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Sample records for candidate prophylactic pan-human

  1. Prophylactic endovascular management of peripheral artery disease in elderly candidates prior to cardiac surgery

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    Gianluca Rigatelli; Paolo Cardaioli; Massimo Giordan; Loris Roncon; Emiliano Bedendo; Tranquillo Milan; Giorgio Rigatelli

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a major risk factor in candidates for cardiac surgery and can impact morbidity and mortality in the perioperative and follow-up period. Elderly patients with PVD may benefit from endovascular treatment prior to cardiac surgery. We sought to assess the common clinical settings requiring prophylactic endovascular treatment before coronary surgery in elderly patients, the results, and the mid-term impact on subsequent revascularization. Methods Between November 2002 and June 2006, 37 patients (25 males, mean age 79.9±8.3 years, mean serum creatinine 1.9±0.6 mg/dl) underwent endovascular repair of PVD before cardiac surgery. For each patient, diagnostic methods, indications for intervention, types of interventions, procedural success, and complications were recorded. Results Four clinical settings were identified: renal artery stenting prior to coronary surgery (7 patients), iliac artery angioplasty and stenting (10 patients) in order to facilitate aortic balloon pump insertion after surgery, subclavian artery angioplasty and stenting prior to utilization of ipsilateral arterial conduits bypass surgery (5patients), and carotid artery stenting before coronary surgery (15 patients). Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%);complications included brachial artery occlusion (1 patient), minor stroke (2 patients), contrast nephropathy (1 patient), and minor bleeding at the puncture site (3 patients). All patients underwent successful coronary or valvular surgery; no patients died in the perioperative period. After a mean follow-up of 26.6±3.1 months, all patients are alive and free from anginal symptoms or valvular dysfunction without clinical or Doppler ultrasonography evidence of restenosis of the implanted peripheral vascular stents. Conclusions It is not unusual for elderly patients who are candidates for cardiac surgery to require endovascular intervention for significant PVD prior to

  2. Prophylactic mastectomy: an appraisal.

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    Zagouri, Flora; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis T; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Giannakopoulou, Georgia; Zografos, Constantine G; Papadimitriou, Christos A; Zografos, George C

    2013-02-01

    The main indication of prophylactic mastectomy pertains to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Prophylactic mastectomy includes the simple method and the subcutaneous method. Both methods can be followed by breast plastic reconstruction either at the same time or later. This review examines key issues regarding prophylactic mastectomy: the selection of patients, its effectiveness, its limitations, convergence/divergence in existing guidelines, and future perspectives.

  3. [Prophylactic pancreas surgery].

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    Langer, P; Rothmund, M; Bartsch, D K

    2006-01-01

    The goal of prophylactic surgery is to prevent malignant growth in patients with hereditary tumor predisposition. The pancreas presents as particularly challenging, due to the difficulty of operation and comparatively high risk of morbidity and even mortality. In addition, partial operative procedures and, more significantly, total resection lead to exocrine pancreas insufficiency and secondary diabetes, with grave consequences for the patient. Hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes that can result in pancreaticoduodenal endocrine tumors (PET) include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. As penetrance is maximally 70-80% and the 10-year survival rate over 80%, prophylactic pancreatic resection without evidence of a tumor is not indicated. However, prophylactic extension of a resection would be advised, should a PET be diagnosed. Patients predisposed to developing ductal pancreatic carcinoma (PC) are at risk of familial pancreatic cancer syndrome (FPC), hereditary pancreatitis, and other hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and familial atypical multiple mole-melanoma syndrome. As the gene defect responsible for FPC has yet to be identified and the penetrance of PC in the other tumor predisposition syndromes is low or unknown, a prophylactic pancreatectomy based on today's knowledge is not indicated. Prophylactic extension of the resection is advisable should PC or high-grade PanIN lesions be diagnosed, as these patients often present with multifocal dysplasia and even carcinoma.

  4. Migraine - Prophylactic Treatment

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    Chowdhury Debashish

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive therapy in migraine constitutes an important aspect of migraine management especially in patients who are not controlled or have significant disability despite taking drugs for acute management. In spite of te recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine, the mechanisms of action of many preventive drugs are largely unknown. Further, these provide only about 50% reduction in frequency in about 2/3rds of migraine sufferers. Hence, risk-benefit ratio must be considered while prescribing these agents. Recent efforts to undertake large-scale meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of these agents have been rewarding and consensus guidelines have evolved. Propanolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, sodium valproate, flunarizine and lisuride have emerged as first line drugs. The role of newer anti-convulsants and botox injections in refractory cases are being investigated. Availability, co-morbidities, medical contraindications, concomitant acute therapy and costs are important determinants for choosing a particular agent. This article reviews the guidelines to be followed in choosing the prophylactic treatment options for migraine.

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics in orthopaedic surgery.

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    Prokuski, Laura; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Moucha, Calin S

    2011-01-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics in orthopaedic surgery has been proven effective in reducing surgical site infections after hip and knee arthroplasty, spine procedures, and open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. To maximize the beneficial effect of prophylactic antibiotics, while minimizing any adverse effects, the correct antimicrobial agent must be selected, the drug must be administered just before incision, and the duration of administration should not exceed 24 hours.

  6. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

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    Yao K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharine Yao,1 Mark Sisco,2 Isabelle Bedrosian3 1Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, 3Department of Surgery, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women ,40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and

  7. Prophylactic antibiotics and anticonvulsants in neurosurgery.

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    Ratilal, B; Sampaio, C

    2011-01-01

    The prophylactic administration of antibiotics to prevent infection and the prophylactic administration of anticonvulsants to prevent first seizure episodes are common practice in neurosurgery. If prophylactic medication therapy is not indicated, the patient not only incurs the discomfort and the inconvenience resulting from drug treatment but is also unnecessarily exposed to adverse drug reactions, and incurs extra costs. The main situations in which prophylactic anticonvulsants and antibiotics are used are described and those situations we found controversial in the literature and lack further investigation are identified: anticonvulsants for preventing seizures in patients with chronic subdural hematomas, antiepileptic drugs for preventing seizures in those suffering from brain tumors, antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in patients with basilar skull fractures, and antibiotic prophylaxis for the surgical introduction of intracranial ventricular shunts.In the following we present systematic reviews of the literature in accordance with the standard protocol of The Cochrane Collaboration to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of these prophylactic medications in the situations mentioned. Our goal was to efficiently integrate valid information and provide a basis for rational decision-making.

  8. Current and future prophylactic vaccines for hepatitis C virus

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    Dunlop JI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available James I Dunlop, Anna M Owsianka, Vanessa M Cowton, Arvind H Patel MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, Scotland, UK Abstract: The development of a vaccine is necessary to combat the global hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemic. The key to the development of a prophylactic vaccine is understanding the immune response in those who spontaneously resolve HCV infections versus those who develop chronic disease. Several promising vaccine candidates based on the use of viral vectors are currently in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. The recently solved structures of the E2 glycoprotein have greatly aided epitope- and antibody-based vaccine design. Keywords: antibody, E1E2 glycoproteins, epitope, HCV, neutralizing antibody, viral vector

  9. Prophylactic digitalization for thoracotomy: a reassessment.

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    Ritchie, A J; Bowe, P; Gibbons, J R

    1990-07-01

    A prospective, controlled, randomized clinical study of 140 patients undergoing elective thoracic operations over a period of 1 year in a regional referral unit was performed in which one group received digoxin and the other did not. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was compared in each group. Overall mortality was 5.7%. There was no significant difference in incidence of cardiac arrhythmia in each group, and we conclude that the prophylactic use of digoxin in elective thoracic operations should be revised.

  10. Prophylactic digitalization for coronary artery bypass surgery.

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    Johnson, L W; Dickstein, R A; Fruehan, C T; Kane, P; Potts, J L; Smulyan, H; Webb, W R; Eich, R H

    1976-05-01

    One hundred and twenty patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass procedures were randomly placed into control and digitalized groups. All were initially in normal sinus rhythm and without evidence of congestive heart failure. Supraventricular arrhythmias occurred in 17 of 66 controls and in only three of 54 digitalized patients (P less than 0.01). There was no evidence of digitals toxicity. Based on this evidence we recommend prophylactic digitalization for patients having aortocoronary bypass operations.

  11. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

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    Forsyth, P.A. [Depts. of Oncology and Clinical Neurosciences, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Weaver, S. [Depts. of Neurology and Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York (United States); Fulton, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and Dept. of Medicine/Neurology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need {>=}900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  12. Sleep changes during prophylactic treatment of migraine

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    Taskin Duman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess sleep quality in patients with primary headaches before and after prophylactic treatment using a validated sleep-screening instrument. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 patients, including 63 tension type headache (TTH and 84 migraine patients were included. Patients were examined in terms of frequency and severity of headaches and sleep quality before and 12 weeks after prophylactic treatment with either propranolol or amitriptyline. Results: Baseline Visual Analogue Score (VAS in migraine patients was 7.99 ± 1.39 compared with 6.86 ± 1.50 in TTH group (P < 0.001. VAS score after the first month of treatment was 6.08 ± 1.88 in migraine patients and 5.40 ± 1.61 in TTH (P = 0.023. VAS scores decreased after the third month of treatment to 4.32 ± 2.29 in migraine patients and 4.11 ± 1.66 in TTH patients (P = 0.344. The decrease was significant for patients treated with amitriptyline but not for those with propranolol. Baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality (PSQI scores were 5.93 ± 2.43 in migraine patients and 6.71 ± 2.39 in TTH patients. Poor quality of sleep (PSQI ≥ 6 prior to prophylactic treatment was observed in 61.4% of migraine patients and in 77.7% of TTH patients. Comparison of PSQI scores before and 3 months following treatment showed significantly improved quality of sleep in all treatment groups; the greatest significance was detected in migraine patients with initial PSQI scores of ≥6 and treated with amitriptyline (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Increased understanding of routine objective sleep measures in migraine patients is needed to clarify the nature of sleep disturbances associated with primary headaches. This may in turn lead to improvements in headache treatments.

  13. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy in secondary immune deficiency

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    Agostini, Carlo; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Kimby, Eva

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In primary immunodeficiency (PID), immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) for infection prevention is well-established and supported by a wealth of clinical data. On the contrary, very little evidence-based data is available on the challenges surrounding the use of Ig......RT in secondary immune deficiencies (SID), and most published guidelines are mere extrapolations from the experience in PID. AREAS COVERED: In this article, four European experts provide their consolidated opinion on open questions surrounding the prophylactic use of IgRT in SID, based on their clinical...

  14. Compliance of Austrian tourists with prophylactic measures.

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    Kollaritsch, H; Wiedermann, G

    1992-03-01

    Physicians dealing with prophylactic measures for tourists going to developing countries will often not be able to foresee the outcome of their recommendations. Therefore an open study with 2,627 Austrian tourists on their flight home from a tropical destination was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of typical short-term travellers with respect to different kinds of precautionary measures. 94.1% of all tourists informed themselves before travelling abroad, but a high proportion of travellers tends to contact only their travel agency or their personal friends, this leading to inadequate information. Regarding the individual performance of precautionary measures the results indicate a few principal conclusions: Among the recommended inoculations the vaccinations against typhoid fever, poliomyelitis and tetanus are widely underestimated, the latter two in particular for adults, while compliance with the passive immunization against Hepatitis A is generally good (more than 80% of all travellers receive Hepatitis A immunoglobulins prophylactically). The most crucial point seems to be the chemoprophylaxis against malaria in as much as a) there seems to be a considerable lack of information about malaria endemic areas among physicians, b) tourists tend to use the most simple applicable drug unaware of epidemiological considerations and c) the regular intake of chemoprophylaxis declines significantly with the complexity of the intake procedure. In addition, tourists are in general well informed about nutritional risks, but only half of them will receive adequate information on the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and a basic medical travel kit.

  15. Prophylactic vitamin D in the elderly.

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    Johnson, K R; Jobber, J; Stonawski, B J

    1980-05-01

    A cross-section of an elderly population was assessed in a double-blind trial for the effects of prophylactic vitamin D. The subjects who completed the trial were assessed clinically, by physiotherapy tests of muscle function and by biochemical analysis, before and after a course of vitamin D or placebo. A significant fall in serum phosphate was found in the placebo group but not in the vitamin D group. The fall was maximal between the months of October and March which correspond to maximum and minimum amounts of circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D during the year. No difference in muscle function between treated and untreated groups was shown. Two out of 63 individuals on vitamin D developed hypercalcaemia. It is concluded that, although there appears to be improvement in the phosphate status of treated patients over the short term of this trial, hypercalcaemia after vitamin D administration precludes the continuous prophylactic use of vitamin D at the levels employed in this trial.

  16. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing in monostotic fibrous dysplasia.

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    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ozturk, Cagatay; Ozturan, Kutay; Sanisoglu, Yavuz S; Cicek, Ilker E; Erler, Kaan

    2008-06-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is an enigma with no known cure. Treatment currently consists of curettage and bone-grafting in an attempt to eradicate the lesion and to prevent progressive deformity. This study presents the results of prophylactic intramedullary nailing in 10 patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia, pain increasing with movement, and scintigraphically established activity. Ten patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia in their upper or lower extremities treated between 2001 and 2003 were included in the study. Seven patients were male and 3 were female; their mean age was 26.9 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months. Closed intramedullary nail without reaming was used in all cases. Bone grafting was not performed. Patients were allowed full weight bearing on the affected extremities on the second postoperative day. Mean VAS for functional pain was 5.33 +/- 0.65 preoperatively and 2.26 +/- 0.57 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiographs showed no changes in lesion size, and the intramedullary fixation appeared to be stable. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing appeared to be beneficial in monostotic fibrous dysplasia with scintigraphically proven activity and functional pain. It also avoids problems that may occur following pathological fracture.

  17. Systematic review of clinical outcomes after prophylactic surgery.

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    Davis, C R; Trevatt, Aej; Dixit, A; Datta, V

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Prophylactic appendicectomy is performed prior to military, polar and space expeditions to prevent acute appendicitis in the field. However, the risk-benefit ratio of prophylactic surgery is controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for prophylactic appendicectomy. It is supplemented by a clinical example of prophylactic surgery resulting in life-threatening complications. Methods A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE(®) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Keyword variants of 'prophylaxis' and 'appendicectomy' were combined to identify potential papers for inclusion. Papers related to prophylactic appendicectomy risks and benefits were reviewed. Results Overall, 511 papers were identified, with 37 papers satisfying the inclusion criteria. Nine reported outcomes after incidental appendicectomy during concurrent surgical procedures. No papers focused explicitly on prophylactic appendicectomy in asymptomatic patients. The clinical example outlined acute obstruction secondary to adhesions from a prophylactic appendicectomy. Complications after elective appendicectomy versus the natural history of acute appendicitis in scenarios such as polar expeditions or covert operations suggest prophylactic appendicectomy may be appropriate prior to extreme situations. Nevertheless, the long-term risk of adhesion related complications render prophylactic appendicectomy feasible only when the short-term risk of acute appendicitis outweighs the long-term risks of surgery. Conclusions Prophylactic appendicectomy is rarely performed and not without risk. This is the first documented evidence of long-term complications following prophylactic appendicectomy. Surgery should be considered on an individual basis by balancing the risks of acute appendicitis in the field with the potential consequences of an otherwise unnecessary surgical procedure in a healthy patient.

  18. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

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    Dekker, F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Andriesse, B.; Kernick, D.; Reis, R.; Ferrari, M.D.; Assendelft, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migra

  19. Prophylactic treatment of migraine: the patient's view, a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Andriesse, B.; Kernick, D.; Reis, R.; Ferrari, M.D.; Assendelft, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migrai

  20. Refolded Recombinant Human Paraoxonase 1 Variant Exhibits Prophylactic Activity Against Organophosphate Poisoning.

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    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Datusalia, Ashok K; Sharma, Shyam S; Pande, Abhay H

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are neurotoxic chemicals, and current treatments available for OP-poisoning are considered as unsatisfactory and inadequate. There is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment(s) for OP-poisoning. Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is known to hydrolyze a variety of OP-compounds and is a leading candidate for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agent against OP-poisoning in humans. Non-availability of effective system(s) for the production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) makes it hard to produce improved variant(s) of this enzyme and analyze their in vivo efficacy in animal models. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop variant(s) of h-PON1. Recently, we have developed a procedure to produce active rh-PON1 enzymes by using E. coli expression system. In this study, we have characterized the OP-hydrolyzing properties of refolded rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant. Our results show that refolded rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant exhibit enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity in in vitro and ex vivo assays and exhibited prophylactic activity in mouse model of OP-poisoning, suggesting that refolded rh-PON1 can be developed as a therapeutic candidate.

  1. Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of alphavirus vectors.

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    Atkins, Gregory J; Fleeton, Marina N; Sheahan, Brian J

    2008-11-11

    Alphavirus vectors are high-level, transient expression vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic use. These positive-stranded RNA vectors, derived from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, multiply and are expressed in the cytoplasm of most vertebrate cells, including human cells. Part of the genome encoding the structural protein genes, which is amplified during a normal infection, is replaced by a transgene. Three types of vector have been developed: virus-like particles, layered DNA-RNA vectors and replication-competent vectors. Virus-like particles contain replicon RNA that is defective since it contains a cloned gene in place of the structural protein genes, and thus are able to undergo only one cycle of expression. They are produced by transfection of vector RNA, and helper RNAs encoding the structural proteins. Layered DNA-RNA vectors express the Semliki Forest virus replicon from a cDNA copy via a cytomegalovirus promoter. Replication-competent vectors contain a transgene in addition to the structural protein genes. Alphavirus vectors are used for three main applications: vaccine construction, therapy of central nervous system disease, and cancer therapy.

  2. Prophylactic Nailing of Incomplete Atypical Femoral Fractures

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    Chang-Wug Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent reports have described the occurrence of low-energy subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures associated with long-term bisphosphonate use. Although information regarding the surgical treatment of these atypical femoral fractures is increasing, it is unclear if the preventive operation is useful in incomplete fractures. This study examined the results of preventive intramedullary nailing for incomplete atypical femoral fractures. Material and Methods. A retrospective search was conducted for patients older than 50 years receiving bisphosphonate therapy, with incomplete, nondisplaced fractures in either the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal area of the femur. Seventeen patients with a total of 20 incomplete, non-displaced lesions were included. The mean duration of bisphosphonate use was 50.5 months. Eleven of the 17 (64.7% patients had complete or incomplete fractures on the contralateral femur. All were treated with prophylactic fixation of an intramedullary (IM nail. The minimum followup was 12 months. Results. All cases healed with a mean period of 14.3 weeks. Nineteen of the 20 cases healed with the dissolution of incomplete fractures of the lateral aspect. A complete fracture developed at the time of nailing in one patient, but it healed with callus bridging. Conclusion. IM nailing appears to be a reliable way of preventing the progress of incomplete atypical femoral fractures.

  3. Is T-Wave Alternans Testing Feasible in Candidates for Prophylactic Implantable Defibrillators?

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    Kraaier, K.; McCracken, T.; Palen, van der J.; Wilde, A.A.M.; Scholten, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Previous studies have demonstrated that microvolt T-wave alternans (TWA) screening in patients with ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy is effective in identifying patients at high or low risk of sudden cardiac death. It remains unclear which percentage of potential recipients of an implantab

  4. Prophylactic GSV surgery in elderly candidates for hip or knee arthroplasty

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    Quarto Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is one of the major risk factors for varicose veins. The same is for Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis. Most of the patients undergoing to Hip (THA or Knee (TKA arthroplasty are over sixteen. Varicose veins, excluding thrombophilia, are the most significant risk factors for VTE after THA and TKA.

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

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    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  6. The Effects of Germanium Biotite Supplement as a Prophylactic Agent against Respiratory Infection in Calves

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    Myunghwan Jung1, Bock-Gie Jung2, Seung Bin Cha1, Min-Kyoung Shin1, Won-Jung Lee1, Seung Won Shin1, Jin-A Lee2, Yeon-Kwon Jung3, Bong-Joo Lee2 and Han Sang Yoo1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Germanium biotite, a natural mineral, is comprised of mainly silicate. This mineral showed activities of increase in feed efficiency and non-specific immunostimulation in previous studies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prophylactic effects of germanium biotite against respiratory diseases in calves as a feed supplement and investigate the possibilities of the substitution of antibiotics with germanium biotite as feed additive. To achieve these purposes, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 were experimentally inoculated into the calves. After challenge, germanium biotite showed a lower cumulative clinical score (CCS than the control group. In accordance with these clinical results, enhanced clearance of BHV-1, a low infection rate of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1, tempered superficial lesions, and moderated histopathological signs were observed in the germanium biotite group, compared with the control group. The results of the present study indicated that germanium biotite had prophylactic effects against bovine respiratory disease and could be a candidate for a new alternative feed supplement in calves, through its effects as a non-specific immune stimulator.

  7. Cardiac disturbances after pneumonectomy--the value of prophylactic digitalization.

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    Järvinen, A; Mattila, T; Appelqvist, P; Meurala, H; Mattila, S

    1978-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative cardiac disturbances and the value of prophylactic digitalization were studied retrospectively in 143 patients undergoing pneumonectomy for carcinoma of the lung. Cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 29% and tachycardia episodes in 30% of the patients. The incidence of myocardial infarction was 2%. Operative mortality was 4%. The cardiac disturbances developed more often after left than after right pneumonectomy. The age of the patients, a history of angina pectoris or hypertension did not markedly increase the incidence of cardiac disturbances, neither did operative factors, such as pericardiotomy, left atrial resection, major bleeding nor postoperative empyema. Prophylactic digitalization significantly reduced postoperative cardiac disorders, their frequency being 33% in the group of patients who received prophylactic digitalis compared with 65% in the group that did not.

  8. The prophylactic effect of valproate on glyceryltrinitrate induced migraine

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    Tvedskov, Jesper Filtenborg; Thomsen, L L; Iversen, H K

    2004-01-01

    in prophylactic antimigraine drug development. Twelve patients with migraine without aura were included in a randomized double blind crossover study. Valproate 1000 mg or placebo was given daily, each for a minimum of 13 days. On the last treatment day of each arm a 20 min intravenous infusion of GTN (0.25 microg......In this study the human glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) model of migraine was for the first time used to test the effect of a prophylactic drug. We chose to test valproate due to its well documented effect as a migraine prophylactic drug. Efficacy of this compound would support the usefulness of the model...... were measured with high frequency ultrasound. GTN evoked migraine fulfilling IHS criteria 1.1 in 6 patients after placebo and in 2 patients after valproate (P = 0.125). Including additionally 3 patients on placebo and 1 patient on valproate who felt they had suffered a migraine attack, but who had...

  9. The prophylactic effect of valproate on glyceryltrinitrate induced migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Jesper Filtenborg; Thomsen, L L; Iversen, H K

    2004-01-01

    In this study the human glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) model of migraine was for the first time used to test the effect of a prophylactic drug. We chose to test valproate due to its well documented effect as a migraine prophylactic drug. Efficacy of this compound would support the usefulness of the model...... in prophylactic antimigraine drug development. Twelve patients with migraine without aura were included in a randomized double blind crossover study. Valproate 1000 mg or placebo was given daily, each for a minimum of 13 days. On the last treatment day of each arm a 20 min intravenous infusion of GTN (0.25 microg...... were measured with high frequency ultrasound. GTN evoked migraine fulfilling IHS criteria 1.1 in 6 patients after placebo and in 2 patients after valproate (P = 0.125). Including additionally 3 patients on placebo and 1 patient on valproate who felt they had suffered a migraine attack, but who had...

  10. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Tietze, Anna; Khalil, Azza Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cerebral irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with response to chemotherapy. The aims of this study were: to evaluate patients undergoing PCI with regard to cerebral recurrence rate, site of recurrence, and overall...

  11. Prophylactic Antibiotics in Otolaryngologic Surgeries: From Knowledge to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Khatami-Moghadam

    2011-01-01

    Our results indicate that prophylactic antibiotics were being significantly misused in a tertiary referral center of a university hospital. Although teaching the principles of prophylaxis to physicians is important, we think that finding a way to bring this knowledge to practice is more important.

  12. Iranian women's attitude toward prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Majidzadeh-A

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preventive mastectomy has a higher rate of acceptability among women who have had a family history of breast cancer. Therefore, it may be concluded that raising public awareness about the advantages of prophylactic mastectomy could help better address breast cancer in Iran.

  13. Prophylactic vertebroplasty can decrease the fracture risk of adjacent vertebrae: an in vitro cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aquarius, R.; Homminga, J.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Tanck, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Adjacent level vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic wedge fractures, but can theoretically be prevented with prophylactic vertebroplasty. Previous tests on prophylactic vertebroplasties have been performed under axial loading, while in vivo changes in spinal alignment likely

  14. Prophylactic vertebroplasty can decrease the fracture risk of adjacent vertebrae: An in vitro cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aquarius, R.; Homminga, J.J.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Tanck, E.

    2014-01-01

    Adjacent level vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic wedge fractures, but can theoretically be prevented with prophylactic vertebroplasty. Previous tests on prophylactic vertebroplasties have been performed under axial loading, while in vivo changes in spinal alignment likely

  15. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

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    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  16. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

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    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy the risk of dying of breast cancer is reduced by 90%, the risk of dying of ovarian cancer is reduced by 95%, and the risk of dying of any cause is reduced by 77%. The risk of breast cancer is further reduced by prophylactic mastectomy. Prophylactic oophorectomy and prophylactic mastectomy pose several challenges within Jewish law that call into question the permissibility of surgery, including mutilation of a healthy organ, termination of fertility, self-wounding, and castration. A growing number of Jewish legal scholars have found grounds to permit prophylactic surgery among BRCA carriers, with some even obligating prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy. Conclusion: Current data suggest a significant reduction in mortality from prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in BRCA carriers. While mutilation of healthy organs is intrinsically forbidden in Jewish law, the ability to preserve human life may contravene and even mandate prophylactic surgery.

  17. Present and future of prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Jiang; Wei Huang; Xiao-Nan Yang; Qing Xia

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of prophylactic antibiotics in the reduction of mortality of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients, which is highly questioned by more and more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses.METHODS: An updated meta-analysis was performed. RCTs comparing prophylactic antibiotics for SAP with control or placebo were included for meta-analysis. The mortality outcomes were pooled for estimation, and re-pooled estimation was performed by the sensitivity analysis of an ideal large-scale RCT. RESULTS: Currently available 11 RCTs were included. Subgroup analysis showed that there was significant reduction of mortality rate in the period before 2000, while no significant reduction in the period from 2000 [Risk Ratio, (RR) = 1.01, P = 0.98]. Funnel plot indicated that there might be apparent publication bias in the period before 2000. Sensitivity analysis showed that the RR of mortality rate ranged from 0.77 to 1.00 with a relatively narrow confidence interval (P < 0.05). However, the number needed to treat having a minor lower limit of the range (7-5096 patients) implied that certain SAP patients could still potentially prevent death by antibiotic prophylaxis.CONCLUSION: Current evidences do not support prophylactic antibiotics as a routine treatment for SAP, but the potentially benefited sub-population requires further investigations.

  18. Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Without Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Campana, Dario; Pei, Deqing; Bowman, W. Paul; Sandlund, John T.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Onciu, Mihaela; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Kun, Larry E.; Jeha, Sima; Cheng, Cheng; Howard, Scott C.; Simmons, Vickey; Bayles, Amy; Metzger, Monika L.; Boyett, James M.; Leung, Wing; Handgretinger, Rupert; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted in all children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods A total of 498 evaluable patients were enrolled. Treatment intensity was based on presenting features and the level of minimal residual disease after remission induction treatment. Continuous complete remission was compared between the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation and the 56 historical controls who received it. Results The 5-year event-free and overall survival probabilities (95% confidence interval) for all 498 patients were 85.6% (79.9% to 91.3%) and 93.5% (89.8% to 97.2%), respectively. The 5-year cumulative risk of isolated central-nervous-system (CNS) relapse was 2.7% (1.1% to 4.2%), and that of any CNS relapse (isolated plus combined) was 3.9% (1.9% to 5.9%). The 71 patients had significantly better continuous complete remission than the 56 historical controls (P=0.04). All 11 patients with isolated CNS relapse remain in second remission for 0.4 to 5.5 years. CNS leukemia (CNS-3 status) or a traumatic lumbar puncture with blasts at diagnosis and a high level of minimal residual disease (≥ 1%) after 6 weeks of remission induction were significantly associated with poorer event-free survival. Risk factors for CNS relapse included the presence of the t(1;19)[TCF3-PBX1], any CNS involvement at diagnosis, and T-cell immunophenotype. Common adverse effects included allergic reactions to L-asparaginase, osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and disseminated fungal infection. Conclusions With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:19553647

  19. Prophylactic antibiotics in vesicoureteric reflux: Evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this review was to systematically examine the available evidence for the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in cases of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR. Materials and Methods: We searched the relevant data on medical management of VUR and the date of last search was June 2008. The search included both randomized controlled trials as well as the nonrandomized trials and the data sources were; MEDLINE, online peer reviewed journals, Cochrane database and abstracts from conference proceedings. Results: Barring few most of the studies published on medical management were nonrandomized. Besides being small in number many of these studies were of poor-quality and poorly designed eventually failing in giving a reliable answer in this regard. Few of the studies suggest that the children with low grade VUR might do well even without antibiotic prophylaxis. Conclusions : In the absence of properly designed, randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up the question of antibiotic prophylaxis in cases of VUR remains unanswered in large part of it. Whether to give prophylactic antibiotics or not would ultimately need a shared decision-making involving both the treating physician and the parents assessing both the risks and the benefits.

  20. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: use of prophylactic dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Reid,1 Elizabeth A Ayello,2 Afsaneh Alavi,3 1Department of Nursing Practice and Education, Bridgepoint Active Healthcare, Toronto, Canada; 2School of Nursing, Excelsior College, Albany, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Abstract: The management of pressure ulcers is challenging for health care providers across disciplines. Pressure ulcers have significant impact on emotional and physical wellbeing, quality of life, and health care costs. The use of wound dressings could be an important and cost-effective strategy in preventing pressure ulcers. The main types of dressings that are examined for this purpose in the literature are foam, hydrocolloid, and films. Some small studies have shown a preventative role for sacral dressings with low-shear backings, though they raise concerns about over-hydration of the skin. Further research demonstrates the application of barrier films over bony prominences to have a prophylactic effect; however, adhesive dressings can also contribute to shearing forces on the skin. There is a vast body of research that examines the use of dressings to prevent pressure ulcers; however, there is limited high-level evidence, such as randomized control trials. A 2013 Cochrane review indicated that there is a paucity of high-level evidence to support the prophylactic use of dressings to prevent pressure ulcers; this paper will examine the emerging literature and consider its relevance to pressure ulcer prevention protocols. Keywords: quality of life, hydrocolloid dressing, topical agent

  1. Prophylactic Antiviral Treatment in Recurrent Herpes Zoster: A Case Report

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    Hatice Gamze Bayram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ occurs in older ages with activation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV which persists in a dormant phase within the dorsal root ganglia. The incidence of HZ in immunosuppressed patients is 20-100 times higher and the clinical progress is more severe than in immunocompetent individuals. A 48-year-old man who had been diagnosed with acute myelocytic leukemia type M3 and had been treated with immunosuppressive agents was admitted to our clinic. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having HZ. He was treated with acyclovir 800 mg five times daily for 7 days. In the consecutive three months, he attended our clinic again with similar complaints. The left cervical (C5, C6 dermatomes were involved at the fourth attack of HZ. Multinucleated giant cells were determined on the Tzanck smear. VZV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Treatment with valacyclovir 1 g three times daily for 14 days was prescribed and then, prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir 500 mg two times a day was administered. Although immunosuppressive treatment was continued, no new attacks of herpes zoster occurred. We think that prophylactic antiviral therapy should be initiated in immunosuppressive individuals who have recurrent herpes zoster attacks.

  2. Prophylactic digitalization preoperatively of patients with arteriosclerotic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille-Brahe, N E; Engell, H C; Sørensen, M B

    1981-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hemodynamic effect of prophylactic digitalization before major surgical procedures. Sixteen patients, all admitted for an elective vascular operation for arteriosclerotic disease and all with impaired left ventricular function, were investigated. In half of the patients, digitalis was given before the operation, the other half of the patients served as the control study. The measured parameters were pulmonary artery mean pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, blood volume and arterial, as well as venous, oxygen content. Preoperatively, before digitalization, no significant differences were noted between the two groups at rest and during exercise. Before anesthesia and postoperatively, those given digitalis had improved cardiac function. Those in both groups, however, had a normal hemodynamic response to the surgical trauma. In this study, a definite answer is not provided concerning the usefulness of prophylactic digitalization but an increase in the ability of the digitalized heart to withstand the imposition of a pressure load postoperatively is suggested.

  3. Is prophylactic placement of drains necessary after subtotal gastrectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoj Kumar; Seung Bong Yang; Vijay Kumar Jaiswal; Jay N Shah; Manish Shreshtha; Rajesh Gongal

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the evidence-based values of prophylactic drainage in gastric cancer surgery.METHODS: One hundred and eight patients, who underwent subtotal gastrectomy with D1 or D2 lymph node dissection for gastric cancer between January 2001 and December 2005, were divided into drain group or no-drain group. Surgical outcome and post-operative complications within four weeks were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the drain group and no-drain group in terms of operating time (171±42 min vs 156±39 min), number of post-operative days until passage of flatus (3.7±0.5d vs 3.5±1.0 d), number of post-operative days until initiation of soft diet (4.9±0.7 d vs 4.8±0.8 d), length of post-operative hospital stay (9.3±2.2 d vs 8.4±2.4 d), mortality rate (5.4% vs 3.8%), and overall postoperative complication rate (21.4% vs19.2%).CONCLUSION: Prophylactic drainage placement is not necessary after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer since it does not offer additional benefits for the patients.

  4. An autoimmune-mediated strategy for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaini, Ritika; Kesaraju, Pavani; Johnson, Justin M; Altuntas, Cengiz Z; Jane-Wit, Daniel; Tuohy, Vincent K

    2010-07-01

    Although vaccination is most effective when used to prevent disease, cancer vaccine development has focused predominantly on providing therapy against established growing tumors. The difficulty in developing prophylactic cancer vaccines is primarily due to the fact that tumor antigens are variations of self proteins and would probably mediate profound autoimmune complications if used in a preventive vaccine setting. Here we use several mouse breast cancer models to define a prototypic strategy for prophylactic cancer vaccination. We selected alpha-lactalbumin as our target vaccine autoantigen because it is a breast-specific differentiation protein expressed in high amounts in the majority of human breast carcinomas and in mammary epithelial cells only during lactation. We found that immunoreactivity against alpha-lactalbumin provides substantial protection and therapy against growth of autochthonous tumors in transgenic mouse models of breast cancer and against 4T1 transplantable breast tumors in BALB/c mice. Because alpha-lactalbumin is conditionally expressed only during lactation, vaccination-induced prophylaxis occurs without any detectable inflammation in normal nonlactating breast tissue. Thus, alpha-lactalbumin vaccination may provide safe and effective protection against the development of breast cancer for women in their post-child-bearing, premenopausal years, when lactation is readily avoidable and risk for developing breast cancer is high.

  5. Value of Prophylactic Postoperative Antibiotic Therapy after Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery: A Clinical Trial

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    Majid Eshghpour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic therapy before or after orthognathic surgery is commonly recommended by surgeons to minimize the risk of wound infection. This article evaluates the value of Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in order to diminish the incidence of postoperative wound infection after orthognathic surgery.   Materials and Methods: Fifty candidates for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were divided into cases and controls. Cefazolin (1g was administered intravenously to all participants 30 mins prior to surgery followed by a similar dose 4 hours later. Case-group patients ingested amoxicillin (500 mg orally for 7 days after surgery. Postoperative wound infection was assessed using clinical features, and the P-value significance was set at P  Results: Both groups were similar according to gender, age, and operating time. During the follow-up period no infection was observed in either the case or control group.   Conclusion:  The results of this study suggest that long-term postoperative antibiotic therapy is not essential for the prevention of postoperative infection, and that application of aseptic surgical technique and hygiene instruction after surgery are sufficient.

