions are based on a strict adherence to the Strong Principle of Equivalence (SPOE) requirement that the world lines of physical matter must remain timelike in all regions of spacetime. The new solutions emerge when the structure and radiation transfer properties of the energy momentum tensor on the right hand side of the Einstein field equations are appropriately chosen to dynamically enforce this SPOE requirement of timelike world line completeness. In this context, we find that the Einstein field equations allow the existence of highly ...

  5. Sea-level rise and landscape change influence mangrove encroachment onto marsh in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; From, Andrew S.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Doyle, Terry J.; Barry, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The Ten Thousand Islands region of southwestern Florida, USA is a major feeding and resting destination for breeding, migrating, and wintering birds. Many species of waterbirds rely specifically on marshes as foraging habitat, making mangrove encroachment a concern for wildlife managers. With the alteration of freshwater flow and sea-level rise trends for the region, mangroves have migrated upstream into traditionally salt and brackish marshes, mirroring similar descriptions around the world. Aside from localized freezes in some years, very little seems to be preventing mangrove encroachment. We mapped changes in mangrove stand boundaries from the Gulf of Mexico inland to the northern boundary of Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (TTINWR) from 1927 to 2005, and determined the area of mangroves to be approximately 7,281 hectares in 2005, representing an 1,878 hectare increase since 1927. Overall change represents an approximately 35% increase in mangrove coverage on TTINWR over 78 years. Sea-level rise is likely the primary driver of this change; however, the construction of new waterways facilitates the dispersal of mangrove propagules into new areas by extending tidal influence, exacerbating encroachment. Reduced volume of freshwater delivery to TTINWR via overland flow and localized rainfall may influence the balance between marsh and mangrove as well, potentially offering some options to managers interested in conserving marsh over mangrove.

  6. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN BRC 27 AND BRC 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M.; Laher, R.; Legassie, M. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johnson, C. H.; Carlson, S.; Clark, M.; Killingstad, N.; Koop, S. [Breck School, 123 Ottawa Avenue N., Golden Valley, MN 55422 (United States); Gibbs, J. C.; Aryal, S.; Canakapalli, T. S. [Glencoe High School, 2700 NW Glencoe Rd., Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Linahan, M.; Ezyk, N.; Fagan, J. [Carmel Catholic High School, One Carmel Parkway, Mundelein, IL 60060 (United States); Sartore, D.; Badura, K. S. [Pine Ridge High School, 926 Howland Blvd., Deltona, FL 32738 (United States); Armstrong, J. D. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McGehee, P. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), M/S 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, D. L., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We used archival Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data to search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in the immediate vicinity of two bright-rimmed clouds, BRC 27 (part of CMa R1) and BRC 34 (part of the IC 1396 complex). These regions both appear to be actively forming young stars, perhaps triggered by the proximate OB stars. In BRC 27, we find clear infrared excesses around 22 of the 26 YSOs or YSO candidates identified in the literature, and identify 16 new YSO candidates that appear to have IR excesses. In BRC 34, the one literature-identified YSO has an IR excess, and we suggest 13 new YSO candidates in this region, including a new Class I object. Considering the entire ensemble, both BRCs are likely of comparable ages, within the uncertainties of small number statistics and without spectroscopy to confirm or refute the YSO candidates. Similarly, no clear conclusions can yet be drawn about any possible age gradients that may be present across the BRCs.

  7. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, I; Ribas, Á; Bouy, H; Prusti, T; Pilbratt, G L; André, Ph

    2015-01-01

    New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful to identify transitional disk candidates. The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 $\\mu$m of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using the criteria defined in Ribas et al. (2013) we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 $\\mu$m fluxes are systematically higher than thos...

  8. Iran and Syria, a changing foreign policy. A comparative analysis of their internal links and influence regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Guerrero Turbay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there have been changes in the foreign policy of Syria and Iran, showing how their goals are far from immutable. Typically they have been associated and in some circles they talk of an alliance. However, this paper aims to show that although there is a convergence in a number of issues, their foreign policy priorities put them away. For this, the text is divided into two parts. First, there is a comparison of the internal links that condition the foreign policy in each state. Secondly, regional (and global? projection of the two nations is contrasted. Throughout the document, the notion of James Rosenau´s comparative study of foreign policy will be taken as a reference.

  9. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  10. Regional and Local Influences on Surface O3 over Beijing: Constraints from Integrated Surface observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; McElroy, M. B.; Munger, W.; Hao, J.; Ma, H.; Chen, Y.

    2007-05-01

    Beijing, the Chinese capital, faces the challenge of improving its atmospheric environment while seeing an annual growth rate of 15% in the number of personal vehicles on the road. Among many pollutants, surface ozone is of particular concern for Beijing as it will host the "green" Olympics Games in summer 2008. Continuous measurements of surface O3 and CO at Miyun (a rural site 50km northeast of Beijing) in 2006 are analyzed using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to improve our understanding of regional and local factors contributing to changes in tropospheric O3 in the Beijing area. The location of the site was selected to sample both clean continental air and pollution included in the plume from Beijing. To our knowledge, this is the first station in mainland China providing continuous measurements of O3 and related species (CO and CO2) over a relatively long period (years). Observations show that O3 peaks in June and September, while CO has a broad maximum in winter. Using updated emissions for China, the model successfully reproduces the seasonal variability in O3, CO, and their correlations observed at Miyun. Regional O3 levels representative of north China are identified from observations using concurrent measurements of CO. Events with daytime peak O3 concentrations exceeding 100 ppb were observed mainly in summer (JJA) and in September. A major discrepancy of the model is an overestimate of O3 in July. Observations show a decrease of 16 ppb in mean (median) O3 from June to July, presumably associated with enhanced precipitation and cloudiness in July. Implications of high levels of O3 for crop production will be discussed.

  11. Understanding environmental and climatic influences on regional differences and spatio-temporalscale issues of dengue fever transmission in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Ginsberg, H. S.; Couret, J.

    2015-12-01

    Each year, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever worldwide, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago, with some estimates even higher. Puerto Rico (PR) has experienced epidemic dengue activity since 1963, and the disease is currently endemic. Since 1990 there have been 4 large epidemics, the most recent in 2010 where there were nearly 27,000 cases reported, amounting to almost 1% of the island's total population. Because no vaccine is currently available, effective control is dependent on our ability to understand the complex relationship between environmental factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as humans are the preferred host for Ae. aegypti. The purpose of our analysis is to assess temporal and spatial patterns of dengue transmission in PR and relate this to both climatic and anthropogenic factors. Unlike past studies, which have used San Juan to represent the island as a whole, our research will investigate regional dynamics in dengue transmission, as preliminary results have shown significant differences in population density, disease incidence, and environmental and climatic variables. Data from the Passive Dengue Surveillance System of CDC, meteorological observations from NCDC, and remote sensing data from USGS and NASA will be used together to identify relationships between climate, urbanization, and dengue incidence for PR at various spatial and temporal scales. Preliminary climatic factors considered include precipitation, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture. Finally, we will assess measures of urbanization such as land cover, land use, population density, and infrastructure that can make regional differences in dengue incidence each year. Results from this study could help create early warning systems for dengue surveillance in Puerto Rico, and develop techniques that can be applied to other areas of the world.

  12. The relative influence of local and regional environmental drivers of algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) varies by estuarine location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainger, Lisa; Yu, Hao; Gazenski, Kim; Boynton, Walter

    2016-09-01

    A major question in restoring estuarine water quality is whether local actions to manage excess nutrients can be effective, given that estuaries are also responding to tidal inputs from adjacent water bodies. Several types of statistical analysis were used to examine spatially-detailed and long-term water quality monitoring data in eight sub-estuaries of Chesapeake Bay. These sub-estuaries are likely to be similar to other shallow systems with moderate to long water residence times. Statistical cluster analysis of spatial water quality data suggested that estuaries had spatially distinct water quality zones and that the peak algal biomass (as measured by chlorophyll-a) was most often controlled by local watershed inputs in all but one estuary, although mainstem inputs affected most estuaries at some times and places. An elasticity indicator that compared inter-annual changes in sub-estuaries to parallel changes in the mainstem Chesapeake Bay supported the idea that water quality in sub-estuaries was not strongly coupled to the mainstem. A cross-channel zonation of water quality observed near the mouth of estuaries suggested that Bay influences were stronger on the right side of the lower channel (looking up estuary) at times in all estuaries, and was most common in small estuaries closest to the mouth of the primary water source to the estuary. Where Bay influences were strong, estuarine water quality would be expected to be less responsive to nutrient reductions made in the local watershed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate hypothesized relationships between environmental driver variables and average chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations. Chl-a values were calculated from unusually detailed levels of spatial sampling, potentially providing a more comprehensive view of system conditions than that provided by traditional sparse sampling networks. The univariate models with the best data support to explain variability in averaged chl-a concentration were those

  13. The use of genetic bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality in a region under the influence of urban waste in Guaíba lake basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Vianna Villela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei was chosen as biomonitoring organism in Guaíba Lake Basin, based on population data, distribution, and sensitivity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies studies with Single Cell Gel Assay (SCGA and Micronuclei test (MN on this freshwater mussel showed that it is successful in biomonitoring studies, especially in urban pollution monitoring. This study evaluated two sampling sites in the Guaíba Lake (Guaíba PC e Guaíba BR, near urban waste discharges, and a control site (Itapuã insight a preserved area, using L. fortunei individuals. Comparing to the control site, the Guaíba BR sample induced DNA damage in haemocytes of mussels sampled both in situ and exposed to laboratory conditions, whereas MN only in in situ collected mussels. This sample also presented the only surface water mutagenic result by Salmonella/microsome assay with TA98 in the presence of metabolic activation. Guaíba PC samples increased MN frequency in situ and in laboratory conditions comparing to the Itapuã results. Metal influence seems to be less important than organic influence in genotoxic induction. These results confirm the strong urban influence in this region, showing that biomonitoring is a powerful tool to detect this kind of contamination in water bodies.

  14. The influence of land use on the concentration and vertical distribution of PBDEs in soils of an e-waste recycling region of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil at four sites within an e-waste recycling region of South China was investigated. PBDE concentrations in soil ranged from 1.38 to 765 ng/g. There was a trend of decreasing PBDE concentration with soil depth, especially in the paddy field. However, high concentrations of BDE-209 were found in deeper soils indicating a highly preferential migration. There was a stronger correlation between PBDEs and total organic carbon (TOC), compared to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which suggests that the association between non-dissolved organic carbon (NDOC) and PBDEs is stronger than for DOC. Different land use types, in particular differences in farming activities, significantly influenced the vertical distribution of PBDEs in soils. PBDEs displayed a higher leaching tendency in moist paddy soil than in drier soils. The frequent flooding condition in paddy field may facilitate the vertical transfer of PBDEs to the deeper soils. - Highlights: • Vertical distributions of PBDEs in soil cores of e-waste sites were investigated. • Non-dissolved organic carbon may have high impact on the retention of PBDEs. • Farming patterns can significantly influence soil vertical distribution of PBDEs. • Leaching tendency of PBDEs in paddy field was higher than in dry land. - Different farming activities can influence the vertical distribution of PBDEs in soil, as the leaching tendency of PBDEs was greater in moist paddy soil than in drier soils

  15. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective.