  6. Multiscale Systems‐Pharmacology Pipeline to Assess the Prophylactic Efficacy of NRTIs Against HIV‐1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, V

    2016-01-01

    While HIV‐1 continues to spread, the use of antivirals in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has recently been suggested. Here we present a modular systems pharmacology modeling pipeline, predicting PrEP efficacy of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) at the scale of reverse transcription, target‐cell, and systemic infection and after repeated viral exposures, akin to clinical trials. We use this pipeline to benchmark the prophylactic efficacy of all currently approved NRTIs in wildtype and mutant viruses. By integrating pharmacokinetic models, we find that intracellular tenofovir‐diphosphate builds up too slowly to halt infection when taken “on demand” and that lamivudine may substitute emtricitabine in PrEP combinations. Lastly, we delineate factors confounding clinical PrEP efficacy estimates and provide a method to overcome these. The presented framework is useful to screen and optimize PrEP candidates and strategies and to understand their clinical efficacy by integrating the diverse scales which determine PrEP efficacy. PMID:27439573

  7. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumor surgery (PARITY survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Khaled

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep infection following endoprosthetic limb reconstruction for sarcoma of the long bones is a devastating complication occurring in 15% of sarcoma patients. Optimizing infection protocols and conducting definitive surgical trials are critical to improving outcomes. In this study, the PARITY (Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery investigators aimed to examine surgeon preferences in antibiotic prophylaxis and perceptions about current evidence, as well as to ascertain interest in resolving uncertainty in the evidence with clinical trials. Methods We used a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice in the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery. The survey was approved by our institution’s Ethics Board and emailed to all Active Members of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS and Canadian Orthopaedic Oncology Society (CANOOS. Survey answers were collected using an anonymous online survey tool. Results Of the 96 surgeons who received the questionnaire, 72 responded (75% response rate (% CI: 65.5, 82.5%. While almost all respondents agreed antibiotic regimens were important in reducing the risk of infection, respondents varied considerably in their choices of antibiotic regimens and dosages. Although 73% (95% CI: 61, 82% of respondents prescribe a first generation cephalosporin, 25% favor additional coverage with an aminoglycoside and/or Vancomycin. Of those who prescribe a cephalosporin, 33% prescribe a dosage of one gram for all patients and the reminder prescribe up to 2 grams based on body weight. One in three surgeons (95% CI: 25, 48% believes antibiotics could be discontinued after 24 hours but 40% (95% CI: 30, 53% continue antibiotics until the suction drain is removed. Given the ongoing uncertainty in evidence to guide best practices, 90% (95% CI: 81, 95% of respondents agreed that they would change their practice if a large randomized controlled trial showed

  8. A Modified Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers Authors: DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Paul C. Algra, LT, MC...May 2012 – May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Modified Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To prevent acute otitis externa (AOE) in the saturation setting and to decrease the side effects

  9. Prophylactic treatment of migraine in children. Part 1. A systematic review of non-pharmacological trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, L; Bruijn, J; Koes, BW; Berger, MY; Passchier, J; Verhagen, AP

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological prophylactic treatments of migraine in children. Databases were searched from inception to June 2004 and references were checked. We selected controlled trials reporting the effects of non-pharmacological prophylactic treatments

  10. Prophylactic treatment of migraine in children. Part 2. A systematic review of pharmacological trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, L; Bruijn, J; Verhagen, AP; Berger, MY; Passchier, J; Koes, BW

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of pharmacological prophylactic treatments of migraine in children. Databases were searched from inception to June 2004 and references were checked. We selected controlled trials on the effects of pharmacological prophylactic treatments in children wi

  11. Efficacy of Prophylactic Ketamine in Preventing Postoperative Shivering

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    Emine Köse

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Treatment with ketamine and meperidine is effective in postoperative shivering. The aim of this study was to investigate the minimum effective dose of ketamine in the prevention of postanaesthetic shivering compared to placebo and meperidine. Material and Method: This prospective randomized double-blind study involved 150 ASA I and II patients undergoing general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to receive normal saline (Group S, n=30, meperidine 20 mg (Group M, n=30, ketamine 0.1 mg/kg (Group K1, n=30, ketamine 0.25 mg/kg (Group K2, n=30 and ketamine 0.5 mg/ kg (Group K5, n=30 intravenously 20 minutes before completion of surgery. The anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg/kg, fentanyl 1 %u03BCg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg. It was maintained with sevoflurane 2-3% and nitrous oxide 60% in oxygen. Tympanic temperature was measured immediately after induction of anesthesia, 30 minutes after induction and before administration of the study drug. Postoperative shivering was recorded using a four point scale and postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS ranging between 0 and 10. Results: The number of patients shivering on arrival the recovery room and at 10 minutes after operation were significantly less in Groups M and K5 than in Groups K1, K2 and Group S (p < 0.001 and p=0.001. The time to first analgesic requirement in Groups M and K5 was longer than in the Groups K1, K2 and Group S (P< 0.001. There was no difference between the five groups regarding VAS pain scores (p > 0.05. Discussion: Prophylactic usage of ketamine 0.5 mg/kg was effective to prevent postanaesthetic shivering, but ketamine 0.1 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg had no prophylactic effect.

  12. Independent candidates in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Gonzalo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of independent candidates in Mexico, because through the so-called political reform of 2012 was incorporated in the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States the right of citizens to be registered as independent candidates. Also, in September 2013 was carried out a reform of Article 116 of the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States in order to allow independent candidates in each state of the Republic. However, prior to the constitutio...

  13. Should intentional endovascular stent-graft coverage of the left subclavian artery be preceded by prophylactic revascularisation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigang, Ernst; Parker, Jack A T C; Czerny, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , covering, endovascular, revascularisation and thoracic aorta. We have gathered the most complete scientific evidence available used to support the various concepts to deal with this issue. After a review of the current available literature, 23 relevant articles were found, where we have identified...... and analysed three basic treatment concepts for LSA revascularisation in TEVAR patients (prophylactic, conditional prophylactic and no prophylactic LSA revascularisation). The available evidence supports prophylactic revascularisation of the LSA before ESG LSA coverage when preoperative imaging reveals...

  14. Human papillomavirus 16 L1-E7 chimeric virus like particles show prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in murine model of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandresh; Dey, Bindu; Wahiduzzaman, Mohammed; Singh, Neeta

    2012-08-03

    Cervical cancer is found to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with HPV16 being the most prevalent. An effective vaccine against HPV can thus, be instrumental in controlling cervical cancer. An ideal HPV vaccine should aim to generate both humoral immune response to prevent new infection as well as cell-mediated immunity to eliminate established infection. In this study, we have generated a potential preventive and therapeutic candidate vaccine against HPV16. We expressed and purified recombinant HPV16 L1(ΔN26)-E7(ΔC38) protein in E. coli which was assembled into chimeric virus like particles (CVLPs) in vitro. These CVLPs were able to induce neutralizing antibodies and trigger cell-mediated immune response, in murine model of cervical cancer, exhibiting antitumor efficacy. Hence, this study has aimed to provide a vaccine candidate possessing both, prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against HPV16 associated cervical cancer.

  15. Prophylactic Appendectomy during Laparoscopic Surgery for Other Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Occhionorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis remains the most common surgical emergency. Laparoscopy has gained increasing favor as a method of both investigating right iliac fossa pain and treating the finding of appendicitis. A question arises: what to do with an apparent healthy appendix discovered during laparoscopic surgery for other pathology. We present a case of unilateral hydroureteronephrosis complicated with rupture of the renal pelvis, due to gangrenous appendicitis with abscess of the right iliopsoas muscle and periappendicular inflammation in a 67-year-old woman, who underwent laparoscopic right annessiectomy for right ovarian cyst few years earlier, in which a healthy appendix was left inside. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what to do with a normal appendix. The main argument for removing an apparently normal appendix is that endoluminal appendicitis may not be recognized during surgery, leading to concern that an abnormal appendix is left in place. Because of a lack of evidence from randomized trials, it remains unclear whether the benefits of routine elective coincidental appendectomy outweigh the costs and risks of morbidity associated with this prophylactic procedure. Nevertheless, it appears, from limited data, that women aged 35 years and under benefit most from elective coincidental appendectomy.

  16. Effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutilletta, A F; Rudnik, M; Arcilla, R A; Straube, R

    1977-11-01

    The effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy was studied in adult rats. Digitoxin, 0.1 mg/100 g body wt or solvent was given daily for 1 wk prior to either aortic constriction or sham operation and was continued until the animals were killed, either 1 or 4 wk after surgery. A hemodynamic study was done in those animals killed 1 wk after surgery; hearts of all animals were examined for evidence of myocardial hypertrophy. Constriction of the ascending aorta had no significant effect on cardiac output but did reduce peak flow velocity and flow acceleration. An increase in left ventricular mass, RNA, and hydroxyproline was found in the animals with aortic constriction. Digitoxin treatment did not alter peak flow velocity or flow acceleration, but did significantly increase isovolumic (dP/dt)P-1. Digitoxin had no effect on body weight, heart weight, RNA, or hydroxyproline in either the sham-operated animals or in the animals with aortic constriction. Therefore, despite plasma digitoxin levels sufficient to affect myocardial contractility, left ventricular hypertrophy still developed after aortic constriction.

  17. INTRASITE VANCOMYCIN POWDER AS A PROPHYLACTIC ADJUVANT IN LUMBAR FUSION

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    Jorge Álvaro González Ross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify whether the use of prophylactic intrasite vancomycin as an adjuvant is a protective factor against deep tissue infection of the surgical site. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, case-control study evaluating 210 patients, of whom 70 received intrasite vancomycin (case group and 140 were controls. It was made a follow up for at least one year, reviewing the physical and electronic records. Data were tabulated in spreadsheets (Excel including all variables and the statistical analysis was made with Epi InfoTM 7 to calculate the odds ratio. Results: Seven cases of deep infection occurred in the control group and none was found in the case group (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.1262 [0.007-2.24], P = 0.1585. Among the predisposing factors, diabetes and surgical time were the most relevant. Conclusions: Intrasite use of vancomycin has a protective effect against deep infection in patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery without presenting considerable side effects.

  18. Prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Rios-Castro, Martha; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia del Carmen; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which the most affected organ is the heart. Conventional chemotherapy has a very low effectiveness; despite recent efforts, there is currently no better or more effective treatment available. DNA vaccines provide a new alternative for both prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious disorders, including Chagas disease. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed some vaccines to be developed using recombinant proteins or virus-like particles capable of inducing both a humoral and cellular specific immune response. This type of immunization has been successfully used in preclinical studies and there are diverse models for viral, bacterial and/or parasitic diseases, allergies, tumors and other diseases. Therefore, several research groups have been given the task of designing a DNA vaccine against experimental infection with T. cruzi. In this review we explain what DNA vaccines are and the most recent studies that have been done to develop them with prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against Chagas disease.

  19. The use of caffeine versus prophylactic naps in sustained performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M H; Gomez, S; Wirth, O; Arand, D L

    1995-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that performance during sleep loss is improved by prophylactic naps as a function of varying nap length. Based on single-dose caffeine studies, a similar dose-response effect has been hypothesized on performance, alertness and mood during sleep loss. The present study compared the effects of repeated versus single-dose administration of caffeine and varying amounts of sleep taken prior to sleep loss on performance, mood and physiological measures during 2 nights and days of sleep loss. A total of 140 normal, young adult males participated at one of two study sites. Ninety-eight subjects at one site were randomly assigned to one of four nap conditions (0, 2, 4 or 8 hours) and 42 subjects at the second site were assigned to one of four caffeine conditions. After a normal baseline night of sleep and morning baseline tests of performance, mood and nap latency, subjects in the nap groups returned to bed at noon, 1600 hours, 1800 hours or not at all. Bedtimes were varied so that all naps ended at 2000 hours. Subjects in the caffeine groups received either a single 400-mg dose of caffeine at 0130 hours each night or repeated doses of 150 or 300 mg every 6 hours starting at 0130 hours on the 1st night of sleep loss. A placebo control group (no nap and placebo administered every 6 hours on the repeated caffeine schedule) was run at both sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The model of prophylactic conversation on health effects of smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strode А.А.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The preventive activity, which aims to improve the health of the entire population, takes an important place in the medical profession. Counseling, physical examinations, prophylactic medical examinations and health service are considered as the main types of the preventive activities. Objective; to study the situation about smoking in Russia and Latvia, to develop methods of prevention in the different target audiences. Material and Methods. The authors used the original questionnaire containing eight questions that allowed them to clarify the attitude of the respondents concerning the problem of smoking. Results. Sociological research (50 respondents from different cities of Russia and Latvia, 52% of men 48% of women, different age groups from 16 to 58 years showed the urgent need for ongoing preventive work among the nicotine active population. Conclusion. The analysis of data led to the conclusion on the addition of female smokers, lowering of the "first cigarette" age and the increase smoker index. The study has been carried out to develop a model of conversation about the dangers of smoking, taking into account the target audience.

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of traditional polyherbal remedy from Odisha, India:Their potential for prophylactic use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; Bangalore; Nagendrappa; Jean-Fran?ois; Franetich; Frederick; Gay; Audrey; Lorthiois; Padma; Venkatasubramanian; Dominique; Mazier

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential prophylactic activity of traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria.Methods:A traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria from Odisha,India was evaluated for its potential prophylactic activity using in vitro hepatic cell lines assay and the murine malaria system Plasmodium yoelii yoelii/Anopheles stephensi.Results:The polyherbal extract inhibited the Plasmodium yoelii hepatic stages in vitro(IC500.74 mg/m L),a therapeutic index of 9.54.In mice treated with the aqueous extract(2 000 mg/kg/day),peak parasitaemia values were 81%lower in the experimental2.35%±0.14%as compared to controls 12.62%±0.52%(P<0.001),suggesting significant prophylactic activity.Conclusions:The observations provide a proof of concept for a traditional malaria prophylactic remedy used by tribal populations in India.

  2. Prophylactic pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis: does it affect proximal femoral morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Gerard R; Campbell, Donald M; Wilson, Neil I L; Maclean, Jamie G B

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to determine whether prophylactic pinning of the unaffected hip in unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis affects the proximal femoral morphology. Twenty-four hips prophylactically pinned were compared with 26 cases observed. The articulotrochanteric distance (ATD) and the trochanteric-trochanteric distance (TTD) were measured. Postoperative radiographs were compared with final follow-up radiographs. The final TTD : ATD ratio was higher (P=0.048) in the pinned group, suggesting relative coxa vara/breva. There was a smaller difference between the two hips in the prophylactically pinned group (0.7) as opposed to those observed (1.47). Prophylactic pinning does not cause growth to stop immediately but alters the proximal femoral morphology.

  3. CURRENT EVIDENCE REGARDING THE EFFICACY OF PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FACIAL FRACTURES

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    Anilkumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the facial region are commonly treated by surgeons operating in the head and neck. Antibiotic prophylaxis is used by these surgeons to decrease the rate of infections, however the role of prophylactic antibiotics remains controversial. Evidence exists for the beneficial use of prophylactic antibiotics for tympanostomy, orthognathic surgery and third molar surgeries. Unfortunately there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in the management of facial fractures. In numerous cases no clear benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis has been shown, particularly considering their potential adverse side effects. The aim of this paper is to present the available evidence regarding the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in the management of facial fractures.

  4. Indications and Outcomes of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Extracranial-to-intracranial Arterial Bypass for Cerebral Revascularization

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    Emre Gazyakan, MD, MSc

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The collaboration of neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons in performing EC-IC bypass can result in excellent outcomes with a high bypass patency rate and few complications, particularly for prophylactic EC-IC bypass.

  5. Prophylactic dialysis in non-dialysis-dependent patients with renal failure after CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Borji

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: According the results of this study, prophylactic dialysis, before conduct-ing CABG, does not have any significant effect on mortality and other complications. The only exception is lung complications in non-dialysis-dependent patients with renal failure.

  6. Prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection (VI level in papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of central lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is very common. However, prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection additionally to thyroidectomy does not significantly affect disease-free and overall survival of PTC patients. Meanwhile its routine conduction is tangibly increase postsurgical complications. From efficacy/safety point of view prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection couldn't be recommended as substantiated in all PTC patients.

  7. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Hind Limb Ischemia/reperfusion Injury CAPT Thomas J...porcine model of hind limb ischemia. Method: Swine (Sus Scrofa ; 76 +/-6kg) were randomly assigned to no fasciotomy or prophylactic fasciotomy after...of ischemic intervals on neuromuscular recovery in a porcine (Sus scrofa ) survival model of extremity vascular injury. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Jan;53(1):165

  8. Prophylactic Swallowing Exercises in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H R; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, K;

    2015-01-01

    RT. Patients treated with primary RT for HNC were candidates for this randomized protocol. Participants in the exercise group were instructed to perform swallowing exercises at home. Participants in the control group were given standard care. Patients were evaluated with modified barium swallow...

  9. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  10. Realities of the prophylactic health care of workers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Kopias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Polish occupational health system (OHS, existing over the past 17 years, has recently been contested as never before. Critical voices pertain to both legislative and executive aspects of the system, in which key roles are played by employers and occupational medicine service. There are some reasons for making a hypothesis that relevant norms are not always respected by the main actors. Material and methods: The data on the observance of norms by entities responsible for providing workers with prophylactic health care were analyzed. They were obtained from the existing external resources and materials collected during the implementation of tasks assigned by the Ministry of Health. Results: Legal norms, which constitute OHS in Poland are generally neither respected by the employers, nor by the representatives of occupational medicine service. Nearly half (45–47% of employers infringe provisions relating to medical examinations of workers. Such a degree of non-observance of respective laws would have not been the case if it was not for the attitudes and “silent approval” of many (but not all occupational physicians. Laws defining the responsibilities of occupational medicine service units on one hand, and of employers on the other, are for many reasons infringed by both groups. Conclusions: The data analyses indicate that the Polish OHS is, to a large extent, not acceptable and should be replaced with another one founded on other assumptions and responsive to contemporary occupational health challenges. New provisions should be formulated on the basis of merit and guided by socially accepted norms. Med Pr 2015;66(6:815–825

  11. Prophylactic Vancomycin Drops Reduce the Severity of Early Bacterial Keratitis in Keratoprosthesis.

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    Aris Konstantopoulos

    Full Text Available Artificial cornea transplantation, keratoprosthesis, improves vision for patients at high risk of failure with human cadaveric cornea. However, post-operative infection can cause visual loss and implant extrusion in 3.2-17% of eyes. Long-term vancomycin drops are recommended following keratoprosthesis to prevent bacterial keratitis. Evidence, though, in support of this practice is poor. We investigated whether prophylactic vancomycin drops prevented bacterial keratitis in an animal keratoprosthesis model.Twenty-three rabbits were assigned either to a prophylactic group (n = 13 that received vancomycin 1.4% drops 5 times/day from keratoprosthesis implantation to sacrifice, or a non-prophylactic group (n = 10 that received no drops. All rabbits had Staphylococcus aureus inoculation into the cornea at 7-12 days post-implantation and were sacrificed at predetermined time-points. Prophylactic and non-prophylactic groups were compared with slit-lamp photography (SLP, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and histology, immunohistochemistry and bacterial quantification of excised corneas. Corneal vancomycin pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 additional rabbits.On day 1 post-inoculation, the median SLP score and mean±SEM AS-OCT corneal thickness (CT were greater in the non-prophylactic than the prophylactic group (11 vs. 1, p = 0.049 and 486.9±61.2 vs. 327.4±37.1 μm, p = 0.029 respectively. On days 2 and 4, SLP scores and CT were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry showed a greater CD11b+ve/non-CD11b+ve cell ratio in the non-prophylactic group (1.45 vs. 0.71 on day 2. Bacterial counts were not significantly different between the two groups. Corneal vancomycin concentration (2.835±0.383 μg/ml exceeded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for Staphylococcus aureus only after 16 days of vancomycin drops. Two of 3 rabbits still developed infection despite bacterial inoculation after 16 days of prophylactic drops.Prophylactic

  12. A review of prophylactic antibiotics use in plastic surgery in China and a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge-hong; Hou, Dian-ju; Fu, Hua-dong; Guo, Jing-ying; Guo, Xiao-bo; Gong, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for plastic surgical procedures at our hospital, and to perform a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery. The records of patients who received plastic surgical procedures with Class I surgical incisions between 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A systematic literature review was conducted for studies examining the use of prophylactic antibiotics for Class I surgical wounds. A total of 13,997 cases with Class I surgical incisions were included. Prophylactic antibiotics were given in 13,865 cases (99.1%). The antibiotics used were primarily cefuroxime, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin sodium, and gentamicin. The average duration of administration was 4.84 ± 3.07 (range, 1-51) days. Antibiotics were administered postoperatively in >99% of cases while preoperative antibiotic administration was only given in 32 cases (0.23%). Wound infections occurred in 21 cases for an overall infection rate of 0.15%. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. There was marked variation in the timing of antibiotic administration with antibiotics given pre-, peri-, and postoperatively. Of studies that compared the use of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo, a reduction in wound infections was noted in 4 trials and no difference was noted in 6 trials. No significant difference in infection rates was shown between the prophylactic and postoperative arms. In conclusion, prophylactic antibiotics are overused in plastic surgical procedures. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgical procedures are needed.

  13. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Offringa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011. Issue 3; MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011; EMBASE (1966 to May 2011; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE (May 2011. No language restrictions were imposed. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria: Trials using randomized or quasi-randomized patient allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic or antipyretic agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors (RN and MO independently applied pre-defined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the pre-defined relevant data, recording methods for randomization, blinding and exclusions. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. The presence of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. MAIN RESULTS Thirty-six articles describing 26 randomized trials with 2740 randomized participants were included. Thirteen interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments were analyzed. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We could not do a meta-analysis for 8 of the 13 comparisons due to insufficient numbers of trials. No significant benefit for valproate, pyridoxine

  14. Prophylactic use of laxative for constipation in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masri Yasser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was designed to evaluate the use of laxative prophylaxis for constipation in intensive care unit (ICU and the impact of early versus late bowel movement on patient′s outcome. Methods : The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial in critically ill ventilated adult patients, who were expected to stay on ventilator for >72 h. Control group did not receive any intervention for bowel movement for the first 72 h, whereas interventional group received prophylactic dose of lactulose 20 cc enterally every 12 h for the first 72 h. The parameters measured during the study were admission diagnosis, age, gender, comorbid conditions, admission Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II, sedative and narcotic agents with doses and duration, timing and tolerance of nutrition, daily assessment of bowel movement, total use of prokinetic, doses of suppositories, and enema for first bowel movement, total number of days on ventilator, weaning failures, extubation or tracheostomy, ICU length of stay, and death or discharge. Results : A total of 100 patients were enrolled, 50 patients in each control and interventional group. Mean age was 38.8 years, and both groups had male predominance. Mean SAPS II score for both was 35. Mean dose of Fentanyl (323.8 ± 108.89 mcg/h in control and 345.83 ± 94.43 mcg/h in interventional group and mean dose of Midazolam (11.1 ± 4.04 mg/h in control and 12.4 ± 3.19 mg/h in interventional group. There were only two (4% patients in control, while nine (18% patients in interventional group who had bowel movement in <72 h (P < 0.05. Mean ventilator days were 16.19, and 17.36 days in control and interventional groups, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the patients who moved bowel in <5 days in both groups had mean ventilator days of 18.5, whereas it was 15.88 days for the patients who moved bowel after 5 days in both groups (P< 0.05. Mean ICU days for control was 21.15 ± 10.44 and 20

  15. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  16. Efficacy of Prophylactic Uterine Artery Embolization before Obstetrical Procedures with High Risk for Massive Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Heung Kyu; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyung; Han, Kichang; Lee, Shin-Wha

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of 29 female patients who underwent prophylactic UAE from June 2009 to February 2014 was performed. Indications for prophylactic UAE were as follows: dilatation and curettage (D&C) associated with ectopic pregnancy (cesarean scar pregnancy, n = 9; cervical pregnancy, n = 6), termination of pregnancy with abnormal placentation (placenta previa, n = 8), D&C for retained placenta with vascularity (n = 5), and D&C for suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (n = 1). Their medical records were reviewed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of UAE. Results All women received successful bilateral prophylactic UAE followed by D&C with preservation of the uterus. In all patients, UAE followed by obstetrical procedure prevented significant vaginal bleeding on gynecologic examination. There was no major complication related to UAE. Vaginal spotting continued for 3 months in three cases. Although oligomenorrhea continued for six months in one patient, normal menstruation resumed in all patients afterwards. During follow-up, four had subsequent successful natural pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion occurred in one of them during the first trimester. Conclusion Prophylactic UAE before an obstetrical procedure in patients with high risk of bleeding or symptomatic bleeding may be a safe and effective way to manage or prevent serious bleeding, especially for women who wish to preserve their fertility. PMID:28246515

  17. Pilot Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    pilot selection system and to best support up-front track selection for SUPT? Assumptions The USAF Trainer Masterplan does not include a plan to...replace the T-41 with a new flight screening aircraft. In addition, the Masterplan states that candidates will be track selected prior to entry into primary...training. (3:10) While the Masterplan is not a static document and aircraft procurement plans and/or the timing of track selection are subject to

  18. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  19. [Cardiovascular effects produced by prophylactic digitalization during introduction of anaesthesia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, R; Köhne, K; Busse, J; Hosselmann, I; Klaschik, E; Simons, F

    1978-10-01

    The narrow field of non-controversial indications concerning the application of digitalis glycosides is pointed out. Problems of routine digitalization of older patients not suffering from cardiac insuffiency are discussed with special regard to preparing them for operations. Up to now, from the viewpoint of anaesthesiologists no benefits of prophylactic digitalization have been found. In a retrospective computerized study, clinical hemodynamic parameters during introduction of anaesthesia have been investigated by means of anaesthetic data recorded during three years. Nondigitalized patients older than fifty years showed satisfactory cardiac functions, whereas prophylactically digitalized patients--compared with the control group--have been treated with plasma expanders earlier and at a double rate. Furthermore, higher heart frequencies and greater tendency to arrythmias were observed. Consequently, prophylactic digitalization cannot be recommended in general.

  20. Prediction of bleeding and prophylactic platelet transfusions in cancer patients with thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille J; Alnor, Anne; Nybo, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on markers for bleeding risk among thrombocytopenic cancer patients are lacking. This prospective observational cohort study investigated whether platelet parameters and a standardised bleeding questionnaire predicted bleeding or prophylactic platelet transfusions in patients with cancer ...... platelet transfusion but not bleeding. Bleeding risk factors were previous haematuria or gastrointestinal bleeding, infection, antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment, high urea nitrogen, low haemoglobin or high creatinine........20–7.52 predicted bleeding whereas the standardised bleeding questionnaire did not. Prophylactic platelet transfusions were administered to 97 patients. Predictors of prophylactic platelet transfusions were: platelet count OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.97; fibrinogen OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83–0.95; mean platelet volume...

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of traditional polyherbal remedy from Odisha, India:Their potential for prophylactic use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Bangalore Nagendrappa; Jean-Franois Franetich; Frederick Gay; Audrey Lorthiois; Padma Venkatasubramanian; Dominique Mazier

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential prophylactic activity of traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria. Methods: A traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria from Odisha, India was evaluated for its potential prophylactic activity using in vitro hepatic cell lines assay and the murine malaria system Plasmodium yoelii yoelii/Anopheles stephensi. Results: The polyherbal extract inhibited the Plasmodium yoelii hepatic stages in vitro (IC50 0.74 mg/mL), a therapeutic index of 9.54. In mice treated with the aqueous extract (2 000 mg/kg/day), peak parasitaemia values were 81% lower in the experimental 2.35% ± 0.14% as compared to controls 12.62% ± 0.52% (P Conclusions: The observations provide a proof of concept for a traditional malaria prophylactic remedy used by tribal populations in India.

  2. Periinterventional prophylactic antibiotics in radiological port catheter implantation; Periinterventionelle prophylaktische Antibiotikagabe bei der radiologischen Portkatheterimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B.; Teichgraeber, U.; Werk, M. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Wagner, H.J. [Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain und am Urban (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether catheter-related infections after radiologically placed port catheters can be reduced by single-shot periinterventional antibiosis. Materials and Method: Between January and September 2002, 164 consecutive patients with indication for central venous port catheter implantation were included in the present study. During implantation the interventional radiologist was responsible for deciding whether to administer a prophylactic single-shot antibiosis. The prophylactic antibiosis entailed intravenous administration of ampicillin and sulbactam (3 g Unacid, Pfizer) or 100 mg ciprofloxacine (Ciprobay, Bayer) in the case of an allergy history to penicillins. Catheter-related infection was defined as a local or systemic infection necessitating port catheter extraction. Results: Indication for port catheter implantation was a malignant disease requiring chemotherapy in 158 cases. The port catheter (Chemosite [Tyco Healthcare] [n = 123], low-profile [Arrow International] [n = 35], other port system [n = 6]) was implanted via sonographically guided puncture of the right jugular vein in 139 patients, via the left jugular vein in 24 cases and via the right subclavian vein in one patient. 75 patients received periinterventional prophylactic antibiosis (Unacid [n = 63] Ciprobay [n = 12]) and 89 patients did not receive antibiosis. The prophylactic antibiosis caused a minor allergic reaction in one patient that improved with antihistamic and corticoid medication. A total of 7 ports, 6 without prophylactic antibiosis versus one with periinterventional prophylaxis, were extracted due to infectious complications. Conclusion: Single-shot periinterventional prophylactic antibiosis can reduce early and late infectious complications after radiological-interventional placement of central venous port catheters. (orig.)

  3. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  4. Positive, negative, and disparate--women's differing long-term psychosocial experiences of bilateral or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Rolnick, Sharon J; Greene, Sarah M; Elmore, Joann G; West, Carmen N; Herrinton, Lisa J; Harris, Emily L; Fletcher, Suzanne W; Emmons, Karen M; Geiger, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Because of recent studies showing strong prevention benefit and acceptable psychosocial outcomes, more women may be considering prophylactic mastectomy. A growing literature shows some positive psychosocial outcomes for women with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, but less is known about women with contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Several surveys have shown that a large majority of women with prophylactic mastectomy report satisfaction with their decisions to have the procedure when asked in a quantitative, closed-ended format. We sought to explore the nuances of women's satisfaction with the procedure using a qualitative, open-ended format. We included open-ended questions as part of a mailed survey on psychosocial outcomes of prophylactic mastectomy. The research team coded and analyzed these responses using qualitative methods. We used simple descriptive statistics to compare the demographics of the entire survey sample to those women who answered the open-ended questions; the responses to the open- and closed-ended satisfaction questions, and the responses of women with bilateral and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Seventy-one percent of women with prophylactic mastectomy responded to the survey and 48% provided open-ended responses about psychosocial outcomes. Women's open-ended responses regarding psychosocial outcomes could be coded into one of three general categories--positive, negative, and disparate. In the subgroup of women with both open- and closed-ended responses, over 70% of women providing negative and disparate comments to the open-ended question simultaneously indicated satisfaction on a closed-ended question. Negative and disparate open-ended responses were twice as common among women with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (52%) than women with contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (26%). These findings suggest that even among women who report general satisfaction with their decision to have prophylactic mastectomy via closed

  5. Prophylactical and therapeutical efficacy of Tiamuline in mycoplasmosis of chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Laber, G; Schultze, E

    1977-07-01

    To evaluate efficacy of Tiamuline in mycoplasmosis of chickens and turkeys under controlled field conditions 2 prophylactical and 3 therapeutical trials were conducted. The compound was administered via drinking water for 3 days in comparison to Tylosin tartrate. In both prophylactical and therapeutical tests, Tiamuline showed a superior efficiacy, as measured by clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and microbiological findings. Therefore, Tiamuline can be recommended for treatment of mycoplasmosis in chickens and turkeys in a dosage of 0.025% and in a dosage of 0.0125% for prophylaxis in flocks at risk.

  6. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  7. Failure-to-success ratios, transition probabilities and phase lengths for prophylactic vaccines versus other pharmaceuticals in the development pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew M; Butchart, Amy T; Wheeler, John R C; Coleman, Margaret S; Singer, Dianne C; Freed, Gary L

    2011-11-28

    Research and development of prophylactic vaccines carries a high risk of failure. In the past, industry experts have asserted that vaccines are riskier to produce than other pharmaceuticals. This assertion has not been critically examined. We assessed outcomes in pharmaceutical research and development from 1995 to 2011, using a global pharmaceutical database to identify prophylactic vaccines versus other pharmaceuticals in preclinical, Phase I, Phase II, or Phase III stages of development. Over 16 years of follow-up for 4367 products (132 prophylactic vaccines; 4235 other pharmaceuticals), we determined the failure-to-success ratios for prophylactic vaccines versus all other products. The overall ratio of failures to successes for prophylactic vaccines for the 1995 cohort over 16 years of follow-up was 8.3 (116/14) versus 7.7 (3650/475) for other pharmaceuticals. The probability of advancing through the development pipeline at each point was not significantly different for prophylactic vaccines than for other pharmaceuticals. Phase length was significantly longer for prophylactic vaccines than other pharmaceuticals for preclinical development (3.70 years vs 2.80 years; pvaccines are not significantly different from those of other pharmaceutical products, which may partially explain rapidly growing interest in prophylactic vaccines among major pharmaceutical manufacturers.

  8. Prophylactic antibiotics for variceal hemorrhage: Clostridium difficile infection still can be a risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naohiro Okano; Kentaro Iwata

    2011-01-01

    Bron et al presented a retrospective study regarding the prophylactic use of antibiotics for variceal hemorrhage. Antibiotics appeared to improve the survival rate of patients without increasing clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We argue against the conclusion of the authors and consider that this result may be simply due to concurrent use of metronidazole, a therapeutic agent against CDI.

  9. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  10. Salivary gland-sparing prophylactic pilocarpine treatment has no effect on tumor regrowth after irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, R; Kampinga, HH; Coppes, RP

    2002-01-01

    Radiotherapy, of head and neck cancer frequently damages the salivary glands. Prophylactic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine reduces subsequent radiation damage to the salivary glands in rats, but its effects on tumor cell radiosensitivity and tumor regrowth after irradia

  11. Triptan use after starting prophylactic migraine treatment: A retrospective cohort study in a primary care population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, A.F.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Dijk, C.E. van; Blom, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical trials on the prophylactic effect of propranolol and metoprolol for migraine show that starting this medication leads to a decrease in the use of attack medication of 0.9-8.9 doses per month. However, studies in daily practice are lacking. METHODS: We compared the number of trip

  12. Triptan use after starting prophylactic migraine treatment: a retrospective cohort study in a primary care population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, A.F.H.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Dijk, C.E. van; Blom, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials on the prophylactic effect of propranolol and metoprolol for migraine show that starting this medication leads to a decrease in the use of attack medication of 0.9–8.9 doses per month. However, studies in daily practice are lacking. Methods: We compared the number of trip

  13. Prophylactic penicillin: effect on posttreatment symptoms following root canal treatment of asymptomatic periapical pathosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, R E; Chiappinelli, J

    1993-09-01

    It has been reported that administration of prophylactic penicillin may prevent flare-ups or other undesirable posttreatment sequelae following root canal treatment. To test this hypothesis in a prospective study, 80 patients with a diagnosis of pulp necrosis and chronic apical periodontitis were divided into three groups: group A (prophylactic penicillin, AHA recommendation), group B (placebo, same regimen), and group C (no medication). Medications and evaluations were double-blinded. Patients reported their posttreatment events including incidence of flare-ups, incidence and severity of pain/swelling, and occurrence of adverse side effects. Differences in the three groups were determined statistically using chi-square tests. The outcome showed no significant difference (p = 0.68) among the three groups. That is, administration/nonadministration of penicillin prophylactically was unrelated to posttreatment signs and symptoms following canal preparation. Incidence of flare-ups was very low (1 of 80). Occurrence of pain in the mild-moderate levels was fairly high (approximately 70% overall), but was primarily in the mild category. Overall incidence of side effects was also very low (2 of 80). Severe levels of pain/swelling and flare-up incidence were low with no difference between administration or nonadministration of antibiotics. Based on our data, using penicillin (a potentially dangerous drug) prophylactically to control posttreatment symptoms is not recommended in cases of pulp necrosis and asymptomatic periapical pathosis.

  14. Parenteral anticoagulation in patients with cancer who have no therapeutic or prophylactic indication for anticoagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Akl; S. Gunukula; M. Barba; V.E.D. Yosuico; F.F. van Doormaal; S. Kuipers; S. Middeldorp; H.O. Dickinson; A. Bryant; H. Schuenemann

    2011-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation may improve survival in patients with cancer through an antitumor effect in addition to the perceived antithrombotic effect. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of parenteral anticoagulants in patients with cancer with no therapeutic or prophylactic indication f

  15. Prophylactic Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy with Jejunal Pouch Reconstruction in Patients Carrying a CDH1 Germline Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, L.; Sluis, P.C. van der; Ausems, M.G.; Horst, S. van der; Siersema, P.D.; Ruurda, J.P.; Offerhaus, G.J.; Hillegersberg, R. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with an identified germline E-cadherin-1 (CDH1) mutation, prophylactic gastrectomy is the treatment of choice to eliminate the high risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch reconstruction is a novel approach that may be esp

  16. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal...

  17. Male Malignant Phyllodes Breast Tumor After Prophylactic Breast Radiotherapy and Bicalutamide Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karihtala, Peeter; Rissanen, Tarja; Tuominen, Hannu

    2016-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor in male breast is an exceptionally rare neoplasm with only few published case reports. Herein, we present a case of malignant phyllodes tumor in male breast nine years after prophylactic breast 10 Gy radiotherapy and after nine year bicalutamide treatment. The imaging findings of the tumor and pathological correlation are also presented.

  18. Prophylactic antibiotics at the time of tracheotomy lowers the incidence of pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nicklas Järvelä; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia in relation to tracheotomy is a well-known complication. The aim of the present study was to study prophylactic antibiotics at the time of tracheotomy as a protective factor against nosocomial pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted...

  19. Decision making regarding prophylactic mastectomy: stability of preferences and the impact of anticipated feelings of regret.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, S. van; Roosmalen, M.S van; Otten, W.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women who test positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation face difficult choices to manage their breast cancer risk; one of these choices is whether to opt for prophylactic mastectomy. Few data are available about this decision-making process. The current study provides data regarding the stability of

  20. The psychological impact of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopie, Jessica Premdee

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the psychological impact of two types of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer was investigated with a prospective study including 202 patients from different hospitals in the South-West of the Netherlands between 2007-2012. With semi-str

  1. The effect of prophylactic antipyretic administration on post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody response in children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at

  2. Pentosan polysulfate as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealler, Stephen; Rainov, Nikolai G

    2003-05-01

    Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) acts by imitating the physiological roles of the heparans. It binds to heparan binding sites on proteins and alters the physiological actions of these proteins. PPS acts as a prophylactic agent against infection with prions both in vivo and in vitro. Low concentrations (10 mg/ml) are needed extracellularly for this effect to be seen but, due to cellular uptake, it is believed that a much higher concentration is found intracellularly. The prophylactic effect of PPS is observed if the drug is administered to mice between 3 months before and approximately 30 days after the inoculation of the disease. After that point it is considered that the infection has entered the nervous system, and that the drug cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The prophylaxis of humans with oral PPS and the current therapeutic activity of the drug when given by intracerebroventricular infusion to symptomatic, prion-infected animals are discussed.

  3. Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization: a randomized trial of prophylactic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyras, D H; Stothert, J C; Kaiser, G C; Barner, H B; Codd, J E; Willman, V L

    1979-02-01

    The success of prophylactic digitalization in reducing the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) was studied in 140 randomly grouped, consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization operations. The test group received either 1 or 1.5 mg. of digoxin the day before operation and were maintained postoperatively on 0.25 mg. of digoxin daily. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of SVT in the treated patients (17 of 61 or 27.8 percent) vs. the untreated patients (nine of 79 or 11.4 percent). There was no significant difference in SVT with the two digitalization dosage levels (31.6 percent with 1 mg. vs. 21.7 percent with 1.5 mg.). Prophylactic digitalization demonstrates no benefit in the prevention of SVT following myocardial revascularization and may, in fact, predispose the patient to these arrhythmias.

  4. Low-dosage prophylactic vancomycin in central-venous catheters for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocete, E; Ruíz-Extremera, A; Goicoechea, A; Lozano, E; Robles, C; Rey, M L; Salmerón, J

    1998-12-01

    Neonatal infectious pathology remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in this age group. The introduction of plasticized catheters for the administration of medication, fluidotherapy and parenteral nutrition was a significant advance in treatment of patients at risk, but also led to the appearance of infectious complications. Negative coagulase staphylococcus is the principal pathogen in most neonatal intensive care units. Recent studies have examined the prophylactic use of vancomycin in preterm babies receiving parenteral nutrition. We have evaluated the efficacy of this procedure, applied via the central venous catheters employed for all neonates, within the intensive care unit over a period of one year. Prophylactic vancomycin administered via the catheters significantly reduced the incidence of Gram-positive infections, despite the presence within this group of a greater number of septic risk factors than in the control group.

  5. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccination against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: Developments and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Major

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in patients and chimpanzees that spontaneously clear Hepatitis C Virus (HCV have demonstrated that natural immunity to the virus is induced during primary infections and that this immunity can be cross protective. These discoveries led to optimism regarding prophylactic HCV vaccines and a number of studies in the chimpanzee model have been performed, all of which resulted in modified infections after challenge but did not always prevent persistence of the virus. Therapeutic vaccine strategies have also been pursued in an effort to reduce the costs and side effects associated with anti-viral drug treatment. This review summarizes the studies performed thus far in both patients and chimpanzees for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination, assesses the progress made and future perspectives.

  6. Breast reconstruction after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldor, Liron; Spiegel, Aldona

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown the effectiveness of bilateral prophylactic mastectomies (BPM) at reducing the risk of developing breast cancer in women by more than 90%. A growing number of women at high risk for breast cancer are electing to undergo prophylactic mastectomy as part of a risk reduction strategy. This unique group of women frequently chooses to undergo reconstructive surgery as a part of their immediate treatment plan. Breast reconstruction after BPM has profound physiological and emotional impact on body image, sexuality, and quality of life. These factors should be taken into consideration and addressed when consulting the patient prior to BPM and reconstructive surgery. The timing of reconstructive surgery, the type of mastectomy performed, the reconstructive modalities available, and the possibility to preserve the nipple-areola complex, should all be discussed with the patient prior to surgery. In this article, we review our experience and the current existing literature on breast reconstruction for high-risk women after BPM.

  7. A Quantitative Risk-Benefit Analysis of Prophylactic Surgery Prior to Extended-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Danielle; Reyes, David; Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Antonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Among otherwise healthy astronauts undertaking deep space missions, the risks for acute appendicitis (AA) and cholecystitis (AC) are not zero. If these conditions were to occur during spaceflight they may require surgery for definitive care. The proposed study quantifies and compares the risks of developing de novo AA and AC in-flight to the surgical risks of prophylactic laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and cholecystectomy (LC) using NASA's Integrated Medical Model (IMM). METHODS: The IMM is a Monte Carlo simulation that forecasts medical events during spaceflight missions and estimates the impact of these medical events on crew health. In this study, four Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were created to assess the probability of an astronaut developing in-flight small-bowel obstruction (SBO) following prophylactic 1) LA, 2) LC, 3) LA and LC, or 4) neither surgery (SR# S-20160407-351). Model inputs were drawn from a large, population-based 2011 Swedish study that examined the incidence and risks of post-operative SBO over a 5-year follow-up period. The study group included 1,152 patients who underwent LA, and 16,371 who underwent LC. RESULTS: Preliminary results indicate that prophylactic LA may yield higher mission risks than the control DRM. Complete analyses are pending and will be subsequently available. DISCUSSION: The risk versus benefits of prophylactic surgery in astronauts to decrease the probability of acute surgical events during spaceflight has only been qualitatively examined in prior studies. Within the assumptions and limitations of the IMM, this work provides the first quantitative guidance that has previously been lacking to this important question for future deep space exploration missions.

  8. Postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery, with and without prophylactic antibiotic administration: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asi Kanwarjit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many a times in clinical periodontology, the decision whether to prescribe prophylactic antibiotics or not , is perplexing.The present study was conducted to compare the bacteremias induced after periodontal flap surgeries with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Materials and Methods: The occurrence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery was studied in 30 patients. On these patients, 30 quadrant wise flap surgeries were carried out without any preoperative prophylactic antibiotics and 30 surgeries carried out after prophylactic administration of amoxycillin preoperatively. A blood sample was taken from each patient at the time of maximum surgical trauma and was cultured for micro-organisms and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: 18 out of 60 blood samples were positive for micro-organisms. There was a significant reduction in post operative bacteremia after amoxycillin prophylaxis (x - 7.96 with P< 0.01 as post operative bacteremia was found in 14 of the non medicated patients as compared to only 4 of the pre medicated patients. The micro-organisms encountered in the study are as follows:- 1 Staphylococcus albus coagulase negative, 2 Klebsiella, 3 Psedomonas aerugenosa, 4 Streptococcus viridans, 5 Alpha hemolytic streptococcus, 6 Neisseria catarrhalis Conclusion: On the basis of the study, it is concluded that the incidence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery is not as high as previously reported. The clinical results show that Amoxicillin is highly effective in reducing postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery and thus in preventing the possible sequelae (Infective Endocarditis and other systemic maladies in susceptible patients. However, cefotaxime and cephalexin may prove to be more effective in preventing the same.

  9. EFFECT OF PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTIC ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTION AFTER TENSION-FREE HERNIOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Saskia-Javi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: prophylactic antibiotics were remains applied for hernioplasty treatment at Sanglah General Hospital Bali-Indonesia. On the other hand, there were no comprehensive infection incidence data gathered. This research aims to determine incidence differences of post operative infection inpatients underwent tension-free hernioplasty and received prophylactic antibiotics compared to thosewho received placebo. The general purpose of this research is to determine the necessity of prophylactic antibiotics in the hope of setting new procedural standards in elective hernia procedures thus reducing cost and bacteria resistance.Patients and Method: This was an open label randomizedclinical trial conducted at Sanglah General Hospital Department of General Surgery from October 2011. The target population was all patients who underwent tension-free hernioplasty procedure, in Sanglah General Hospital. The acquired data was analyzed after an independent t test was performed. a Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher’s exact test, and Two-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used todetermine the correlations between variables, where p < 0.05 was regardless of significant.Results: From 54 subjects 3 (5.6% of them were found to have a slight erythema around the operation wound,on the 7th,14th,21th, and 28th day no signs of erythema were found. From the three subjects two (7.4% were from the placebo group and one (3.7% from the antibiotic group. All clinical assessment of post operative wound was made using Southampton Wound Assessment Scale, where erythema is a grade 1C, all subjects healed primarily.Conclusion: An Open Label Randomized Clinical Trial comparing SSI in post tension-free hernioplasty patients who were given prophylactic antibiotics and placebo.No significant difference were found.

  10. Practice patterns among thyroid cancer surgeons: implications of performing a prophylactic central neck dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschmann, Michael W.; Chin-Lenn, Laura; Nakoneshny, Steven C.; Dort, Joseph C.; Pasieka, Janice L.; Chandarana, Shamir P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indications for performing a prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remain controversial. It is unclear how identification of lymph node (LN) metastases should impact the decision to treat with radioactive iodine (RAI). The goals of this study were to identify indications for performing pCND and identify factors that predict the use of adjuvant RAI. Methods This was a population based cross-sectional analysis. A prospectively collected databas...

  11. HPV prophylactic vaccination in males improves the clearance of semen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea; Parisi, Saverio; Ghezzi, Marco; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Di Nisio, Andrea; De Toni, Luca

    2015-10-01

    •We evaluated whether seroconversion in males influences HPV semen infection.•Naturally seroconverted patients showed reduced prevalence of HPV semen infection.•Naturally seroconverted patients also showed virtual absence of HPV multiple infection.•Prophylactic HPV vaccination induced clearance within 12 months from recruitment.•Seroconversion represents a key process involved in the clearance of the HPV.Available prophylactic vaccinations are considered of protective value for genital condyloma and precancerous lesions in female, but cost-effectiveness of the use of HPV vaccine in males is largely underinvestigated. HPV detection in semen is also an emerging problem in couples eligible for assisted reproduction techniques, since persistent infections are not compatible with repeated 6-months counselling-cycles to allow any spontaneous clearance of the virus in older infertile couples.In this study, we provide evidence that the development of seroconversion in human males affected by HPV infection in the genito-urinary tract, detected by HPV-DNA presence in the semen, has beneficial effects on the clearance of a viral load. Moreover, administration of prophylactic vaccination to HPV infected-seronegative patients induced seroconversion within 6 months from the first dosage administration, achieving 10 folds-higher antibody titre compared to natural seroconversion. If vaccine administration ameliorates the clearance of HPV semen infection, this could be a potential benefit to overcome fertility problems related to persistent HPV infections in males, after an obvious cost-effectiveness analysis.

  12. Relish2 mediates bursicon homodimer-induced prophylactic immunity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Dong, Shengzhang; Chen, Xi; Stanley, David; Beerntsen, Brenda; Feng, Qili; Song, Qisheng

    2017-02-22

    Bursicon is a neuropeptide hormone consisting of two cystine-knot proteins (burs α and burs β), responsible for cuticle tanning and other developmental processes in insects. Recent studies show that each bursicon subunit forms homodimers that induce prophylactic immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that bursicon homodimers act in prophylactic immunity in insects, and possibly arthropods, generally, using the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. We found that burs α and burs β are expressed in larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults. Treating newly emerged Ae. aegypti and D. melanogaster adults with recombinant bursicon (r-bursicon) heterodimer led to cuticle tanning in both species. Treating larvae and adults with r-bursicon homodimers led to up-regulation of five anti-microbial peptide (AMP) genes, noting the possibility that bursicon heterodimers also lead to up-regulation of these genes can not been excluded. The induced AMPs effectively suppressed the growth of bacteria in vitro. RNAi knock-down of the transcriptional factor Relish2 abolished the influence of r-bursicon homodimers on AMP production. We infer the bursicon homodimers induce expression of AMP genes via Relish2 in Ae. aegypti, as prophylactic immunity to protect mosquitoes during the vulnerable stages of each molt.

  13. Relish2 mediates bursicon homodimer-induced prophylactic immunity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Dong, Shengzhang; Chen, Xi; Stanley, David; Beerntsen, Brenda; Feng, Qili; Song, Qisheng

    2017-01-01

    Bursicon is a neuropeptide hormone consisting of two cystine-knot proteins (burs α and burs β), responsible for cuticle tanning and other developmental processes in insects. Recent studies show that each bursicon subunit forms homodimers that induce prophylactic immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that bursicon homodimers act in prophylactic immunity in insects, and possibly arthropods, generally, using the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. We found that burs α and burs β are expressed in larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults. Treating newly emerged Ae. aegypti and D. melanogaster adults with recombinant bursicon (r-bursicon) heterodimer led to cuticle tanning in both species. Treating larvae and adults with r-bursicon homodimers led to up-regulation of five anti-microbial peptide (AMP) genes, noting the possibility that bursicon heterodimers also lead to up-regulation of these genes can not been excluded. The induced AMPs effectively suppressed the growth of bacteria in vitro. RNAi knock-down of the transcriptional factor Relish2 abolished the influence of r-bursicon homodimers on AMP production. We infer the bursicon homodimers induce expression of AMP genes via Relish2 in Ae. aegypti, as prophylactic immunity to protect mosquitoes during the vulnerable stages of each molt. PMID:28225068

  14. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu ZUO; Jinghui FAN; Huixia FAN; Tanqing LI; Xiaobo ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the causative agent of acute diarrhea of new-born piglets that provokes high mortality rates in affected farms. In this study, specific immunoglobulin from egg yolk against TGEV was produced by immunization of White leghorn hens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VN) test revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase on the tenth day post-immunization, reached its peak on the eighth week, and remained at a high level until the last week that we tested. The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was investigated in piglets. IgY was found effective to increase piglets sur-vival rate significantly after challenge exposures in pro-phylactic efficacy analysis. The therapeutic effects test revealed that the mortality was dramatically reduced by orally administered IgY. All these results in our study indicated that IgY specific to TGEV could be an alterna-tive prophylactic method like colostral antibodies against TGEV in piglets.

  15. Influence of prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy on high-dose busulphan kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M; Oberg, G; Björkholm, M; Wallin, I; Lindgren, M

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of high-dose busulphan was studied in 17 patients during conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation using deuterium-labeled busulphan (d8-BU). About 50% of busulphan doses 1 and 16 was replaced with d8-BU. Patients were treated with phenytoin or diazepam as prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy. Patients who received phenytoin demonstrated significantly higher clearance (mean +/- SD, 3.32 +/- 0.99 ml min-1 kg-1), a lower area under the concentration-time curve (AUC, 5,412 +/- 1,534 ng h ml-1; corrected for dose/kilogram) and a shorter elimination half-life (3.03 +/- 0.57 h) for the last dose of d8-BU (dose 16) as compared with the first dose (2.80 +/- 0.78 ml min-1 kg-1, 6,475 +/- 2,223 ng h ml-1 and 3.94 +/- 1.10 h, respectively). No difference in the above mentioned pharmacokinetic parameters was seen in patients treated with diazepam. Moreover, a continuous decrease in the steady-state level of busulphan was observed in four of seven patients in the phenytoin-treated group, whereas in the diazepam group, such a decrease was seen in only one of eight patients. We conclude that phenytoin used as prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy alters busulphan pharmacokinetics and, most probably, its pharmacodynamics. For adequate prophylactic therapy, anticonvulsants with fewer enzyme-inductive properties than phenytoin should be used.

  16. Prevention of diabetic microangiopathy by prophylactic transplant of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Xiao-cang CAO; Zhi-hong FANG; Cui-lin ZHENG; Zhi-bo HAN; He REN; Man-chiu POON; Zhong-chao HAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the prophylactic local delivery of mobilized periph-eral blood mononuclear cells (M-PBMNC) could prevent peripheral microangio-pathy in diabetic nude mice. Methods: Diabetic nude mice were induced with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. With the time course of diabetes, we detected the capillary and arteriole density of mice adductor muscles by immuno-histopathy. In situ apoptosis was detected by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. M-PBMNC were labeled and locally delivered to the adductor muscles. Mononuclear cells were also isolated and cultured in vitro for the detection and counting of endothelial progenitor cells(EPC). Results: Rarefication of capillaries and arterioles, enhanced apoptosis in adductor muscles,and reduced circulating EPC in diabetic nude mice. Prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC halted the progression of microvascular rarefaction in hind-limb skel-etal muscles by inhibiting apoptosis. We detected the survival, migration and incorporation of transplanted M-PBMNC into the murine vasculature in vivo. In addition, more EPC were available from M-PBMNC than non-mobilized cells.Conclusion: These results suggested that the prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC may represent a novel approach for the treatment of microvascular complications in diabetics.

  17. The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Madalinska; M. van Beurden; E.M.A. Bleiker; H.B. Valdimarsdottir; J. Hollenstein; L.F. Massuger; K.N. Gaarenstroom; M.J.E. Mourits; R.H.M. Verheijen; E.B.L. van Dorst; H. van der Putten; K. van der Velden; H. Boonstra; N.K. Aaronson

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Preventive health strategies for women at increased hereditary risk of ovarian cancer include gynecologic screening (GS) and/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PBSO). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often prescribed to compensate for postsurgical endocrine deficiencies. This study examined t

  18. The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madalinska, J.B.; Beurden, M. van; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Valdimarsdottir, H.B.; Hollenstein, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Mourits, M.J.E.; Verheijen, R.H.; Dorst, E.B.L. van; Putten, H. van der; Velden, K. van der; Boonstra, H.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Preventive health strategies for women at increased hereditary risk of ovarian cancer include gynecologic screening (GS) and/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PBSO). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often prescribed to compensate for postsurgical endocrine deficiencies. This study examined

  19. Construction of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Capsid Protein Vaccine Delivered by Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri Strain sh42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng YANG; Xin-Zhong QU; Kai WANG; Jin ZHENG; Lü-Sheng SI; Xiao-Ping DONG; Yi-Li WANG

    2005-01-01

    To express human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in the recombinant strain of Shigella and study the potential of a live attenuated Shigella-based HPV prophylactic vaccine in preventing HPV infection, the icsA/virG fragment of Shigella-based prokaryotic expression plasmid pHS3199 was constructed.HPV type 16 L 1 (HPV 16L 1) gene was inserted into plasmid pHS 3199 to form the pHS3199-HPV 16L1construct, and pHS3199-HPV16L1 was electroporated into a live attenuated Shigella strain sh42. Western blotting analysis showed that HPV 16L1 could be expressed stably in the recombinant strain sh42-HPV 16L1.Sereny test results were negative, which showed that the sh42-HPV16L1 lost virulence. However, the attenuated recombinant strain partially maintained the invasive property as indicated by the HeLa cell infection assay. Specific IgG, IgA antibody against HPV16L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) were detected in the sera,intestinal lavage and vaginal lavage from animals immunized by sh42-HPV 16L 1. The number of antibodysecreting cells in the spleen and draining lymph nodes were increased significantly compared with the control group. Sera from immunized animals inhibited murine hemagglutination induced by HPV16L1 VLPs, which indicated that the candidate vaccine could stimulate an efficient immune response in guinea pig's mucosal sites. This may be an effective strategy for the development of an HPV prophylactic oral vaccine.

  20. Prophylactic Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines Efficiently Inhibit Metastases in Murine Metastatic Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V Markov

    Full Text Available Recent data on the application of dendritic cells (DCs as anti-tumor vaccines has shown their great potential in therapy and prophylaxis of cancer. Here we report on a comparison of two treatment schemes with DCs that display the models of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using three different experimental tumor models: namely, Krebs-2 adenocarcinoma (primary tumor, melanoma (B16, metastatic tumor without a primary node and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC, metastatic tumor with a primary node. Dendritic cells generated from bone marrow-derived DC precursors and loaded with lysate of tumor cells or transfected with the complexes of total tumor RNA with cationic liposomes were used for vaccination. Lipofectamine 2000 and liposomes consisting of helper lipid DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and cationic lipid 2D3 (1,26-Bis(1,2-de-O-tetradecyl-rac-glycerol-7,11,16,20-tetraazahexacosan tetrahydrocloride were used for RNA transfection. It was shown that DCs loaded with tumor lysate were ineffective in contrast to tumor-derived RNA. Therapeutic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/Lipofectamine 2000 was the most efficient for treatment of non-metastatic Krebs-2, where a 1.9-fold tumor growth retardation was observed. Single prophylactic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/2D3 was the most efficient to treat highly aggressive metastatic tumors LLC and B16, where 4.7- and 10-fold suppression of the number of lung metastases was observed, respectively. Antimetastatic effect of single prophylactic DC vaccination in metastatic melanoma model was accompanied by the reductions in the levels of Th2-specific cytokines however the change of the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 master regulators was not found. Failure of double prophylactic vaccination is explained by Th17-response polarization associated with autoimmune and pro-inflammatory reactions. In the case of therapeutic DC vaccine the polarization of Th1-response was found

  1. Inhibition of Granulomatous Inflammation and Prophylactic Treatment of Schistosomiasis with a Combination of Edelfosine and Praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Yepes

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease worldwide caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. This parasitic disease is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. Egg-released antigens stimulate tissue-destructive inflammatory and granulomatous reactions, involving different immune cell populations, including T cells and granulocytes. Granulomas lead to collagen fibers deposition and fibrosis, resulting in organ damage. Praziquantel (PZQ is the drug of choice for treating all species of schistosomes. However, PZQ kills only adult Schistosoma worms, not immature stages. The inability of PZQ to abort early infection or prevent re-infection, and the lack of prophylactic effect prompt the need for novel drugs and strategies for the prevention of schistosomiasis.Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have found that the alkylphospholipid analog edelfosine kills schistosomula, and displays anti-inflammatory activity. The combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine during a few days before and after cercariae infection in a schistosomiasis mouse model, simulating a prophylactic treatment, led to seven major effects: a killing of Schistosoma parasites at early and late development stages; b reduction of hepatomegaly; c granuloma size reduction; d down-regulation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses at late post-infection times, thus inhibiting granuloma formation; e upregulation of IL-10 at early post-infection times, thus potentiating anti-inflammatory actions; f down-regulation of IL-10 at late post-infection times, thus favoring resistance to re-infection; g reduction in the number of blood granulocytes in late post-infection times as compared to infected untreated animals.Taken together, these data suggest that the combined treatment of PZQ and edelfosine promotes a high decrease in granuloma formation, as well as in the cellular immune response that underlies granuloma development, with changes in the

  2. New class of monoclonal antibodies against severe influenza: prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H E Friesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The urgent medical need for innovative approaches to control influenza is emphasized by the widespread resistance of circulating subtype H1N1 viruses to the leading antiviral drug oseltamivir, the pandemic threat posed by the occurrences of human infections with highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses, and indeed the evolving swine-origin H1N1 influenza pandemic. A recently discovered class of human monoclonal antibodies with the ability to neutralize a broad spectrum of influenza viruses (including H1, H2, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes has the potential to prevent and treat influenza in humans. Here we report the latest efficacy data for a representative antibody of this novel class. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the human monoclonal antibody CR6261 against lethal challenge with the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in ferrets, the optimal model of human influenza infection. Survival rates, clinically relevant disease signs such as changes in body weight and temperature, virus replication in lungs and upper respiratory tract, as well as macro- and microscopic pathology were investigated. Prophylactic administration of 30 and 10 mg/kg CR6261 prior to viral challenge completely prevented mortality, weight loss and reduced the amount of infectious virus in the lungs by more than 99.9%, abolished shedding of virus in pharyngeal secretions and largely prevented H5N1-induced lung pathology. When administered therapeutically 1 day after challenge, 30 mg/kg CR6261 prevented death in all animals and blunted disease, as evidenced by decreased weight loss and temperature rise, reduced lung viral loads and shedding, and less lung damage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of this new class of human monoclonal antibodies in a highly stringent and clinically relevant animal model of influenza and justify clinical development of this approach

  3. Functional MRI in medulloblastoma survivors supports prophylactic reading intervention during tumor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Conklin, Heather M; Scoggins, Matthew A; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Jones, Melissa M; Palmer, Shawna L; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Development of reading skills is vulnerable to disruption in children treated for brain tumors. Interventions, remedial and prophylactic, are needed to mitigate reading and other learning difficulties faced by survivors. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to investigate long-term effects of a prophylactic reading intervention administered during radiation therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma. The fMRI study included 19 reading-intervention (age 11.7 ± 0.6 years) and 21 standard-of-care (age 12.1 ± 0.6 years) medulloblastoma survivors, and 21 typically developing children (age 12.3 ± 0.6 years). The survivors were 2.5 [1.2, 5.4] years after completion of tumor therapies and reading-intervention survivors were 2.9 [1.6, 5.9] years after intervention. Five fMRI tasks (Rapid Automatized Naming, Continuous Performance Test using faces and letters, orthographic and phonological processing of letter pairs, implicit word reading, and story reading) were used to probe reading-related neural activation. Woodcock-Johnson Reading Fluency, Word Attack, and Sound Awareness subtests were used to evaluate reading abilities. At the time of fMRI, Sound Awareness scores were significantly higher in the reading-intervention group than in the standard-of-care group (p = 0.046). Brain activation during the fMRI tasks was detected in left inferior frontal, temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and subcortical regions, and differed among the groups (p reading-intervention group. Standardized reading scores and patterns of brain activation provide evidence of long-term effects of prophylactic reading intervention in children treated for medulloblastoma.

  4. Prophylactic Antibiotic Management of Surgical Patients Noted as "Allergic" to Penicillin at Two Academic Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Jacques, Paul St; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Bombulie, Mark R; Agarwalla, Niraj

    2016-05-01

    We studied prophylactic antibiotics administered at 2 academic medical centers during a 6-year period where a cephalosporin was indicated but an "allergy" to penicillin was noted. Another drug (typically vancomycin or clindamycin) was substituted approximately 80% of the time; this occurred frequently even when symptoms unrelated to acute hypersensitivity were listed. In >50% of cases, the reaction was either omitted or vague (e.g., simply "rash"). Given the estimated 1% cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins with similar R1 side chains, many of these patients could have received either the prescribed cephalosporin or another cephalosporin with a different R1 side chain.

  5. Long-standing prophylactic therapy vs. episodic treatment in young people with severe haemophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, J; Lethagen, Stefan Rune; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt;

    2014-01-01

    A was to challenge our hypothesis that on-demand treatment is inferior to prophylactic substitution in prevention of chronic joint disease at young age. The method involved an investigation of 40 patients from Russia (n = 27) and Denmark (n = 13) born between 1975 and 1990 with no history of inhibitors; Russian...... by identical age (1 year) 13 Danish and 13 Russian patients were compared, while 14 age similar Russian patients served as controls. Demographic data among all groups were quite comparable. The results are that Russian patients presented with clinical joint scores at 27 8.5 (mean SD) while matched Danish...

  6. Prophylactic uses of integrin CD18-βA peptide in a murine polymicrobial peritonitis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong-Fai; Wong; Jana; Wo; David; Ho; Ronnie; T; Poon; José; M; Casasnovas; John; M; Luk

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the prophylactic properties of integrin CD18-βA peptide in a murine model of abdominal polymicrobial peritonitis and sepsis.METHODS:Bacterial sepsis was induced in Institute of Cancer Research(ICR) mice by cecal ligation and puncture(CLP) surgery.Inflicted mice were then injected with either sterile saline or CD18-βA peptide intraperitoneally at 2 h after surgery,and were sacrificed at 12 and 24 h after surgery.Blood samples were immediately collected,and analyzed for endotoxin activity and ...

  7. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  8. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  9. Clinical and psychological impact of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in a community heart failure population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arnous, S

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <\\/= 35%) has increased since the publication of the SCD-HEFT and MADIT-II data. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ICD use in a community heart failure population and to assess the impact on patient\\'s quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-one ICDs were inserted between the years 2002 and 2006. The mean follow-up from time of insertion was 24 +\\/- 11 months. Eighteen patients (25%) had potentially life-saving therapy. Seven (10%) patients received inappropriate shocks. Complications were encountered in five patients (7%). CONCLUSION: In a community heart failure population, prophylactic ICD implantation is associated with a high incidence of life-saving therapy, a low complication rate and a high level of tolerability. These data indicate translation of clinical trial benefits to the general heart failure population.

  10. Is there justification for prophylactic extraction of third molars? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Guilherme da Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present systematic review was performed to investigate if there is evidence justifying the prophylactic extraction of third molars, one of the most frequent procedures in oral surgery. A series of searches was carried out for randomized, clinical trials and systematic reviews in seven databases (MEDLINE, BBO, LILACS, Web of Science, EMBASE, BIREME and Cochrane Library, with no restrictions regarding year or language. A supplemental manual search of the references of retrieved articles was also performed. The search strategy resulted in 260 papers. Both the data extracted and the quality of each paper were evaluated independently by two reviewers. After selection based on the preestablished eligibility criteria, four papers qualified for the final analysis. A medium degree of quality and methodological consistency was found in three studies, and low quality was found in one study. No studies showed a high degree of consistency. The most significant flaw was an inadequate sample size. The results of the present review indicate a lack of scientific evidence to justify the indication of the prophylactic extraction of third molars.

  11. PROPHYLACTIC PHYSIOTHERAPY ELEMENTS APPLIED DURING THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION LESSONS OF NON-PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marza Danila Danut Nicu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to improve the physical fitness of the non-physical education students by using prophylactic physiotherapy elements. The study tried to confirm the following hypothesis: If prophylactic physiotherapy is applied correctly to the non-physical education students, according to their assessed level of fitness, their health is improved, and a prevention of various disorders is achieved. Thirty students were comprised in the study (males and females, aged between 21 and 24; for 15 of them we created and applied an adapted program of aerobic exercises, over the course of the second semester of the academic year, 2012-2013. The other 15 subjects participated in the physical education classes, following the regular syllabus. The Ruffier and the Hettinger tests were applied to both groups of students, initially and finally. After the final tests, we observed that the students in the experimental group have improved their fitness after the application of the aerobic exercise programs, while the control group students remained at the same level.

  12. Therapeutic and prophylactic ethanol lock therapy in patients with bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurkar, M; McGrath, E; Joyce, J; Boldt-MacDonald, K; Chitlur, M; Lusher, J

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining a reliable venous access is a limiting factor for early initiation of clotting factor prophylaxis and immune tolerance induction. To circumvent this issue, central venous access devices (CVADs) are increasingly being used. Catheter-related infections (CRIs) remain the primary complication of insertion of CVAD. Thus, newer strategies for treatment and prevention of CRI are needed. Ethanol lock therapy (ELT) has been used to treat and prevent CRI in non-bleeding disorder patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ELT in treating and preventing CRI in bleeding disorder patients. The medical charts of patients with bleeding disorders who underwent ELT for antimicrobial resistant CRIs were reviewed and data were analysed. ELT was effective in catheter salvage in 87% of patients with antimicrobial resistant CRI by a wide variety of pathogens. Prophylactic therapy with ethanol lock was associated with catheter dysfunction especially in mediports. ELT should be considered prior to removal of catheters in bleeding disorder patients with resistant CRIs. Further studies are needed for using prophylactic ethanol lock in prevention of CRIs in bleeding disorder patients.

  13. 3D MODELLING OF PROPHYLACTIC FOOTWEAR FOR A HIGH ARCHED FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTEA Mariana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the methodology of designing customized footwear for high arched foot. The authors propose to reconsider the classical structure of footwear bottom components for people with high arched foot and recommend incorporating custom components, with the role of compensation or adjustment. This study continues the authors’ research, starting from a foot’s 3D shape obtained by 3D scanning, the anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters, shoe lasts’ 3D modelling and continuing with 3D footwear design. Including customized orthosis can help to stop the evolution of abnormalities, diminishes sensations of pain during walking and improves performance in various physical activities carried out during the day, walking, running, and standing. The prophylactic footwear has to meet four main requirements: to protect the foot and ankle during walking and static; to ensure the normal resistance systems (bones, muscle and joint of the foot; to prevent the installation of irreversible structural changes by reducing stress on the foot; to contribute to increased performance in conducting regular physical activity. It is presented the steps of modelling an orthosis, a virtual simulation of its cutting process, followed by the integration and development of the insole, filling and sole for a customized shoe. Delcam Crispin CAD system and its applications for orthopaedics are used to design the bottom components of prophylactic footwear for a high arched foot.

  14. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Potential of Acetyl-L-carnitine against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Salman A; Alanazi, Abdulrazaq; Bakheet, Saleh A; Alharbi, Naif O; Nagi, Mahmoud N

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of acetylcarnitine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity were studied in mice. To evaluate the prophylactic effects of acetylcarnitine, mice were supplemented with acetylcarnitine (2 mmol/kg/day per oral (p.o.) for 5 days) before a single dose of acetaminophen (350 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)). Animals were sacrificed 6 h after acetaminophen injection. Acetaminophen significantly increased the markers of liver injury, hepatic reactive oxygen species, and nitrate/nitrite, and decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes. Acetylcarnitine supplementation resulted in reversal of all biochemical parameters toward the control values. To explore the therapeutic effects of acetylcarnitine, mice were given a single dose of acetylcarnitine (0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/kg p.o.) 1.5 h after acetaminophen. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after acetaminophen. Acetylcarnitine administration resulted in partial reversal of liver injury only at 2 mmol/kg p.o. At equimolar doses, N-acetylcystiene was superior as therapeutic agent to acetylcarnitine. However, acetylcarnitine potentiated the effect of N-acetylcystiene in the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity.

  15. [Advantages and weaknesses of the tumor board meeting in validating prophylactic mastectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Frédéric; Weber, Jean-Christophe

    2012-12-01

    The evolution of our health care system strengthens multidisciplinary collaboration in medical practice. Today, the tumor board meeting (TBM) has become mandatory for treatment decision-making in oncology. Experts recommend that such a multidisciplinary tool be extended to prophylactic mastectomy. We will discuss the relevance of this extension on the basis of a survey with female patients and health professionals confronted with prophylactic mastectomy. Health professionals find the TBM necessary because it allows more reasoned and consensual proposals to be made, reduces the burden of difficult decisions, and promotes a comprehensive view of those who receive care. However, this approach has also drawn criticism. Unlike medical consultation, which focuses on a patient's singularity, the TBM seems poorly suited to take into account psychosocial factors governing the decision-making process. It may be easier for a group to reach a complex decision, but it does not mean that the TBM allows for decisions to be adapted on a singular basis. Therefore, we suggest to modify the TBM so that it better suits the needs of patients susceptible to breast cancer. The referring physician, who knows the patient best, should guide the content of multidisciplinary deliberations and put the focus on individual criteria raised during medical consultations.

  16. Current Evidence regarding Prophylactic Antibiotics in Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Kreutzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic prophylaxis is commonly used to decrease the rate of infections in head and neck surgery. The aim of this paper is to present the available evidence regarding the application of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical procedures of the head and neck region in healthy patients. A systemic literature review based on Medline and Embase databases was performed. All reviews and meta-analyses based on RCTs in English from 2000 to 2013 were included. Eight out of 532 studies fulfilled all requirements. Within those, only seven different operative procedures were analyzed. Evidence exists for the beneficial use of prophylactic antibiotics for tympanostomy, orthognathic surgery, and operative tooth extractions. Unfortunately, little high-level evidence exists regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics in head and neck surgery. In numerous cases, no clear benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis has been shown, particularly considering their potential adverse side effects. Antibiotics are often given unnecessarily and are administered too late and for too long. Furthermore, little research has been performed on the large number of routine cases in the above-mentioned areas of specialization within the last few years, although questions arising with respect to the treatment of high-risk patients or of specific infections are discussed on a broad base.

  17. Prophylactic vaccination targeting ERBB3 decreases polyp burden in a mouse model of human colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, David J.; Sherpa, Ang T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prophylactic vaccination is typically utilized for the prevention of communicable diseases such as measles and influenza but, with the exception of vaccines to prevent cervical cancer, is not widely used as a means of preventing or reducing the incidence of cancer. Here, we utilize a peptide-based immunotherapeutic approach targeting ERBB3, a pseudo-kinase member of the EGFR/ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, as a means of preventing occurrence of colon polyps. Administration of the peptide resulted in a significant decrease in the development of intestinal polyps in C57BL/6J-ApcMin mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In addition, even though they were not vaccinated, ApcMin offspring born to vaccinated females developed significantly fewer polyps than offspring born to control females. Lastly, to validate ERBB as a valid target for vaccination, we found no overt toxicity, increases in apoptosis, or morphological changes in tissues where Erbb3 was ablated in adult mice. These results indicate that prophylactic vaccination targeting ERBB3 could prevent the development of colon polyps in an at-risk patient population.