  16. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. PMID:24161097

  17. Confianza, influencia política e intercambio de recursos en arenas decisorias regionales Trust, Political Influence, and Exchange of Resources in Regional Decision-Making Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMIRO BERARDO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura politológica destaca la importancia de la confianza en la emergencia de procesos sociopolíticos cooperativos, pero en la politología latinoamericana no existen aún exploraciones empíricas de la relación entre confianza y otras variables que también afectan la cooperación en arenas decisorias regionales. Este artículo contribuye a solucionar esta limitación examinando la relación entre confianza, intercambio de recursos y reconocimiento de influencia política, entre actores de tres regiones subnacionales de la Argentina. Los resultados sugieren que tanto el reconocimiento de influencia como el intercambio de recursos se correlacionan de manera muy significativa con las relaciones de confianza que existe entre los actores. Esta relación tiene implicancias sobre procesos de gobernanza a nivel regional, que discutimos en detalle.Research in political science has identified trust as an important variable for the emergence of cooperative social-political processes, but there are no empirical explorations in Latin American political science yet of the relationship between trust and other variables that are thought to affect cooperation in regional decision-making arenas. This article contributes to addressing this limitation by examining the relationship between trust, exchange of resources, and perception of political influence among actors in 3 sub-national regions in Argentina. Results suggest that these variables are significantly related to each other, which has implications for our understanding of how regional governance processes work. We discuss these implications in detail.

  18. Environmental Determinants Influencing Fish Community Structure and Diversity in Two Distinct Seasons among Wetlands of Northern Region (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ayine Nsor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish community structure was assessed in six wetlands using cast nets, to correlate with environmental variables with diversity and distribution patterns, from 2010 to 2012. A total of 2,239 individuals belonging to 44 species and 1,938 individuals belonging to 40 species were sampled in the dry and wet seasons. Mochokid and Mormyrid families dominated fish community and constituted 14.8%, respectively, followed by Alestids (12.9% and Chlariids (11.1%. Rarer taxons were centropomids, channids, malapteruds, and oesteoglossids and represented 1.9%, respectively. Overall, CPUE per net did not vary significantly (Tukey HSD test, p=0.27 in the dry and wet seasons. Wuntori marsh consistently showed dominance in mean monthly CPUE per net (dry = 115±4.5; wet = 107±7.7 seasons, while Bunglung constructed wetland was the least recorded (dry = 56.5±6.2; wet = 58.3±4.1 seasons. Fish diversity and richness differed significantly (F=0.11, p=0.03 among seasons. Environmental disturbances were season-specific and did not differ significantly (F=0.16, df=14, p=0.97 among sites. A DCA ordination explained 69% variability in fish distribution patterns, while PCA showed that 81.8% of nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate, and grazing intensity on axis 1 and conductivity, temperature, and turbidity on axis 2 influenced fish community structure. Wetland conservation must be promoted to sustain fish abundance and overall ecosystem stability.

  19. Influence of anxiety and depression on quality of life of people with schizophrenia in the eastern region of poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Wołyniak, Małgorzata; Kryś, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is the most severe and most debilitating mental illness, which is one of the first ten causes of disability in youth and elderly people. Regarding many consequences that schizophrenia brings for individual and social functioning of ill people, their assessment of the quality of their lives seems to be interesting. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and severity of anxiety and depression as well as analysis of the impact level of anxiety and depression on life quality of people with schizophrenia. A group of patients with schizophrenia from psychiatric centers was involved in a study. A set of methods, included: author's questionnaire, the quality of life scale WHOQOL-BREF, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Anxiety disorders occurred in more than 78% of respondents, while depressive disorders in more than half of respondents. The more severe anxiety and depressive disorders, the lower values were observed in all tested components of quality of life. The study of quality of life of the mentally ill patients should be conducted on a continuous basis in order to explore the current factors influencing the improvement of their psychophysical welfare. It is necessary to promote prohealthy mental lifestyle.

  20. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  1. The influence of hyperoxia on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (CBFVMCA) in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbitsch, Christian; Lorenz, Ingo H; Hörmann, Christoph; Hinteregger, Martin; Löckinger, Alexander; Moser, Patrizia L; Kremser, Christian; Schocke, Michael; Felber, Stephan; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Benzer, Arnulf

    2002-09-01

    Conflicting results reported on the effects of hyperoxia on cerebral hemodynamics have been attributed mainly to methodical and species differences. In the present study contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion measurement was used to analyze the influence of hyperoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 1.0) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in awake, normoventilating volunteers (n = 19). Furthermore, the experiment was repeated in 20 volunteers for transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (CBFV(MCA)). When compared to normoxia (FiO2 = 0.21), hyperoxia heterogeneously influenced rCBV (4.95 +/- 0.02 to 12.87 +/- 0.08 mL/100g (FiO2 = 0.21) vs. 4.50 +/- 0.02 to 13.09 +/- 0.09 mL/100g (FiO2 = 1.0). In contrast, hyperoxia diminished rCBF in all regions (68.08 +/- 0.38 to 199.58 +/- 1.58 mL/100g/min (FiO2 = 0.21) vs. 58.63 +/- 0.32 to 175.16 +/- 1.51 mL/100g/min (FiO2 = 1.0)) except in parietal and left frontal gray matter. CBFV(MCA) remained unchanged regardless of the inspired oxygen fraction (62 +/- 9 cm/s (FiO2 = 0.21) vs. 64 +/- 8 cm/s (FiO2 = 1.0)). Finding CBFV(MCA) unchanged during hyperoxia is consistent with the present study's unchanged rCBF in parietal and left frontal gray matter. In these fronto-parietal regions predominantly fed by the middle cerebral artery, the vasoconstrictor effect of oxygen was probably counteracted by increased perfusion of foci of neuronal activity controlling general behavior and arousal. PMID:12413599

  2. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  3. Overheating risk assessment of naturally ventilated classroom under the influence of climate change in hot and humid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Tsang

    2013-04-01

    Natural ventilation (NV) is considered one of the passive building strategies used for reducing cooling energy demand. The utilization of nature wind for cooling down indoor thermal environment to reach thermal comfort requires knowledge of adequately positioning the building fenestrations, designing inlet-outlet related opening ratios, planning unobstructed cross ventilation paths, and, the most important, assessing the utilization feasibility base on local climatic variables. Furthermore, factors that influence the indoor thermal condition include building envelope heat gain, indoor air velocity, indoor heat gain (e.g. heat discharges from occupant's body, lighting fixture, electrical appliances), and outdoor climate. Among the above, the indoor thermal performance of NV building is significantly dependent to outdoor climate conditions. In hot and humid Taiwan, under college school classrooms are usually operated in natural ventilation mode and are more vulnerable to climate change in regard to maintain indoor thermal comfort. As climate changes in progress, NV classrooms would expect to encounter more events of overheating in the near future, which result in more severe heat stress, and would risk the utilization of natural ventilation. To evaluate the overheating risk under the influence of recent climate change, an actual top floor elementary school classroom with 30 students located at north Taiwan was modeled. Long-term local hourly meteorological data were gathered and further constructed into EnergyPlus Weather Files (EPWs) format for building thermal dynamic simulation to discuss the indoor thermal environmental variation during the period of 1998 to 2012 by retrospective simulation. As indoor thermal environment is an overall condition resulting from a series combination of various factors, sub-hourly building simulation tool, EnergyPlus, coupled with the above fifteen years' EPWs was adopted to predict hourly indoor parameters of mean radiant

  4. Social support and age influence distress outcomes differentially across urban, regional and remote Australia: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Joanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variation of determinants of mental health with remoteness has rarely been directly examined. The current research aims to examine whether the association of psychosocial factors with psychological distress outcomes varies with increasing remoteness. Methods Participants were persons aged 55 and over from two community cohorts sampling from across rural and urban New South Wales (N = 4219; mean age = 69.00 years; 46.1% male. Measures of social support from these studies were calibrated to facilitate comparison across the sample. Remoteness was assessed using a continuous measure, the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia. The association between demographic characteristics, social support, remoteness, and their interactions with remoteness in the prediction of high psychological distress (cut-off > 21 on the Kessler 10 were examined using logistic regression. Results Not being in a married or defacto relationship (OR 0.69; 99% CI 0.51-0.94, lower education (OR 0.52; 99% CI 0.38-0.71 and decreased social support (OR 0.36; 99% CI 0.31-0.42 significantly predicted psychological distress. There was a significant interaction of age and remoteness (OR 0.84; 99% CI 0.67-1.00, indicating that as remoteness increases, older persons are less likely to be highly distressed, as well as a significant interaction of social support and remoteness (OR 1.22; 99% CI 1.04-1.44, indicating that as remoteness decreases, persons with low levels of social support are more likely to be highly distressed. Conclusions Remoteness may moderate the influence of social support and age on psychological distress outcomes.

  5. Optical Characteristics of Oil Palm Fresh Fruits Bunch (FFB Under Three Spectrum Regions Influence for Harvest Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Dinah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In current practice, appearance was used to determine ripeness for oil palm fresh fruits bunch (FFB, that accompanied by detachment of fruit-lets from the bunch. The FFB from marihat clone harvested at five ripeness stages, under ripeness (F0, ripeness (F1, F2, F3, and over ripeness (F4. At every ripeness stages, differences of oil content and pigment accumulation were observed on the bunch. All samples recorded using a digital camera (10 Mpixel from 2, 7, 10, and 15 meter distance, simulating variation of light intensity upon recording. During image recording, three lighting were used, namely ultraviolet lamp (320-380 nm, visible light lamp (400-700 nm and infrared lamp (720-1100 nm, all have similar power output of 600watt. Camera point of view was set to cover a square area of 12,5cm by 12,5cm of the frontal area of FFB, each picture produced has 3888 by 2952 pixel. Image processing software created to extract digital RGB information from the images, and displayed the information in histogram. From the experiment, it was observed that the changes of intensity influence the RGB value of recorded image with reverse correlation, and longer wave light spectrum produce smaller RGB value.  The correlation model among image recording distance and RGB of the image display similar nature.  From three color channels, G represents better correlation for sample’s oil content determination.  Using UV and visible lighting, the FFB samples may be determined for harvest decision, up to seven meter observation distance.