  18. Pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Autumn Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has a lifetime prevalence of almost 9% in the United States. The diagnosis is associated with increased rates of comorbid substance abuse and increased rates of depression. Providers are taught how to diagnose and treat PTSD, but little discussion is devoted to how to prevent the disorder. Behavioral research in animal studies has provided some evidence for the use of medications in decreasing the fear response and the reconsolidation of memories. A heightened fear response and the re-experience of traumatic memory are key components for diagnosis. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the evidence for pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment in acute stress/trauma in order to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. The body of the review includes discussions on medications, medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery, and special considerations for military, first responders, and women. This article concludes with implications for practice and recommendations for future research. The key words used for the literature search were "prophylactic treatment of PTSD," "pharmacotherapy and trauma," "pharmacological prevention of PTSD," "beta blockers and the prevention of PTSD," "acute stress and prevention of PTSD," "propranolol and PTSD," "secondary prevention of PTSD," and "medications used to prevent PTSD." Findings were categorized by medications and medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery. The literature suggests that hydrocortisone, propranolol, and morphine may decrease symptoms and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. Prophylactic Gastropexy Incorporating a Gastrotomy Incision in Dogs: A Retrospective Study of 21 Cases (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Sarah; Popovitch, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to report any complications associated with incorporating a gastrotomy incision into a right-sided incisional prophylactic gastropexy. The medical records of dogs that underwent a gastrotomy for the removal of gastric foreign material and had a prophylactic right-sided incisional gastropexy performed at the gastrotomy site between April 2011 and February 2013 were reviewed. Two wk postoperative recheck examination and suture removal reports were reviewed and owners were contacted via phone and e-mail for long-term follow-up. In total, 21 cases were reviewed, 19 with long-term follow-up. No complications of the surgery were reported. We concluded that a prophylactic right-sided incisional gastropexy could successfully be performed incorporating the gastrotomy site without significant complications.

  20. General lack of use of placebo in prophylactic, randomised, controlled trials in adult migraine. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2016-01-01

    of placebo control in such trials has not been systematically assessed. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of all comparative RCTs of prophylactic drug treatment of migraine published in English from 2002 to 2014. PubMed was searched using the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying...... was identified across treatment arms and conclusions regarding drug superiority could not be drawn. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of comparative, prophylactic migraine RCTs do not include a placebo arm. Failure to include a placebo arm may result in failure to demonstrate efficacy of potentially effective migraine......BACKGROUND: The Clinical Trials Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (IHS) recommends that a placebo arm is included in comparative randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of multiple prophylactic drugs due to the highly variable placebo response in migraine prophylaxis studies. The use...

  1. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...

  2. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-08

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  3. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  4. Prophylactic antibiotics for endoscopy-associated peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsu Wu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic procedures, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy-assisted intrauterine device (IUD implantation/removal, performed in CAPD patients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2001 and February 2012. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 125 endoscopies were performed in 45 patients. Eight (6.4% peritonitis episodes developed after the examination. Antibiotics were used in 26 procedures, and none of the patients had peritonitis (0% vs. 8.1% without antibiotic use; p=0.20. The peritonitis rate was significantly higher in the non-EGD group than in the EGD group (15.9% [7/44] vs. 1.2% [1/81]; p<0.005. Antibiotic use prior to non-EGD examinations significantly reduced the endoscopy-associated peritonitis rate compared to that without antibiotic use (0% [0/16] vs. 25% [7/28]; p<0.05. Peritonitis only occurred if invasive procedures were performed, such as biopsy, polypectomy, or IUD implantation, (noninvasive procedures, 0% [0/20] vs. invasive procedures, 30.4% [7/23]; p<0.05. No peritonitis was noted if antibiotics were used prior to examination with invasive procedures (0% [0/10] vs. 53.8% [7/13] without antibiotic use; p<0.05. Although not statistically significant, antibiotics may play a role in preventing gynecologic procedure-related peritonitis (antibiotics, 0% [0/4] vs. no antibiotics, 55.6% [5/9]; p=0.10. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced endoscopy-associated PD peritonitis in the non-EGD group. Endoscopically assisted invasive procedures, such

  5. Paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography: A double blind randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, E.M.; Ridley, N.T.F

    2000-09-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography (HSG). DESIGN: A prospective double blind randomized controlled trial comparing one 1 g of paracetamol (SmithKline Beecham, Brentford, U.K.) to placebo taken 30 min before HSG. One hundred consecutive out-patients were studied prospectively. The analgesic effectiveness during the procedure and at 24 h and 1 week post procedure was analysed by a postal pain score questionnaire. Additional data on the ethnicity of the patient, sex and level of experience of the radiologist performing the hysterosalpingogram, the parity of the patient, the ease of the procedure, and whether pathology was identified were also recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (88%) replied, 39 (44%) received paracetamol and 49 placebo (56%). During the procedure 3/39 (7%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 9/49 (18%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.11). At 24 h, 15/39 (38%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 20/49 (41%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.82). At 1 week, 27/39 (69%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 29/49 (59%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.33). No significant difference in mean pain scores was determined during the procedure (P 0.91), or at 24 h post procedure (P = 0.94). Similarly, no difference in mean pain scores was identified with regard to the ethnicity of the patient, the sex of the radiologist performing the procedure, the level of experience of the radiologist performing the procedure, or whether pathology was present or not. Difficult cannulations were associated with higher mean pain scores, however, there was no difference in mean pain scores between the paracetamol or placebo groups for both easy and difficult cannulations. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol is not effective as a prophylactic analgesic for HSG. If a prophylactic

  6. Medium-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic agent in children with migraine: A preliminary placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K.J. Bruijn (Jacques); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. Passchier (Jan); H. Locher (Heiko); N. Dijkstra (Natascha); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Riboflavin seems to have a promising effect on migraine in adults. The present study examines whether riboflavin has a prophylactic effect on migraine in children. Objective: To investigate whether riboflavin in a dosage of 50 mg/day has a prophylactic effect on migraine atta

  7. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  8. Automatic Classification of Kepler Planetary Transit Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    McCauliff, Sean D.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Seader, Shawn; Li, Jie; Cote, Miles

    2014-01-01

    In the first three years of operation the Kepler mission found 3,697 planet candidates from a set of 18,406 transit-like features detected on over 200,000 distinct stars. Vetting candidate signals manually by inspecting light curves and other diagnostic information is a labor intensive effort. Additionally, this classification methodology does not yield any information about the quality of planet candidates; all candidates are as credible as any other candidate. The torrent of exoplanet disco...

  9. Prophylactic antibiotics at the time of tracheotomy lowers the incidence of pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nicklas Järvelä; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia in relation to tracheotomy is a well-known complication. The aim of the present study was to study prophylactic antibiotics at the time of tracheotomy as a protective factor against nosocomial pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted...... for inclusion, forming a group without antibiotics (n = 53) treatment and a group with antibiotics (n = 35) treatment. RESULTS: In the group without antibiotics, 67% (n = 34) developed pneumonia (not including aspirational) versus 44% (n = 14) in the group with antibiotics (p = 0.04). The 30-day mortality...... was 10% (n = 9), and the one-year mortality was 58% (n = 42) for the total population, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Pneumonia after tracheotomy prolonged the hospitalisation time regardless of grouping. In the group without antibiotics, the median was seven days...

  10. Prophylactic effect of low dose vitamin D in osteopenia of prematurity: a clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Taheri, Paymaneh; Sajjadian, Negar; Beyrami, Bahram; Shariat, Mamak

    2014-01-01

    Osteopenia of prematurity (OOP) is a preventable disease. Improved survival of premature newborns is associated with an increased incidence of OOP. The purpose of this study was to compare the prophylactic effects of two low doses of vitamin D (200 and 400 IU/Day) on the clinical, biochemical and radiological indices of the rickets of prematurity. In a randomized clinical trial, 60 preterm newborns with birth weight vitamin D in group one and 30 ones received 400 IU/day of vitamin D in group two. On the 6th to 8th weeks of life, serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were measured and x- ray of left wrist and physical examination were performed. Both groups had no difference in biochemical, radiological or clinical presentation of rickets. Current study indicated that low dose vitamin D (200 IU/Day) is enough for prevention of OOP.

  11. Situation and prophylactic measures of pediatric tuberculosis%儿童结核病与预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉

    2015-01-01

    China is a high incidence country of tuberculosis decided by WHO. The infection rates and mortality rates of pediatric tuberculosis are pretty high. Aiming at the features of pediatric tuberculosis, Bacillus calmette-guerin becomes a primary prophylactic measure for the moment. The new research is developed and bound to strike home in new vaccines and chemicals of pediatric tuberculo-sis.%中国是世界卫生组织认定的结核病高发国家之一,儿童结核病的感染率和患病率相对较高,目前主要预防措施是接种卡介苗,新的抗结核疫苗和结核病的化学预防也在研究中,并取得了一定的效果。

  12. Paradoxical role of antibodies in dengue virus infections: considerations for prophylactic vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Eliana G; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Highly effective prophylactic vaccines for flaviviruses including yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus are currently in use. However, the development of a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has been hampered by the requirement of simultaneous protection against four distinct serotypes and the threat that DENV-specific antibodies might either mediate neutralization or, on the contrary, exacerbate disease through the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Therefore, understanding the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and ADE are fundamental for the development of a safe DENV vaccine. Here we summarize current structural and mechanistic knowledge underlying these phenomena. We also review recent results demonstrating that the humoral immune response triggered during natural DENV infection is able to generate neutralizing antibodies binding complex quaternary epitopes only present on the surface of intact virions.

  13. Clinical and biomechanical perspectives on pressure injury prevention research: The case of prophylactic dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, A; Kottner, J; Santamaria, N

    2016-10-01

    In this perspective paper, we discuss clinical and biomechanical viewpoints on pressure injury (or pressure ulcer) prevention research. We have selected to focus on the case of prophylactic dressings for pressure injury prevention, and the background of the historical context of pressure injury research, as an exemplar to illuminate some of the good and not so good in current biomechanical and clinical research in the wound prevention and care arena. Investigators who are conducting medical or clinical research in academia, in medical settings or in industry to determine the efficacy of wound prevention and care products could benefit from applying some basic principles that are detailed in this paper, and that should leverage the research outcomes, thereby contributing to setting higher standards in the field.

  14. Prophylactic treatment of asthma by an ozone scavenger in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Haim; Reany, Ofer; Waisman, Dan; Keinan, Ehud

    2015-01-15

    Our hypothesis that inflammation in asthma involves production of ozone by white blood cells and that ozone could be an inflammatory mediator suggests that scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), for example, electron-rich olefins, could serve for prophylactic treatment of asthma. Olefins could provide chemical protection against either exogenous or endogenous ozone and other ROS. BALB/c mice pretreated by inhalation of d-limonene before an ovalbumin challenge exhibited significant attenuation of the allergic asthma symptoms. Diminution of the inflammatory process was evident by reduced levels of aldehydes, reduced counts of neutrophils in the BAL fluid and by histological tests. A surprising systemic effect was observed by decreased levels of aldehydes in the spleen, suggesting that the examination of tissues and organs that are remote from the inflammation foci could provide valuable information on the distribution of the oxidative stress and may serve as guide for targeted treatment.

  15. Redefining Risk and Benefit: Understanding the Decision to Undergo Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendle, Katharine A S; Halley, Meghan C; May, Suepattra G; Frosch, Dominick L

    2015-09-01

    Rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among unilateral breast cancer patients are rapidly increasing; however, there are little data documenting the decision-making process of patients with no known BRCA mutations, who elect this more aggressive treatment. We conducted semistructured interviews with nine newly diagnosed patients who elected CPM over other surgical options. Using grounded theory, we analyzed interview data to identify influential decision-making factors by prevalence and intensity across participants. Decision-making factors included subjective evaluations of risk and benefit, avoidance of future breast cancer surveillance and accompanying worry, and desire to maintain (or improve) breast appearance. Based solely on survival benefit, the decision to undergo CPM might be viewed as unnecessary or even misguided. However, our findings show the importance of psychosocial factors in patients' assessments of risk and benefit, and support the need for additional patient-provider communication regarding these factors.

  16. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic...... effect of melatonin in adult patients against depression or depressive symptoms. A search was performed in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO for published trials on November 14th 2013. Inclusion criteria were English language, RCTs or crossover trials. Our outcome was measurement...... of depression/depressive symptoms with a validated clinician-administered or self-rating questionnaire. PRISMA recommendations were followed and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool used. Ten studies in 486 patients were included in the final qualitative synthesis and four studies, 148 patients, were included in two...

  17. Prophylactic proopiomelanocortin expression alleviates capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in rat trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guei-Sheung; Huang, Hung-Tu; Lin, Che-Jen; Shi, Jhih-Yin; Liu, Li-Feng; Tseng, Rue-Tseng; Weng, Wen-Tsan; Lam, Hing-Chung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2009-12-01

    Neurogenic inflammation frequently causes acute plasma leakage in airways and life-threatening pulmonary edema. However, limited strategies are available to alleviate neurogenic inflammation. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor of anti-inflammatory melanocortins, which have been proposed of therapeutic potential for various inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate whether peripheral POMC expression ameliorated capsaicin-induced acute neurogenic inflammation in rat trachea. Prophylactic POMC expression was achieved by intravenous injection of adenovirus encoding POMC (Ad-POMC), which led to POMC expression in livers and elevated plasma adrenocorticotropin levels for approximately 60 days. After gene delivery for 7 days, neurogenic inflammation was induced in rats by capsaicin injection. The extent of capsaicin-evoked plasma leakage in trachea was alleviated in Ad-POMC-treated rats compared with animals of control groups (P neurogenic inflammation.

  18. Severe Neuropsychiatric Reaction in a Deployed Military Member after Prophylactic Mefloquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects.

  19. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  20. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-06

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  1. Prophylactic efficacy of four antibacterial shampoos against Staphylococcus intermedius in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwochka, K W; Kowalski, J J

    1991-01-01

    Prophylactic efficacy of 4 antibacterial shampoos against Staphylococcus intermedius in dogs was determined by use of a controlled quantitative technique. Ten adult Beagles were used in the study. The antibacterial agents in the shampoos were 3.0% benzoyl peroxide, 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate, 1.0% available iodine as a polyalkyleneglycol-iodine complex, and a combination of 0.5% triclosan, 2.0% sulfur, and 2.0% salicylic acid. Treated and control sites were challenge exposed with 5.30 +/- 0.10 (log10) S intermedius colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2 of skin and occluded for 5 hours. At the end of the test period, remaining bacteria were removed with a detergent cup-scrub technique and the total number of S intermedius CFU/cm2 skin was calculated for each treated and control site. Nontreated bacteria-challenged control sites yielded 5.62 +/- 0.65 S intermedius CFU/cm2 of skin. Staphylococcus intermedius recovery (CFU/cm2) from the treated sites was 0.94 +/- 0.76 for benzoyl peroxide, 1.96 +/- 1.33 for chlorhexidine acetate, 3.11 +/- 0.48 for organic iodine, and 4.69 +/- 0.23 for triclosan-sulfur-salicylic acid. Each S intermedius recovery value from the 4 treated sites was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower than that from the nontreated S intermedius challenge-exposed control site. Bacteria recovery values were also significantly (P less than 0.05) different among the 4 shampoo-treated sites. We concluded that all shampoos had significant (P less than 0.05) prophylactic activity against S intermedius over 5 hours. The shampoo containing benzoyl peroxide was determined to have the greatest efficacy among the products tested.

  2. Prophylactic postoperative ketorolac improves outcomes in diabetic patients assigned for cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Moataz F Elsawy, Nermine Badawi, Hany A KhairyOphthalmology Department, Menoufia University Hospital, Menoufia, EgyptObjective: To evaluate the prophylactic role of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in reducing the incidence of central macular edema (CME in diabetic eyes post-cataract surgery.Patients and methods: This study included 86 eyes (70 patients with high risk characteristics for the development of CME after cataract surgery. All patients underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Patients were divided into two equal groups (n = 43 [eyes]: a control group given topical dexamethasone 0.1%, four times/day for 12 weeks postoperatively and a study group given topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% twice daily in addition to topical dexamethasone 0.1% four times daily for 12 weeks. Patients were examined at 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively for evaluation of CME development. The main study outcome was the change in the retinal fovea thickness measured with ocular coherence topography.Results: Ten eyes developed CME (11.6%; eight eyes in the control group and only two eyes in the study group. Mean retinal fovea thickness was significantly higher in the control group compared to the study group. Moreover, eyes of the control group developed CME significantly earlier than those of the study group.Conclusion: Prophylactic postoperative ketorolac 0.4% may have a role in reducing the frequency and severity of CME in diabetic eyes post-cataract surgery.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cataract surgery, central macular edema, ketorolac, dexamethasone

  3. Prophylactic versus Therapeutic Fingolimod: Restoration of Presynaptic Defects in Mice Suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Padolecchia, Cristina; Grilli, Massimo; Milanese, Marco; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla; Bonanno, Giambattista; Marchi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Fingolimod, the first oral, disease-modifying therapy for MS, has been recently proposed to modulate glutamate transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in MS patients. Our study aims at investigating whether oral fingolimod recovers presynaptic defects that occur at different stages of disease in the CNS of EAE mice. In vivo prophylactic (0.3 mg/kg for 14 days, from the 7th day post immunization, d.p.i, the drug dissolved in the drinking water) fingolimod significantly reduced the clinical symptoms and the anxiety-related behaviour in EAE mice. Spinal cord inflammation, demyelination and glial cell activation are markers of EAE progression. These signs were ameliorated following oral fingolimod administration. Glutamate exocytosis was shown to be impaired in cortical and spinal cord terminals isolated from EAE mice at 21 ± 1 d.p.i., while GABA alteration emerged only at the spinal cord level. Prophylactic fingolimod recovered these presynaptic defects, restoring altered glutamate and GABA release efficiency. The beneficial effect occurred in a dose-dependent, region-specific manner, since lower (0.1–0.03 mg/kg) doses restored, although to a different extent, synaptic defects in cortical but not spinal cord terminals. A delayed reduction of glutamate, but not of GABA, exocytosis was observed in hippocampal terminals of EAE mice at 35 d.p.i. Therapeutic (0.3 mg/kg, from 21 d.p.i. for 14 days) fingolimod restored glutamate exocytosis in the cortex and in the hippocampus of EAE mice at 35 ± 1 d.p.i. but not in the spinal cord, where also GABAergic defects remained unmodified. These results improve our knowledge of the molecular events accounting for the beneficial effects elicited by fingolimod in demyelinating disorders. PMID:28125677

  4. Prophylactic Anti-inflammation Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-induced Emphysema in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲农; 陶晓南; 谢建敏; 向敏; 付薇

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the effect of prophylactic anti-inflammation on the development of smokeinduced emphysema was investigated. Young male guinea-pigs aged 1.5 - 2 months (weighing 198.3±26.9 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (cigarette smoke exposure only),group B (cigarette smoke exposure plus pentoxifylline-rich (PTX, 10 mg/d) forage feeding), group C (cigarette smoke exposure plus intermittent cortical steroid injection (Triamcinolone acetonide, 3mg, im, every three weeks) and control group (group D: animals with sham smoke exposure,raised under the same conditions). Animals in group A, B and C were exposed to smoke of cigarettes for 1 to 1.5 h twice a day, 5 days a week. All animals were killed at the 16th week and followed by morphometrical analysis of the midsagittal sectioned lung slices. Smoke exposure of 16 weeks resulted in visible emphysematous development in Group A but not in Group B and C. It was evidenced by the indicator of air-space size, mean linear intercept (Lm): 120.6±16.0 μm in Group A; 89.8±9.2 μm in Group B and 102.4±17.7 μm in Group C. The average Lm in either group B or group C was shorter than that in Group A (ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test, F=8.80, P=0.0002) but comparable to that (94.8±13.2 μm) in group D (P>0.05). It is concluded that longterm prophylactic anti-inflammation inhibits pulmonary emphysema induced by cigarette smoking in the guinea pigs.

  5. Effect of prophylactic amiodarone in patients with rheumatic valve disease undergoing valve replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of prophylactic single-dose intravenous amiodarone in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery. Maintenance of sinus rhythm is better than maintenance of fixed ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation (AF especially in the presence of irritable left or right atrium because of enlargement. Fifty-six patients with valvular heart disease with or without AF were randomly divided into two groups. Group I or the amiodarone group (n=28 received amiodarone (3 mg/kg in 100 ml normal saline and group II or the control group received same volume of normal saline. The standardized protocol for cardiopulmonary bypass was maintained for all the patients. AF occurred in 7.14% patients in group I, and in group II, 28.57% (P=0.035; ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation was observed in 21.43% patients in group I and 46.43% patients in group II (P=0.089 after release of aortic clamp. Most of the patients in group I (92.86% maintained sinus rhythm without cardioversion or defibrillation after release of aortic cross clamp (P=0.002. Defibrillation or cardio version was needed in 7.14% patients in group I and 28.57% patients in group II (P=0.078. A single prophylactic intraoperative dose of intravenous amiodarone decreased post bypass arrhythmia in this study in comparison to the control group. Single dose of intraoperative amiodarone may be used to decrease postoperative arrhythmia in open heart surgery.

  6. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Javan, H; Sajady, M; Rakhshandeh, H

    2007-10-01

    In previous studies, the relaxant, anticholinergic (functional antagonism) antihistaminic, effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on guinea-pig tracheal chains. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of boiled extract of N. sativa on asthmatic disease was examined. Twenty-nine asthmatic adults were randomly divided into control group (14 patients) and study group (15 patients), and they were studied for 3 months. In the study group 15 mL/kg of 0.1 g% boiled extract and in the control group a placebo solution was administrated daily throughout the study. Asthma symptom score, asthma severity, frequency of symptoms/week and wheezing were recorded in the beginning (first visit), 45 days after treatment (second visit), and at the end of the study (third visit). Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were also measured, and the drug regimen of the patients was evaluated at three different visits. All asthma symptoms, frequency of asthma symptoms/week, chest wheezing, and PFT values in the study group significantly improved in the second and third visits compared with the first visit (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In addition, further improvement of chest wheezing and severity of disease on the third visit were observed compared with the second visit in this group (P < 0.05 for both cases). In the third visit all symptoms in the study group were significantly different from those of the control group (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001). However, in the control group, there were only small improvements in some parameters in just the second visit. The usage of inhaler and oral beta-agonists, oral corticosteroid, oral theophylline and even inhaler corticosteroid in the study group decreased at the end of the study while there were no obvious changes in usage of the drugs in control subjects. The results of phase I study generally suggest a prophylactic effect of N. sativa on asthma disease and warrant further research regarding this effect.

  7. Effect of prophylactic polishing protocols on the surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme, A L; Frazier, K B; Roeder, L B; Debner, T L

    2002-01-01

    Many polishing protocols have been evaluated in vitro for their effect on the surface roughness of restorative materials. These results have been useful in establishing protocols for in vivo application. However, limited research has focused on the subsequent care and maintenance of esthetic restorations following their placement. This investigation evaluated the effect of five polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of five direct esthetic restorative materials. Specimens (n=25) measuring 8 mm diameter x 3 mm thick were fabricated in an acrylic mold using five light-cured resin-based materials (hybrid composite, microfilled composite, packable composite, compomer and resin-modified glass ionomer). After photopolymerization, all specimens were polished with Sof-Lex Disks to produce an initial (baseline) surface finish. All specimens were then polished with one of five prophylactic protocols (Butler medium paste, Butler coarse paste, OneGloss, SuperBuff or OneGloss & SuperBuff). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined from three measurements with a profilometer (Surface 1). Next, all specimens were brushed 60,000 times at 1.5 Hz using a brush-head force of 2 N on a Manly V-8 cross-brushing machine in a 50:50 (w/w) slurry of toothpaste and water. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing (Surface 2) followed by re-polishing with one of five protocols, then final surface roughness values were determined (Surface 3). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Significant differences (p=0.05) in surface roughness were observed among restorative materials and polishing protocols. The microfilled and hybrid resin composite yielded significantly rougher surfaces than the other three materials following tooth brushing. Prophylactic polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on resin-based esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth

  8. Toward organometallic antischistosomal drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jeannine; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of novel approaches for the treatment of parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis. Among the different approaches used, organometallic compounds were found to offer unique opportunities in the design of antiparasitic drug candidates. A ferrocenyl derivative, namely ferroquine, has even entered clinical trials as a novel antimalarial. In this short review, we report on the studies describing the use of organometallic compounds against schistosomiasis.

  9. Pathologic features of metastatic lymph nodes identified from prophylactic central neck dissection in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Shin; Park, Chanwoo; Kim, Sung Won; Noh, Woong Jae; Lim, Soo Jin; Chun, Bong Kwon; Kim, Beom Su; Hong, Jong Chul; Lee, Kang Dae

    2016-10-01

    The importance of pathologic features of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs), such as size, number, and extranodal extension, has been recently emphasized in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We evaluated the characteristics of metastatic LNs identified after prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) in patients with PTC. We performed a retrospective review of 1,046 patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral thyroidectomy with ipsilateral prophylactic CND. We reviewed the characteristics of the metastatic LNs and analyzed their correlation to the clinicopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor. Cervical LN metastasis after prophylactic CND was identified in 280 out of 1046 patients (26.8 %). The size of metastatic foci (≥2 mm) was independently correlated with primary tumor size (≥1 cm) (p = 0.016, OR = 1.88). Primary tumor size (≥1 cm) was also correlated to the number of metastatic LNs (≥5) (p = 0.004, OR = 3.14) and extranodal extension (p = 0.021, OR = 2.41) in univariate analysis. The size of the primary tumor affects pathologic features of subclinical LN metastasis in patients with PTC. Patients with primary tumors ≥1 cm have an increased risk of larger LN metastases (≥2 mm), an increased number of LN metastases (≥5), and a higher incidence of ENE, which should be considered in decision for prophylactic CND.

  10. Endoscopic Therapy of Refractory Post-Papillotomy Bleeding With Electrocautery Forceps Coagulation Method Combined With Prophylactic Pancreatic Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Dubravcsik

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We presented a new, effective and safe second line endoscopic hemostatic method in patients with therapy resistant post-papillotomy bleeding. Combination of prophylactic pancreatic stenting and thermal coagulation with coagulation forceps might be suggested as a rescue treatment in patients with severe post-papillotomy bleeding, resistant to standard endoscopic therapy.

  11. Comprehensive safety analysis of concomitant drotrecogin alfa (activated) and prophylactic heparin use in patients with severe sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levy; M. Levi; M.D. Williams; M. Antonelli; D. Wang; M.A. Mignini

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of using heparin concomitantly with drotrecogin alfa (activated) {DrotAA} was explored in the XPRESS study. No heparin effect on mortality was observed. Safety results from that study are explored in more detail. Methods: A randomized, double-blind trial of prophylactic heparin v

  12. Gastric malpositioning and chronic, intermittent vomiting following prophylactic gastropexy in a 20-month-old great Dane dog

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Jessie S.; Steffey, Michele A.; Bonadio, Cecily M.; Marks, Stanley L

    2015-01-01

    A 20-month-old castrated male great Dane dog was presented for evaluation of chronic intermittent vomiting of 2 months’ duration. A prophylactic incisional gastropexy performed at 6 mo of age resulted in gastric malpositioning and subsequent partial gastric outflow tract obstruction.

  13. Reduced costs for staphylococcus aureus carriers treated prophylactically with mupirocin and chlorhexidine in cardiothoracic and orthopaedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.L. van Rijen (Miranda); L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); D.A. Baak (Diane); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A multi centre double-blind randomised-controlled trial (M-RCT), carried out in the Netherlands in 2005-2007, showed that hospitalised patients with S. aureus nasal carriage who were treated prophylactically with mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine gluconate medicated

  14. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in limited disease small-cell lung cancer in complete remission : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, YM; van Kempen, ML; van der Tweel, [No Value; Vanderschueren, RGJRA; Schlosser, JJ; Lammers, JWJ; Struikmans, H

    2001-01-01

    Recently a meta-analysis showed an improved survival probability of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in limited disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC) in complete remission after chemotherapy. We evaluated treatment results of PCI+ and PCI- in these patients. Whether PCI (n = 65) or no PCI (

  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid treatment in major benign uterine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsoee, Märta F; Settnes, Annette; Ottesen, Bent;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of tranexamic acid (TA) treatment as bleeding prophylaxis in major uterine surgery is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antihemorrhagic effect of prophylactic TA treatment in major benign uterine surgery. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science...

  16. Prophylactic fenbendazole therapy does not affect the incidence and onset of type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Deanna D H; Shirwan, Haval

    2006-03-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common, highly efficacious broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat and limit rodent pinworm infections. However, the effect of its prophylactic use on the immune response of rodents is largely undefined. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model commonly used to study type 1 diabetes (T1D). Parasitic infections will inhibit diabetes development in NOD mice; thus, in the presence of contamination, prophylactic treatment with anthelmintics must be considered to maintain experimental research. Herein, we investigated the prophylactic use of FBZ in NOD mice to determine its effect on the incidence and onset of diabetes, lymphocyte sub-populations and T cell proliferative responses. NOD mice were separated into control and treatment groups. The treatment group received a diet containing FBZ. Animals were monitored for the incidence and onset of T1D. At matched time points, diabetic and non-diabetic mice were killed and splenic lymphocytes analyzed for various cell sub-populations and mitogen-induced proliferative responses using flow cytometry. Treated and control mice were monitored >23 weeks with no detectable effects on the incidence or onset of diabetes. Moreover, no significant differences were detected in lymphocyte sub-populations and mitogen-induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) proliferative responses between control and treatment groups. These results suggest that prophylactic FBZ treatment does not significantly alter the incidence or onset of diabetes in NOD mice. The prophylactic use of FBZ, therefore, presents a viable approach for the prevention of pinworm infection in precious experimental animals with substantial scientific and economic benefits.

  17. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  18. Prophylactic PEG placement in head and neck cancer:How many feeding tubes are unused (and unnecessary)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad F Madhoun; Matt M Blankenship; Derek M Blankenship; Greg A Krempl; William M Tierney

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To determine the rate of use and non-use of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes among patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) patients.METHODS:All patients with HNC undergoing PEG between January 01,2004 and June 30,2006 were identified. Patients (or their next-of-kin) were surveyed by phone and all available medical records and cancer registry data were reviewed.Prophylactic PEG was defined as placement in the absence of dysphagia and prior to radiation or chemoradiation.Each patient with a prophylactic PEG was assessed for cancer diagnosis,type of therapy,PEG use,and complications related to PEG. RESULTS:One hundred and three patients had PEG tubes placed for HNC.Thirty four patients (33%) could not be contacted for follow-up.Of the 23 (22.3%) patients with prophylactic PEG tubes,11/23 (47.8%) either never used the PEG or used it for less than 2 wk. No association with PEG use vs non-use was observed for cancer diagnosis,stage,or specific cancer treatment. Non-use or limited use was observed in 3/6 (50%) treated with radiation alone vs 8/17 (47.1%) treated with chemoradiation (P = 1.0),and 3 of 10 (30%) treated with surgery vs 8 of 13 (62%) not treated with surgery (P = 0.21).Minor complications were reported in 5/23 (21.7%).One (4.3%) major complication was reported.CONCLUSION:There is a high rate of unnecessary PEG placement when done prophylactically in patients with head and neck cancer.

  19. Evaluation of isometamidium levels in the serum of sheep and goats after prophylactic treatment against trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Wesongah

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available years, but recently there have been reports of prophylaxis failure under natural conditions. In this study, use of the drug for prophylactic purpose against trypanosomosis in small ruminants was investigated. Forty-two sheep and 44 goats were divided into four treatment groups. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with isometamidium chloride (Samorin(R, Rhone Merieux, Lyon, France at 3-month intervals while groups 3 and 4 were used as controls. All the animals were exposed to natural tsetse challenge and monitored for serum isometamidium levels and anti-trypanosome antibodies. Seven days after drug administration, isometamidium levels were significantly higher in goats 13.7 + 0.07 ng/mℓ than in sheep 6.2 + 0.06 ng/mℓ. However, the elimination half-life in the sheep was 14.2 + 0.92 days and was significantly higher (P > 0.05 than that of the goats 12 + 0.5 days. This study established that isometamidium metabolism differs between sheep and goats and this difference may have important implications in high tsetse challenge areas.

  20. Factors influencing the prophylactic removal of asymptomatic impacted lower third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros-Marqués, N; Alaejos-Algarra, E; Quinteros-Borgarello, M; Berini-Aytés, L; Gay-Escoda, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse factors indicating prophylactic removal of impacted lower third molars, and how they, and possibly surgeon experience, influence the therapeutic decision-making process. A descriptive observational study was made of 40 asymptomatic impacted lower third molars. Orthopantomographs were scanned and presented to four professionals with different degrees of surgical experience. The examiners received information relating to patient age and sex, molar inclination and degree of impaction, and expressed their opinion on the necessity for teeth removal. There was a statistically significant relationship between examiner decision and the estimated probability of pathology if the molars were not removed (Pmolar, age, degree of impaction and patient sex. No statistically significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between residents and trainers in terms of the decision to remove or estimated risk of complications. The management approach adopted by oral surgeons regarding the removal of asymptomatic impacted lower third molars depends upon the perceived risk of complications if such teeth are not removed, other factors being secondary. The surgical experience of the professional does not seem to influence treatment decision.

  1. Prophylactic effect of artemether on human schistosomiasis mansoni among Egyptian children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmorshedy, Hala; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert N; Sharaf, Soraya; Barakat, Rashida

    2016-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in an endemic focus for Schistosoma mansoni in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt, to evaluate the prophylactic effect of artemether (ART) given in conjunction with praziquantel (PZQ). The study encompassed 913 primary school children randomly assigned to two treatment groups PZQ/ART and PZQ/ART-placebo. At baseline, both groups received 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ twice four weeks apart, after which one group received 6 mg/kg body weight of ART every 3 weeks in 5 cycles during the transmission season and the other group received ART-placebo. At the end of the study, prevalence of infection among the PZQ/ART was approximately half that of the PZQ/ART-placebo group, i.e. 6.7% versus 11.6%, and incidence of new infections for the PZQ/ART was 2.7% versus 6.5% for the PZQ/ART-placebo. In conclusion, PZQ/ART combined therapy might be considered as an adjunct measure against human schistosomiasis, by specifically reducing transmission and therefore contribute to disease elimination.

  2. PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOXYCYCLINE REDUCES CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kharfan-Dabaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells are usually transfused through a central venous catheter (CVC, which also facilitates administration of medications and intravenous fluids. We had observed high rate of catheter-related blood-stream infection (CR-BSI at our Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT unit despite prescribing fluoroquinolones for anti-bacterial prophylaxis. Accordingly, we implemented prophylactic use of a relatively inexpensive broad spectrum antibiotic, namely doxycycline to address this problem. We wanted to investigate whether doxycycline prophylaxis reduces CR-BSI rate. Data was collected retrospectively on 54 consecutive patients, 26 of whom received doxycycline (doxycycline group, and we compared their outcomes to a previous cohort of 28 patients who did not receive doxycycline (comparison group. The groups were comparable in regards to age, gender, hematopoietic cell transplant type, and primary diagnosis. No CVC infection (0% was observed in the doxycycline group, while 5 infection episodes (18.5% occurred in 4 patients in the comparison group (p<0.001. Episodes of CR-BSI were due to: Escherichia-coli (EC=1, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus-spp (CNSS=2, both EC & CNSS=1. Our results demonstrate that CR-BSI was reduced significantly after introducing doxycycline. This finding suggests a beneficial role for systemic use of doxycycline prophylaxis to prevent CR-BSI in adult BMT patients. Nevertheless, a randomized controlled study is warranted to confirm these findings.

  3. Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone improves intestinal barrier function and alleviates bacterial translocation in stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁连安; 黎介寿; 李幼生; 刘放南; 谭力

    2004-01-01

    Background Damage to the gut barrier often occurs during critical illnesses. In such cases, it is very important to alleviate impairment of the intestinal barrier and protect intestinal barrier function. This study investigated the protective effect of growth hormone on intestinal barrier function in rats under stress.Methods This study consisted of prospective, randomized, and controlled animal experiments. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats served as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) models and were divided into three groups: TPN group, sepsis (Sep) group, and growth hormone (GH) group. Another 8 rats served as normal controls. Each group received different stress stimuli. Rats were fed for 7 days, and samples were taken for examination 24 hours after garaging with dual saccharides. Results The architecture of the small intestinal mucosa in the Sep group showed the most severe damage among all groups. Nitric oxide levels in blood plasma and immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal mucosa of the GH group were significantly lower than in the Sep group (P<0.02). There were no significant changes in CD3 counts and in the CD4/CD8 ratio between the four groups. Dual sugar tests and bacteriological examinations revealed that intestinal permeability and rate of bacterial translocation in the GH group were lower than in the Sep group (P<0.01, respectively).Conclusion Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone can alleviate damage to intestinal barrier function caused by trauma and endotoxemia in rats under stress.

  4. Prophylactic Platelets in Dengue: Survey Responses Highlight Lack of an Evidence Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Roche, Rosmari Rodriguez; Guzman, Maria G.; Martinez, Eric; Villamil Gomez, Wilmar; Nainggolan, Leonard; Laksono, Ida Safitri; Mishra, Ajay; Lum, Lucy; Faiz, Abul; Sall, Amadou; Dawurung, Joshua; Borges, Alvaro; Leo, Yee-Sin; Blumberg, Lucille; Bausch, Daniel G.; Kroeger, Axel; Horstick, Olaf; Thwaites, Guy; Wertheim, Heiman; Larsson, Mattias; Hien, Tran Tinh; Peeling, Rosanna; Wills, Bridget; Simmons, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue. PMID:22745847

  5. Prophylactic platelets in dengue: survey responses highlight lack of an evidence base.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Whitehorn

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue.

  6. Prophylactic effect of low dose vitamin D in osteopenia of prematurity: a clinical trial study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteopenia of prematurity (OOP is a preventable disease. Improved survival of premature newborns is associated with an increased incidence of OOP. The purpose of this study was to compare the prophylactic effects of two low doses of vitamin D (200 and 400 IU/Day on the clinical, biochemical and radiological indices of the rickets of prematurity. In a randomized clinical trial, 60 preterm newborns with birth weight < 2000 g & gestational age < 37 weeks were randomly divided in two groups. Thirty newborns received 200 IU/d of vitamin D in group one and 30 ones received 400 IU/day of vitamin D in group two. On the 6th to 8th weeks of life, serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were measured and x- ray of left wrist and physical examination were performed. Both groups had no difference in biochemical, radiological or clinical presentation of rickets. Current study indicated that low dose vitamin D (200 IU/Day is enough for prevention of OOP.

  7. The Benefits and Risks of Prophylactic Central Neck Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doh Young Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study evaluated the benefits of performing prophylactic central neck dissection (CND with total thyroidectomy (TT in management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC patients who were clinically node-negative at presentation. Methods. A total of 257 patients with stage T1 or T2 PTC and without preoperative evidence of lymph node involvement (N0 were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: (1 a total thyroidectomy (TT group (n=104 or (2 a TT plus CND group (n=153. The two groups were compared for their perioperative data, complication rates, disease recurrence rates, and clinical outcomes. Results. The two groups of patients were similar in age, sex ratio, follow-up duration, and tumor size (P=0.227, 0.359, 0.214, and 0.878, resp.. The two groups showed similar rates of disease recurrence (3.9% in the TT group versus 3.3% in the TT plus CND group; however, complications occurred more frequently in the TT plus CND group; especially transient hypocalcemia (P=0.043. Conclusions. Patients treated with TT plus CND had a higher rate of complications with similar recurrence rate. We believe that CND may not be routinely recommended when treating patients with PTC.

  8. The Benefits and Risks of Prophylactic Central Neck Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doh Young; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Cho, Jae-Gu; Kwon, Soon-Young; Woo, Jeong-Soo; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the benefits of performing prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) with total thyroidectomy (TT) in management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients who were clinically node-negative at presentation. Methods. A total of 257 patients with stage T1 or T2 PTC and without preoperative evidence of lymph node involvement (N0) were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) a total thyroidectomy (TT) group (n = 104) or (2) a TT plus CND group (n = 153). The two groups were compared for their perioperative data, complication rates, disease recurrence rates, and clinical outcomes. Results. The two groups of patients were similar in age, sex ratio, follow-up duration, and tumor size (P = 0.227, 0.359, 0.214, and 0.878, resp.). The two groups showed similar rates of disease recurrence (3.9% in the TT group versus 3.3% in the TT plus CND group); however, complications occurred more frequently in the TT plus CND group; especially transient hypocalcemia (P = 0.043). Conclusions. Patients treated with TT plus CND had a higher rate of complications with similar recurrence rate. We believe that CND may not be routinely recommended when treating patients with PTC.

  9. The current status of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, NM; Leong, WY; Wong, W; Hughes, HE; Swaminathan, V

    2016-01-01

    The most common site for cancer to spread is bone. At post-mortem, bony metastases have been found in 70% of patients dying from breast and prostate cancer. Due to the prevalence of cancer, bone metastasis and the associated management represents a huge burden on NHS resources. In patients with metastasis, around 56% of these involve the lower limb long bones. Due to the huge forces placed upon long bones during weight bearing, there is a high risk of fracture through areas of metastasis. It is reported that 23% of pathological fractures occur in the femoral subtrochanteric region. This area is subjected to forces up to four times the body weight, resulting in poor union rate for these fractures, and significant morbidity associated with difficulty in mobilising, and in patient nursing. As cancer treatments improve, the life expectancy in this subgroup of patients is likely to increase. Therefore medium-to-long-term management of these fractures, beyond the palliative, will become essential. We aim to evaluate the current management for metastatic malignant femoral disease, with particular focus on the prophylactic augmentation of diseased femorii using intramedullary nails. PMID:28105069

  10. Prophylactic bilateral intramedullary femoral nails for bisphosphonate-associated signs of impending subtrochanteric hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Richard S; Beebe, Kathleen S; Benevenia, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    In the short and midterm, bisphosphonates have proven highly efficacious in the prevention of low-energy fractures, but long-term results and adverse effects have yet to be definitively identified. Of particular concern are emerging reports of long-term bisphosphonate users presenting with unusual low-energy subtrochanteric femur fractures. Perhaps associated with hyperactive bone remodeling leading to an eventually weakened bony architecture, the efficacy of longer-term bisphosphonate use has come into question, especially in those with >5 years of therapy.This article describes a case of a 65-year-old woman with a 10-year history of bisphosphonate use who presented with prodromal thigh pain and characteristic radiographic findings indicative of potential impending subtrochanteric insufficiency fracture. Supported by reports in the literature, unique characteristics of a certain clinical picture warn of potential bisphosphonate-associated subtrochanteric hip fracture; to our knowledge, we present the first reported prophylactic bilateral femoral intramedullary nailing to prevent fragility fracture. A deeper look into the biochemistry behind associated bony weakness caused by long-term incorporation of bisphosphonates is needed, especially if an endpoint to the therapy is to be determined. However, with mounting clinical evidence supporting the risk of bisphosphonate-associated fragility fracture, a characteristic radiographic appearance and clinical presentation cannot be ignored. In the interim, elective surgery may be an efficacious alternative in the treatment of an expected, readily preventable fracture.

  11. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and the effectiveness of prophylactic probiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizui, T; Teramachi, H; Tachi, T; Tamura, K; Shiga, H; Komada, N; Umeda, M; Koda, A; Aoyama, S; Goto, C; Tsuchiya, T

    2013-08-01

    Measures for prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, a common nosocomial infection, in hospital settings are urgently needed. This study was conducted to identify the risk factors contributing to C. difficile-associated diarrhea and to evaluate the clinical benefit of probiotics in its prevention. The study included 2716 patients at least 20 years old who received an injected antibiotic at any time between February 2010 and February 2011; a total of 2687 patients (98.9%) were assigned to the non-C. difficile-associated diarrhea group, and 29 patients (1.1%) were assigned to the C. difficile-associated diarrhea group. Univariate analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups for the following factors: antibiotic therapy for > or = 8 days; enteral nutrition; intravenous hyperalimentation; fasting; proton pump inhibitor use; H2 blocker use; and serum albumin Antibiotic therapy for > or = 8 days, intravenous hyperalimentation, proton pump inhibitor use, and H2 blocker use were therefore shown to be risk factors for C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Prophylactic probiotic therapy was not shown to suppress the occurrence of C. difficile-associated diarrhea.

  12. Intramural hematoma of the esophagus in a woman with chronic renal failure and prophylactic heparin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Serafini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CASE REPORT An 86 year-old woman experienced chest pain, dyspnea, and dysphagia two days following orthopaedic surgery for a bimalleolus fracture of the right ankle. The patient was on prophylactic low weight molecular heparin and was affected by chronic renal failure. The chest computed tomography (CT ruled out a pulmonary embolism but showed an intramural esophageal mass involving the entire esophagus. The lesion exhibited a blood like CT attenuation content that did not enhance after contrast administration. The esophagogram with gastrografin did not reveal filling defects nor communications between lumen and mucosa. Magnetic resonance confirmed CT results and excluded an aortic dissection. All radiological findings were suggestive of intramural hematoma of the esophagus. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE is part of the spectrum of esophageal injuries that includes Mallory-Weiss tear and Boerhaave’s syndrome. IHE is the result of a hemorrhage within the submucosal layer. Predisposing conditions are abnormal hemostasis, traumatic events, aortic diseases. It can also occur spontaneously (idiopathic. Treatment should be conservative and includes risk factors withdrawal. The hematoma usually resolves in 1 to 3 weeks.

  13. Is prophylactic tranexamic acid administration effective and safe for postpartum hemorrhage prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunbo; Gong, Yuping; Dong, Lingling; Xie, Bingying; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss and lowering transfusion needs for patients undergoing caesarean section (CS) or vaginal delivery (VD). Methods: An electronic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Cochrane library, Scopus, Central, and Clinical trials.gov was performed to identify studies that evaluating the usage of TA in CS or VD. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed and data extraction was performed. Results: Finally, 25 articles with 4747 participants were included. Our findings indicated TA resulted in a reduced intra-, postoperative, and total blood loss by a mean volume of 141.25 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] −186.72 to −95.79, P DVT) after CS or VD was associated with TA usage, while the minor side effects were more common. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that intravenous TA for patients undergoing CS was effective and safe. Although prophylactic TA administration is associated with reduced PPH, current existing data are insufficient to draw definitive recommendations about its clinical significance due to the poor to moderate quality of the included literatures. Thus, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed to validate our findings. PMID:28072700

  14. Comparison of droperidol and ondansetron prophylactic effect on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ferreira da Cunha Brião

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prophylactic effect of ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus is controversial, while evidence suggests that droperidol prevents pruritus. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of droperidol and ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.METHODS: 180 ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo cesarean sections under subarachnoid anesthesia combined with morphine 0.2 mg were randomized to receive, after the child's birth, metoclopramide 10 mg (Group I - control, droperidol 2.5 mg (Group II or ondansetron 8 mg (Group III. Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for pruritus (absent, mild, moderate or severe or other side effects by blinded investigators. Patients were also blinded to their group allocation. The tendency to present more severe forms of pruritus was compared between groups. NNT was also determined.RESULTS: Patients assigned to receive droperidol [Proportional odds ratio: 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.88] reported less pruritus than those who received metoclopramide. Ondansetron effect was similar to metoclopramide [Proportional odds ratio: 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.49-1.83]. The NNT for droperidol and ondansetron was 4.0 and 14.7, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Ondansetron does not inhibit subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.

  15. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. An indication for prophylactic cranial irradiation? A single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frueh, Martin; Cerny, Thomas [Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland). Dept. of Oncology/Hematology; Kacsir, Bela; Plasswilm, Ludwig [Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ess, Silvia [Cancer Registry, Canton of St. Gallen, Appenzell (Switzerland); Rodriguez, Regulo [Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland). Dept. of Pathology

    2011-09-15

    Information about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is limited and the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is unknown. Disease presentation and outcome of all EPSCC at our hospital between 1990 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Of 30 EPSCC, the male:female ratio was 58%:42%; 83% had a performance status of 0-2. Median age was 71 years (32-80). Seventeen (57%) had limited stage (LS), 13 (43%) extensive stage (ES). The location of the primary tumor was gastrointestinal (n = 8), unknown (6), gynecological (6), urogenital (5), and ear nose throat (5). Four (13%) developed brain metastases (2 ES, 2 LS). In ES, first line chemotherapy (CT) was given in 85%, mostly platinum-etoposide (64%). Response rate was 90%. In LS, CT and radiotherapy (RT) {+-} resection resulted in persistent remissions in 67% of patients. Median survival was 16 months (1-107 months), 18 months (1-107 months), and 9 months (0.4-25 months) for LS + ES, LS, and ES, respectively. Weight loss {>=}5 % and ECOG performance status 3 + 4 were associated with poorer survival (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The incidence of brain metastases was relatively low (13%). More studies are necessary, before routinely offering PCI to patients with EPSCC. Best survival outcomes in LS were achieved with multimodality treatment including CT and RT. Prognosis was poor in patients with ES. (orig.)

  16. Effects of prophylactic administration of bacteriophages to immunosuppressed mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus

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    Borysowski Jan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages can be successfully applied to treat infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Until now no attempts have been undertaken to treat infections in immunosuppressed patients with phages. In this work we investigated the prophylactic efficacy of specific bacteriophages in CBA mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP and infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Results High numbers of bacterial colony-forming units in the organs as well as elevated tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 serum concentrations in CP-treated and S. aureus-infected mice were significantly lowered upon application of phages. The phages markedly increased the percentage of circulating neutrophils and immature cells from the myelocytic and lymphocytic lineages in CP-treated, S. aureus-infected mice as well as of myelocytes and immature neutrophils in the bone marrow. In addition, phages stimulated in such mice generation of specific agglutinins against S. aureus. Conclusion Application of specific phages to immunosuppressed mice prior to infection with S. aureus proved very effective, suggesting a potential benefit of phage therapy in immunocompromised patients experiencing bacterial infections.

  17. Vitamin supplementation as possible prophylactic treatment against migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munvar Miya; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

  18. Prophylactic and curative effects of Bacopa monniera in gastric ulcer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, K; Rao, C V; Babu, M D; Goel, R K

    2001-11-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (BM, syn. Herpestis monniera L; Scrophulariaceae), is an Ayurvedic drug used as a rasayana. Its fresh juice was earlier reported to have significant antiulcerogenic activity. In continuation, methanolic extract of BM (BME) standardized to bacoside-A content (percentage-38.0 +/- 0.9), when given in the dose of 10-50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days, showed dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic on various gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol, aspirin, 2 h cold restraint stress and 4 h pylorus ligation. BME in the dose of 20 mg/kg, given for 10 days, twice daily showed healing effects against 50% acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Further work was done to investigate the possible mechanisms of its action by studying its effect on various mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion and defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell shedding, cell proliferation and antioxidant activity in rats. BME 20 mg/kg showed no effect on acid-pepsin secretion, increased mucin secretion, while it decreased cell shedding with no effect on cell proliferation. BME showed significant antioxidant effect per se and in stressed animals. Thus, the gastric prophylactic and curative effects of BME may be due to its predominant effect on mucosal defensive factors.

  19. Prophylactic iodine in two Tasmanian cultures in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.A.C. [Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: The incidence of goitre in two separate cultural groups in Tasmania, the island State of Australia, is discussed, firstly on the basis of serendipitous iodine prophylaxis by a ``primitive race`` (Tasmanian Aborigine), and secondly the deliberate dietary supplementation by European occupation in the 20th Century. The Tasmanian Aborigine did not suffer from goitre. Cultural habits that included diet and craft enabled them to avoid this disease in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment. Following an extended occupation since 1803, and with an eventual change in dietary habit, loss of traditional craft and culture, the population that survived both the introduction of European diseases and incarceration succumbed to goitre that was evidenced in the last half of the 19th Century. This paper explores the reasons why the Tasmanian Aborigines did not develop goitre until after European occupation. It also highlights the fortuitious introduction of iodine as a prophylactic measure in the prevention of goitre in the State of Tasmania during the second half of the 20th Century.

  20. Prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin against Streptococcus mutans bacteremia in lactoferrin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Senthil Kumar; Fine, Daniel H; Velliyagounder, Kabilan

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary agent of dental caries, which is often detected in transient bacteremia. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein showing antibacterial activities against several Streptococcus species. We reported here the prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin (hLF) in a lactoferrin knockout mouse (LFKO-/-) bacteremic model. The hLF treatment significantly cleared S. mutans from the blood and organs of bacteremic mice when compared to the non-hLF treated mice. Further, analysis of serum cytokines, spleen and liver cytokine mRNA levels revealed that hLF prophylaxis modulates their release differently when compared to the non-hLF treated group. C-reactive protein level (P = 0.003) also decreased following hLF prophylaxis in S. mutans induced bacteremic mice. Additional quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that hLF prophylaxis significantly decreased the expression level of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MPO and iNOS in spleen and liver. These results suggested that the hLF protects the host against S. mutans-induced experimental bacteremia.

  1. Capsular contracture by silicone breast implants: possible causes, biocompatibility, and prophylactic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiert AE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andreas E Steiert, Maria Boyce, Heiko Sorg Department of Plastic, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Abstract: The most common implanted material in the human body consists of silicone. Breast augmentation and breast reconstruction using silicone-based implants are procedures frequently performed by reconstructive and aesthetic surgeons. A main complication of this procedure continues to be the development of capsular contracture (CC, displaying the result of a fibrotic foreign body reaction after the implantation of silicone. For many years, experimental and clinical trials have attempted to analyze the problem of its etiology, treatment, and prophylaxis. Different theories of CC formation are known; however, the reason why different individuals develop CC in days or a month, or only after years, is unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that CC formation, might primarily be induced by immunological mechanisms along with other reasons. This article attempts to review CC formation, with special attention paid to immunological and inflammatory reasons, as well as actual prophylactic strategies. In this context, the word “biocompatibility” has been frequently used to describe the overall biological innocuousness of silicone in the respective studies, although without clear-cut definitions of this important feature. We have therefore developed a new five-point scale with distinct key points of biocompatibility. Hence, this article might provide the basis for ongoing discussion in this field to reduce single-publication definitions as well as increase the understanding of biocompatibility. Keywords: biofilm, foreign body reaction, breast augmentation, biocompatibility, fibrosis

  2. Bladder catheterization increases susceptibility to infection that can be prevented by prophylactic antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Goh, H.M. Sharon; Holec, Sarah; Albert, Matthew L.; Williams, Rohan B.H.; Ingersoll, Molly A.; Kline, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infections. Here, we report that bladder catheterization initiated a persistent sterile inflammatory reaction within minutes of catheter implantation. Catheterization resulted in increased expression of genes associated with defense responses and cellular migration, with ensuing rapid and sustained innate immune cell infiltration into the bladder. Catheterization also resulted in hypersensitivity to Enterococcus faecalis and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection, in which colonization was achieved using an inoculum 100-fold lower than the ID90 for infection of an undamaged urothelium with the same uropathogens. As the time of catheterization increased, however, colonization by the Gram-positive uropathogen E. faecalis was reduced, whereas catheterization created a sustained window of vulnerability to infection for Gram-negative UPEC over time. As CAUTI contributes to poorer patient outcomes and increased health care expenditures, we tested whether a single prophylactic antibiotic treatment, concurrent with catheterization, would prevent infection. We observed that antibiotic treatment protected against UPEC and E. faecalis bladder and catheter colonization as late as 6 hours after implantation. Thus, our study has revealed a simple, safe, and immediately employable intervention, with the potential to decrease one of the most costly hospital-incurred infections, thereby improving patient and health care economic outcome. PMID:27699248

  3. The prophylactic use of a proton pump inhibitor before food and alcohol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Patients report that the prophylactic consumption of a proton pump inhibitor minimizes gastrointestinal symptoms expected to be provoked by late-night food and alcohol consumption. The efficacy of this practice has not been studied formally. AIM: To perform a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of lansoprazole (30 mg) taken prior to a large meal and alcohol consumption. METHODS: Study subjects were recruited randomly from local primary care and hospital physicians. Each participant (n = 56; 37 male, 19 female; mean age, 38 years) completed questionnaires before and after the meal. Approximately 90 min prior to the provocative meal, participants were witnessed taking either placebo or 30 mg lansoprazole. Bar tokens were dispensed to permit the accurate quantification of alcohol consumption (mean, 15 units). RESULTS: Forty per cent of subjects reported significant reflux symptoms. For the entire group, there was no significant difference between lansoprazole and placebo. Post-prandial reflux was more frequent in those consuming > 15 units of alcohol (13\\/26, 50%) compared with those consuming < 15 units (7\\/30, 24%; P < 0.05). In the group who consumed > 15 units of alcohol, lansoprazole was associated with a lower rate of heartburn (5\\/15, 33%) compared with placebo (8\\/11, 73%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A single dose of a proton pump inhibitor prior to indulgence was only associated with reduced heartburn in those consuming > 15 units of alcohol.

  4. Meta-analysis of prophylactic corticosteroid use in post-ERCP pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingqin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis is a common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and benefit of pharmacological treatment is unclear. Although prophylactic use of corticosteroid for reduction of pancreatic injury after ERCP has been evaluated, discrepancy about beneficial effect of corticosteroid on pancreatic injury still exists. The aim of current study is to evaluate effectiveness and safety of corticosteroid in prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP. Methods We employed the method recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration to perform a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs of corticosteroid in prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP around the world. Results Most of the seven RCTs were of high quality. When the RCTs were analyzed, odds ratios (OR for corticosteroid were 1.13 [95% CI (0.89~1.44, p = 0.32] for PEP, 1.61 [95% CI (0.74~3.52, p = 0.23] for severe PEP, 0.92 [95% CI (0.57~1.48, p = 0.73] for post-ERCP hyperamylasemia respectively. The results indicated that there were no beneficial effects of corticosteroid on acute pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia. No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusion Corticosteroids cannot prevent pancreatic injury after ERCP. Therefore, their use in the prophylaxis of PEP is not recommended.

  5. Undiagnosed invasive candidiasis: incorporating non-culture diagnostics into rational prophylactic and preemptive antifungal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, Minh Hong

    2014-07-01

    The insensitivity of blood cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis fuels prophylactic and preemptive antifungal treatment. Assays like serum β-D-glucan or mannan/anti-mannan detection can identify blood culture-negative invasive candidiasis, but their roles in guiding antifungal therapy are undefined. We propose that non-culture tests can be incorporated into rational management strategies, based on clinical setting. As an example, β-D-glucan sensitivity/specificity for blood culture-negative, deep-seated candidiasis is approximately 60/75%. In intensive care units with candidiasis rates, positive/negative predictive values are 99% and 6/98%, respectively. With pre-test likelihoods of 10 and 33%, positive/negative predictive values are 20/94% and 54/79%, respectively. Based on these data, negative and positive β-D-glucan results likely will be most useful for discontinuing prophylaxis among low-risk to moderate-risk patients (pre-test likelihoods ∼3-10%), and triggering preemptive therapy among moderate-risk to high-risk patients (pre-test likelihoods ∼10-25%), respectively. In extremely high-risk patients, universal prophylaxis is likely to be the best strategy.

  6. Should Prophylactic Anticoagulation Be Considered with Large Uterine Leiomyoma? A Case Series and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Saenz, Carmen; Raju, Rubin; Cuthpert, Sierra; Kanzy, Abed; Abhari, Sina; Hebert III, John; Rocha, Frederico G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Uterine leiomyomas, also called uterine fibroids or myomas, are the most common pelvic tumors in women. They are very rarely the cause of acute complications. However, when complications occur they cause significant morbidity and mortality. Thromboembolic disease has been described as a rare complication of uterine leiomyomas. DVT is a serious illness, sometimes causing death due to acute PE. Cases. We report a case series of 3 patients with thromboembolic disease associated with uterine leiomyoma at Hurley Medical Center, Flint, Michigan, during 2015 and conduct a literature review on the topic. A literature search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, and PMC databases from 1966 to 2015. Conclusion. The uterine leiomyoma is a very rare cause of PE and only few cases have been reported. DVT secondary to uterine leiomyoma should be considered in a female presenting with abdominal mass and pelvic pressure, if there is no clear common cause for her symptoms. Thromboembolic disease secondary to large uterine leiomyoma should be treated with acute stabilization and then hysterectomy. Prophylactic anticoagulation would be beneficial for lowering the risk of VTE in patients with large uterine leiomyoma. PMID:27885348

  7. Effect of prophylactic trochanteric epiphyseodesis in older children with Perthes' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh; Siddesh, Nandi D; Joseph, Benjamin; Nair, Sreekumaran N

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic epiphyseodesis of the greater trochanter in Perthes' disease, 62 children with unilateral Perthes' disease who underwent trochanteric epiphyseodesis combined with varus osteotomy of the femur during the active stage of the disease (mean age at surgery: 8.4 y) and 20 controls were followed up until skeletal maturity. On radiographs taken at skeletal maturity, the articulo-trochanteric distance, the center-trochanteric distance, the length of the abductor lever arm, the neck-shaft angle, the radius of the femoral head, and the Reimer's migration index of normal and affected hips were measured. The shape of the femoral head was assessed according to the criteria of Mose. The range of hip motion, the strength of hip abduction, and limb lengths were measured and the Trendelenburg sign was elicited. The mean values of articulo-trochanteric distance and center-trochanteric distance were greater and the frequency of a positive Trendelenburg sign was less in children who had undergone trochanteric epiphyseodesis than in children who had no surgery (PTrendelenburg gait in older child with Perthes' disease.

  8. The Effect of Prophylactic Polishing Pastes on Surface Roughness of Indirect Restorative Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Can Say

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of prophylactic polishing pastes (PPP; Detartrine (DT, Topex (TP on surface roughness (Ra of indirect composites (IRC; Tescera (TES, Gradia (GRD, and Estenia C&B (EST, a glass ceramic (Empress 2 layering (E2, and a leucite reinforced glass ceramic (Empress Esthetic (EE with two different (glazed (G; polished (P surface preparations. A total of 90 IRC and 120 ceramic discs, 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were prepared. E2 and EE specimens were randomly divided into two groups (n=30. One group was glazed (GE2; GEE, while the other group was polished (PE2; PEE the same as the IRCs. The specimens in each group were subsequently divided into three subgroups: control (C, DT, and TP. Ra (μm was evaluated with a profilometer. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis, followed by the Dunn's multiple comparison tests P0.05. PE2 and PEE were not affected by DT or TP P>0.05, while GE2 and GEE exhibited significant roughening after TP P<0.05. Surface roughness of IRCs and glazed ceramics can be affected by PPP applications.

  9. A prophylactic approach for bone marrow transplantation from a hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk; Artit Ungkanont

    2007-01-01

    It has been accepted that bone marrow transplantation (BMT)is the only curative therapeutic option for certain hematologic malignancies.The southeast Asia region is an endemic area of hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection;thus,BMT using a hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)-positive donor is occasionally unavoidable.Organ transplantation using a HBsAg-positive donor can lead to post-transplantation de novo HBV infection and severe HBV-related hepatitis if no effective prophylactic measures are taken prior to and after transplantation.In this report,a four-level approach was designed for a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia,beginning with a booster HBV vaccination before performing BMT with a HBsAg-positive donor.Prior to BMT,the HBV viral load of the donor was reduced to an undetectable level by antiviral therapy.After BMT,hepatitis B immunoglobulin was administered intramuscularly for 1 wk together with a long-term antiviral drug,lamivudine.One year after discontinuation of lamivudine,the patient is still free of HBV infection.

  10. [Analysis of prophylactic and therapeutic effect of probiotic preparations from position of new scientific technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M; Rybalchenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    In this review new scientific technologies (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcrip- tomics) were used to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic action of probiotics, which are a major component ofthe normal human microflora (microbiota). Modern terms, definitions, classification of probiotic preparations are provided in the paper, the list of the probiotics registered in the Russian Federation is also submitted. The review analyzes the majority of mechanisms of probiotics action on a human body. The problem of safe application of probiotics is considered along with the detailed characteristic of the most effective production probiotic strains. New scientific technology to assess the effects of probiotic bacteria on the various functions of the macroorganism are also examined. In the review the special attention is paid to discussion of effectiveness of the probiotics impact in chronic infectious and metabolic disease processes (atherosclerosis, lipid distress syndrome, type 2 diabetes, obesity, etc.), which are the most active during dysbacteriosis and the destruction of normal microflora. From data of this article clearly that new scientific technologies will allow us to establish the functions of proteins that regulate metabolic and signaling pathways and affect the expression of genes required for the adaptation of probiotic strains in contact with the human body. In this review it is shown that the successful solution of this problem is closely connected with application of new scientific technologies for studying the composition and functions of the human microbiota, methods of active influence on her, and also with development of more sophisticated and effective probiotic preparations.

  11. High satisfaction rate ten years after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasteson, E; Sandelin, K; Brandberg, Y; Wickman, M; Arver, B

    2011-07-01

    Women from families with an increased risk for breast/ovarian cancer have undergone bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) since the early 1990s at the Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden. Perceptions of BPM as reported by the first women who underwent the procedure have previously been evaluated on a short-term basis (1-3 years). The present study aims to evaluate the long-term (10 years) physical and psychological consequences of BPM in the same cohort of women. Some of the very first women to undergo BPM participated in the present interview study (n= 13). The semi-structured interviews focused on the women's long-term experiences related to BPM and immediate breast reconstruction. Overall, the women were satisfied with their decision to undergo BPM and perceived a negligible remaining risk of getting breast cancer. For most women, the operation had not resulted in changes in family life or lifestyle (n= 8), although some described that the relationship with their spouse was affected (8/13), either in a negative (n= 5) or positive (n= 3) way. The cosmetic results were mainly positive (n= 10). Recurrent counselling and support during the whole process of decision, treatment and follow up is recommended.

  12. Prophylactic balloon occlusion of internal iliac arteries in women with placenta accreta: Literature review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilauro, M.D.; Dason, S. [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Athreya, S., E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca [Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph' s Healthcare Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To review the literature on the use of prophylactic balloon occlusion alone and in conjunction with arterial embolization of the internal iliac arteries in women with placenta accreta. Materials and methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for keywords related to this technique and its use in the avoidance of caesarean hysterectomy. The relevant published articles were selected and then searched for further references. Results: The literature search found 15 case reports and five studies for a total of 20 articles. The use of balloon catheters to prevent post-partum haemorrhage in women with placenta accreta is controversial with some investigators reporting reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements while others reporting no benefit. This procedure does not appear to reduce operative time or hospital stay. Some groups have described catheter-related complications, such as maternal thromboembolic events and the need for stent placement and/or arterial bypass. Thus far, there is no reported maternal or foetal mortality related to this procedure. Conclusion: Current evidence is based upon case reports and small retrospective studies. Larger studies or randomized controlled trials are essential in order to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of bilateral iliac balloon occlusion. The creation of a data registry would also facilitate the reporting of this technique.

  13. Do pathologies associated with impacted lower third molars justify prophylactic removal? A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2006-10-01

    Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is widely carried out in general dental practice and in many institutional clinics. Despite the fact that there are well established indications for the removal of impacted lower third molars, prophylactic removal of these teeth is still being universally practiced. Some reports have estimated that the proportion of impacted third molars that are removed when no clinically sound justification for surgery is present is between 18% and 50.7%. Justifications for prophylactic surgery include the need to minimize the risk of disease (cysts and tumors) development, reduction of the risk of mandibular angle fracture, increased difficulty of surgery with age, and that third molars have no definite role in the mouth. This article critically examines the literature regarding the relationship between impacted lower wisdom teeth, cysts and tumor development, and mandibular fractures.

  14. Association of cinnarizine and betahistine in prophylactic therapy for Ménière's disease with and without migraine

    OpenAIRE

    TEGGI, R.; Gatti, O.; Sykopetrites, V.; Quaglieri, S.; Benazzo, M.; Bussi, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prophylactic therapy of Ménière's disease (MD) includes betahistine and calcium-blockers (the latter also useful for migraine prevention). The aim of our work was to assess the efficacy of combined therapy with cinnarizine and betahistine in MD subjects both with and without migraine and poorly responsive to betahistine alone. Fifty-two MD subjects were included who were poorly responsive to betahistine during 6 months of follow-up; 29 were migraineurs. Combined therapy was administer...

  15. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-Infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosab Ahmadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic and route (oral gavage or vent lip of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration.

  16. Comparison of brain mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity with cyanide LD(50) yields insight into the efficacy of prophylactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziaz, Mandy L; Frazier, Kathryn; Guidry, Paul B; Ruiz, Robyn A; Petrikovics, Ilona; Haines, Donovan C

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory pathway, therefore inhibiting the cell oxygen utilization and resulting in the condition of histotoxic anoxia. The enzyme rhodanese detoxifies cyanide by utilizing sulfur donors to convert cyanide to thiocyanate, and new and improved sulfur donors are actively sought as researchers seek to improve cyanide prophylactics. We have determined brain cytochrome c oxidase activity as a marker for cyanide exposure for mice pre-treated with various cyanide poisoning prophylactics, including sulfur donors thiosulfate (TS) and thiotaurine (TT3). Brain mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation, the outer mitochondrial membrane was disrupted by a maltoside detergent, and the decrease in absorbance at 550 nm as horse heart ferrocytochrome c (generated by the dithiothreitol reduction of ferricytochrome c) was oxidized was monitored. Overall, the TS control prophylactic treatment provided significant protection of the cytochrome c oxidase activity. The TT3-treated mice showed reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity even in the absence of cyanide. In both treatment series, addition of exogenous Rh did not significantly enhance the prevention of cytochrome c oxidase inhibition, but the addition of sodium nitrite did. These findings can lead to a better understanding of the protection mechanism by various cyanide antidotal systems.

  17. A substantial part of the fallopian tube is left after standard prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, L.H.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Hullu, J.A. de

    2006-01-01

    Women with a deleterious germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are candidates for bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). To address the need for adjustment of the current BSO procedure, we investigated the length and the nature of the fallopian tube epithelium that is not removed by BSO. Fourteen cons

  18. Prophylactic effect of Ca2+- deficient artificial perilymph perfusion on noise-induced hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴启; 于宁; 孙建和; 赵立东

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prophylactic effect of low calcium concentration perilymph on noise-induced hearing loss. Methods Forty guinea pigs with normal hearing weighing 250-350 g were assigned to five groups (8 in each group): (1) Ca2+-deficient perilymph perfusion (CDP) for 2 h; (2) white noise (120 dB SPL) exposure (WNE) only for 1 h, (3) combination of calcium-deficient perilymph perfusion and white noise (120 dB SPL) exposure (WNE+CDP); (4) normal artificial perilymph (NAP) perfusion for 2 h; and (5) white noise exposure + normal artificial perilymph perfusion (WNE+NAP) for 2 h. Compound action potentials (CAP) evoked by click was recorded from round window every 15 min. The cochleae from 5 animals in each group were examined with scanning electron microscope. Results The CAP for group 1 experienced a threshold shift (TS) of 15-26 dB, while group 2 yielded a 46-59 dB TS and group 3 a 37-45 dB TS; no threshold shift occurred in group 4. The CAP TS in group 5 was 33-64 dB. The CAP TS of group 3 was less than that of group 2. After one hour of noise exposure, the CAP TS of group 3 were 45.92±2.90 dB and 59.30±3.95dB in group 2. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between groups 3 and 2. The CAP TS of group 3 was less than that of group 5 at the points of 1, 1.5 and 2 h after noise exposure. There was a significant difference between groups 3 and 5 (P<0.01). Stereocilia of 89 OHC3 were in disarray in five cochleae after noise exposure in group 2. The cuticular plates of 8 OHC2,3 sank and the stereocilia became fused in only one animal cochlea after noise exposure in group 3 combined with low calcium perilymph perfusion. Conclusions Low calcium concentration appears to participate in preventing noise-induced hearing loss and the rising of calcium concentrations in inner hair cells after noise exposure, which may have been due to the opening of calcium channels in inner hair cells during noise exposure. The mechanism of the prophylactic effect might be

  19. In vivo electroporation enhances the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA vaccine candidate in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA-based vaccines have been safe but weakly immunogenic in humans to date. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sought to determine the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of ADVAX, a multigenic HIV-1 DNA vaccine candidate, injected intramuscularly by in vivo electroporation (EP in a Phase-1, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in healthy volunteers. Eight volunteers each received 0.2 mg, 1 mg, or 4 mg ADVAX or saline placebo via EP, or 4 mg ADVAX via standard intramuscular injection at weeks 0 and 8. A third vaccination was administered to eleven volunteers at week 36. EP was safe, well-tolerated and considered acceptable for a prophylactic vaccine. EP delivery of ADVAX increased the magnitude of HIV-1-specific cell mediated immunity by up to 70-fold over IM injection, as measured by gamma interferon ELISpot. The number of antigens to which the response was detected improved with EP and increasing dosage. Intracellular cytokine staining analysis of ELISpot responders revealed both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, with co-secretion of multiple cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration in healthy volunteers that EP is safe, tolerable, and effective in improving the magnitude, breadth and durability of cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine candidate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00545987.

  20. Antigenic community between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata: on the search of candidate antigens for vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chacón

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously confirmed the presence of common antigens between Schistosoma mansoni and its vector, Biomphalaria glabrata. Cross-reactive antigens may be important as possible candidates for vaccine and diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Sera from outbred mice immunized with a soluble Biomphalaria glabrata antigen (SBgA of non-infected B. glabrata snails recognized molecules of SBgA itself and S. mansoni AWA by Western blot. Recognition of several molecules of the SBgA were inhibited by pre-incubation with AWA (16, 30, 36, 60 and 155 kDa. The only specific molecule of AWA, inhibited by SBgA, was a 120 kDa protein. In order to determine which epitopes of SBgA were glycoproteins, the antigen was treated with sodium metaperiodate and compared with non-treated antigen. Molecules of 140, 60 and 24 kDa in the SBgA appear to be glycoproteins. Possible protective effects of the SBgA were evaluated immunizing outbred mice in two different experiments using Freund's Adjuvant. In the first one (12 mice/group, we obtained a significant level of protection (46% in the total worm load, with a high variability in worm recovery. In the second experiment (22 mice/group, no significant protection was observed, neither in worm load nor in egg production per female. Our results suggest that SBgA constitutes a rich source of candidate antigens for diagnosis and prophylactic studies.