  6. Influence of topographic and environmental variability on model uncertainty: a case study on snow and ground temperatures in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R.; Endrizzi, S.

    2012-12-01

    A variety of physically based models to predict and understand the spatio-temporal behaviour of snow and ground temperatures have been developed in recent years. Model evaluation including the analysis of model uncertainty and validation is widely accepted as fundamental in enhancing trust in decisions that are based on model simulations. Due to constraints on resources or lack of distributed validation data, model evaluation is often restricted to one or few locations only, even if the model is applied to make predictions for large spatial areas and time periods. Thus, conclusions about model behaviour entail the tacit assumption that validation at one point can inform decisions about model performance in different environmental conditions. The effect of this assumption on model application and development when modeling phenomena in highly variable terrain or over large distances has rarely been studied. This study is focused on a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of an energy and mass balance model that simulates snow and ground temperatures. It serves as a case study examining the role of topography and soil on parametric model uncertainty and sensitivity. A sensitivity analysis on individual parameters and a Monte Carlo based uncertainty study are performed at a variety of locations covering the range of topographic and environmental variability typically found in mountain regions. The results indicate that model uncertainties and sensitivities vary strongly under differing environmental conditions. This demonstrates that model evaluation (validation, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses) benefits strongly from the consideration of differing variables and, especially, the environmental variation of their behaviour.

  7. Factors influencing surgical delay after hip fracture in hospitals of Emilia Romagna Region, Italy: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Laura Maria Beatrice; Bartoli, Simona; Trombetti, Susanna; Montella, Maria Teresa; Toni, Aldo; De Palma, Rossana

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture is becoming a major public health concern, with associated mortality and morbidity particularly in the elderly. This study aims to investigate factors (i.e. patient factors and hospital variables) associated with increased risk for delaying surgery after hip fractures, and to assess whether and to what extent timing was associated with mortality risk. All patients aged 65 and over, resident in Emilia Romagna Region (Italy) and admitted to hospital for hip fracture (2009 - 2010) were selected. Data on surgical delay were adjusted using multilevel logistic regression model. A Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to a propensity score matched sample to assess mortality between delayed and early treated patients. Of the 10, 995 patients included (mean age: 83.3 years), 44.9% underwent surgery within 2 days. Significant risk factors for delayed surgery were: gender (OR: 1.16), comorbidity (OR: 1.29), anticoagulant (OR: 7.64) ,antiplatelet medication (OR: 2.43) , type of procedure (OR: 1.37) and day of admission (OR: Thu-Fri: 6.05; Sat-Sun: 1.17). Type of hospital and annual volume of hip fracture surgeries were not sufficient to explain hospital variability. A significant difference in mortality rate between early and delayed surgery emerged six months post surgery. PMID:23397198

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  9. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  10. Influence of the hinge region and its adjacent domains on binding and signaling patterns of the thyrotropin and follitropin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR have a large extracellular domain (ECD divided into the leucine rich repeat (LRR domain for binding of the glycoprotein hormones and the hinge region (HinR, which connects the LRR domain with the transmembrane domain (TMD. Understanding of the activation mechanism of GPHRs is hindered by the unknown interaction of the ECD with the TMD and the structural changes upon ligand binding responsible for receptor activation. Recently, our group showed that the HinR of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR can be replaced by those of the follitropin (FSHR and lutropin receptor (LHCGR without effects on surface expression and hTSH signaling. However, differences in binding characteristics for bovine TSH at the various HinRs were obvious. To gain further insights into the interplay between LRR domain, HinR and TMD we generated chimeras between the TSHR and FSHR. Our results obtained by the determination of cell surface expression, ligand binding and G protein activation confirm the similar characteristics of GPHR HinRs but they also demonstrate an involvement of the HinR in ligand selectivity indicated by the observed promiscuity of some chimeras. While the TSHR HinR contributes to specific binding of TSH and its variants, no such contribution is observed for FSH and its analog TR4401 at the HinR of the FSHR. Furthermore, the charge distribution at the poorly characterized LRR domain/HinR transition affected ligand binding and signaling even though this area is not in direct contact with the ligand. In addition our results also demonstrate the importance of the TMD/HinR interface. Especially the combination of the TSHR HinR with the FSHR-TMD resulted in a loss of cell surface expression of the respective chimeras. In conclusion, the HinRs of GPHRs do not only share similar characteristics but also behave as ligand specific structural and functional entities.

  11. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter haze pollution (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship with the atmospheric circulations at middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter haze pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. In the raw (unfiltered) correlations, the correlation coefficients between the six indices and the winter visibility (number of hazy days) varied from 0.57 (0.47) to 0.76 (0.6) with an average of 0.65 (0.54); in the high-frequency ( pollution in BTH winter, and vice versa. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter haze pollution in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take action in advance in dealing with probably severe haze pollution in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  12. Influence of the long term use of a computer on median, ulnar and radial sensory nerves in the wrist region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bamac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Repetitive microtrauma or overuse injuries may often affect upper extremities of the long term computer users. The aim of this study was to compare sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV for median, radial and ulnar nerves in the wrist of computer users with the same parameters in controls who do not use computers regularly. Material and Methods: Twenty one male computer users (age: mean (M = 28.3 years ± standard deviation (SD = 7.5 years and 21 male control subjects (age: M±SD = 24.1±4.6 years were recruited for the study. Limb length and the perimeters of the dominant arm and forearm were measured for each subject. The neurophysiological study consisted of measuring sensory nerve conduction of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Results: The sensory conduction velocities of both median and ulnar nerves were significantly delayed in the dominant arm of the computer users compared to the controls. In addition, sensory conduction velocity of the median nerve was significantly delayed in the dominant extremity of the computer users compared to their non-dominant extremity. Conclusions: This study shows that computer users have a tendency toward developing median and ulnar sensory nerve damage in the wrist region. Mechanism of delayed SNCV in the median and ulnar nerves may be due to sustained extension and ulnar deviation of the wrist during computer mouse use and typing. Reduced SNCV changes were more apparent on the dominant side of the median nerve. This may indicate the increased neural deficits related to an increased use of the dominant side. Further investigation is needed to determine how to reduce potential risk factors at this stage in order to prevent development of median or ulnar neuropathy in the long term computer users.

  13. Influence of uncertainties of the empirical models for inferring the E-region electric fields at the dip equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Juliano; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Resende, Laysa Cristina Araújo; Chen, Sony Su; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Daytime E-region electric fields play a crucial role in the ionospheric dynamics at the geomagnetic dip latitudes. Due to their importance, there is an interest in accurately measuring and modeling the electric fields for both climatological and near real-time studies. In this work, we present the daytime vertical ( Ez) and eastward ( Ey) electric fields for a reference quiet day (February 7, 2001) at the São Luís Space Observatory, Brazil (SLZ, 2.31°S, 44.16°W). The component Ez is inferred from Doppler shifts of type II echoes (gradient drift instability) and the anisotropic factor, which is computed from ion and electron gyro frequencies as well as ion and electron collision frequencies with neutral molecules. The component Ey depends on the ratio of Hall and Pedersen conductivities and Ez. A magnetic field-line-integrated conductivity model is used to obtain the anisotropic factor for calculating Ez and the ionospheric conductivities for calculating Ey. This model uses the NRLMSISE-00, IRI-2007, and IGRF-11 empirical models as input parameters for neutral atmosphere, ionosphere, and geomagnetic field, respectively. Consequently, it is worth determining the uncertainties (or errors) in Ey and Ez associated with these empirical model outputs in order to precisely define the confidence limit for the estimated electric field components. For this purpose, errors of ±10 % were artificially introduced in the magnitude of each empirical model output before estimating Ey and Ez. The corresponding uncertainties in the ionospheric conductivity and electric field are evaluated considering the individual and cumulative contribution of the artificial errors. The results show that the neutral densities and temperature may be responsible for the largest changes in Ey and Ez, followed by changes in the geomagnetic field intensity and electron and ions compositions.

  14. Quality of potatoes grown in various regions of Serbia as influenced by heavy metal and pesticide residues concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to decompose starch into monosaccharides by the method of acid starch hydrolysis. By applying appropriate chemical procedure, a main solution is obtained, from which aliquots are taken after filtration to determine of the present glucose according to Luff-Shoorlu method. The analysed potatoes of cv. Desiree, grown on various sites in Serbia, have starch content that corresponds to available literature data. The highest starch content is found in potatoes from Ivanjica and Novi Pazar, i.e. from the areas where climate factors, air temperature, and land relief are favourable for potato growing. Lower starch contents are found in potatoes grown in flat areas with warmer climate and drier periods. Those are sites in PKB-Belgrade, Smederevo, Dobanovci and Mrčajevci areas, where the values obtained by experimental procedure are very similar. The lowest starch content is found in potatoes from Belegiš and Guča sites, where starch content is lower than normal from literature values, which may be explained by some special causes (climate, location, irrigation. On the basis of heavy metal contents in potato samples, it may be concluded that potatoes originating from sites famous for potato production are contaminated with Cd the content of which exceeds concentrations permitted by regulations. The presence of Cd in potato samples may also be explained by the application of phosphate fertilizers in higher (or recommended rates. However, the soil itself should also be investigated, especially concerning the content of Cd and pH value. Thus, the influence of the soil itself should be established compared to fertilizer application in the current season. Presence of Cd in potatoes, on the other hand, is highly unfavourable because it prevents its utilization in nutrition, but also as a raw material for further processing of products based on potatoes: chips, etc. Also, Cd presence in foods is strictly controlled by EU, which prevents possible

  15. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.