  1. Once-weekly prophylactic dosing of recombinant factor IX improves adherence in hemophilia B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djambas Khayat, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Regular prophylactic treatment in severe hemophilia should be considered an optimal treatment. There is no general agreement on the optimal prophylaxis regimen, and adherence to prophylaxis is a main challenge due to medical, psychosocial, and cost controversies. Improved approaches in prophylaxis regimen of hemophilia B are needed to make patients’ lives easier. There is some evidence to support the efficacy of once-weekly prophylaxis. Longer sampling schedules are required for the determination of pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of factor IX (FIX). The half-life of FIX seems to be longer than previously described and is expected to be 34 hours. The clinical significance of maintaining a 1% trough level is widely debated in hemophilia B. The overall relationship between factor concentrate levels and incidence of joint bleeding was found to be very weak. Data also indicate that the distribution of FIX into an extravascular FIX compartment may contribute to hemostasis independently of circulating plasma FIX levels. Clinical assessment of the frequency and severity of bleeds remain an important measure of the efficacy of treatment. Role of PK-guided therapy remains to be established. Two prospective randomized studies had evaluated the efficacy and safety of 100 IU/kg once-weekly prophylaxis with nonacog alfa, and this prophylaxis regimen was found to be associated with lower annual bleeding rate compared with on-demand treatment in adolescents and adults with moderately severe-to-severe hemophilia B. Secondary prophylaxis therapy with 100 IU/kg nonacog alfa once weekly reduced annual bleeding rate by 89.4% relative to on-demand treatment. Residual FIX may be supportive of effectiveness. Once-weekly prophylaxis was well tolerated in the two studies, with a safety profile similar to that reported during the on-demand treatment period. To individually tailor treatment to clinical response and to minimize costs of factor concentrate, it would be of interest to

  2. SU-E-T-664: Radiobiological Modeling of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D; Debeb, B; Woodward, W [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a clinical technique used to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis and improve overall survival in select patients with ALL and SCLC, and we have shown the potential of PCI in select breast cancer patients through a mouse model (manuscript in preparation). We developed a computational model using our experimental results to demonstrate the advantage of treating brain micro-metastases early. Methods: MATLAB was used to develop the computational model of brain metastasis and PCI in mice. The number of metastases per mouse and the volume of metastases from four- and eight-week endpoints were fit to normal and log-normal distributions, respectively. Model input parameters were optimized so that model output would match the experimental number of metastases per mouse. A limiting dilution assay was performed to validate the model. The effect of radiation at different time points was computationally evaluated through the endpoints of incidence, number of metastases, and tumor burden. Results: The correlation between experimental number of metastases per mouse and the Gaussian fit was 87% and 66% at the two endpoints. The experimental volumes and the log-normal fit had correlations of 99% and 97%. In the optimized model, the correlation between number of metastases per mouse and the Gaussian fit was 96% and 98%. The log-normal volume fit and the model agree 100%. The model was validated by a limiting dilution assay, where the correlation was 100%. The model demonstrates that cells are very sensitive to radiation at early time points, and delaying treatment introduces a threshold dose at which point the incidence and number of metastases decline. Conclusion: We have developed a computational model of brain metastasis and PCI in mice that is highly correlated to our experimental data. The model shows that early treatment of subclinical disease is highly advantageous.

  3. Safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman; Sevki; Arslan; Ceyhun; Arici; Mustafa; Unal; Erdogan; Cicik; Mehmet; Serhat; Mangan; Eray; Atalay

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To determine the safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty(PKP).METHODS:In this retrospective study of consecutive patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery after PKP, were treated with intracameral moxifloxacin0.5% ophthalmic solution(0.5 mg/0.1 mL). The main outcome measures were anterior chamber reaction, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal endothelial cell count(ECC), and central corneal thickness(CCT).RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were recruited(26 males,29 females). The mean age was 54.36±4.97y(range 45-64y).All eyes had improved postoperative BCVA. The mean BCVA was 0.25 preoperatively and 0.57 postoperatively,which was statistically significant(P <0.001). One eye had 3+, 7 eyes had 2+, 12 eyes had 1+ and 8 eyes had trace amount of aqueous cells on the first day after surgery. All eyes had no anterior chamber cells at subsequent follow up examinations. Effective phacoemulsification time was 4.33 ±1.01 s. The mean ECC was 2340.20 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 1948.75 cells/mm21 mo postoperatively(P <0.001). The increase of21.09 μm in postoperative pachymetry 1mo after surgery was statistically significant(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:Nountowardeffectswereobservedafter intracameral injection of moxifloxacin(0.5 mg/0.1 mL) in terms of anterior chamber reaction, CCT, ECC, and visual rehabilitation at the conclusion of cataract surgery in patients with PKP.

  4. Prophylactic Administration of Silybin Ameliorates L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçmak, Feyzullah; Ekin, Nazım; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, İbrahim; Şenateş, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of silybin, a potent antioxidant, on L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in an experimental rat model. Material/Methods Forty female Wistar Albino rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: Group 1 (C): control group (n=8), Group 2 (SL): silybin group (n=8), Group 3 (LA): acute pancreatitis group (n=8), Group 4 (SLLA): prophylaxis group (n=8), and Group 5 (LASL): treatment group (n=8). Group C (control) received 2 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of physiological saline at an interval of 1 h. Group SL received only a single i.p. injection of silybin. The SLLA group received a single i.p. injection of silybin before the induction of acute pancreatitis with L-arginine, whereas the LASL group received the same injection after the induction of acute pancreatitis with L-arginine. Pancreatic tissues were histopathologically examined. Levels of amylase and oxidative stress markers (total oxidant status and total anti-oxidant status) were determined in the blood samples. Oxidative stress index was calculated. Results In comparison to the LA, the prophylaxis and treatment groups showed significant improvements in serum oxidative stress parameters (p=0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). Histopathological analysis showed that the treatment group had significant improvements in edema scores only (p=0.006), whereas the prophylaxis group had the same improvements in inflammation and necrosis scores as well as in total scores (p=0.004, 0.006, and 0.004, respectively). Conclusions When used for prophylactic rather than therapeutic purposes, silybin ameliorates serum oxidative stress parameters and improves histopathological results via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27725627

  5. Prophylactic Antitumor Effect of Mixed Heat Shock Proteins/Peptides in Mouse Sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shu-Yun Liu; Mei Yuan; Yu Tang; Quan-Yi Guo; Xue-Mei Cui; Xiang Sui

    2015-01-01

    Background:To develop a vaccine-based immunotherapy for sarcoma,we evaluated a mixture of heat shock proteins (mHSPs) as a vaccine for sarcoma treatment in a mouse model.Heat shock protein/peptides (HSP/Ps) are autoimmune factors that can induce both adaptive and innate immune responses;HSP/Ps isolated from tumors can induce antitumor immune activity when used as vaccines.Methods:In this study,we evaluated the effects of mHSP/Ps on prophylactic antitumor immunity.We extracted mHSP/Ps,including HSP60,HSP70,GP96,and HSP l 10,from the mouse sarcoma cell lines S 180 and MCA207 using chromatography.The immunity induced by mHSP/Ps was assessed using flow cytometry,ELISPOT,lactate dehydrogenase release,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:Of S180 sarcoma-beating mice immunized with mHSP/Ps isolated from S180 cells,41.2% showed tumor regression and long-term survival,with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 82.3% at 30 days.Of MCA207 sarcoma-bearing mice immunized with mHSP/Ps isolated from MCA207 cells,50% showed tumor regression and long-term survival with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 79.3%.All control mice died within 40 days.The proportions of natural killer cells,CD8+,and interferon-γ-secreting cells and tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity were increased in the immunized group.Conclusions:Vaccination with a polyvalent mHSP/P cancer vaccine can induce an immunological response and a marked antitumor response to autologous tumors.This mHSP/P vaccine exerted greater antitumor effects than did HSPT0,HSP60,or tumor lysates alone.

  6. Using a graphical risk tool to examine willingness to take migraine prophylactic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Golding, Adrienne N; Houle, Timothy T

    2016-10-01

    Many migraine sufferers use daily prophylactic therapy to reduce the frequency of their headache attacks. The Food and Drug Administration has approved several different medications for migraine prophylaxis, but it is not clear whether sufferers perceive these treatments to provide clinically significant benefits given their side effect profiles. Three hundred headache sufferers were recruited from the community and local headache clinics using print and television advertising. Participants reported experiencing problematic headache attacks with a median (IQR) frequency of 7.0 (4-13) headache days per month. These sufferers participated in a cross-sectional, single-site, study that used a specially designed computer assessment task. Participants were instructed on the probability of experiencing the 3 most commonly experienced side effects for several blinded medication profiles: divalproex sodium, venlafaxine, gabapentin, propranolol, and topiramate. After learning the likelihood of experiencing side effect profiles of each medication, participants were asked whether they would be willing to take the medication for a given headache reduction level, which ranged from 0 to 7 days per month. The side effect profile for divalproex sodium was associated with the smallest willingness to take, with gabapentin, propranolol, and topiramate perceived to be much more agreeable. However, <60% of participants reported willingness to take any of these medications even if they provided a 50% reduction in headache frequency. Several general predictors of willingness to take were observed including high headache-related disability, depressive symptoms, and pain medication concerns including fear of tolerance. These findings suggest that if properly informed of the side effect profiles of these medications, many patients might opt for other treatments.

  7. Determining the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast cancer surgeries: a survey of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acuna Sergio A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic antibiotics (PAs are beneficial to breast cancer patients undergoing surgery because they prevent surgical site infection (SSI, but limited information regarding their use has been published. This study aims to determine the use of PAs prior to breast cancer surgery amongst breast surgeons in Colombia. Methods An online survey was distributed amongst the breast surgeon members of the Colombian Association of Mastology, the only breast surgery society of Colombia. The scope of the questions included demographics, clinical practice characteristics, PA prescription characteristics, and the use of PAs in common breast surgical procedures. Results The survey was distributed amongst eighty-eight breast surgeons of whom forty-seven responded (response rate: 53.4%. Forty surgeons (85.1% reported using PAs prior to surgery of which >60% used PAs during mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and/or breast reconstruction. Surgeons reported they targeted the use of PAs in cases in which patients had any of the following SSI risk factors: diabetes mellitus, drains in situ, obesity, and neoadjuvant therapy. The distribution of the self-reported PA dosing regimens was as follows: single pre-operative fixed-dose (27.7%, single preoperative dose followed by a second dose if the surgery was prolonged (44.7%, single preoperative dose followed by one or more postoperative doses for >24 hours (10.6%, and single preoperative weight-adjusted dose (2.1%. Conclusion Although this group of breast surgeons is aware of the importance of PAs in breast cancer surgery there is a discrepancy in how they use it, specifically with regards to prescription and timeliness of drug administration. Our findings call for targeted quality-improvement initiatives, such as standardized national guidelines, which can provide sufficient evidence for all stakeholders and therefore facilitate best practice medicine for breast cancer surgery.

  8. PECULIARITIES OF INDIVIDUAL AND PROPHYLACTIC WORK WITH EMPLOYEES OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Dadova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an actual problem of individual-organization of preventive work with the employees of the internal affairs bodies. The main purpose of the article - is marking the main problems of individual and educational work in the bodies of internal affairs – education of a professionally trained, highly moral and psychologically stable employee. The priority work with the personnel at present is creation of an effective pedagogical system of law enforcement officers‟ education. The author points out that there is a need to establish an effective pedagogical staff of education system oriented on developing moral, professionally significant qualities, aimed at the exemplary performance of official tasks. It is noted that there is an urgent need to take into consideration social and psychological characteristics of police officers as well as such factors as the private life volatility (dynamism, the impact of the changes taking place in society in the process of young people formation during individual prophylactic work. The author points out that only an educated policeman with highly cultured qualities, with knowledge and skills in different areas can qualitatively do the tasks assigned by the state. It is concluded that formation of professional morality of a law enforcement officer – is not only the task of law enforcement heads, but it is also a necessary condition for the personnel to execute state operative and service tasks, to keep the law and discipline. Service responsibility and moral and aesthetic requirement to a police officer should be merged into a single unit. 

  9. Teacher Candidates' Communication Skills and Communicator Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Cem ÇUHADAR; Özgür, Hasan; Akgün, Fatma; GÜNDÜZ, Şemseddin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the communication skills and the communicator styles of teacher candidates. This research was conducted among the senior class students, studying at Trakya University, Faculty of Education in the fall semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. 205 women and 110 men, in a total of 315 teacher candidates participated in the research. As a result, it has been observed that the teacher candidates bear animated/expressive features the...

  10. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  11. Intracavitary cobalt-60 irradiation in the prophylactic treatment of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tadashi; Kigure, Teruaki; Miyagata, Shigeru (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the technique and preliminary clinical results of transurethral intracavitary whole bladder mucosal irradiation (IWI) for the prophylaxis of bladder cancer. In this procedure, first, the balloon catheter (22 Fr.) is inserted into the bladder, and next the balloon is inflated with 100 ml of air. Then a Co-60 pellet with about 110 GBq of activity is driven into the center of the bladder. With this method, we can irradiate the whole bladder mucosa almost equally. From April 1985, 36 patients with recurrent tumor and 26 patients with primary and multiple tumors of the bladder have been treated with IWI after transurethral resection or microwave coagulation of the tumors. Tumor stage and grade were as follows: Tis (7), T{sub a}, T{sub 1} (41), T{sub 2} (14), G1 (16), G2 (30) and G3 (16). The tumors were transitional cell carcinoma in all patients. IWI was performed once a week, usually 3 to 5 times, depending on the patients. The total dose to the bladder mucosa ranged from 20 to 58.5 Gy with an average dose of 37.6 Gy. Recurrence rates before and after IWI were calculated using the following formula: recurrence rates (RR)=(total number of recurrences/total months of follow up)x100. RR in the 36 patients with recurrent tumor was 14.0 before IWI and 1.8 after IWI (mean follow up 37.6 mos.). RR in the 26 patients with multiple tumors was 1.4 after IWI (mean follow up 34.8 mos.). RR in patients with G1, G2 and G3 tumors were 1.2, 1.7 and 2.2. The most common side effect was temporary urinary frequency observed in 36 patients (52.9%). Three patients had contracted bladder, and two had hydronephrosis. However, proctitis or incontinence was not evident. Although the preliminary clinical results suggest that our new technique is an effective prophylactic treatment for bladder cancer, further investigation is needed to determine its efficacy. (author).

  12. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, M.; Aktas, E. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Medical School

    2003-02-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of

  13. Effects of Prophylactic Ankle Supports on Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Landing: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu, Tienan Feng, Lejun Wang, Chenghua Jiang, Ming Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate on how prophylactic ankle supports (PASs may influence the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF during landing. Therefore, the primary aims of this meta-analysis were to systematically review and synthesize the effect of PASs on vGRF, and to understand how PASs affect vGRF peaks (F1, F2 and the time from initial contact to peak loading (T1, T2 during landing. Several key databases, including Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Physical Activity Index, were used for identifying relevant studies published in English since inception to April 1, 2015. The computerized literature search and cross-referencing the citation list of the articles yielded 3,993 articles. Criteria for inclusion required that 1 the study was conducted on healthy adults; 2 the subject number and trial number were known; 3 the subjects performed landing with and without PAS; 4 the landing movement was in the sagittal plane; 5 the comparable vGRF parameters were reported; and 6 the F1 and F2 must be normalized to the subject’s body weight. After the removal of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 6, 6, 15 and 11 studies were respectively pooled for outcomes of F1, T1, F2 and T2. This study found a significantly increased F2 (.03 BW, 95% CI: .001, .05 and decreased T1 (-1.24 ms, 95% CI: -1.77, -.71 and T2 (-3.74 ms, 95% CI: -4.83, -2.65 with the use of a PAS. F1 was not significantly influenced by the PAS. Heterogeneity was present in some results, but there was no evidence of publication bias for any outcome. These changes represented deterioration in the buffering characteristics of the joint. An ideal PAS design should limit the excessive joint motion of ankle inversion, while allowing a normal range of motion, especially in the sagittal plane.

  14. Prophylactic mesh placement for the PREvention of paraSTOmal hernias: The PRESTO systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianka, Frank; Probst, Pascal; Keller, Anne-Valerie; Saure, Daniel; Grummich, Kathrin; Büchler, Markus W.; Diener, Markus K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Parastomal hernia (PH) is the most common complication after ostomy formation. Prophylactic mesh placement may be effective in reducing the rate of PH at the stoma site. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the evidence with regard to the safety and effectiveness in comparison with the standard procedure without mesh placement and to identify important risk constellations. Method A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library with no language or date restrictions. Randomized (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (nRCTs) were included. The main outcomes of interest were PH (primary outcome) rate and stoma-related complications (secondary outcomes) such as stenosis or fistula. Statistical analysis included meta-analyses of pooled data and subgroup analyses. Results Eleven trials (eight RCTs; three nRCTs) with a total of 755 patients were included. PH rate varied from 0% to 59% in the intervention and from 20% to 94% in the control group. RCTs showed a significant reduction of PH rate in the mesh group (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.58, p = 0.034), whereas included nRCTs did not. No significant differences were observed in postoperative complication rates. Subgroup analyses showed superiority of non-absorbable meshes and sublay mesh positioning in open surgery. Conclusion Prophylactic mesh placement is safe and reduces PH rate. A recommendation for prophylactic non-absorbable meshes in a sublay position can be made for patients undergoing open colorectal operations with end-ostomies. Further research endeavors should focus on patient-oriented outcomes, not only PH rate, with respect to tailored treatment in specific patient populations. PMID:28182642

  15. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100....... In the placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly...

  16. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars over extended time intervals. During the past years, it has also included a search for periodic, very shallow "dips" in the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs [2] or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 177 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of several hundred thousand stars in three southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, another within the Carina constellation and the third within the Centaurus/Musca constellations. The nature of the transiting object can however only be established by subsequent radial-velocity observations of the parent star. The size of the velocity variations (the amplitude) is directly related to the mass of the companion object and therefore allows discrimination between stars and planets as the cause of the observed brightness "dip". A Bonanza of Low-Mass Stars An international team of astronomers [3] has made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope for this work. Profiting from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of up to 8 objects simultaneously, they have looked at 60 OGLE transit candidate stars, measuring their radial velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s [4]. This ambitious programme has so far resulted in the discovery of five new transiting exoplanets (see, e.g., ESO PR 11/04 for the announcement of two of those). Most of the other transit candidates identified by OGLE have turned out to be eclipsing binaries, that is, in most cases common, small and low-mass stars passing in front of a solar-like star. This additional wealth of data on small and light stars is a real bonanza for the astronomers. Constraining the Relation Between Mass and Radius Low-mass stars are exceptionally interesting objects, also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with

  17. Effect of Prophylactic Antifungal Protocols on the Prognosis of Liver Transplantation: A Propensity Score Matching and Multistate Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chan; Wang, Yu-Chao; Lee, Chen-Fang; Wu, Ting-Jun; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Whether routine antifungal prophylaxis decreases posttransplantation fungal infections in patients receiving orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis for patients receiving OLT. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of a database at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. We have been administering routine antibiotic and prophylactic antifungal regimens to recipients with high model for end-stage liver disease scores (>20) since 2009. After propensity score matching, 402 patients were enrolled. We conducted a multistate model to analyze the cumulative hazards, probability of fungal infections, and risk factors. Results. The cumulative hazards and transition probability of “transplantation to fungal infection” were lower in the prophylaxis group. The incidence rate of fungal infection after OLT decreased from 18.9% to 11.4% (p = 0.052); overall mortality improved from 40.8% to 23.4% (p < 0.001). In the “transplantation to fungal infection” transition, prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced hazards for fungal infection (hazard ratio: 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.34–0.96, p = 0.033). Massive ascites, cadaver transplantation, and older age were significantly associated with higher risks for mortality. Conclusion. Prophylactic antifungal regimens in high-risk recipients might decrease the incidence of posttransplant fungal infections.

  18. Prophylactic Antiarrhythmic Effect of Anesthetics at Subanesthetic Concentration on Epinephrine-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats after Brain Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Miyata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study using brain death model of rats was designed to examine whether prophylactic administration of volatile anesthetics and propofol prevent the epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. A Fogarty catheter was placed intracranially for induction of brain death. After brain death, the rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the control group (no anesthetics, the sevoflurane group (0.8%, the isoflurane group (0.5%, the halothane group (0.3%, and the propofol group (195 μg·kg−1·min−1. These anesthetics were about 30% of ED50 of each anesthetic. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine was determined in each anesthetic group. In addition, we examined left ventricular levels of connexin 43 phosphorylation 30 min after administration of each anesthetic with Western blot analysis. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in the sevoflurane group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in any other anesthetic group was not different. On the other hand, the ratio of phosphorylated-connexin 43/total connexin 43 was also similar among the study groups. Thus, prophylactic administration of subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane is effective in preventing epinephrine-induced arrhythmias after brain death, but phosphorylation of connexin is not involved in the antiarrhythmic property of sevoflurane.

  19. Prophylactic antiarrhythmic effect of anesthetics at subanesthetic concentration on epinephrine-induced arrhythmias in rats after brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yuka; Iwasaki, Mitsuo; Yamanaka, Hiroo; Sato, Masanori; Kamibayashi, Takahiko; Fujino, Yuji; Hayashi, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The present study using brain death model of rats was designed to examine whether prophylactic administration of volatile anesthetics and propofol prevent the epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. A Fogarty catheter was placed intracranially for induction of brain death. After brain death, the rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the control group (no anesthetics), the sevoflurane group (0.8%), the isoflurane group (0.5%), the halothane group (0.3%), and the propofol group (195 μg·kg(-1) ·min(-1)). These anesthetics were about 30% of ED50 of each anesthetic. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine was determined in each anesthetic group. In addition, we examined left ventricular levels of connexin 43 phosphorylation 30 min after administration of each anesthetic with Western blot analysis. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in the sevoflurane group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in any other anesthetic group was not different. On the other hand, the ratio of phosphorylated-connexin 43/total connexin 43 was also similar among the study groups. Thus, prophylactic administration of subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane is effective in preventing epinephrine-induced arrhythmias after brain death, but phosphorylation of connexin is not involved in the antiarrhythmic property of sevoflurane.

  20. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owais Mohammad

    Full Text Available In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy.

  1. Prophylactic role of melatonin against radiation induced damage in mouse cerebellum with special reference to Purkinje cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Kumari, Seema; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Bhatia, A L [Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Melatonin, a hormone with a proven antioxidative efficacy, crosses all morphophysiological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and distributes throughout the cell. The present study is an attempt to investigate the prophylactic influence of a chronic low level of melatonin against an acute radiation induced oxidative stress in the cerebellum of Swiss albino mice, with special reference to Purkinje cells. After 15 days of treatment the mice were sacrificed at various intervals from 1 to 30 days. Biochemical parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels as the endpoints. The quantitative study included alterations in number and volume of Purkinje cells. Swiss albino mice were orally administered a very low dose of melatonin (0.25 mg/mouse/day) for 15 consecutive days before single exposure to 4 Gy gamma radiation. Melatonin checked the augmented levels of LPO, by approximately 55%, by day 30 day post-exposure. Radiation induced depleted levels of GSH could be raised by 68.9% by day 30 post-exposure. Radiation exposure resulted in a reduction of the volume of Purkinje cells and their total number. The administration of melatonin significantly protected against the radiation induced decreases in Purkinje cell volume and number. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin resulting in its prophylactic property against radiation induced biochemical and cellular alterations in the cerebellum. The findings support the idea that melatonin may be used as an anti-irradiation drug due to its potent free radical scavenging and antioxidative efficacy.

  2. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  3. New Zika Vaccine Candidate Provides Powerful Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163384.html New Zika Vaccine Candidate Provides Powerful Protection Made without live ... HealthDay News) -- A single dose of an experimental Zika vaccine protected mice and monkeys from the virus, ...

  4. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, M.A. van; Brunner, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information i

  5. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-05-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates’ development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the achievement of their chemistry pedagogical aspirations. Two theoretical frameworks, both having their origins in the pioneering work of Kurt Lewin, are used to conceptualize how a complex amalgam of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay among these factors influence teacher candidate developmental trajectories. The tenets of both Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model and Learning Environment research provide insights into how the factors influencing teacher candidate development can be understood and systematically documented to provide a template for reflective consideration of the practicum experience for both teacher candidates and those involved in fostering the development of chemistry teacher candidates.

  6. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Driel Marc A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information is the usual strategy by which candidate disease genes are selected. Enrichment for candidate disease genes, however, depends on the skills of the operating researcher. Over the past few years, a number of bioinformatics methods that enrich for the most likely candidate disease genes have been developed. Such in silico prioritisation methods may further improve by completion of datasets, by development of standardised ontologies across databases and species and, ultimately, by the integration of different strategies.

  7. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates....... We therefore suggest that the political implications of social media are generally better understood in terms of facilitating indirect communication and institutional change than in terms of direct communication....

  8. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  9. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  10. Efficacy and value of prophylactic vs. integrated pest management approaches for management of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in wheat and ramifications for adoption by growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas; Malone, Sean; Philips, Chris; Weisz, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L., can be effectively managed in southeastern U.S. wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with scouting and a single insecticide treatment, applied at the recommended economic threshold. However, many growers eschew this approach for a prophylactic treatment, often tank mixed with a nitrogen application before wheat growth stage 30. The efficacy of a prophylactic and an integrated pest management (IPM) approach was compared for 2 yr using small plot studies in North Carolina and regional surveys across North Carolina and Virginia. Economic analyses were performed, comparing the total cost of management of each approach using the regional survey data. From a cost perspective, the prophylactic approach was riskier, because when cereal leafbeetle densities were high, economic loss was also high. However, fields under the prophylactic approach did not exceed threshold as often as fields using IPM. Total cost of prophylactic management was also $20.72 less per hectare, giving this approach an economic advantage over IPM. The majority of fields under the IPM approach did not exceed the economic threshold. Hence, from an economic perspective, both the prophylactic and IPM approaches have advantages and disadvantages. This helps explains the partial, rather than complete, adoption of IPM by southeastern U.S. wheat growers. Cereal leaf beetle was spatially aggregated across the region in 2010, but not in 2011. As a result, from an economic standpoint, prophylaxis or IPM may have a better fit in localized areas of the region than others. Finally, because IPM adoption is favored when it has a strong economic advantage over alternative management approaches, more emphasis should be placed on research to reduce costs within the IPM approach.

  11. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  12. A New Way to Confirm Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    What was the big deal behind the Kepler news conference yesterday? Its not just that the number of confirmed planets found by Kepler has more than doubled (though thats certainly exciting news!). Whats especially interesting is the way in which these new planets were confirmed.Number of planet discoveries by year since 1995, including previous non-Kepler discoveries (blue), previous Kepler discoveries (light blue) and the newly validated Kepler planets (orange). [NASA Ames/W. Stenzel; Princeton University/T. Morton]No Need for Follow-UpBefore Kepler, the way we confirmed planet candidates was with follow-up observations. The candidate could be validated either by directly imaging (which is rare) or obtaining a large number radial-velocity measurements of the wobble of the planets host star due to the planets orbit. But once Kepler started producing planet candidates, these approaches to validation became less feasible. A lot of Kepler candidates are small and orbit faint stars, making follow-up observations difficult or impossible.This problem is what inspired the development of whats known as probabilistic validation, an analysis technique that involves assessing the likelihood that the candidates signal is caused by various false-positive scenarios. Using this technique allows astronomers to estimate the likelihood of a candidate signal being a true planet detection; if that likelihood is high enough, the planet candidate can be confirmed without the need for follow-up observations.A breakdown of the catalog of Kepler Objects of Interest. Just over half had previously been identified as false positives or confirmed as candidates. 1284 are newly validated, and another 455 have FPP of1090%. [Morton et al. 2016]Probabilistic validation has been used in the past to confirm individual planet candidates in Kepler data, but now Timothy Morton (Princeton University) and collaborators have taken this to a new level: they developed the first code thats designed to do fully

  13. Comparison of the Occurrence of Transportation-associated Fever in 2 Years Old Thoroughbreds before and after Introduction of Prophylactic Marbofloxacin Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Akiyama, Kentaro; Takebe, Naoya; Nakai, Kenji; Korosue, Kenji; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Tsuzuki, Nao; Hobo, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    In order to reveal the preventive effect of marbofloxacin (MRFX) administration just before transportation, we compared the occurrence of transportation-associated fever before and after introduction of MRFX administration. After the introduction of prophylactic MRFX administration, the rectal temperatures of horses after transportation were significantly lower than before the introduction of MRFX administration (P<0.01) and the number of febrile horses was significantly lower than before the introduction of MRFX administration (P<0.01). In conclusion, these results show that prophylactic MRFX administration just before transportation is clinically effective at preventing transportation-associated fever.

  14. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  15. Jellyfish Galaxy Candidates at Low Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Moretti, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Vulcani, B.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2016-03-01

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04-0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity LX. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (1011-1014M⊙), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M⊙ 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  16. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P; Owen, M J; Ophoff, R A; O'Donovan, M C; Corvin, A; Cichon, S; Sullivan, P F

    2015-05-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why historical candidate gene studies did not achieve their primary aims is inadequate statistical power. However, the considerable efforts embodied in these early studies unquestionably set the stage for current successes in genomic approaches to schizophrenia.

  17. Long-term prophylactic insulin treatment can prevent spontaneous diabetes and thyroiditis development in the diabetes-prone bio-breeding rat, while short-term treatment is ineffective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Klatter, F; Vis, L; Groen, Harry; Strubbe, J.H.; Rozing, Nico

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Prophylactic insulin treatment has been demonstrated to reduce diabetes development in the diabetes-prone bio-breeding (DP-BB) rat. These prophylactic insulin treatments were given from 50 to 150 days of age. However, several data indicate that the diabetogenic process in DP-BB rats start

  18. Earliest use of initial prophylactic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in severe pre-eclampsia to improve maternal and perinatal outcome, in a rural medical college, WB, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra Mondal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Initial dose prophylactic magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 the earliest, can prevent both maternal perinatal maternal mortality. So, prophylactic magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 must be started at the first point of contact by trained health providers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 653-655

  19. Effect of prophylactic insulin treatment on the number of ER-MP23+ macrophages in the pancreas of NOD mice. Is the prevention of diabetes based on beta-cell rest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A; Rosmalen, J G; Homo-Delarche, F; Dardenne, M; Drexhage, H A

    1996-01-01

    Prophylactic insulin treatment has been shown to have beneficial effects in type 1 diabetes, both in humans and in various animal models of the disease. In experimental models, the protective effect of prophylactic insulin treatment was observed in two parameters: (1) progression of insulitis and (2

  20. Prophylactic antibiotics are associated with a lower incidence of pneumonia in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, David J; Nielsen, Niklas; Fraser, Gilles L

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prophylactic antibiotics (PRO) reduce the incidence of early-onset pneumonia in comatose patients with structural brain injury, but have not been examined in cardiac arrest survivors undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM). We investigated the effect of PRO on the development...... of pneumonia in that population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing patients treated with PRO to those not receiving PRO (no-PRO) using Northern Hypothermia Network registry data. Cardiac arrest survivors ≥ 18 years of age with a GCS...-34 °C were enrolled in the registry. Differences were analyzed in univariate analyses and with logistic regression models to evaluate independent associations of clinical factors with incidence of pneumonia and good functional outcome. RESULTS: 416 of 1240 patients (33.5%) received PRO. Groups were...

  1. The Efficacy of Prophylactic Antibiotics on Post-Stroke Infections: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Qin; Fan, Xiao-Tang; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2016-11-14

    Post-stroke infections are common complications in acute stroke patients and are associated with an unfavorable functional outcome. However, reports on the effects of prophylactic antibiotics treatment on post-stroke infections are conflicting, especially those on post-stroke pneumonia and outcomes. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases up through March 11(th), 2016. Seven randomized controlled trials including 4261 patients were analyzed among this systematic review and meta-analysis. We found preventive antibiotics treatment at the time of stroke onset did reduce the incidence of infections in adults with acute stroke (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.38-0.85, P = 0.005), including reducing the number of urinary tract infections (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.26-0.46, P urinary tract infections. Thus, preventive antibiotics treatment may not be recommended for acute stroke patients.

  2. Prophylactic inhalation of Amphotericin B in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: distribution study. Prophylaktische Inhalation von Amphotericin B bei invasiver Aspergillose: Verteilungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzen, G. (Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik); Beyer, J. (Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik); Farshidfar, G. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostikforschung); Kramp, W. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostikforschung); Richter, W. (Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik); Felix, R. (Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik)

    1993-04-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) during periods of immunosuppression or prolonged neutropenia is a serious condition with high mortality. Prophylaxis is unsatisfactory bcause of the low effectiveness of systemic administration of amphotericin B (AMB) and because of its side effects. Prophylactic inhalation of AMB by means of a nebulizing system may be able to reduce the incidence of IPA. Therefore, we studied the distribution of nebulized [sup 99m]Tc-labeled AMB and estimated its particle size. AMB is homogeneously distributed in the lung and partly deposited in the terminal respiratory unit; it remains there with a half-life of at least 14 h. Therefore, prophylaxis of IPA with AMB nebulized as described can be recommended. (orig.)

  3. Interviews with candidates for president transmitted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In election years, television interviews with presidential candidates, broadcast live, i.e. without the use of editing, have become an important genre of journalistic representation in Brazilian political campaigns. These interviews are conducted in network studios by well-known Brazilian news anchors. The fact that these interviews are transmitted directly to the electorate in an unedited form is generally offered as a guarantee of a genuine, authentic portrayal of the candidates themselves. The present work proposes that live network candidate interviews, rather than a means of political presentation on television, are actually an arena in which the institution of journalism attempts to use rhetorical and argumentative means to control the candidates’ discourse without relying on the traditional advantages conferred in daily news coverage.

  4. Prophylactic Embolization of the Cystic Artery Prior to Radioembolization of Liver Malignancies—An Evaluation of Necessity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powerski, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.powerski@med.ovgu.de; Busse, Anke, E-mail: anke.busse@med.ovgu.de; Seidensticker, Max, E-mail: max.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de; Fischbach, Frank, E-mail: frank.fischbach@med.ovgu.de; Seidensticker, Ricarda, E-mail: ricarda.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de; Strach, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.strach@med.ovgu.de; Dudeck, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.dudeck@med.ovgu.de; Ricke, Jens, E-mail: jens.ricke@med.ovgu.de; Pech, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.pech@med.ovgu.de [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposePrior to radioembolization (RE) of hepatic tumors, many centers prophylactically occlude the cystic artery (CA) during evaluation angiography (EVA) to prevent radiation-induced cholecystitis. There is no conclusive evidence for the protective effect of CA embolization and it bears the risk of inducing ischemic cholecystitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the justification for CA embolization by comparing clinical and morphologic imaging parameters between patients undergoing coil occlusion of the cystic artery (COCA) and those with uncoiled CA (UCCA).Materials and MethodsRetrospective comparison of 37 patients with UCCA versus 68 patients with COCA in terms of clinical findings (CRP, leukocyte count, body temperature, upper abdominal pain) and morphologic imaging parameters associated with cholecystitis (gallbladder (GB) wall thickness, free fluid in GB bed, bremsstrahlung SPECT) after EVA, after RE, and at 6-week follow-up.ResultsAt none of the 3 time points (EVA, RE, 6-week follow-up) was there any significant difference in CRP, leukocyte count, body temperature, or upper abdominal pain between the UCCA and COCA group. There was also no significant difference between the two groups with regard to GB wall thickness, fluid in the GB bed, and bremsstrahlung in SPECT. One patient of the UCCA group and two patients of the COCA developed cholecystitis requiring treatment.ConclusionComparison of clinical and imaging findings between patients with and without CA embolization prior to RE identified no predictors of radiogenic or ischemic cholecystitis after RE. Our study provides no evidence for a benefit of prophylactic CA embolization before RE.

  5. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Ritu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA- induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage. CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P<0.001 along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P<0.001, and catalase, P<0.001, nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P<0.001, and total proteins (P<0.001 when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  6. Periprocedural Prophylactic Antithrombotic Strategies in Interventional Radiology: Current Practice in the Netherlands and Comparison with the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersema, Arno M., E-mail: arno@wiersema.nu [Westfriesgasthuis, Hoorn, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Vos, Jan-Albert, E-mail: j.a.vos@antonius.net [St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Bruijninckx, Cornelis M. A., E-mail: cmabruijninckx@planet.nl [Equipe Zorg Bedrijven, Rotterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Reijnen, Michel M. P. J., E-mail: mmpj.reijnen@gmail.com [Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Vahl, Anco, E-mail: a.c.vahl@olvg.nl [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J., E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com [University of Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Moll, Frans L., E-mail: F.L.Moll@umcutrecht.nl [University of Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during the periprocedural period during (percutaneous) peripheral arterial interventions (PAIs) is still a matter of dispute, and clear evidence-based guidelines are lacking. To create those guidelines, a study group was formed in the Netherlands in cooperation with the Dutch Society of Vascular Surgery and the Society of Interventional Radiology. The study group is called 'Consensus on Arterial PeriProcedural Anticoagulation (CAPPA).' Materials and Methods: The CAPPA study group devised and distributed a comprehensive questionnaire amongst Dutch interventional radiologists (IRs). Results: One hundred forty-two IRs responded (68 %) to the questionnaire. Almost no IR stopped acetyl salicylic acid before interventions, and 40 % stopped clopidogrel before PAI but not before carotid artery stenting (CAS). A flushing solution on the sideport of the sheath was used routinely by 30 % of IRs in PAI and by 50 % of IRs during CAS. A minority of IRs used a heparinised flushing solution (28 %). Unfractionated heparin was used by 95 % of IRs as bolus; 5000 IU was the most used dosage. Timing of administration varied widely. A majority of IRs (75 %) repeated heparin administration after 1 h. Conclusion: A substantial variety exists amongst IRs in the Netherlands regarding the use of prophylactic periprocedural antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during PAI. When compared with varying results regarding the use of heparin in the United Kingdom, the variety in the Netherlands showed a different pattern. The proven variety in these countries, and also between these countries, emphasises the need for authoritative studies to develop evidence-based practical guidelines.

  7. [Human papillomavirus and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck region : Prognostic, therapeutic and prophylactic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, M; Wagner, S; Würdemann, N; Sharma, S J; Prigge, E-S; Sauer, M; Wittig, A; Wittekindt, C; von Knebel Doeberitz, M; Klussmann, J P

    2016-07-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are responsible for approximately half of all oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and incidence rates of HPV-associated OPSCC continue to increase substantially. The defined viral carcinogenesis permits development of specific diagnostic, therapeutic, and prophylactic approaches. Laboratory identification of HPV-associated OPSCC may be achieved by p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry combined with HPV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using tumor tissue. Patients with HPV-associated OPSCC have a relatively good prognosis; therefore, the HPV status plays an important role in patient guidance. Due to the relatively favorable prognosis, ongoing studies are evaluating whether less rigorous therapy for HPV-positive patients results in equally good cure rates. The criteria for patient selection are, however, still uncertain. Particularly markers for detection of HPV-positive patients with a high risk of treatment failure are lacking. Besides tumor stage and comorbidities, distinct genomic, epigenetic, and immunologic alterations are prognostically relevant for HPV-associated OPSCC, and might be of predictive value. Furthermore, the characteristic molecular alterations suggest the possibility of novel vigilant and specific therapy approaches. These may be inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is frequently activated in HPV-associated OPSCC, and immunotherapeutic methods, e. g., therapeutic vaccination. Although prophylactic HPV vaccinations may also prevent development of HPV-associated OPSCC, foreseeable effects on OPSCC incidence will be low, given the low vaccination rates in Germany. This highlights the fact that interdisciplinary research networks should enhance the necessary activities related to HPV-associated OPSCC.

  8. The selective NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin has potential prophylactic effects on melamine-related nephrolithiasis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Lu, Jianzhong; Shang, Panfeng; Bao, Junsheng; Yue, Zhongjin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of apocynin on melamine-cyanuric acid mixture (MCM)-induced nephrolithiasis in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, changes in oxidative stress (OS) markers and the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and phospho-p38 (p-p38) were measured to assess the effects of apocynin treatment after MCM-induced crystallization in HK-2 cells, a human renal epithelial-derived cell line. For in vivo studies, the potential effects of apocynin in preventing and treating nephrolithiasis were analyzed with a MCM-induced nephrolithiasis rat model, and urea and creatinine levels were measured. Urinary 8-IP (a product of lipid peroxidation) and malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity were assessed in the kidneys as markers of renal OS. The kidneys were removed, weighed, and subjected to histopathological examination. The urolithiasis-associated proteins p-p38 and OPN were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Apocynin treatment prevented the MCM-induced changes in OS and in OPN and p-p38 expression in HK-2 cells. For in vivo experiments, the expression of OS markers, renal OPN, and p-p38 increased after MCM administration, and these increases were diminished by apocynin. In addition, apocynin prevented MCM-induced renal crystallization. Moreover, prophylactic apocynin treatment reduced MCM-induced nephrotoxicity. After therapeutic apocynin treatment in nephrolithic rats, OS decreased, but the other indicators did not improve significantly. Prophylactic apocynin administration reduced renal melamine-related-crystal deposition, potentially by modulating OS and thereby decreasing p-p38 and OPN expression.

  9. Prophylactic administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using terbufos sulfone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Nurulain, Syed M; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Kuča, Kamil; Petroianu, Georg A

    2014-10-01

    Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) poses a serious threat worldwide. OPC-induced mortality can be significantly reduced by prophylactic administration of reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The only American Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved substance for such pre-treatment (to soman exposure) is presently pyridostigmine, although its efficacy is controversial. In search for more efficacious and broad-spectrum alternatives, we have assessed in vivo the mortality-reducing efficacy of a group of five compounds with known AChE inhibitory activity (pyridostigmine, physostigmine, ranitidine, tacrine and K-27), when given in equitoxic dosage (25% of LD01 ) 30 min before exposure to the OPC terbufos sulfone. Protection was quantified in rats by determining the relative risk of death (RR) using Cox analysis, with RR = 1 for animals given only terbufos sulfone, but no pre-treatment. All tested AChE inhibitors reduced terbufos sulfone-induced mortality significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with the non-treatment group (RR = 1: terbufos sulfone only). Best in vivo protection from terbufos sulfone-induced mortality was achieved, when K-27 was given before terbufos sulfone exposure (RR = 0.06), which was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) superior to the pre-treatment with all other tested compounds, for example tacrine (RR = 0.21), pyridostigmine (RR = 0.28), physostigmine (RR = 0.29) and ranitidine (RR = 0.33). The differences in efficacy between tacrine, pyridostigmine, physostigmine and ranitidine were not statistically significant. Prophylactic administration of an oxime (such as K-27) in case of imminent OPC exposure may be a viable option.

  10. Early T Cell Recognition of B Cells following Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Identifying Potential Targets for Prophylactic Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus, a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, has strong aetiologic links with several malignancies and has been implicated in certain autoimmune diseases. Efforts to develop a prophylactic vaccine to prevent or reduce EBV-associated disease have, to date, focused on the induction of neutralising antibody responses. However, such vaccines might be further improved by inducing T cell responses capable of recognising and killing recently-infected B cells. In that context, EBNA2, EBNA-LP and BHRF1 are the first viral antigens expressed during the initial stage of B cell growth transformation, yet have been poorly characterised as CD8+ T cell targets. Here we describe CD8+ T cell responses against each of these three "first wave" proteins, identifying target epitopes and HLA restricting alleles. While EBNA-LP and BHRF1 each contained one strong CD8 epitope, epitopes within EBNA2 induced immunodominant responses through several less common HLA class I alleles (e.g. B*3801 and B*5501, as well as subdominant responses through common class I alleles (e.g. B7 and C*0304. Importantly, such EBNA2-specific CD8+ T cells recognised B cells within the first day post-infection, prior to CD8+ T cells against well-characterised latent target antigens such as EBNA3B or LMP2, and effectively inhibited outgrowth of EBV-transformed B cell lines. We infer that "first wave" antigens of the growth-transforming infection, especially EBNA2, constitute potential CD8+ T cell immunogens for inclusion in prophylactic EBV vaccine design.

  11. Prophylactic Effects of Melatonin on Sodium Valproate-Induced Neural Tube Defects and Skeletal Malformations in Rat Embryos

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    Omolbanin Rahgazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some reports showed the teratogenic effects of sodium valproate can be prevented by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Therefore, in this study, the prophylactic effect of melatonin on teratogenic effects of sodium valproate was compared. Approach: This study was performed on 31 pregnant rats that were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline and test groups received sodium valproate (300 mg kg−1, sodium valproate (300 mg kg−1 plus melatonin (5 mg kg−1 and sodium valproate (300 mg kg−1 plus melatonin (10 mg kg−1 and melatonin (10 mg kg−1, intraperitonealy at 8-9th days of gestation, respectively. Fetuses were collected at 20th day of gestation and after determination of weight and length; they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. Results: Cleft palate, spina bifida and exencephaly incidence were 17.70, 20 and 20% in fetuses of rats that received only sodium valproate. Cleft palate, spina bifida and exencephaly incidence were 4.16, 8.33 and 8.33% range in group which received sodium valproate plus melatonin (5 mg kg−1, respectively. However, Cleft palate, spina bifida and excencaphaly incidence were 4/76, 0 and 0% in group which received sodium valproate plus melatonin (10 mg kg−1, respectively. The mean of weight and length of animals fetuses that received melatonin were significantly greater than those received only sodium valproate. Conclusion: It is concluded that melatonin with dose of 10 mg kg−1 had significantly more prophylactic effect than melatonin with dose of 5 mg kg−1 on incidence of sodium valproate-induced skeletal malformations.

  12. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment in infants (IPTi from Ghana and Gabon

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    Kreuels Benno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP reduces the incidence of malaria episodes in young children. The exact mechanism by which the protective effect is mediated needs to be defined. This study aimed to investigate therapeutic, prophylactic, and possible exceeding effects of SP-based IPTi in two clinical trials. Methods Protective efficacies from two IPTi trials performed in Kumasi, Ghana, and Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for overlapping time series of 61 days. For six-months periods after each of three IPTi doses a multivariate Poisson regression model with the respective cohort as co-variate was generated and effect modification of protective efficacy with time strata was evaluated by log-likelihood tests. Results Protective efficacies were not significantly different between the two study cohorts. Study-cohort corrected protective efficacy was highest for the first 61 days after each IPTi application and decreased continuously. For the first 61 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2, and IPTi-3 the protective efficacy was 71%, 44%, and 43%, respectively. A reduction of the malaria incidence rate was detectable for the first 60, 30 and 40 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2 and IPTi-3 drug application, respectively. After IPTi-3 a higher risk for malaria could be seen after day 60. This effect was mainly based on the overwhelming influence of the Kumasi cohort. Conclusion The results suggest that SP-based IPTi mainly works through a therapeutic and prophylactic effect over 30 to 60 days after drug application and that a sustained effect beyond post-treatment prophylaxis might be very low. Trial registration Data analysis from clinical trials NCT ID # 00206739 (Kumasi Trial and NCT ID # 00167843 (Lambaréné Trial, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  13. Prophylactic Effects of Levamisole and Vitamin E on Phenobarbital-induced Cleft Palate and Spina Bifida in Rat Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksary Mahabady, Mahmood; Najafzadeh Varzi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    There are many reports that show the teratogenic effects of phenobarbital can be decreased by stimulation of maternal immune system. Therefore, in this study, the prophylactic effects of levamisole and vitamin E on teratogenic effects of phenobarbital were compared. This study was performed on 20 pregnant rats that were divided into four groups. Control group received normal saline and test groups received phenobarbital (120 mg/kg), phenobarbital (120 mg/kg) plus levamisole (10 mg/kg) and phenobarbital (120 mg/kg) plus vitamin E (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally at 9-11th days of gestation, respectively. Fetuses were collected at 20th day of gestation and after determination of weight and length; they were stained by Alizarin red - Alcian blue method. Cleft palate and spina bifida incidence were 66.66% and 69.44% in fetuses of rats that had received only phenobarbital. Cleft palate and spina bifida incidence were 65.45% and 38.18% had in the group which had received phenobarbital plus levamisole. However, Cleft palate and spina bifida incidence were 54.54% and 27.27% in the group which had received phenobarbital plus vitamin E. The arithmetic means of the weight and length of fetuses the rats that had received levamisole and vitamin E were significantly greater than that of those that had received only phenobarbital. Vitamin E had a greater prophylactic effect than levamisole on the incidence of phenobarbital-induced cleft palate and spina bifida. However, the difference was not significant. PMID:24363692

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROPHYLACTIC METOCLOPRAMIDE VERSUS ONDANSETRON FOR CONTROL OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING (PONV ASSOCIATED WITH IV TRAMADOL

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    Anjali P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: This prospective double blind randomized study was conducted to compare: 1. The efficacy and safety of prophylactic administration of Metoclopramide versus Ondansetron in the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving intravenous Tr amadol as postoperative analgesic. 2. To study the incidence of post operative nausea and vomiting with IV bolus Tramadol. METHODS: 90 patients ASA grade I and II, age 18 - 60 years, posted for hernia, hydrocele and other peripheral lower limb surgeries under subarachnoid block were selected . Patients were randomly allocated into three groups of thirty each. All surgeries were performed under subarachnoid block and received IV Tramadol 100 m g 8 hourly for 24 hours as post - operative analgesic. Group N received no prophylactic antiemetic. Group M received 10 mg Metoclopramide 12 hourly. Group O received 4 mg Ondansetron 12 hourly. Vital signs, nausea, vomiting, pain, sedation, need for rescue a ntiemetic, rescue analgesic and adverse effects were recorded for 24 hours. RESULTS: Ondansetron group (Group O significantly reduced the incidence of PONV as compared to Metoclopramide (Group M and no antiemetic group (Group N .But Metoclopramide was fo und to be not significantly effective in controlling PONV in patients receiving Tramadol as analgesic. None of the patients in Group O required rescue antiemetic as compared to 13.3% patients in Group M and 26.7% patients in Group N. There was statisticall y no significant difference between the 3 groups with respect to requirement of rescue analgesic. No major adverse effects were observed which can be attributed to either Metoclopramide or Ondansetron. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron was more effective than Metoclopramide in controlling PONV, in patients receiving IV Tramadol as post-operative analgesia

  15. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of taurine against aluminum-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2011-08-30

    Aluminum is a well known neurotoxin and a possible candidate of hepatotoxins to humans. Using natural antioxidants against metal-induced hepatotoxicity is a modern approach. In the present study, Aluminum (AlCl(3)) intoxication (a single injection of 25mg Al(3+)/kg, i.p.) for 24h in mice resulted in elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and serum tumor necrosis factor and hepatic malondialdehyde levels. Aluminum reduced the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, quinone oxidoreductase, and catalase in liver. In addition, Al caused hepatic hemorrhage, cellular degeneration as well as necrosis of hepatocytes. Ultrastructure examination showed swelling of mitochondria, derangement of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and pleomorphic nuclei with abnormal chromatin distribution. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid was administered to mice daily for 5 days before (at 100mg/kg, i.p.) or 2h after (a single dose of 1g/kg, i.p.) aluminum administration. Treating mice with taurine at either dosing regimens, pre- or post-aluminum administration alleviated aluminum oxidative damaging effects. The rate of recovery was better when taurine was administered prior to Al. Taurine had anaphylactic and therapeutic activity against hepatotoxicity induced by aluminum in mice.

  16. The prophylactic effect of ceftazidime on early bacterial infection after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段明辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic ceftazidime on early bacterial infection in APBSCT recipients during neutropenia.Methods APBSCT recipients were prospectively randomly assigned to intravenous ceftazidime treatment group and control group (no prophylaxis of antibiotics) .The treatment started from the first day until resolution of neutropenia or the

  17. Plasma level of D-dimer accompanying different types of gynecologic surgery and effects of prophylactic subcutaneous injection of heparin calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakika Yanai

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Plasma levels of D-dimer on POD-1 were higher than those on the DPE in each type of gynecologic surgery. The D-dimer level remained high even on POD-6, and not changed by prophylactic subcutaneous injection of heparin calcium. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 551-554

  18. Body image and psychological distress after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction in genetically predisposed women: a prospective long-term follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, M. den; Seynaeve, C.; Timman, R.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Vanheusden, K.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.; Tibben, A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the course of psychological distress and body image at long-term follow-up (6-9 years) after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction (PM/BR) in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, and to identify pre-PM risk factors for poor body image on the long-term. METHODS:

  19. Prophylactic Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccines Adjuvanted with Stable Emulsion and Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist Induce a Robust HSV-2-Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Response, Protect against Symptomatic Disease, and Reduce the Latent Viral Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Michael T; Marshall, Jason D; Dorwart, Michael R; Heeke, Darren S; Rao, Eileen; Tummala, Padmaja; Yu, Li; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Sloan, Derek D

    2017-02-22

    Several prophylactic vaccines targeting HSV-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) targets gD and gB, the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this to a whole-inactivated virus vaccine (FI-HSV-2). We evaluated different formulations in combination with several Th1-inducing TLR agonists in vivo. In mice, the TLR9 agonist cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide formulated in a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion promoted the most robust, functional HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses and high neutralizing antibodies, demonstrating superiority to vaccines adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)/alum. We further established that FI-HSV-2 alone or in combination with adjuvants as well as adjuvanted subunit vaccines were successful in the induction of nAbs and T cell responses in guinea pigs. These immunological responses were coincident with a suppression of vaginal HSV-2 shedding, low lesion scores, and a reduction in latent HSV-2 DNA in dorsal root ganglia to undetectable levels. These data support the further preclinical and clinical development of prophylactic HSV-2 vaccines that contain appropriate antigen and adjuvant components responsible for programming elevated CD8 T cell responses.IMPORTANCE Millions of people worldwide are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and to date, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine has not met the rigors of clinical trials. Attempts to develop a vaccine have focused primarily on

  20. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

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    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  1. Fuzzy Treatment of Candidate Outliers in Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo E. D'Errico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robustness against the possible occurrence of outlying observations is critical to the performance of a measurement process. Open questions relevant to statistical testing for candidate outliers are reviewed. A novel fuzzy logic approach is developed and exemplified in a metrology context. A simulation procedure is presented and discussed by comparing fuzzy versus probabilistic models.

  2. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Rietman; J.-P. Sommeijer; C.N. Levelt; J.A. Heimel; A.B. Brussaard; J.G.G. Borst; Y. Elgersma; N. Galjart; G.T. van der Horst; C.M. Pennartz; A.B. Smit; B.M. Spruijt; M. Verhage; C.I. de Zeeuw

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  3. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  4. Teacher Candidate Portfolios: Routine or Reflective Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Christie; Dangel, Julie Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Documentation is sparse regarding outcomes associated with teacher education portfolios and the quality of the reflections contained within the portfolios. This collective case study of six teacher candidates enrolled in an elementary teacher education program at a large midwestern university explores the outcomes of developing a portfolio based…

  5. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Beginning Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Madeline; Espinoza, Sue

    2007-01-01

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Texas will need over 82,000 new teachers by 2008. Many teachers are leaving the profession within 5 years of being employed. Closing a revolving door, teacher preparation programs are discussing this phenomenon. One hundred sixty beginning teacher candidates were surveyed using the Emotional Skills…

  7. Spectroscopy of Hyades L dwarf candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bejar, V J S

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic follow-up of L dwarf candidates identified in the Hyades cluster by Hogan et al. (2008). We obtained low-resolution optical spectroscopy with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio de Canarias for all 12 L dwarf candidates as well as new J-band imaging for a subsample of eight to confirm their proper motion. We also present mid-infrared photometry from the Wise Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for the Hyades L and T dwarf candidates and estimate their spectroscopic distances, effective temperatures, and masses. We confirm the cool nature of several L dwarf candidates and confirm astrometrically their membership, bridging the gap between the coolest M dwarfs and the two T dwarfs previously reported in the Hyades cluster. These members represent valuable spectral templates at an age of 625 Myr and slightly super solar metallicity (Fe/H=+0.13). We update the Hyades mass function across the hydrogen-burning limit and in the substel...

  8. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  9. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-01-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the…

  10. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  11. Teacher Candidate Disposition: Moral Judgement or Regurgitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lisa E.

    2008-01-01

    Developing teacher candidates who are able to make moral judgements to equitably resolve classroom dilemmas, conduct student assessment and allocate resources is critical for today's diverse classrooms and should be part of fostering professional disposition. However, one challenge of incorporating dispositions in teacher education and a valid…

  12. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  13. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  14. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excess of the aggregate payments to which they will be entitled under 11 CFR part 9004. (2) That no... funds under 11 CFR 9003.2(c)(3) shall not count against such candidate's $50,000 expenditure limitation... expenditures in excess of the limitations of 11 CFR 110.8(a), the Commission may seek civil penalties under...

  15. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liset Rietman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity. To this aim, we combined previously obtained data from recombinant inbred BXD strains on ocular dominance (OD plasticity and gene expression levels in the neocortex. We validated our approach using a list of genes which alter OD plasticity when inactivated. The expression levels of one fifth of these genes correlated with the amount of OD plasticity. Moreover, the two genes with the highest relative inter-strain differences were among the correlated genes. This suggests that correlation between gene expression levels and OD plasticity is indeed likely to point to genes with a causal role in modulating or generating plasticity in the visual cortex. After this validation on known plasticity genes, we identified new candidate genes by a multi-step approach. First, a list was compiled of all genes of which the expression level in BXD strains correlate with the amount of OD plasticity. To narrow this list to the more promising candidates, we took its cross-section with a list of genes co-regulated with the sensitive period for OD plasticity and a list of genes associated with pathways implicated in OD plasticity. This analysis resulted in a list of 32 candidate genes. The list contained unproven, but not surprising, candidates, such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A receptor, acetylcholine esterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This was indicative of the viability of our approach, but more interesting were the novel candidate genes: Akap7, Akt1, Camk2d, Cckbr, Cd44, Crim1, Ctdsp2, Dnajc5, Gnai1, Itpka, Mapk8, Nbea, Nfatc3, Nlk, Npy5r, Phf21a, Phip, Ppm1l, Ppp1r1b, Rbbp4, Slc1a3, Slit2, Socs2, Spock3, St8sia1, Zfp207. The possible role of some of these candidates is discussed in the article.

  16. Recurrent urinary tract infections in children: Preventive interventions other than prophylactic antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Kishor; Narchi, Hassib

    2015-06-26

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common childhood infections. Permanent renal cortical scarring may occur in affected children, especially with recurrent UTIs, leading to long-term complications such as hypertension and chronic renal failure. To prevent such damage, several interventions to prevent UTI recurrences have been tried. The most established and accepted prevention at present is low dose long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. However it has a risk of break through infections, adverse drug reactions and also the risk of developing antibiotic resistance. The search is therefore on-going to find a safer, effective and acceptable alternative. A recent meta-analysis did not support routine circumcision for normal boys with no risk factors. Vaccinium Macrocarpon (cranberry), commonly used against UTI in adult women, is also effective in reducing the number of recurrences and related antimicrobial use in children. Sodium pentosanpolysulfate, which prevents bacterial adherence to the uroepithelial cells in animal models, has shown conflicting results in human trials. When combined with antibiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) and Bifidobacterium, by blocking the in vitro attachment of uropathogenic bacteria to uroepithelial cells, significantly reduce in the incidence of febrile UTIs. Deliberate colonization of the human urinary tract of patients with recurrent UTI with Escherichia-coli (E. coli) 83972 has resulted in subjective benefit and less UTI requiring treatment. The non-pathogenic E. coli isolate NU14 DeltawaaL is a candidate to develop live-attenuated vaccine for the treatment and prevention of acute and recurrent UTI. Diagnosing and treating dysfunctional elimination syndromes decrease the incidence of recurrent UTI. A meta-analysis found the lack of robust prospective randomized controlled trials limited the strength of the established guidelines for surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. In conclusion, several interventions

  17. Recurrent urinary tract infections in children: Preventive interventions other than prophylactic antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Kishor; Narchi, Hassib

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common childhood infections. Permanent renal cortical scarring may occur in affected children, especially with recurrent UTIs, leading to long-term complications such as hypertension and chronic renal failure. To prevent such damage, several interventions to prevent UTI recurrences have been tried. The most established and accepted prevention at present is low dose long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. However it has a risk of break through infections, adverse drug reactions and also the risk of developing antibiotic resistance. The search is therefore on-going to find a safer, effective and acceptable alternative. A recent meta-analysis did not support routine circumcision for normal boys with no risk factors. Vaccinium Macrocarpon (cranberry), commonly used against UTI in adult women, is also effective in reducing the number of recurrences and related antimicrobial use in children. Sodium pentosanpolysulfate, which prevents bacterial adherence to the uroepithelial cells in animal models, has shown conflicting results in human trials. When combined with antibiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) and Bifidobacterium, by blocking the in vitro attachment of uropathogenic bacteria to uroepithelial cells, significantly reduce in the incidence of febrile UTIs. Deliberate colonization of the human urinary tract of patients with recurrent UTI with Escherichia-coli (E. coli) 83972 has resulted in subjective benefit and less UTI requiring treatment. The non-pathogenic E. coli isolate NU14 DeltawaaL is a candidate to develop live-attenuated vaccine for the treatment and prevention of acute and recurrent UTI. Diagnosing and treating dysfunctional elimination syndromes decrease the incidence of recurrent UTI. A meta-analysis found the lack of robust prospective randomized controlled trials limited the strength of the established guidelines for surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. In conclusion, several interventions

  18. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  19. Attitudes of Teacher Candidates Towards Teaching Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Emre BOZDOĞAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of teacher candidates regarding teaching profession from the point of view of different variables. This study was taken place at Ahi Ervan University Teachers’ College in 2006-2007 year of education and 181 Applied science and Social science students participated it. In order to obtain the data of the research scanning method entitled “Determination of Attitude Towards Teaching Profession” was used which was developed by Aşkar and Erden (1987 . During the analysis of the research data SPSS 12.0 program and the necessary statistical methods were used to analize the data of the research. As a result of the research it is understood that the attitudes of teacher candidates change according to sex and factor that made them to choose the department they study.

  20. Candidate Species Selection: Cultural and Photosynthetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cultural information is provided for a data base that will be used to select candidate crop species for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Lists of food crops which will satisfy most nutritional requirements of humans and also fit within the scope of cultural restrictions that logically would apply to a closed, regenerating system were generated. Cultural and environmental conditions that will allow the most rapid production of edible biomass from candidate species in the shortest possible time are identified. Cultivars which are most productive in terms of edible biomass production by (CE) conditions, and which respond to the ever-closed approach to optimization realized by each shortened production cycle are selected. The experimental approach with lettuce was to grow the crop hydroponically in a growth chamber and to manipulate such variables as light level and duration, day/night temperature, and nutrient form and level in the solution culture.

  1. New drug candidates in tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Evranos Aksöz

    2014-12-01

    makes them quit the treatment. From these problems emerges the need for development of effective new drugs, with smaller duration of therapy, less side effects and without the problem of resistance. After a long period such as 40 years, a new drug molecule bedaquiline was approved in December 2012 by FDA while the drug was in phase II research. Bedaquiline will be used in multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy. When the chemical structures of bedaquilline and other candidate drugs were examined, the structures such as diarylquinoline, oxazolidinone, nitroimidazole, ethylenediamine drew attention. These common structures will be directive in designing new molecules. In this review, bedaquiline and other candidate drug molecules such as sutezolide, linezolide, PA-824, delamanide, rifapentine, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, BTZ-043, TBA-354, CPZEN-45, DC-159a, Q201, SQ-609, SQ-641 were mentioned.

  2. OUTCOME OF ELECTIVE PROPHYLACTIC ILIOINGUINAL NEURECTOMY IN PREVENTION OF CHRONIC GROIN PAIN AFTER OPEN INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic groin pain is one of the most important complications of the repair of inguinal hernia. Randomized trials have identified that chronic groin pain (>10% surpasses recurrence (<2%. Factors proposed as predictors of post-operative pain are damage to inguinal nerves, nerve entrapment during suturing, fibrosis of the placed material as well as that of surrounding area, mesh implantation, partial division and neuroma formation. Routine ilioinguinal division or excision has been associated with a lower incidence of post-operative neuralgia compared to nerve preservation with reduced morbidity and no detrimental effect on quality of life. OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prophylactic ilioinguinal neurectomy on the incidence and intensity of groin pain after open inguinal hernia repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients with uncomplicated inguinal hernias were subjected to Lichtenstein mesh hernioplasty with prophylactic ilioinguinal neurectomy over a period of one year (November 2014 - October 2015. Relation of pain to Rest (R, Activities (A and Exercise (E preoperatively and at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery was noted. McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to assess pain 1 week after surgery, 4 weeks after surgery and after 3 and 6 months of surgery. RESULTS Routine ilioinguinal neurectomy during open groin hernia repair was associated with mean McGill pain score of 1.76 and 1.48 at follow-up period of 3 and 6 months, respectively. Numbness was present in 12% patients at follow-up period of 3 and 6 months. At 3 and 6 months follow-up, pain at rest was present in 2% and 0% patients; pain only during daily activities was present in 4% and 2% patients; and pain only during exercise was present in 6% and 4% patients, respectively. Only 2% patients required analgesics to control pain at 3 months and no patient required analgesics to control pain at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Ilioinguinal neurectomy during

  3. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  4. Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation With Prophylactic Subcutaneous Anticoagulation Only: An Observational Study in More Than 60 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kirsten; Schmutz, Axel; Zieger, Barbara; Kalbhenn, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Extracorporeal lung support and therapeutic anticoagulation are dogmatically linked for most clinicians in fear of clotting of the extracorporeal circuit. In the last decade, however, we have learned that bleeding complications in the course of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy are common and not occasionally limiting or fatal. Even though international guidelines lowered the PTT-target values, ECMO therapy without anticoagulation has only been reported sporadically in case reports heretofore. This monocentric, observational study was designed to evaluate a protocol for venovenous ECMO therapy without additional anticoagulation. Patients without former thrombotic events solely received thrombosis prophylaxis with 40 mg subcutaneous enoxaparin per day like every critical care patient. After approval by the local ethics committee (Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg ethics committee, EK 513/14) all consecutive patients treated with venovenous ECMO therapy since introduction of the protocol have been identified. Digital charts of the patients have been evaluated with special regard to bleeding and thrombotic or embolic events or breakdown of the extracorporeal circuit. Sixty-one patients received venovenous ECMO therapy with prophylactic subcutaneous enoxaparin only. Median duration of ECMO therapy was 7 days (2-32). Overall 560 ECMO days have been observed. No system exchange because of thrombotic occlusion was necessary within the permitted 5 days run time of the centrifugal pump. Overall we identified thrombotic complications in four patients. In three of them centrifugal pump after a runtime of more than 5 days unexpectedly stopped completely because of thrombotic occlusion. In all cases pump exchange was performed promptly and patients did not incur hypoxic deficit. One other patient received substitution of blood products and coagulation factor concentrates because of severe bleeding and sustained myocardial infarction the day after. Only 18% of

  5. Decision Analysis of Advanced Scout Helicopter Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    assist the ASH SSG by constructing a comprehensive ASH evaluation model utilizing multi-attribute utility assessment ( MAUA ) modeling. ~~UA is a forre...results are included as well. The output of the MAUA model is a numerical representation of the worth of each ASH candidate. These numbers are...instance of a methodology called Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis ( MAUA ). In general, MAUA is characterized by the represen- tation of outcomes in terms

  6. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  7. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  8. Release of uranium from candidate wasteforms

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, N.; Harrison, M.; Brogden, M,; Hanson, B

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of depleted natural and low-enriched uranium exist in the UK waste inventory. This work reports on initial investigations of the leaching performance of candidate glass and cement encapsulation matrices containing UO3 powder as well as that of uranium oxide powders. The surface areas of UO3 powder and the monolith samples of UO3 conditioned in the glass and cement matrices were very different making leaching comparisons difficult. The results showed that for both types of monoli...

  9. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  10. ATTITUDES OF ENGLISH TEACHER CANDIDATES TOWARD ICT

    OpenAIRE

    HİSMANOGLU, Murat; HİSMANOGLU, Sibel; Hismanoglu, Murat; HISMANOGLU, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of English teacher candidates at formal and distance higher education contexts toward ICT and reveal whether there was a significant difference between these two groups in terms of their attitudes toward ICT. The sample of the study consisted of 175 prospective English teachers at two different higher education contexts. The participants were randomly selected among forth-year students at the ELT departments of Euopean University of L...

  11. ATTITUDES OF ENGLISH TEACHER CANDIDATES TOWARD ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Hismanoglu, Murat; HISMANOGLU, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of English teacher candidates at formal and distance higher education contexts toward ICT and reveal whether there was a significant difference between these two groups in terms of their attitudes toward ICT. The sample of the study consisted of 175 prospective English teachers at two different higher education contexts. The participants were randomly selected among forth-year students at the ELT departments of Euopean University of L...

  12. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection-suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection.

  13. Searching for candidate genes for male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.N.Truong; E.K.Moses; J.E.Armes; D.J.Venter; H.W.G.Baker

    2003-01-01

    Aim: We describe an approach to search for candidate genes for male infertility using the two human genome databases: the public University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) and private Celera databases which list known and predicted gene sequences and provide related information such as gene function, tissue expression,known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods and Results: To demonstrate this in silico research, the following male infertility candidate genes were selected: (1) human BOULE, mutations of which may lead to germ cell arrest at the primary spermatocyte stage, (2) mutations of casein kinase 2 alpha genes which may cause globozoospermia, (3) DMR-N9 which is possibly involved in the spermatogenic defect of myotonic dystrophy and (4) several testes expressed genes at or near the breakpoints of a balanced translocation associated with hypospermatogenesis. We indicate how information derived from the human genome databases can be used to confirm these candidate genes may be pathogenic by studying RNA expression in tissue arrays using in situ hybridization and gene sequencing. Conclusion: The paper explains the new approach to discovering genetic causes of male infertility using information about the human genome. ( Asian J Andro1 2003 Jun; 5:137-147 )

  14. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  15. Molecular candidates of MTV in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Nico; Mirzaei, Mehrnoosh; van de Water, Willem

    2011-11-01

    In molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV), the molecules of a gas are used as flow tracers. These tracers can be produced at will by illumination with a laser which promotes molecules to a long- lived excited state, fuses N2 and N2 to NO, or makes molecules phosphoresce. A while later these tagged molecules can be visualized by laser-induced fluorescence, or by just watching them while they phosphoresce. Candidates for MTV in turbulence research must be arranged in structures narrower than the Kolmogorov scale, which remain narrow as time progresses, and must live longer than the Kolmogorov time. These requirements invalidate many candidates, candidates once deemed successful. They do so in various surprising manners that involve a combination of fluid flow and molecular dynamics. Rather than velocimetry in turbulence, MTV techniques offer a unique view on basic dispersion processes at the smallest scales of turbulence. In this way we have measured the spreading of clouds whose size is a few times the Kolmogorov length and the Batchelor dispersion of objects whose size is inside the inertial range.

  16. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration, a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7-10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30-43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37 °C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4 °C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice

  17. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  18. Experimental Study of the Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effects of Venin on Metastasis and Recurrence of Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingjingSun; ZhiyongWu; XindaZhou; YinkunLiu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the inhibitory effect of venin on adhesion and invasive ability of SMMC-7721 cells and to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of venin on liver cancer metastasis and recurrence after hepatectomy.METHODS The blocking effect of venin on the intercellular adhesive molecule (ICAM-1) of 7721 cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. The influence of venin on the invasive ability of 7721 cells was observed by cell-migration experimentation and detachment of 7721 cells attached to fibronectin (FN), and the influence of venin on adhesion of 7721 cells to FN by the MTT method, 7721 cells to 7721 cells, 7721 cells to lymphocytes, and 7721 cells to endothelial cells by a cellular adhesion test. The preventive and therapeutic effect of venin onmetastasis and recurrence of a liver cancer model was observed in nudemice after hepatectomy. RESULTS The expression of ICAM-1 in the venin-treated group was significantly lower than that in the untreated group. Venin could not inhibit the invasive ability of 7721 cells, and could not exfoliate the 7721 cells adhered to FN. It could inhibit the adhesion between 7721 cells and 7721 cells, and between 7721 and endothelial cells, but could not inhibit the adhesion between 7721 and lymphocytes. The nude mice treated with venin had less intrahepatic or extrahepatic metastases and recurrences after hepatectomy. CONCLUSION Venin can inhibit the adhesive ability of SMMC-7721 cells and can also prevent and treat the metastasis and recurrence of liver cancer in nude mice after hepatectomy.

  19. Bone radiofrequency ablation combined with prophylactic internal fixation for metastatic bone tumor of the femur from hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Koichi; Miyake, Ryoko; Shiina, Shuichiro; Shinoda, Yusuke; Okuma, Tomotake; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Goto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawano, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with 6-year history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was referred to us regarding bone metastasis to the right proximal femur. Although he underwent radiotherapy for pain palliation and local tumor control, the pain persisted and the tumor relapsed 3 months after the radiotherapy and he was thought to be at high risk of pathologic fracture. Given hypervascularity and large tumor size, a prophylactic internal fixation combined with adjuvant radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was proposed to reduce blood loss and prevent viable tumor cells being disseminated. His postoperative course was uneventful without requiring blood transfusion and preoperative symptoms immediately disappeared after surgery. He became capable of weight-bearing walk with a single cane and was almost asymptomatic without local progression on the plain radiographs when he died 14 months after surgery. Combination therapy of RFA and internal fixation using intramedullary nailing for metastases of the long bones from HCC seems to be a very promising technique both for sufficient pain relief and for local control of the tumor. Adjuvant RFA may become a potential option for patients with metastases of the long bones for the purpose of prevention of tumor dissemination and reduction of intraoperative blood loss.