    2015-06-01

    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars over extended time intervals. During the past years, it has also included a search for periodic, very shallow "dips" in the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs [2] or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 177 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of several hundred thousand stars in three southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, another within the Carina constellation and the third within the Centaurus/Musca constellations. The nature of the transiting object can however only be established by subsequent radial-velocity observations of the parent star. The size of the velocity variations (the amplitude) is directly related to the mass of the companion object and therefore allows discrimination between stars and planets as the cause of the observed brightness "dip". A Bonanza of Low-Mass Stars An international team of astronomers [3] has made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope for this work. Profiting from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of up to 8 objects simultaneously, they have looked at 60 OGLE transit candidate stars, measuring their radial velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s [4]. This ambitious programme has so far resulted in the discovery of five new transiting exoplanets (see, e.g., ESO PR 11/04 for the announcement of two of those). Most of the other transit candidates identified by OGLE have turned out to be eclipsing binaries, that is, in most cases common, small and low-mass stars passing in front of a solar-like star. This additional wealth of data on small and light stars is a real bonanza for the astronomers. Constraining the Relation Between Mass and Radius Low-mass stars are exceptionally interesting objects, also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with

  17. IκBα polymorphism at promoter region (rs2233408 influences the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Joseph JY

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor of kappa B inhibitor alpha (IκBα protein is implicated in regulating a variety of cellular process from inflammation to tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of rs2233408 T/C genotype in the promoter region of IκBα to gastric cancer and the association of this polymorphism with clinicopathologic variables in gastric cancer patients. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted between 1999 and 2006 in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 564 gastric cancer patients and 566 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. rs2233408 genotypes in IκBα were analyzed by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results Both rs2233408 T homozygote (TT and T heterozygotes (TC and TT had significantly reduced gastric cancer risk (TT: OR = 0.250, 95% CI = 0.069-0.909, P = 0.035; TC and TT: OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.530-0.981, P = 0.037, compared with rs2233408 C homozygote (CC. rs2233408 T heterozygotes were significantly associated with reduced risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer with ORs of 0.648 (95% CI = 0.459-0.916, P = 0.014, but not with the diffuse or mix type of gastric cancer. The association between rs2233408 T heterozygotes and gastric cancer appeared more apparent in the older patients (age>40 (OR = 0.674, 95% CI = 0.484-0.939, P = 0.02. rs2233408 T heterozygotes was associated with non-cardiac gastric cancer (OR = 0.594, 95% CI = 0.411-0.859, P = 0.006, but not with cardiac gastric cancer. However, rs2233408 polymorphism was not associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions IκBα rs2233408 T heterozygotes were associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, especially for the development of certain subtypes of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  18. Influence of vegetation restoration on topsoil organic carbon in a small catchment of the loess hilly region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunbin; Xin, Zhongbao; Yu, Xinxiao; Xiao, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Understanding effects of land-use changes driven by the implementation of the "Grain for Green" project and the corresponding changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) storage is important in evaluating the environmental benefits of this ecological restoration project. The goals of this study were to quantify the current soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in different land-use types [cultivated land, abandoned land (cessation of farming), woodland, wild grassland and orchards] in a catchment of the loess hilly and gully region of China to evaluate the benefits of SOC sequestration achieved by vegetation restoration in the past 10 years as well as to discuss uncertain factors affecting future SOC sequestration. Based on soil surveys (N = 83) and laboratory analyses, the results show that the topsoil (0-20 cm) SOCD was 20.44 Mg/ha in this catchment. Using the SOCD in cultivated lands (19.08 Mg/ha) as a reference, the SOCD in woodlands and abandoned lands was significantly higher by 33.81% and 8.49%, respectively, whereas in orchards, it was lower by 10.80%. The correlation analysis showed that SOC and total nitrogen (TN) were strongly correlated (R2 = 0.98) and that the average C∶N (SOC∶TN) ratio was 9.69. With increasing years since planting, the SOCD in woodlands showed a tendency to increase; however, no obvious difference was observed in orchards. A high positive correlation was found between SOCD and elevation (R2 = 0.395), but a low positive correlation was found between slope and SOCD (R2 = 0.170, P = 0.127). In the past 10 years of restoration, SOC storage did not increase significantly (2.74% or 3706.46 t) in the catchment where the conversion of cultivated land to orchards was the primary restoration pattern. However, the potential contribution of vegetation restoration to SOC sequestration in the next several decades would be massive if the woodland converted from the cropland is well managed and maintained.

  19. Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikakos, J.; Boumis, P.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Goudis, C. D.

    2012-08-01

    During an [O III] survey of planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate supernova remants (SNRs) and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. We obtained images of the area of interest by acquiring observations in the emission lines of Hα + [N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4° × 1.0°, where both filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting that there is more than one SNR in the area. Deep long-slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux-calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting that they are related, while the infrared emission found in the area at 12 μm and 22 μm marginally correlates with the optical. The presence of the [O III] emission line in one of the candidate SNRs implies that the shock velocities in the interstellar "clouds" are between 120 km s-1 and 200 km s-1, while its absence in the other candidate SNRs indicates that the shock velocities there are slower. For all candidate remnants, the [S II] λλ 6716/6731 ratio indicates that the electron densities are below 240 cm-3, while the Hα emission is measured to be between 0.6 and 41 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. The existence of eight pulsars within 1.5° of the center of the candidate SNRs also implies that there are many SNRs in the area as well as that the detected optical emission could be part of a number of supernovae explosions.

  20. Evolution Characteristics and Influence Factors of Deep Groundwater Depression Cone in North China Plain, China--A Case Study in Cangzhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasong Li; Fawang Zhang; Zhantao Han; Ping Wang; Honghan Chen; Zhaoji Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion, groundwater is almost the only source of water for agricultural, industrial and drinking water in this region. After long-term’s over-exploitation of deep groundwater, there appeared several deep ground-water depression cones, such as Cangzhou cone, Dezhou cone, Hengshui cone, Tianjin cone, etc., in which the Cangzhou cone is one of the typical cones for its special geography and hydrogeology condi-tions. In this study, the authors intended to analyze the evolution characteristics and influence factors of deep groundwater depression cone in Cangzhou region, especially the No. III aquifer depression cone, which is the main exploitation zone in this region. Analysis of the evolution of the groundwater depres-sion cone of the No. III aquifer group in Cangzhou region showed that this process can be divided into four stages, namely, development, stable development, rapid expansion, and gradual recovery. The shape and evolution characteristics of the depression cone at different stages are described by analyzing the evolution of the -30, -40, and -50 contours of the groundwater table, for example the closed area of water table contour of -50 m has been enlarged from 95 km2 in 1985 to 6 528.5 km2in 2005. The dominant factors that affect the evolution characteristics at different stages are proposed. The results showed that relatively long dry periods with less precipitation, special geological and hydrogeological conditions, and sharply increased water consumption for industrial and agricultural development are the main factors that cause the formation of deep groundwater depression cones. Meanwhile, an environmental response against groundwater exploitation is presented, and rational solutions are suggested to avert water crisis.

  1. Influence of southern oscillation and SSTs over Nino-3.4 region on the winter monsoon rainfall over coastal Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O S R U Bhanu Kumar; C V Naidu; S R L Rao

    2004-09-01

    An analysis of the mean monthly data of 124 years reveals that the relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index in September and the winter monsoon rainfall (WMR) over Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) is variable and non-stationary. In the recent four decades, however, SOI (Sept) is negatively and significantly correlated with CAP WMR. A similar analysis is performed using 50 years of mean monthly SSTs over Nino-3.4 region in August and September and CAP WMR to detect a possible relationship and there is a striking positive relation between them. In both of the above cases, the September signal is more significant in the recent four decades than for the other months and seasons for probable prediction of CAP WMR. Finally, to examine the influence of SO on the winter monsoon rainfall, a non-parametric test "Mann-Whitney Rank Statistics" test has been applied to the rainfall associated with extreme positive and negative SOI events.

  2. [The assessment of biocenosis contamination in the region of radioactive waste storage (RWS) placing and influence of this storage on rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A N; Synzynys, B I; Ul'ianova, L P; Kovalev, O A; Smoryzanova, O A; Starkov, O V; Latynova, N E; Kruglov, S V; Momot, O A; Koz'min, G V

    2007-01-01

    The results of radiative and of chemical monitoring show definite contamination of this zone by 90Sr and toxic metals. The essential local contaminations of geosystems (up to 2.3 x 10(4) Bk/kg of soil) require in environmental condition assessment at biocenosis level. Biotesting found the increase of metallothioneines levels in kidney (up to 15.63 microg/g of tissue) and liver (up to 19.22 microg/g of tissue) of rodents inhabited in the region of RWS placing as compared with the control group (3.51 and 4.44 microg/g of tissue accordingly). Besides, the decrease of total quantity of leucocytes (by 14.5% as compared with the control group) and absolute quantity all forms of them in animal blood were noted. It was assumed the increase of protein--MT is the result of complex influence by ionizing radiation and toxic metals. PMID:18051689

  3. The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of the InAs-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) has been investigated by modeling and comparison with the experimental data from Au/anodic layer(4-20 nm)/n-InAs(111)A MOSCAPs. The accumulation capacitance for MOSCAPs has been calculated by the solution of Poisson equation with different assumptions and the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger and Poisson equations with quantization taken into account. It was shown that the quantization during the MOSCAPs accumulation capacitance calculations should be taken into consideration for the correct interface states density determination by Terman method and the evaluation of gate dielectric thickness from capacitance-voltage measurements

  4. Soil pH, total phosphorus, climate and distance are the major factors influencing microbial activity at a regional spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Ruirui; Wang, Libing;

    2016-01-01

    scaling clearly revealed that soil microbial activities showed distinct differentiation at different sites over a regional spatial scale, which were strongly affected by soil pH, total P, rainfall, temperature, soil type and location. In addition, microbial community structure was greatly influenced...... scales. There are common (distance, climate, pH and soil type) but differentiated aspects (TP, SOC and N) in the biogeography of soil microbial community structure and activity.......Considering the extensive functional redundancy in microbial communities and great difficulty in elucidating it based on taxonomic structure, studies on the biogeography of soil microbial activity at large spatial scale are as important as microbial community structure. Eighty-four soil samples...

  5. Modeling the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on wood production and carbon storage: A case study in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Francesca; Pesola, Lucia; Vizzarri, Matteo; Antonello, Leonardo; Barbati, Anna; Chirici, Gherardo; Corona, Piermaria; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Garfì, Vittorio; Giannico, Vincenzo; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Nocentini, Susanna; Riccioli, Francesco; Travaglini, Davide; Sallustio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are fundamental for the terrestrial biosphere as they deliver multiple essential ecosystem services (ES). In environmental management, understanding ES distribution and interactions and assessing the economic value of forest ES represent future challenges. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit method based on a multi-scale approach (MiMoSe-Multiscale Mapping of ecoSystem services) to assess the current and future potential of a given forest area to provide ES. To do this we modified and improved the InVEST model in order to adapt input data and simulations to the context of Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Specifically, we integrated a GIS-based model, scenario model, and economic valuation to investigate two ES (wood production and carbon sequestration) and their trade-offs in a test area located in Molise region (Central Italy). Spatial information and trade-off analyses were used to assess the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on investigated services. Scenario A was designed to describe the current Business as Usual approach. Two alternative scenarios were designed to describe management approaches oriented towards nature protection (scenario B) or wood production (scenario C) and compared to scenario A. Management scenarios were simulated at the scale of forest management units over a 20-year time period. Our results show that forest management influenced ES provision and associated benefits at the regional scale. In the test area, the Total Ecosystem Services Value of the investigated ES increases 85% in scenario B and decreases 82% in scenario C, when compared to scenario A. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate about trade-offs and synergies between carbon sequestration and wood production benefits associated with socio-ecological systems. The MiMoSe approach can be replicated in other contexts with similar characteristics, thus providing a useful basis for the projection of benefits from forest

  6. Genotype-environment interaction of maternal influence characteristics in Nellore cattle bred in the Brazilian humid tropical regions by reaction norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction Norm (RN is the study of genotype-environment interaction (GxE that complies with alternative ways of genotypes within different environments. This study was carried out to verify GxE by a reaction norm model of weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days of age in Nellore cattle raised in the Humid Tropical Regions of Brazil. Environmental gradients were obtained by solutions of contemporary groups which were fitted as co-variables in the random regression model via reaction norms. Mean weight at 120 days of age was 127.97 kg, and environmental gradients ranged between -27 and +26 kg. Average was 185.60 kg at 210 days of age and gradients ranged from -54 to +55 kg. Scale changes in the breeding values and heritability estimates occurred along the gradients for the two weights; the genetic correlations between breeding value breeding values were also similar for both weights. These correlations were high between the close gradients, and low to even negative between extreme environments. Slopes representing the environmental sensitivity were high, with changes of scale and changes in classification of ten bulls with a great numbers of calves for the two traits. When regression slopes of the ten bulls with the highest breeding value breeding values were evaluated, these values were different in W120 from those in W210, perhaps due to the greater influence of maternal effect on W120. These results characterize the influence of GxE on the pre-weaning weights of animals in the humid tropical regions of Brazil. Due to this, it is possible to get greater precision on the predictions of the animals breeding values breeding value. A less biased selection and a greater genetic progress occurred.

  7. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  8. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... also cover or carry candidate debates in accordance with 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C and part 100... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political...

  9. Factors influencing elective science students’ perception of their Biology classroom environment in low and high academic achieving schools in the Central Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otami, Deodat Charles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated factors influencing elective science students’ perception of their Biology classroom environment in low and high academic achieving senior secondary schools in the Central Region of Ghana. The cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Participants were 356 third-year elective science students, selection through a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were obtained using the Biology Classroom Environment Questionnaire (BCEQ. This was after the senior secondary schools that offer elective science program had been categorized into low and high academic achieving schools based on their performance in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination/West Africa Senior Secondary School Examinations for five years. Two third-year intact classes were randomly selected from four schools under each category. Data analysis includes Factor and Item Analyses, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The findings revealed that four factors influence elective science students’ perception of their Biology classroom environment. The findings further suggested that elective science students in both school categories had a low perception of their Biology classroom environment but significantly different in favor of the elective science students in low academic achieving schools in teacher support, cooperation, and equity. Implications of the study are discussed and recommendations given.

  10. 区域文化对餐饮市场营销环境的影响%Influence of Regional Culture on Marketing Environment for Catering Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪峰

    2012-01-01

    中国区域文化类型众多,它通过餐饮市场需求、生产要素投入、饮食文化风格、产品创新以及人际沟通等众多方面来影响餐饮企业的营销行为,只有通过有效的战略整合,使多元文化得到充分发挥和利用,才能保证餐饮企业营销活动的成功。%China is a country of diversified regional cultures, and regional culture exerts a great influence on consumers' demand, input of production elements, culinary styles, innovation and interpersonal communication, which in turn might have an impact on catering businesses' marketing activities. It is only through effective strategic integration that multi-layer culture can be fully developed and exploited to ensure the success of marketing.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGY ON BATTLEFIELD TERRAIN AND IT’S AFFECTS ON MILITARY OPERATIONS IN MOUNTAINS AND KARST REGIONS: EXAMPLES FROM WW1 AND AFGHANISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zečević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I conflict between the Austrian and Italian army, Austrian engineer units constructed hallways in the karst region of Soča river. Those hallways, karst phenomena (caverns, caves and other fortifications, gave the Austrian army a tactical advantage. The construction principle of caverns is the consequence of the geological structure of the terrain. We are watching another military conflict in Afghanistan. In country where many armies in history have been defeated, where the terrain morphology condition a guerilla tactic, where the function effect of modern military technology is limited by battlefield configuration and with low military value of individual target, we are creating a "picture" of the possible view of the future battlefield. Al-Qai'da operatives in east Afghanistan take advantage of the opportunity of geological structure of the terrain and construct tunnel network across natural caves. Although the tunnel network in Afghanistan is constructed mostly in sandstones and metamorphic rocks, we may partly compare it with Austrian hallways. In that sense this work shows the influence of geological structure of the terrain on the effect of military operations in mountains and karst regions, and the analogy between military operations on the Soča river and military operations in Afghanistan.

  12. Influence of the mass flow rate of secondary air on the gas/particle flow characteristics in the near-burner region of a double swirl flow burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, J.P.; Li, Z.Q.; Wang, L.; Chen, Z.C.; Chen, L.Z.; Zhang, F.C. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-06-15

    The influence of the mass flow rate of secondary air on the gas/particle flow characteristics of a double swirl flow burner, in the near-burner region, was measured by a three-component particle-dynamics anemometer, in conjunction with a gas/particle two-phase test facility. Velocities, particle volume flux profiles, and normalized particle number concentrations were obtained. The relationship between the gas/particle flows and the combustion characteristics of the burners was discussed. For different mass flow rates of secondary air, annular recirculation zones formed only in the region of r/d=0.3-0.6 at x/d=0.1-0.3. With an increasing mass flow rate of secondary air, the peaks of the root mean square (RMS) axial fluctuating velocities, radial mean velocities, RMS radial fluctuating velocities, and tangential velocities all increased, while the recirculation increased slightly. There was a low particle volume flux in the central zone of the burner. At x/d=0.1-0.7, the profiles of particle volume flux had two peaks in the secondary air flow zone near the wall. With an increasing mass flow rate of secondary air, the peak of particle volume flux in the secondary air flow zone decreased, but the peak of particle volume flux near the wall increased. In section x/d=0.1-0.5, the particle diameter in the central zone of the burner was always less than the particle diameter at other locations.

  13. Methylation Status of SP1 Sites within miR-23a-27a-24-2 Promoter Region Influences Laryngeal Cancer Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays critical roles in regulation of microRNA expression and function. miR-23a-27a-24-2 cluster has various functions and aberrant expression of the cluster is a common event in many cancers. However, whether DNA methylation influences the cluster expression and function is not reported. Here we found a CG-rich region spanning two SP1 sites in the cluster promoter region. The SP1 sites in the cluster were demethylated and methylated in Hep2 cells and HEK293 cells, respectively. Meanwhile, the cluster was significantly upregulated and downregulated in Hep2 cells and HEK293 cells, respectively. The SP1 sites were remethylated and the cluster was significantly downregulated in Hep2 cells into which methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, was introduced. Moreover, S-adenosyl-L-methionine significantly increased Hep2 cell viability and repressed Hep2 cell early apoptosis. We also found that construct with two SP1 sites had highest luciferase activity and SP1 specifically bound the gene cluster promoter in vitro. We conclude that demethylated SP1 sites in miR-23a-27a-24-2 cluster upregulate the cluster expression, leading to proliferation promotion and early apoptosis inhibition in laryngeal cancer cells.

  14. MM5 Simulations of the China Regional Climate During the LGM.Ⅱ: Influence of Change of Land Area, Vegetation, and Large-scale Circulation Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; HE Jinhai; LI Weiliang; CHEN Longxun

    2008-01-01

    Using a regional climate model MM5 nested to an atmospheric global climate model CCM3, a series of simulations and sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the relative LGM climate response to changes of land-sea distribution, vegetation, and large-scale circulation background over China.Model results show that compared with the present climate, the fluctuations of sea-land distribution in eastern Asia during the LGM result in the temperature decrease in winter and increase in summer. It has significant impact on the temperature and precipitation in the east coastal region of China. The impact on precipitation in the east coastal region of China is the most significant one, with 25%-50% decrease in the total precipitation change during the LGM. On the other hand, the changes in sea-land distribution have less influence on the climate of inland and western part of China. During the LGM, significant changes in vegetation result in temperature alternating with winter increase and summer decrease, but differences in the annual mean temperature are minor. During the LGM, the global climate, i.e., the large-scale circulation background has changed significantly. These changes have significant influences on temperature and precipitation over China. They result in considerable temperature decreases in this area, and direct the primary patterns and characteristics of temperature changes. Results display that, northeastern China has the greatest temperature decrease, and the temperature decrease in the Tibetan Plateau is larger than in the eastern part of China located at the same latitude. Moreover, the change of large-scale circulation background also controls the pattern of precipitation change. Results also show that, most of the changes in precipitation over western and northeastern parts of China are the consequences of changing large-scale circulation background, of which 50%-75% of precipitation changes over northern and eastern China are the

  15. Looking back as we prepare to move forward: US presidential candidates' adoption of YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Juliann; Proffitt, Jennifer M

    2012-12-01

    As the United States prepares for the 2012 Presidential Election, we reflect on how the 2008 candidates and the voting public adopted social computing technology with specific focus on YouTube. Using the Social Influence Model as a framework, this article sought to examine how candidates adopted YouTube to determine what types of messages were disseminated via YouTube and what kind of response from viewers videos received. We conducted a content analysis of candidate YouTube sites, focusing on video characteristics and content. Findings indicate that the candidates did not use YouTube to its fullest extent and that there were significant differences between the candidates in terms of the types of videos posted and the content posted and that constituents did adopt the medium as demonstrated in viewership numbers and responses.

  16. A novel live-attenuated vaccine candidate for mayaro Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Weise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes a dengue-like illness in many regions of South America, and which has the potential to urbanize. Because no specific treatment or vaccine is available for MAYV infection, we capitalized on an IRES-based approach to develop a live-attenuated MAYV vaccine candidate. Testing in infant, immunocompetent as well as interferon receptor-deficient mice demonstrated a high degree of attenuation, strong induction of neutralizing antibodies, and efficacy against lethal challenge. This vaccine strain was also unable to infect mosquito cells, a major safety feature for a live vaccine derived from a mosquito-borne virus. Further preclinical development of this vaccine candidate is warranted to protect against this important emerging disease.

  17. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Mullally, F; Thompson, Susan E; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D; Haas, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long period planets in the \\kepler\\ planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler's sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events, and use a Bayesian Information Criterion to evaluate the likelihood that each event is real. We describe our technique and test its performance on simulated data. Results from this technique are incorporated in the \\kepler\\ Q1-17 DR24 planet candidate catalog of \\citet{Coughlin15}.

  18. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, F.; Coughlin, Jeffery L.; Thompson, Susan E.; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D.; Haas, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long-period planets in the Kepler planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler’s sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events and use a Bayesian information criterion to evaluate the likelihood that each event is real. We describe our technique and test its performance on simulated data. Results from this technique are incorporated in the Kepler Q1–Q17 DR24 planet candidate catalog of Coughlin et al.

  19. A influência da proximidade tecnológica e geográfica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil The influence of the technological proximity and the geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a influência da proximidade geográfica e da proximidade tecnológica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil, medida por depósitos de patentes no período 1999-2001 para mesorregiões geográficas. Para tanto, utilizaram-se técnicas de Análise Exploratória de Dados Espaciais (AEDE e de econometria espacial. Os dados de patentes foram organizados em quatro clusters tecnológicos segundo critérios de proximidade cognitiva, como biofarmacêutico, desenvolvimento de novos materiais, bens mecânicos e de consumo e tecnologias eletroeletrônicas, revelando um padrão de concentração da atividade tecnológica em poucas mesorregiões brasileiras. Além disso, foi calculada a medida de proximidade tecnológica de Jaffe para ponderar a vizinhança geográfica pelo grau de similaridade tecnológica das mesorregiões. Os resultados confirmam a hipótese de transbordamentos de conhecimento mediados tecnológica e geograficamente.The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of technological proximity and geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation, measured by patent applications over the period 1999-2001 for Brazilian geographical mesoregions. First, the paper undertakes an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA and then uses spatial econometric techniques. According with procedures based on cognitive proximity the patent data are organized into four technological clusters such as chemical and bio-pharmaceutical, new materials, mechanical and process technologies and electrical and electronic technologies. The four aforementioned clusters exhibit a concentrated regional pattern of technological activity over few Brazilian mesoregions. Moreover, the paper uses a Jaffe's measure of technological distance in order to construct a matrix in which the technological similarity is weighted by the geographical proximity. The results corroborate the hypothesis of geographically and technologically

  20. Coastal ocean variability in the US Pacific Northwest region: seasonal patterns, winter circulation, and the influence of the 2009-2010 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durski, Scott M.; Kurapov, Alexander L.; Allen, John S.; Kosro, P. Michael; Egbert, Gary D.; Shearman, R. Kipp; Barth, John A.

    2015-12-01

    A 2-km horizontal resolution ocean circulation model is developed for a large coastal region along the US Pacific Northwest (34-50N) to study how continental shelf, slope, and interior ocean variability influence each other. The model has been run for the time period September 2008-May 2011, driven by realistic surface momentum and heat fluxes obtained from an atmospheric model and lateral boundary conditions obtained from nesting in a global ocean model. The solution compares favorably to satellite measurements of sea surface temperature and sea surface height, observations of surface currents by high-frequency radars, mooring temperature time series, and glider temperature and salinity sections. The analysis is focused on the seasonal response of the coastal ocean with particular emphasis on the winter circulation patterns which have previously garnered relatively little attention. Interannual variability is examined through a comparison of the 2009-2010 winter influenced by El Niño and the winters in the preceding and following years. Strong northward winds combined with reduced surface cooling along the coast north of Cape Mendocino (40.4N) in winter 2009-2010, resulting in a vigorous downwelling season, characterized by relatively energetic northward currents and warmer ocean temperatures over the continental shelf and upper slope. An analysis of the time variability of the volume-averaged temperature and salinity in a coastal control volume (CV), that extends from 41 to 47N and offshore from the coast to the 200-m isobath, clearly shows relevant integrated characteristics of the annual cycle and the transitions between winter shelf circulation forced by northward winds and the summer circulation driven primarily by southward, upwelling-favorable winds. The analysis also reveals interesting interannual differences in these characteristics. In particular, the CV volume-average temperature remains notably warmer during January-March 2010 of the El Niño winter.

  1. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, M.A. van; Brunner, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information i

  2. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  3. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24...... of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published...... on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  4. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates....... We therefore suggest that the political implications of social media are generally better understood in terms of facilitating indirect communication and institutional change than in terms of direct communication....

  5. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    OpenAIRE

    Shiril Paskalis; Anandina Irmagita

    2013-01-01

    Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture pla...

  6. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  7. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  8. Large-scale evaluation of candidate genes identifies associations between VEGF polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat García-Closas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Common genetic variation could alter the risk for developing bladder cancer. We conducted a large-scale evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes for cancer to identify common variants that influence bladder cancer risk. An Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to genotype 1,433 SNPs within or near 386 genes in 1,086 cases and 1,033 controls in Spain. The most significant finding was in the 5' UTR of VEGF (rs25648, p for likelihood ratio test, 2 degrees of freedom = 1 x 10(-5. To further investigate the region, we analyzed 29 additional SNPs in VEGF, selected to saturate the promoter and 5' UTR and to tag common genetic variation in this gene. Three additional SNPs in the promoter region (rs833052, rs1109324, and rs1547651 were associated with increased risk for bladder cancer: odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 2.52 (1.06-5.97, 2.74 (1.26-5.98, and 3.02 (1.36-6.63, respectively; and a polymorphism in intron 2 (rs3024994 was associated with reduced risk: 0.65 (0.46-0.91. Two of the promoter SNPs and the intron 2 SNP showed linkage disequilibrium with rs25648. Haplotype analyses revealed three blocks of linkage disequilibrium with significant associations for two blocks including the promoter and 5' UTR (global p = 0.02 and 0.009, respectively. These findings are biologically plausible since VEGF is critical in angiogenesis, which is important for tumor growth, its elevated expression in bladder tumors correlates with tumor progression, and specific 5' UTR haplotypes have been shown to influence promoter activity. Associations between bladder cancer risk and other genes in this report were not robust based on false discovery rate calculations. In conclusion, this large-scale evaluation of candidate cancer genes has identified common genetic variants in the regulatory regions of VEGF that could be associated with bladder cancer risk.

  9. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  10. Lidar Ratio Derived for Pure Dust Aerosols: Multi-Year Micro Pulse Lidar Observations in a Saharan Dust-Influenced Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Adame, José Antonio; Campbell, James R.; Cuevas, Emilio; Díaz, Juan Pedro; Expósito, Francisco; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    A seasonal distribution of the Lidar Ratio (LR, extinction-to-backscattering coefficient ratio) for pure Saharan dust particles has been achieved. Simultaneous MPLNET/Micro Pulse lidar measurements in synergy with AERONET sun-photometer data were collected in the Tenerife area, a Saharan dust-influenced region, from June 2007 to November 2009. Dusty cases were mostly observed in summertime (71.4 % of total dusty cases). No differences were found among the LR values derived for spring, summertime and autumn times (a rather consistent seasonally averaged LR value of 57 sr is found). In wintertime, however, a higher mean LR is derived (65 sr), associated likely with a potential contamination from fine biomass burning particles coming from Sahel area during wintertime deforestation fires period. Results, obtained from a free-tropospheric pristine station (AEMET/Izaña Observatory) under Saharan dust intrusion occurrence, provide a more realistic perspective about LR values to be used in elastic lidar-derived AOD inversion for Saharan pure dust particles, and hence in improving CALIPSO AOD retrievals.

  11. Lidar Ratio Derived for Pure Dust Aerosols: Multi-Year Micro Pulse Lidar Observations in a Saharan Dust-Influenced Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A seasonal distribution of the Lidar Ratio (LR, extinction-to-backscattering coefficient ratio for pure Saharan dust particles has been achieved. Simultaneous MPLNET/Micro Pulse lidar measurements in synergy with AERONET sun-photometer data were collected in the Tenerife area, a Saharan dust-influenced region, from June 2007 to November 2009. Dusty cases were mostly observed in summertime (71.4 % of total dusty cases. No differences were found among the LR values derived for spring, summertime and autumn times (a rather consistent seasonally averaged LR value of 57 sr is found. In wintertime, however, a higher mean LR is derived (65 sr, associated likely with a potential contamination from fine biomass burning particles coming from Sahel area during wintertime deforestation fires period. Results, obtained from a free-tropospheric pristine station (AEMET/Izaña Observatory under Saharan dust intrusion occurrence, provide a more realistic perspective about LR values to be used in elastic lidar-derived AOD inversion for Saharan pure dust particles, and hence in improving CALIPSO AOD retrievals.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF FEED PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVEL ON MEAT CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FROM DIFFERENT ANATOMICAL REGIONS AT “Cobb 500” HYBRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA MARCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase quantity and quality of white meat, breeders are orienting to exploitation of hybrids with distinguished growing and slaughtering performances. In this experiment was followed the influence of protein level on meat chemical composition in different anatomic parts at Coob 500 hen commercial hybrid for meat. Breeding system for the two lots was on soil. For each phase, was assured optimal breeding condition according to the recommendations from Broiler Management Guid Coob 500- 2008. L1 had a feed with a protein and energy level higher then L2. After slaughtering, meat was sampled from three different corporal regions (chest, thigh and drumstick and was analyzed water, protein and fats content at each sample. The results have showed that in chest muscles water and protein are in a higher percent and fat proportion is lower compared to haunch muscles. Comparing the two experimental lots can be seen obvious differences of water and protein in favour of lot 1. Fats content, at all kinds of muscles was in a high proportion to L2 in comparison with L1.

  13. Influence of runoff, high frequency atmospheric forcing and model resolution on deep water mass formation regions and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, from a numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Quintana, Yarisbel; Courtois, Peggy; Hu, Xianmin; Pennelly, Clark; Myers, Paul G.

    2016-04-01

    Water mass formation regions act as windows to the deep ocean where surface waters are transformed to intermediate and deep waters. Within the North Atlantic, Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is convectively produced in the Labrador Sea while in the Nordic Seas the source waters for Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) and Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (NEADW) are formed. They are the main components of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) which forms the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We explore the changes of the LSW formation rates and in AMOC strength as consequence of runoff glacial melt, high frequency atmospheric forcing influence and variations in model's resolution. We use 1/4° resolution Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration from the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A nest using ANHA4 and the Adaptive Grid Refinement in FORTRAN (AGRIF) package was used to increase the resolution to 1/12° in the sub-polar gyre. The formation rate is calculated based upon a kinematic subduction approach where the exchange through the dynamic mixed layer base is calculated based on shallowing and deepening in the mixed layer, and convergence of horizontal transport into or out of the mixed layer. Lastly we use a Lagrangian tool (Ariane) to track the path of the DSOW and the NEADW from their formation source.

  14. Influence of line mixing on the retrievals of atmospheric CO2 from spectra in the 1.6 and 2.1 μm regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Toon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first study of the influence of line mixing among CO2 lines on the remote sensing retrieval of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This is done in the bands near 1.6 and 2.1 μm which have been retained by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO and Greenhouse Gases Observatory Satellite (GOSAT instruments. A purely theoretical analysis is first made, based on simulations of atmospheric spectra. It shows that line mixing cannot be neglected since disregarding this process induces significant errors in the calculated absorption coefficients, leading to systematic structures in the spectral fit residuals and airmass-dependent biases in the retrieved CO2 amounts. These theoretical predictions are then confirmed by using atmospheric solar-absorption spectra measured by a ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer. Indeed, it is first shown that including line mixing in the forward model used for the inversion leads to a very significant reduction of the residuals in the 2.1 μm region. Secondly, the inclusion of line mixing reduces the dependence of the retrieved CO2 on the airmass and greatly improves the consistency between values obtained independently from spectra in the 1.6 and 2.1 μm bands. These results open very promising prospects for various ground-based and space-borne experiments monitoring the carbon dioxide atmospheric amounts.

  15. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model – Part 1: Assessing the influence of constrained multi-generational ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Jathar

    2015-09-01

    perturbs SOA concentrations by a factor of two and are probably a much stronger determinant in 3-D models than constrained multi-generational oxidation. While total predicted SOA mass is similar for the SOM and two-product models, the SOM model predicts increased SOA contributions from anthropogenic (alkane, aromatic and sesquiterpenes and decreased SOA contributions from isoprene and monoterpene relative to the two-product model calculations. The SOA predicted by SOM has a much lower volatility than that predicted by the traditional model resulting in better qualitative agreement with volatility measurements of ambient OA. On account of its lower-volatility, the SOA mass produced by SOM does not appear to be as strongly influenced by the inclusion of oligomerization reactions, whereas the two-product model relies heavily on oligomerization to form low volatility SOA products. Finally, an unconstrained contemporary hybrid scheme to model multi-generational oxidation within the framework of a two-product model in which "ageing" reactions are added on top of the existing two-product parameterization is considered. This hybrid scheme formed at least three times more SOA than the SOM during regional simulations as a result of excessive transformation of semi-volatile vapors into lower volatility material that strongly partitions to the particle phase. This finding suggests that these "hybrid" multi-generational schemes should be used with great caution in regional models.

  16. Genome-wide data-mining of candidate human splice translational efficiency polymorphisms (STEPs and an online database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Raistrick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variation in pre-mRNA splicing is common and in some cases caused by genetic variants in intronic splicing motifs. Recent studies into the insulin gene (INS discovered a polymorphism in a 5' non-coding intron that influences the likelihood of intron retention in the final mRNA, extending the 5' untranslated region and maintaining protein quality. Retention was also associated with increased insulin levels, suggesting that such variants--splice translational efficiency polymorphisms (STEPs--may relate to disease phenotypes through differential protein expression. We set out to explore the prevalence of STEPs in the human genome and validate this new category of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL using publicly available data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene transcript and variant data were collected and mined for candidate STEPs in motif regions. Sequences from transcripts containing potential STEPs were analysed for evidence of splice site recognition and an effect in expressed sequence tags (ESTs. 16 publicly released genome-wide association data sets of common diseases were searched for association to candidate polymorphisms with HapMap frequency data. Our study found 3324 candidate STEPs lying in motif sequences of 5' non-coding introns and further mining revealed 170 with transcript evidence of intron retention. 21 potential STEPs had EST evidence of intron retention or exon extension, as well as population frequency data for comparison. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that the insulin STEP was not a unique example and that many STEPs may occur genome-wide with potentially causal effects in complex disease. An online database of STEPs is freely accessible at http://dbstep.genes.org.uk/.

  17. Factors Affecting Candidate Placement on an Emergency Medicine Residency Program’s Rank Order List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Breyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors influence the final placement of a medical student candidate on an emergency medicine (EM residency program's rank order list, including EM grade, standardized letter of recommendation, medical school class rank, and US Medical License Examination (USMLE scores. We sought to determine the correlation of these parameters with a candidate's final rank on a residency program's rank order list.Methods: We used a retrospective cohort design to examine 129 candidate packets from an EM residency program. Class ranks were assessed according to the instructions provided by the students' medical schools. EM grades were scored from 1 (honors to 5 (fail. Global assessments noted on the standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR were scored from 1 (outstanding to 4 (good. USMLE scores were reported as the candidate's 3-digit scores. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to analyze data.Results: Electronic Residency Application Service packets for 127/129 (98.4% candidates were examined. The following parameters correlated positively with a candidate's final placement on the rank order list: EM grade, p = 0.379, P < 0.001; global assessment, p = 0.332, P < 0.001; and class rank, p = 0.234, P= 0.035. We found a negative correlation between final placement on the rank order list with both USMLE step 1 scores, p = —0.253, P= 0.006; and USMLE step 2 scores, p=-0.348, P= 0.004.Conclusion: Higher scores on EM rotations, medical school class ranks, and SLOR global assessments correlated with higher placements on a rank order list, whereas candidates with higher USMLE scores had lower placements on a rank order list. However, none of the parameters examined correlated strongly with ultimate position of a candidate on the rank list, which underscores that other factors may influence a candidate's final ranking.

  18. Assessment of regional-scale primary production in terrestrial ecosystems to estimate the possible influence of future climate change on biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hibiki; Nishina, Kazuya; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, climate change including global warming has progressed worldwide and their influences on ecosystem structure and function that provide various goods and services to humans' well-being are of the greatest concerns. The ecosystem function and services are tightly coupled with the biodiversity particularly via food web and biogeochemical cycles, and here carbon is one of the central elements that also affect atmospheric CO2 concentration. Therefore mechanistic and quantitative understandings of the consequences among on-going climate change, ecosystem function, and biodiversity are urgent issues for seeking a better adaptation strategy. In order to tackle such tasks in the current environmental and ecological sciences, efforts have been made by numerous scientists and/or organizations to clarify the current status of and threats to biodiversity, responses of biogeochemical cycles to meteorological variables, and to construct climate change scenarios considering economic activities. However, to gain insights into the possible influence of climate change on biodiversity via altered ecosystem functions over broad temporal and spatial scales ranging from past to near-future periods and from landscape to global scales, further efforts to find the consequences are required, since the assessment of the influence of climate change on biodiversity is straightforward but difficult. For decades in climate change science, carbon flux between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems has attracted intensive attention as it connects the atmosphere and biosphere. Carbon flux in the biosphere is not only a process of biogeochemical material flux but also is an element to drive biological and ecological processes in ecosystems via food web beginning from photosynthetic carbon fixation by plants. Therefore focusing on photosynthetic production by plants, i.e. primary production of the ecosystem, may help us to estimate the possible influence of climate change on

  19. Meta-analysis and candidate gene mining of low-phosphorus tolerance in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Zhang; Mohammed Shalim Uddin; Cheng Zou; Chuanxiao Xie; Yunbi Xu; WenXue Li

    2014-01-01

    Plants with tolerance to low-phosphorus (P) can grow better under low-P conditions, and understanding of genetic mechanisms of low-P tolerance can not only facilitate identifying relevant genes but also help to develop low-P tolerant cultivars. QTL meta-analysis was conducted after a comprehensive review of the reports on QTL mapping for low-P tolerance-related traits in maize. Meta-analysis pro-duced 23 consensus QTL (cQTL), 17 of which located in similar chromosome regions to those previously reported to influence root traits. Meanwhile, candidate gene mining yielded 215 genes, 22 of which located in the cQTL regions. These 22 genes are homologous to 14 functionally character-ized genes that were found to participate in plant low-P tolerance, including genes encoding miR399s, Pi transporters and purple acid phosphatases. Four cQTL loci (cQTL2-1, cQTL5-3, cQTL6-2, and cQTL10-2) may play important roles for low-P tolerance because each contains more original QTL and has better consistency across previous reports.

  20. Identification of candidate genes for dyslexia susceptibility on chromosome 18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Scerri

    Full Text Available Six independent studies have identified linkage to chromosome 18 for developmental dyslexia or general reading ability. Until now, no candidate genes have been identified to explain this linkage. Here, we set out to identify the gene(s conferring susceptibility by a two stage strategy of linkage and association analysis.Linkage analysis: 264 UK families and 155 US families each containing at least one child diagnosed with dyslexia were genotyped with a dense set of microsatellite markers on chromosome 18. Association analysis: Using a discovery sample of 187 UK families, nearly 3000 SNPs were genotyped across the chromosome 18 dyslexia susceptibility candidate region. Following association analysis, the top ranking SNPs were then genotyped in the remaining samples. The linkage analysis revealed a broad signal that spans approximately 40 Mb from 18p11.2 to 18q12.2. Following the association analysis and subsequent replication attempts, we observed consistent association with the same SNPs in three genes; melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, dymeclin (DYM and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like (NEDD4L.Along with already published biological evidence, MC5R, DYM and NEDD4L make attractive candidates for dyslexia susceptibility genes. However, further replication and functional studies are still required.

  1. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red. The inset on the right-hand side shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The inset on top shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 muons originate from the same primary vertex.

  2. Model approaches for estimating the influence of time-varying socio-environmental factors on macroparasite transmission in two endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remais, Justin; Zhong, Bo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Spear, Robert C

    2009-12-01

    The environmental determinants of vector- and host-borne diseases include time-varying components that modify key transmission parameters, resulting in transient couplings between environmental phenomena and transmission processes. While some time-varying drivers are periodic in nature, some are aperiodic, such as those that involve episodic events or complex patterns of human behavior. Understanding these couplings can allow for prediction of periods of peak infection risk, and ultimately presents opportunities for optimizing intervention selection and timing. Schistosome macroparasites of humans exhibit multiple free-living stages as well as intermediate hosts, and are thus model organisms for illustrating the influence of environmental forcing on transmission. Time-varying environmental factors, termed gating functions, for schistosomes include larval response to temperature and rainfall, seasonal water contact patterns and snail population dynamics driven by weather variables. The biological bases for these modifiers are reviewed, and their values are estimated and incorporated into a transmission model that simulates a multi-year period in two schistosomiasis endemic regions. Modeling results combined with a scale dependent correlation analysis indicate the end effect of these site-specific gating functions is to strongly govern worm burden in these communities, in a manner particularly sensitive to the hydrological differences between sites. Two classes of gating functions were identified, those that act in concert to modify human infection (and determine worm acquisition late in the season), and those that act on snail infection (and determine early season worm acquisition). The importance of these factors for control programs and surveillance is discussed.

  3. Influence of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in water and sediments on edible seafoods within Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololade, Isaac A; Lajide, Labunmi; Olumekun, Victor O; Ololade, Olusola O; Ejelonu, Benjamin C

    2011-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of 3 non-essential elements (Pb, Cd and Ni) have been investigated in three different seafoods; Fish (Tilapia zilli), Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea), to investigate the ecosystem health status in Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of metals based on past research results. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences with C. sapidus recording the highest concentrations of all the metals. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that C. sapidus and T. zilli have the greatest potential to concentrate Cd (BCF = 3-10) and Pb (BCF = 11-84) respectively. Lead uptake from both water and sediment (BCF ≈ BSAF: 0.003-0.018) were abysmally low in L. littorea as compared with other organisms. The high concentrations of Pb in fish species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd in species of crab and periwinkles, as well as very high BSAF of Ni found in species of crab indicated a strong influence from anthropogenic pollutant source on the biotic community. Oil pollution appears to be a major source of bioavailable metal contaminants for the selected biota. The study shows that C. sapidus and L. littorea can effectively compartmentalize potentially toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni within their tissues. In terms of toxicity, C. sapidus had Cd concentrations greater than the 3,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities while Pb concentration exceeded their limits in both C. sapidus and T. zilli. All levels of Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in fish, crustaceans and shellfish. The study revealed anthropogenic enrichment of the metals studied which can possibly pose potential threats to the ecology of the area. PMID:21714630

  4. Study of the influence of the metal partition coefficient on the human health risk evaluation, applied to Figueira (PR) soil region, using C-Soil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of partition coefficient show that Kp values of metals can vary orders of magnitude according to the soil physical-chemistry characteristics. Therefore, the Kp is a sensible parameter in human health risk assessment model. In general, a default value is adopted by environmental agencies and often it is not represent suitably the soil studied and can cause errors in the risk calculation. The objectives of this work are: evaluate the heavy metals soil contamination around the Figueira coal-fired power plant; determine the metal Kp of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil by the ratio between the metal concentration obtained by concentrate HNO3 digestion and the metal concentration obtained by extraction with EDTA 0,05 mol L-1 (KpEDTA) or Ca(NO3)2 0,1 mol L-1 (KpCa(NO3)2); and evaluate the influence of the application of different Kp values in human health risk assessment C-Soil model in risk calculation. The main conclusions of the present study were: As, Cd, Mo, Pb e Zn were the Figueira soil metal contaminants, being As the pollutant of major human health concern; either KpCa(NO3)2 or KpEDTA values could be used for human health risk calculation, in Figueira case, except for Pb, and the KpEDTA values were preferably recommended due to the less dispersion of their values; the KpCSoil metals default values could be applied for the human health risk calculation in Figueira case, in other words, it would not have necessity to determine Kp values of region (KpEDTA and KpCa(NO3)2), except to Pb. (author)

  5. Evaluating environmental and social influences on iron and zinc status of pregnant subsistence farmers in two geographically contrasting regions of Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, N; Rankin, J; Pollard, M; Maleta, K; Robertson, C; Hursthouse, A

    2014-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency affects over 4.5 billion people worldwide, the majority in developing countries. Deficiencies of iron (and associated anaemia) and zinc in pregnancy are associated with complications, maternal and neonatal mortality, and developmental disorders in the foetus and growing child. We report the results of pilot study which used an interdisciplinary approach to explore environmental and sociocultural factors influencing the micronutrient status in the soil-plant-human transfer for pregnant subsistence farmers in two geographically contrasting regions of Southern Malawi. It evaluated micronutrient status in soil and the staple crop and explored the context for their transfer to pregnant women. Scientific and social science methods were used to collect data, following full sensitisation of the communities. A total of 99 participants were recruited from Chiradzulu (plateau) and Chikwawa (floodplain). Soil, maize and blood samples were collected, along with food frequency and health behaviour questionnaires and anthropological observation. Statistical analysis revealed that soil iron was significantly higher in Chiradzulu than in Chikwawa; total iron concentration is not deemed to be deficient in either area. Soil zinc was not significantly different between areas. Maize concentrations of iron and zinc were not significantly different between areas, and were not deficient relative to improved cultivars. Blood iron deficiency and associated anaemia were problematic in both areas, but more so in Chikwawa than in Chiradzulu, and zinc deficiency was similar in both areas. The study has identified a significant difference in the blood iron status of the participants of the two communities, and has shown that this difference is not accounted for by the staple crop maize. Socio-geographical factors appear to play a significant role in the micronutrient health of the populations. The findings lend support to multifaceted community intervention studies which

  6. The Effect of Religion on Candidate Preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican Presidential Primaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Leigh A

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the work of politics and religion scholars, we now know a lot about the relationship between religion and voting in American presidential general elections. However, we know less about the influence of religion on individual vote choice in presidential primaries. This article fills that gap by exploring the relationship between religion and candidate preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican primaries. Using pre-Super Tuesday surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, I find that the Republican candidate who most explicitly appealed to religious voters (Mike Huckabee in 2008 and Rick Santorum in 2012) was the preferred candidate of Republican respondents who attended religious services at the highest levels, and that as attendance increased, so did the likelihood of preferring that candidate. I also find that identification as a born again Christian mattered to candidate preference. Specifically, born again Christians were more likely than non-born again Christians to prefer Huckabee to Mitt Romney, John McCain and Ron Paul in 2008, and Santorum to Romney in 2012. Although ideology was not the primary subject of this article, I find that ideology was also a statistically significant predictor of Republican candidate preference in both 2008 and 2012. This robust finding reinforces scholars' prior work on the importance of ideology in explaining presidential primary vote choice. The overall findings of the paper provide evidence that religion variables can add to our understanding of why voters prefer one candidate over another in presidential primaries.

  7. The Effect of Religion on Candidate Preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican Presidential Primaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Bradberry

    Full Text Available Thanks to the work of politics and religion scholars, we now know a lot about the relationship between religion and voting in American presidential general elections. However, we know less about the influence of religion on individual vote choice in presidential primaries. This article fills that gap by exploring the relationship between religion and candidate preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican primaries. Using pre-Super Tuesday surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, I find that the Republican candidate who most explicitly appealed to religious voters (Mike Huckabee in 2008 and Rick Santorum in 2012 was the preferred candidate of Republican respondents who attended religious services at the highest levels, and that as attendance increased, so did the likelihood of preferring that candidate. I also find that identification as a born again Christian mattered to candidate preference. Specifically, born again Christians were more likely than non-born again Christians to prefer Huckabee to Mitt Romney, John McCain and Ron Paul in 2008, and Santorum to Romney in 2012. Although ideology was not the primary subject of this article, I find that ideology was also a statistically significant predictor of Republican candidate preference in both 2008 and 2012. This robust finding reinforces scholars' prior work on the importance of ideology in explaining presidential primary vote choice. The overall findings of the paper provide evidence that religion variables can add to our understanding of why voters prefer one candidate over another in presidential primaries.

  8. The Effect of Religion on Candidate Preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican Presidential Primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the work of politics and religion scholars, we now know a lot about the relationship between religion and voting in American presidential general elections. However, we know less about the influence of religion on individual vote choice in presidential primaries. This article fills that gap by exploring the relationship between religion and candidate preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican primaries. Using pre-Super Tuesday surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, I find that the Republican candidate who most explicitly appealed to religious voters (Mike Huckabee in 2008 and Rick Santorum in 2012) was the preferred candidate of Republican respondents who attended religious services at the highest levels, and that as attendance increased, so did the likelihood of preferring that candidate. I also find that identification as a born again Christian mattered to candidate preference. Specifically, born again Christians were more likely than non-born again Christians to prefer Huckabee to Mitt Romney, John McCain and Ron Paul in 2008, and Santorum to Romney in 2012. Although ideology was not the primary subject of this article, I find that ideology was also a statistically significant predictor of Republican candidate preference in both 2008 and 2012. This robust finding reinforces scholars’ prior work on the importance of ideology in explaining presidential primary vote choice. The overall findings of the paper provide evidence that religion variables can add to our understanding of why voters prefer one candidate over another in presidential primaries. PMID:27043438

  9. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model – Part 2: Assessing the influence of vapor wall losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Cappa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of losses of organic vapors to chamber walls during secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation experiments has recently been established. Here, the influence of such losses on simulated ambient SOA concentrations and properties is assessed in the UCD/CIT regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model (SOM for SOA. The SOM was fit to laboratory chamber data both with and without accounting for vapor wall losses following the approach of Zhang et al. (2014. Two vapor wall loss scenarios are considered when fitting of SOM to chamber data to determine best-fit SOM parameters, one with "low" and one with "high" vapor wall-loss rates to approximately account for the current range of uncertainty in this process. Simulations were run using these different parameterizations (scenarios for both the southern California/South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB and the eastern United States (US. Accounting for vapor wall losses leads to substantial increases in the simulated SOA concentrations from VOCs in both domains, by factors of ~ 2–5 for the low and ~ 5–10 for the high scenario. The magnitude of the increase scales approximately inversely with the absolute SOA concentration of the no loss scenario. In SoCAB, the predicted SOA fraction of total OA increases from ~ 0.2 (no to ~ 0.5 (low and to ~ 0.7 (high, with the high vapor wall loss simulations providing best general agreement with observations. In the eastern US, the SOA fraction is large in all cases but increases further when vapor wall losses are accounted for. The total OA/ΔCO ratio represents dilution-corrected SOA concentrations. The simulated OA/ΔCO in SoCAB (specifically, at Riverside, CA is found to increase substantially during the day only for the high vapor wall loss scenario, which is consistent with observations and indicative of photochemical production of SOA. Simulated O : C atomic ratios for both SOA and for total OA increase when vapor wall losses are

  10. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  11. Influence of region and site-specific factors on the degree of general validity of ecological and primary-energy-related assessments of biogas; Einfluss regionaler und standortspezifischer Faktoren auf die Allgemeingueltigkeit oekologischer und primaerenergetischer Bewertungen von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    As described in this publication, since the early 1990s numerous studies based on the life cycle assessment methodology have been dedicated to assessments of different kinds of bioenergy in comparison with fossil energy resources in terms of their energy balance and environmental impact. On reviewing the results of these studies one finds a strikingly wide range of variation. One major factor of influence on the results of life cycle assessments, besides methodological factors such as the choice of allocation method, is the representativeness of the data used. Thus, widely varying results are also obtained when balance calculations and assessments are performed on energy crops with due consideration to regional and site-specific factors. To address this problem the present study endeavoured to identify region and site-specific factors and assess them in terms of their influence on the life cycle assessment of the cultivation and conversion to biogas of different kinds of energy crops. For