  20. Prophylactic Role of Oral Melatonin Administration on Neurogenesis in Adult Balb/C Mice during REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Soto-Rodríguez, Sofía; González-Perez, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin in the proliferation of neural progenitors, melatonin concentration, and antiapoptotic proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice exposed to 96 h REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) prophylactic administration of melatonin for 14 days. Material and Methods. Five groups of Balb/C mice were used: (1) control, (2) REMSD, (3) melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus REMSD, (4) melatonin and intraperitoneal luzindole (once a day at 5 mg/kg) plus REMSD, and (5) luzindole plus REMSD. To measure melatonin content in hippocampal tissue we used HPLC. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins were measured by Western Blot and neurogenesis was determined by injecting 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU/nestin expressing cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were quantified by epifluorescence. Results. The melatonin-treated REMSD group showed an increased neural precursor in 44% with respect to the REMSD group and in 28% when contrasted with the control group (P < 0.021). The melatonin-treated REMSD group also showed the highest expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion. The exogenous administration of melatonin restores the tissue levels of sleep-deprived group and appears to be an efficient neuroprotective agent against the deleterious effects of REMSD. PMID:27579149

  1. Can prophylactic breast irradiation contribute to cardiac toxicity in patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppressing drugs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molls Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen suppression treatment (AST might increase the risk of cardiac morbidity in prostate cancer patients. Possible explanations were provided, however, they disregard the potential contribution of prophylactic radiotherapy to the mamillary regions (PMRT, prescribed to avoid gynecomastia. Methods We studied the exposure of the heart in a typical electron beam PMRT setting by evaluating computed tomography (CT scans in 40 non-cancer patients (age 65 and 75 years in 50% each and 17 prostate cancer patients. Five of the younger, 7 of the older and 4 of the cancer patients had significant cardiac disease. Results The median distance between skin and outer heart contour decreased with age. In all three groups, patients with cardiac morbidity had smaller distances. When using the CT-determined PMRT beam energy, 10% of the younger, 15% of the older and none of the prostate cancer patients would receive approximately 50% of the prescription dose to a part of the heart (2 had no history of cardiac disease. When using the clinically rather than CT-determined beam energy, as often done in daily practice, an additional 12.5% of the non-cancer and 12% of the prostate cancer patients would be exposed to comparably high doses. Conclusion The present data provide preliminary evidence that PMRT might be a factor that contributes to cardiac side effects. Previous studies that established a relationship between AST and cardiac morbidity did not include information on delivery of PMRT.

  2. Evaluation of the fetal dose during prophylactic placement of internal iliac artery balloon occlusion catheters in placenta accreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Placenta accrete patients whose mother mortality rates are rather high due to massive bleeding during childbirth need to have Prophylactic placement of Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion Catheters procedure to reduce amount of blood loss and inoperative transfusion. Nevertheless, studies for mothers inevitably exposed to dose during PIIABOCs procedure have not been published many yet. Therefore, this study is to investigate exact information on radiation dose exposed to fetus during PIIABOCs procedure. Average effective dose of fetus per organ is 2.38∼8.83 mGy, measured highest at beam center and followed by eyeball, stomach and bladder. The result showed that the longer fluoroscopy time is used, the closer beam center is and the thicker abdominal thickness is, the more effective dose on fetus is increasing. When using the collimator and protection shown to decrease the effective dose and when using higher the patient table shown to decrease the effective dose. It has been reported that the threshold of deterministic effect is about 100mGy. Deterministic effect was regarded as a factor that would influence on fetus exposed by medical radiation than stochastic effect. Consequently, it concluded that dose exposed on fetus in PIIABOCs procedure was approximately 10% of threshold of deterministic effect with effective dose of 0.49∼18.27 mGy.

  3. Prophylactic Role of Oral Melatonin Administration on Neurogenesis in Adult Balb/C Mice during REM Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Armas, Gabriela; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; Soto-Rodríguez, Sofía; Rusanova, Iryna; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario; González-Perez, Oscar; González-Castañeda, Rocío Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin in the proliferation of neural progenitors, melatonin concentration, and antiapoptotic proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice exposed to 96 h REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) prophylactic administration of melatonin for 14 days. Material and Methods. Five groups of Balb/C mice were used: (1) control, (2) REMSD, (3) melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus REMSD, (4) melatonin and intraperitoneal luzindole (once a day at 5 mg/kg) plus REMSD, and (5) luzindole plus REMSD. To measure melatonin content in hippocampal tissue we used HPLC. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins were measured by Western Blot and neurogenesis was determined by injecting 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU/nestin expressing cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were quantified by epifluorescence. Results. The melatonin-treated REMSD group showed an increased neural precursor in 44% with respect to the REMSD group and in 28% when contrasted with the control group (P sleep-deprived group and appears to be an efficient neuroprotective agent against the deleterious effects of REMSD.

  4. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Prophylactic Effects of Vitamin D on Different Indices of Osteopenia of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Alizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and treatment of the rickets of prematurity is an important aspect of the care of preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to compare the prophylactic effects of different doses of vitamin D on the clinical, biochemical and radiological indices of the rickets of prematurity. In a randomized clinical trial, 68 premature infants (<38 weeks with birth weight under 2000 g, randomly divided in two groups. Infants received 400 IU/d vitamin D in Group A (n=32 and 1000 IU/d in group B (n= 36. On the 9th week of birth, serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured and x-ray of left wrist and physical examination were performed. The average serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase in both groups had no difference (P= 0.326, 0.466, 0.147, respectively and no one had a radiological or clinical picture of rickets. In conclusion we recommend low dose vitamin D for prevention of the osteopenia of prematurity.

  5. Prophylactic Role of Oral Melatonin Administration on Neurogenesis in Adult Balb/C Mice during REM Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela López-Armas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin in the proliferation of neural progenitors, melatonin concentration, and antiapoptotic proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice exposed to 96 h REM sleep deprivation (REMSD prophylactic administration of melatonin for 14 days. Material and Methods. Five groups of Balb/C mice were used: (1 control, (2 REMSD, (3 melatonin (10 mg/kg plus REMSD, (4 melatonin and intraperitoneal luzindole (once a day at 5 mg/kg plus REMSD, and (5 luzindole plus REMSD. To measure melatonin content in hippocampal tissue we used HPLC. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins were measured by Western Blot and neurogenesis was determined by injecting 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU and BrdU/nestin expressing cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were quantified by epifluorescence. Results. The melatonin-treated REMSD group showed an increased neural precursor in 44% with respect to the REMSD group and in 28% when contrasted with the control group (P<0.021. The melatonin-treated REMSD group also showed the highest expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion. The exogenous administration of melatonin restores the tissue levels of sleep-deprived group and appears to be an efficient neuroprotective agent against the deleterious effects of REMSD.

  6. Anorexia, serum zinc, and immunologic response in small cell lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, A M; Piper, B F

    1986-01-01

    Anorexia is a major clinical problem for patients with certain types of cancer. The specific mechanisms that result in this spontaneous decline in food intake remain unknown. In noncancer populations, zinc has been shown to play a role in maintaining normal appetite, taste acuity, and immunocompetence. One purpose of this prospective, longitudinal study of cachexia in ten males with small cell lung carcinoma was to determine if anorexia (caloric intake), perceived taste changes, zinc intake, and impaired cellular immunity were associated with serum zinc concentrations. The average daily caloric intake declined 490 kcal from time of diagnosis to seven months after diagnosis (mean caloric intake = 72% of RDA). Daily zinc intake ranged from 6.5 to 25.4 mg over the seven months. During this period, the mean serum zinc concentrations, although low (71 micrograms/dl), remained within the normal range. The average weight declined from 81.7 to 74.1 kg. There was no identifiable pattern of perceived taste changes; most of the perceived changes were recorded during the period coinciding with prophylactic cranial radiation. At the initial testing, four of nine subjects were anergic to a battery of skin test antigens (mumps, candida, tuberculin purified protein derivative). The only subject who remained responsive to two antigens throughout the study remained alive at 12 months. Caloric intake was inadequate to maintain weight. While zinc intake was low, low normal serum zinc concentrations were maintained; thus in this sample, serum zinc does not appear to be the anorexigenic factor.

  7. Evaluation of prophylactic penicillin administration in children with joint complaints andhigh serum anti-streptolysin O titers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Paç Kısaarslan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eligibility criteria for the diagnosis of acuterheumatic fever and the reasons for the administration ofprophylactic penicillin were investigated in patients admittedwith complaints of joint and high anti-streptolysin O(ASO titers.Materials and methods: From the hospital reports, 240patients those ASO titers were higher than 300 Todd unitand aged between 6-16 years were included to the study.The presence of swelling /redness /limitation of movementand number of affected joints, duration of complaints,presence of fever, prophylactic penicillin administration,response to therapy and repetition were asked. Eligibilityfor Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumaticfever was investigated.Results: Arthritis was present in 39 (16.25% patientsand 31 (79.5% of these patients were given penicillinprophylaxis. The number of patients with joint pain was201 (83.75% and 109 (54.2% of them were given prophylacticpenicillin administration.Conclusion: In this study, we found high penicillin administrationrate without real indication. Acute rheumaticfever diagnosis in children should be carefully based onJones criteria suggested by WHO and AHA and should beavoided from unnecessary prophylaxis.Key words: joint pain, acute rheumatic fever, penicillin rophylaxis.

  8. Prophylactic, therapeutic and anti-metastatic effects of BMDC and DC lines in mice carrying HPV 16-associated tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L; Bubeník, J; Símová, J; Jandlová, T; Vonka, V; Mikysková, R

    2003-07-01

    Oncogenic, moderately immunogenic MK16/1/IIIABC (MK16) cells were previously established by co-transfection of HPV 16 E6/E7 and activated H-ras oncogene DNA into C57BL/6 kidney cells. Subcutaneous transplantation of the MK16 cells produced progressively growing neoplasms which metastasized spontaneously to lungs. In this communication we report that prophylactic administration of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) as well as dendritic cell (DC) lines DC2.4 and JAWS II at the site of subsequent MK16 tumour transplants inhibited tumour growth and reduced the number of lung metastases. Similarly, in therapeutic experiments, administration of BMDC and DC lines at the site of the growing MK16 tumours or at the site of MK16 tumour residua after surgery inhibited tumour growth. Both BMDC-based vaccines and vaccines based on DC lines had also an antimetastatic effect. These results indicate that the DC line-based vaccines, which represent a standard, well-characterized and more homogeneous material, technically easier to prepare than the fresh BMDC-based vaccines, can be utilized for therapy of surgical minimal residual disease in HPV 16-associated neoplasms and are prospective for relevant clinical trials.

  9. Association of cinnarizine and betahistine in prophylactic therapy for Ménière's disease with and without migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, R; Gatti, O; Sykopetrites, V; Quaglieri, S; Benazzo, M; Bussi, M

    2014-10-01

    Prophylactic therapy of Ménière's disease (MD) includes betahistine and calcium-blockers (the latter also useful for migraine prevention). The aim of our work was to assess the efficacy of combined therapy with cinnarizine and betahistine in MD subjects both with and without migraine and poorly responsive to betahistine alone. Fifty-two MD subjects were included who were poorly responsive to betahistine during 6 months of follow-up; 29 were migraineurs. Combined therapy was administered with betahistine 48 mg/day and cinnarizine 20 mg BID for 1 month, 20 mg/day for 2 weeks and 20 mg every 2 days for 2 more weeks, and then repeated. Results were collected over 6 months of follow-up. MD subjects with and without migraine demonstrated a decrease in both vertigo spells and migrainous attacks during combined therapy (from 9.4 to 3.8 and from 6.8 to 5.9 in 6 months, respectively, for vertigo spells, while migraine decreased from 3.8 to 1 in 6 months, respectively). A correlation was seen between decrease of vertigo spells and headaches in the sample of MD subjects with migraine. Our data support a proactive role for cinnarizine in preventing vertigo spells, especially in MD patients with migraine.

  10. Combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation as a prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Capozzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT is a safe and effective prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. We report the case of a 17 years old patient with a history of congenital glaucoma, trabeculectomy and multiple corneal graft rejections, presenting total limbal cell deficiency. To reduce the possibility of graft rejection in the left eye after a new PK, a two step procedure was performed. At first the patient underwent a combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft (LAT and AMT and then, 10 months later, a new PK. Results. During 12 months of follow-up, the corneal graft remained stable and smooth, with no sign of graft rejection. Conclusions. In our patient, the prophylactic use of LAT from HLA-matched donors and AMT before PK, may result in a better prognosis of corneal graft survival.

  11. Gender differences in appropriate shocks and mortality among patients with primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Conen, David; Röver, Christian; Bergau, Leonard; Muñoz, Pascal; Wijers, Sofieke; Sticherling, Christian; Zabel, Markus; Friede, Tim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some but not all prior studies have shown that women receiving a primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) have a lower risk of death and appropriate shocks than men. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of gender on the risk of appropriate shock, all-cause mortality and inappropriate shock in contemporary studies of patients receiving a primary prophylactic ICD. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, LIVIVO, Cochrane CENTRAL between 2010 and 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Studies providing at least 1 gender-specific risk estimate for the outcomes of interest. DATA EXTRACTION: Abstracts were screened independently for potentially eligible studies for inclusion. Thereby each abstract was reviewed by at least two authors. DATA SYNTHESIS: Out of 680 abstracts retained by our search strategy, 20 studies including 46'657 patients had gender-specific information on at least one of the relevant endpoints. Mean age across the individual studies varied between 58 and 69 years. The proportion of women enrolled ran...

  12. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment. Results from a multicentre, multinational study (COMOESTAS project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Tassorelli, C;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europe...... and Latin America in a seven-month cohort study. Before and six months after treatment, the degree of disability was measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, while anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: A total of 694...... to 96 and number of those with anxiety was reduced by 27.1% from 284 to 207 (both P  anxiety were considerably reduced in patients with MOH by detoxification and prophylactic treatment. This emphasises the urgent need for increased awareness about...

  13. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bol, Kalijn F.; Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; Pots, Jeanette M.; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A. M.; van de Rakt, Mandy W. M. M.; Scharenborg, Nicole M.; de Boer, Annemiek J.; van Oorschot, Tom G. M.; Croockewit, Sandra A. J.; Blokx, Willeke A. M.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.; Mus, Roel D. M.; van Rossum, Michelle M.; van der Graaf, Chantal A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim, Act-HIB) and prostaglandin E2 (VAC-DC). Stage III and IV melanoma patients were vaccinated via intranodal injection (12 patients) or combi...

  14. A comparison of traditional vs. Canadian tailored prophylaxis dosing of prophylactic factor infusions in children with haemophilia A and B in a single hemophilia treatment center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C; Watts, R G

    2012-07-01

    Prophylactic infusion of clotting factor concentrates is a developing standard of care for individuals with haemophilia. The ideal schedule and techniques of prophylactic infusions remain incompletely defined. Our aim was to determine the optimal techniques and schedules for factor prophylaxis in paediatric patients. A retrospective electronic medical record review of all children treated with prophylactic factor infusions in a single Haemophilia Treatment Center was conducted. Comparison of traditional vs. Canadian dosing regimens and primary vs. secondary prophylaxis was made. Failure of prophylaxis was defined as the first serious bleed. A total of 58 children were identified for review. Five cases were excluded (four due to high titre inhibitors and one due to repeated non-compliance), thus there were 53 total cases: 46 with severe haemophilia, 2 with moderate haemophilia, 5 with mild haemophilia, 44 with haemophilia A and 9 with haemophilia B; 32 Traditional dosing and 21 Canadian dosing regimens. Patients on primary prophylaxis had a decreased failure rate (25%) compared to children treated with secondary prophylaxis (67%) regardless of technique of prophylaxis. When compared to a 'Traditional' factor prophylaxis schedule, the 'Canadian' tailored prophylaxis protocol was comparable with the exception of a decreased use of implanted venous devices in the 'Canadian' group. Ongoing bleeding (primarily joint bleeds) occurs with all prophylactic regimens. The lowest incidence of treatment failure was noted in children who began primary prophylaxis at a young age and before initial joint bleeds. Primary prophylaxis is superior to secondary prophylaxis regardless of dosing regimen. Traditional and Canadian dosing regimens were equivalent in outcome when measured over several years of follow-up.

  15. Prophylactic plastic surgery closure of neurosurgical scalp incisions reduces the incidence of wound complications in previously-operated patients treated with bevacizumab (Avastin®) and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Alyssa Reiffel; Boyko, Tatiana; Schwartz, Theodore H; Stieg, Philip E; Boockvar, John A; Spector, Jason A

    2014-09-01

    Neurosurgical craniotomy, craniectomy, or other trans-galeal interventions are performed for a variety of indications, including the resection of benign or malignant tumors, hematoma evacuation, and for the management of intractable seizure disorders. Despite an overall low complication rate of intervention, wound healing complications such as dehiscence, surgical site infection, and cerebrospinal fluid leak are not uncommon. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent scalp incision closure at a single institution by a single plastic surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Sixty patients (83 procedures) were included in the study. Fifty-seven patients (95.0 %) underwent previous craniotomy, craniectomy, or other trans-galeal procedure. Of the total 60 patients, 35 patients received preoperative radiation. Sixteen patients received bevacizumab prior to their index case, while 12 received bevacizumab postoperatively. Ten patients (16.7 %) required additional plastic surgical intervention for wound complications after their index plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgery was consulted prophylactically in 34 patients (38 procedures). When plastic surgery was consulted prophylactically, 4 patients (11.8 %) required further wound revision. None of the 14 patients who underwent prophylactic plastic surgery closure for previous scalp incision, preoperative bevacizumab, and XRT administration required re-intervention. Plastic surgery closure of complex scalp incisions reduces the incidence of wound complications among patients who underwent previous neurosurgical intervention, XRT administration, and preoperative bevacizumab administration. This is particularly true when plastic surgery closure is performed "prophylactically." Further collaboration between the neurosurgical and plastic surgery teams is therefore warranted, particularly in the setting of these high-risk cases.

  16. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of acute systemic injections of EMD 281014, a selective serotonin 2A receptor antagonist on anxiety induced by predator stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Robert; Creamer, Katherine; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Burton, Paul

    2004-11-03

    We examined the effect of the selective serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbon itrile HCl (EMD 281014) [Bartoszyk, G.D., van Amsterdam, C., Bottcher, H., Seyfried, C.A., 2003. EMD 281014, a new selective serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 473, 229-230.] on change in affect following predator stress. Predator stress involved a 5 min unprotected exposure of rats to a domestic cat. Behavioral effects of stress were evaluated with hole board, plus maze, light/dark box and acoustic startle tests 1 week after stress. Predator stress increased anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze, light/dark box, and elevated response to acoustic startle. EMD 281014 (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg) and vehicle injection (ip) occurred either 10 min after predator stress (prophylactic testing), or 90 min prior to behavioral testing for the effects of predator stress (therapeutic testing 1 week after predator stress). In prophylactic testing, EMD 281014 prevented stress potentiation of startle in a dose dependent manner, though the most effective doses were midrange (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg). Prophylactic administration of EMD 281014 also prevented stress-induced increase of open arm avoidance in the plus maze in a clear dose dependent manner (from 0.01 mg/kg onward). In therapeutic testing, EMD 281014 had no clear drug dependent effects on stress elevation of startle or on behavior of stressed rats in the elevated plus maze. Finally, EMD 281014 did not block the effects of stress on behavior in the light/dark box when given prophylactically or therapeutically. Findings implicate 5-HT(2A) receptors in initiation of some but not all lasting changes in anxiety-like behavior following predator stress. Potential clinical significance of findings are discussed.

  17. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Kalijn F; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Pots, Jeanette M; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A M; van de Rakt, Mandy W M M; Scharenborg, Nicole M; de Boer, Annemiek J; van Oorschot, Tom G M; Croockewit, Sandra A J; Blokx, Willeke A M; Oyen, Wim J G; Boerman, Otto C; Mus, Roel D M; van Rossum, Michelle M; van der Graaf, Chantal A A; Punt, Cornelis J A; Adema, Gosse J; Figdor, Carl G; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim, Act-HIB) and prostaglandin E2 (VAC-DC). Stage III and IV melanoma patients were vaccinated via intranodal injection (12 patients) or combined intradermal/intravenous injection (16 patients) with VAC-DC loaded with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and mRNA encoding tumor antigens gp100 and tyrosinase. Tumor antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored in blood and skin-test infiltrating-lymphocyte cultures. Almost all patients mounted prophylactic vaccine- or KLH-specific immune responses. Both after intranodal injection and after intradermal/intravenous injection, tumor antigen-specific immune responses were detected, which coincide with longer overall survival in stage IV melanoma patients. VAC-DC induce local and systemic CTC grade 2 and 3 toxicity, which is most likely caused by BCG in the maturation cocktail. The side effects were self-limiting or resolved upon a short period of systemic steroid therapy. We conclude that VAC-DC can induce functional tumor-specific responses. Unfortunately, toxicity observed after vaccination precludes the general application of VAC-DC, since in DC maturated with prophylactic vaccines BCG appears to be essential in the maturation cocktail.

  18. Prophylactic Melatonin Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Aged Rats through Hippocampal Melatonin Receptor 2 - cAMP Response Element Binding Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajie; Ni, Cheng; Li, Zhengqian; Yang, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Rong, Xiaoying; Qian, Min; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2017-03-01

    Melatonin exerts many physiological effects via melatonin receptors, among which the melatonin-2 receptor (MT2 ) plays a critical role in circadian rhythm disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. A melatonin replacement strategy has been tested previously, and MT2 was a critical target during the process. cAMP response element binding (CREB) is an essential transcription factor for memory formation and could be involved in MT2 signalling. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of prophylactic melatonin on inhaled anaesthetic isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment, and to determine whether the protective effects of melatonin are dependent on MT2 and downstream CREB signalling in the hippocampus of aged rats. The results showed that prophylactic melatonin attenuated isoflurane-induced decreases in plasma/hippocampal melatonin levels and cognitive impairment in aged rats. Furthermore, 4P-PDOT, a selective MT2 antagonist, blocked the protective effects of melatonin on isoflurane-induced decreases in both hippocampal MT2 expression and downstream CREB phosphorylation. And 4P-PDOT blocked the attenuation of melatonin on isoflurane-induced memory impairment. Collectively, the results suggest that the protective effects of prophylactic melatonin are dependent on hippocampal MT2 -CREB signalling, which could be a potential therapeutic target for anaesthetic-induced cognitive impairment.

  19. Prophylactic efficacy of fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, and concomitant psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: outcome after long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, Eric D; Tobia, Gabriel; Karamians, Reneh; Pizano, Demetria; IsHak, Waguih William

    2015-02-28

    The acute efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established; however their role in longer-term prevention of recurrence remains unconfirmed. This study aims at examining: the prophylactic efficacy of four commonly used SSRIs in MDD in a naturalistic setting with long-term follow-up, the effect of concomitant cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and the predictors of outcome. In a prospective cohort study, 387 patients who either remitted or responded following treatment with four different SSRIs-fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline and paroxetine-were followed up over several years. During an average follow-up period of 34.5 months, 76.5% of patients experienced MDD recurrence. Escitalopram and fluoxetine showed a numerically higher prophylactic efficacy than paroxetine and sertraline but the difference was statistically insignificant. The prophylactic efficacy for SSRI-only treatment was limited, with a recurrence rate of 82.0%, compared to 59.0% of patient recurrence rate in concomitant Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The relatively small size of the CBT group and the lack of randomization may undermine the extrapolation of its findings to clinical practice. Nevertheless, the study preliminary data may help in defining the clinical utility of antidepressants and CBT in the prophylaxis from MDD recurrence.

  20. Prophylactic use of Ganoderma lucidum extract may inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication in a new mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan eQin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection (LTBIthat mimics latent tuberculosis infection in humans is valuable for drug/vaccine development and the study of tuberculosis. However, most LTBI mouse models require interventions, and a spontaneous LTBI mouse model with a low bacterial load is difficult to establish. In this study, mice were IV-inoculated with 100 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and a persistent LTBI was established with low bacterial loads (0.5~1.5log10 CFU in the lung; <4log10 CFU in the spleen. Histopathological changes in the lung, spleen, and liver were mild during the first 20 weeks post-inoculation. The model was used to demonstrate the comparative effects of prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Ganoderma lucidum extract (spores and spores lipid in preventing H37Rv replication in both lung and spleen. H37Rv was inhibited with prophylactic use of G. lucidum extract relative to that of the untreated control and therapy groups, and observed in the spleen as early as post-inoculation week 3. H37Rv infection in the therapy group was comparable to that of the untreated control mice. No significant mitigation of pathological changes was observed in either the prophylactic or therapeutic groups. Our results suggest that this LTBI model is an efficient means of testing anti-tuberculosis vaccines and drugs. The use of G. lucidum extract prior to M. tuberculosis infection may protect the host against bacterial replication to some extent.

  1. ARIEL: an ESA M4 mission candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, L.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Heske, A.; Escudero Sanz, I.; Crouzet, P.-E.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) mission is an M-class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision of the European Space Agency (ESA). It was selected in June 2015 as one of three candidates to enter an assessment phase (phase 0/A). This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study providing the input to parallel industrial studies (in progress since 2016). After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid-2017 one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in 2026. ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. Using the differential technique of transit spectroscopy, ARIEL will obtain transmission and/or emission spectra of the atmospheres of a large and diverse sample of known exoplanets (~500) covering a wide range of masses, densities, equilibrium temperatures, orbital properties and host-star characteristics. This will include hot Jupiters to warm Super-Earths, orbiting M5 to F0 stars. This paper describes critical requirements, and reports on the results of the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study that was conducted in June / July 2015, providing a description of the resulting spacecraft design. It will employ a 0.7 m x 1.1 m off-axis three mirror telescope, feeding four photometric channels in the VNIR range (0.5-1.95 μm) and an IR spectrometer covering 1.95-7.8 μm.

  2. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  3. Avalanche Effect in Improperly Initialized CAESAR Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ukrop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptoprimitives rely on thorough theoretical background, but often lack basic usability features making them prone to unintentional misuse by developers. We argue that this is true even for the state-of-the-art designs. Analyzing 52 candidates of the current CAESAR competition has shown none of them have an avalanche effect in authentication tag strong enough to work properly when partially misconfigured. Although not directly decreasing their security profile, this hints at their security usability being less than perfect. Paper details available at crcs.cz/papers/memics2016

  4. Alcoholism and alternative splicing of candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabe, Toshikazu; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  5. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  6. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  7. Geoscience Training for NASA Astronaut Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Graff, T. G.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-01-01

    After being selected to the astronaut office, crewmembers go through an initial two year training flow, astronaut candidacy, where they learn the basic skills necessary for spaceflight. While the bulk of astronaut candidate training currently centers on the multiple subjects required for ISS operations (EVA skills, Russian language, ISS systems, etc.), training also includes geoscience training designed to train crewmembers in Earth observations, teach astronauts about other planetary systems, and provide field training designed to investigate field operations and boost team skills. This training goes back to Apollo training and has evolved to support ISS operations and future exploration missions.

  8. Top Zika Vaccine Candidate Moves Closer to Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161274.html Top Zika Vaccine Candidate Moves Closer to Field Testing DNA- ... MONDAY, Oct. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The leading Zika vaccine candidate should be ready for field testing ...

  9. Phenol sulfotransferases: Candidate genes for Batten disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, T.P.; Probst, P.; Obermoeller, R.D. [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-05

    Batten disease (juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; JNCL) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the cytosomal accumulation of autofluorescent protolipopigments in neurons and other cell types. The Batten disease gene (CLN3) has not yet been identified, but has been mapped to a small region of human chromosome area 16p12.1-p11.2. We recently reported the fortuitous discovery that the cytosolic phenol sulfotransferase gene (STP) is located within this same interval of chromosome 16p. Since phenol sulfotransferase is expressed in neurons, can sulfate lipophilic phenolic compounds, and is mapped near CLN3, STP is considered as a candidate gene for Batten disease. YAC and cosmid cloning results have further substantiated the close proximity of STP and a highly related sulfotransferase (STM), encoding the catecholamine-preferring enzyme, to the CLN3 region of chromosome 16p. In this report, we summarize some of the recent progress in the identification of two phenol sulfotransferase genes (STP and STM) as positional candidate genes for Batten disease. 42 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Pulsar Candidates Toward Fermi Unassociated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Jagannathan, P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for steep spectrum radio sources within the 95% confidence error ellipses of the Fermi unassociated sources from the Large Array Telescope (LAT). Using existing catalogs and the newly released GMRT all-sky survey at 150 MHz we identify compact radio sources that are bright at MHz frequencies but faint or absent at GHz frequencies. Such steep spectrum radio sources are rare and constitute a sample of pulsar candidates, selected independently of period, dispersion measure, interstellar scattering and orbital parameters. We find point-like, steep spectrum candidates toward 11 Fermi sources. Based on the gamma-ray/radio positional coincidence, the rarity of such radio sources, and the properties of the 3FGL sources themselves, we argue that many of these sources could be pulsars. They may have been missed by previous radio periodicity searches due to interstellar propagation effects or because they lie in an unusually tight binary. If this hypothesis is correct, then renewed gamma-ray and ra...

  11. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Eisele

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  12. Theoretical Comparison Between Candidates for Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, James; Hira, Ajit; Valdez, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Since the generally-accepted view among astrophysicists is that the matter component of the universe is mostly dark matter, the search for dark matter particles continues unabated. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) improvements, aided by advanced computer simulations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (Berkeley Lab) National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Brown University's Center for Computation and Visualization (CCV), can potentially eliminate some particle models of dark matter. Generally, the proposed candidates can be put in three categories: baryonic dark matter, hot dark matter, and cold dark matter. The Lightest Supersymmetric Particle(LSP) of supersymmetric models is a dark matter candidate, and is classified as a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). Similar to the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the Big Bang, there is a background of low-energy neutrinos in our Universe. According to some researchers, these may be the explanation for the dark matter. One advantage of the Neutrino Model is that they are known to exist. Dark matter made from neutrinos is termed ``hot dark matter''. We formulate a novel empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function adequately treats both void size and redshift, and describes the scale radius and the central density of voids. We started with a five-parameter model. Our research is mainly on LSP and Neutrino models.

  13. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to progressive visceral disease. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The key control measures mainly rely on early case detection and chemotherapy which has been hampered by the toxicity of drugs, side-effects and by the emergence of drug resistance in parasites. Control of reservoir host and vector is difficult due to operational difficulties and frequent relapses in the host. Therefore, the development of effective and affordable vaccine against leishmaniasis is highly desirable. Although considerable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding immune mechanisms underlying potential candidate antigens, including killed, live attenuated parasites, crude parasites, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins or DNA encoding leishmanial proteins, as well as immunomodulators from sand fly saliva, very few candidate vaccines have progressed beyond the experimental stage. As such there is no vaccine against any form of human leishmaniasis. In recent years, however, much interest has been stimulated towards vaccination against leishmaniasis focused mainly on cutaneous leishmaniasis with fewer attempts against visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  15. Elemental Abundances of Solar Sibling Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, I.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  16. Elemental Abundances of Solar Sibling Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, I; Bobylev, V V; Roederer, I U; Lambert, D L; Endl, M; Cochran, W D; MacQueen, P J; Wittenmyer, R A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying a...

  17. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  18. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-10-29

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  19. Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Günthardt, G I; Camperi, J A; Díaz, R J; Gomez, P L; Bosch, G; Schirmer, M

    2015-01-01

    NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object i...

  20. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, Texas 78712-1205 (United States); Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V. [Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of RAS, 65/1, Pulkovskoye Chaussee, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Roederer, I. U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wittenmyer, R. A. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  1. Political Candidate Campaign Advertising: A Selected Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    This paper provides a selected review of political candidate campaign advertising studies from the political science, mass communication, advertising, and political communication literature. The paper examines the literature in terms of research pertaining to (1) candidate advertising content (commercials for male versus female candidates and for…

  2. Views on Values Education: From Teacher Candidates to Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Canay Demirhan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…

  3. Encouraging Discussion between Teacher Candidates and Families with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Families as Faculty experience assists universities to better prepare candidates for service as classroom teachers. Upon entering their practica and student teaching, many teacher candidates have had no to limited contact with exceptional students. Often candidates are unaware of the realities of having a student with disabilities in their…

  4. Mirror Images: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Disposition Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, Lynne A.; Summers, Deborah G.; Colby, Susan A.; Payne, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of disposition development for teacher candidates continues to be discussed and debated in teacher education. This study compares two programs and the different ways each approaches the disposition development of their respective candidates. More than 200 candidates from two institutions were surveyed on how and where they perceived…

  5. Identity Functions and Empathetic Tendencies of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Alpaslan; Kadi, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research is to investigate identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. Sample consists of 232 teacher candidates in social studies teacher education. Survey model is preferred to investigate the difference between identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. And also correlational…

  6. Body image issues after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction in healthy women at risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Jessica P; Mureau, Marc A M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Timman, Reinier; Tibben, Aad

    2013-09-01

    The outcome of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction (BPM-IBR) in healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be potentially burdensome for body image and the intimate relationship. Therefore, in the current analysis the impact on body image, sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was prospectively investigated in women opting for BPM-IBR as well as cancer distress and general quality of life. Healthy women undergoing BPM-IBR completed questionnaires preoperatively (T0, n = 48), at 6 months (T1, n = 44) and after finishing breast reconstruction (median 21 months, range 12-35) (T2, n = 36). With multi-level regression analyses the course of outcome variables was investigated and a statistically significant change in body image and/or sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was predicted by baseline covariates. Body image significantly decreased at T1. At T2 sexual relationship satisfaction and body image tended to be lower compared to baseline. The overall partner relationship satisfaction did not significantly change. At T2, 37 % of the women reported that their breasts felt unpleasantly, 29 % was not satisfied with their breast appearance and 21 % felt embarrassed for their naked body. Most body image issues remained unchanged in 30 % of the women. A negative body image was predicted by high preoperative cancer distress. BPM-IBR was associated with adverse impact on body image in a substantial subgroup, but satisfaction with the overall sexual and partner relationship did not significantly change in time. The psychosocial impact of BPM-IBR in unaffected women should not be underestimated. Psychological support should ideally be integrated both before and after BPM-IBR.

  7. Therapeutic and prophylactic thalidomide in TNBS-induced colitis: Synergistic effects on TNF-α, IL-12 and VEGF production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Teresa Carvalho; Cláudio Tortori; Ilana Dines; Jane Carvalho; Eduardo Rocha; Celeste Elia; Heitor Souza; Antonio Jose Carneiro; Morgana Castelo-Branco; Kalil Madi; Alberto Schanaider; Flavia Silva; Fernando Antonio Pereira Jú'nior; Márcia G Pereira

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluated the therapeutic and prophylactic effect of thalidomide on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Thalidomide has been reported to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-12, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hallmarks of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten animals each. Four groups received a rectal infusion of TNBS in ethanol. The first group was sacrificed 7 d after colitis induction. The second and third groups received either thalidomide or placebo by gavage and were sacrificed at 14 d. The fourth group received thalidomide 6 h before TNBS administration, and was sacrificed 7 d after induction. The fifth group acted as the control group and colitis was not induced. Histological inflammatory scores of the colon were performed and lamina propria CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and VEGF+ cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. TNF-α and IL-12 were quantified in the supernatant of organ cultures by ELISA.RESULTS: Significant reduction in the inflammatory score and in the percentage of VEGF+ cells was observed in the group treated with thalidomide compared with animals not treated with thalidomide. Both TNF-α and IL-12 levels were significantly reduced among TNBS induced colitis animals treated with thalidomide compared with animals that did not receive thalidomide.TNF-α levels were also significantly reduced among the animals receiving thalidomide prophylaxis compared with untreated animals with TNBS-induced colitis. Intestinal levels of TNF-α and IL-12 were significantly correlated with the inflammatory score and the number of VEGF+ cells.CONCLUSION: Thalidomide significantly attenuates TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting the intestinal production of TNF-α, IL-12, and VEGF. This effect may support the use of thalidomide as an alternate approach in selected patients with CD.

  8. Prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa against lead acetate induced changes in spermiogram, reproductive hormones and gonadal histology of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa (NS treatment on toxic effects induced by lead acetate (LA on the reproductive hormones, spermiogram and gonadal histology of rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 (negative control [NC] was the NC and was given distilled water, Group 2 served as the positive control (PC and was administered 10 mg/kg/day of LA per overall survival (OS, Group 3 (T1 was administered 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for a month, and Group 4 (T2 was pretreated with 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for 1 month, followed by 10 mg/kg/daily of LA alone per OS for another. The rats were euthanized at the end of the experimental period for collection of blood and the right caudal epididymis and testis. Serum was used for determination of reproductive hormones by using radioimmunoassay kits. The epididymal segment was cut and homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline, and the homogenate was used for determination of the spermiogram parameters such as sperm concentration, sperm viability, percentage of live sperm, motility and abnormality. Both the epididymis and testis were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological processing. Results: The sperm concentration, general, and individual motilities were higher (p0.05 between control and T2. The concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was comparable (p>0.05 in all groups, while testosterone (TS hormone concentration was lower (p<0.05 in the PC and higher in the control and T1 groups. Conclusion: This study showed the preventive effects of NS administration against alterations in reproductive hormnes, sperm parameters and gonadal histology caused by LA in rats.

  9. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Murly BM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women at increased (genetic risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this study was to asses: 1 the acceptance of the offer of a standard psychological consultation as part of pre-surgical decision-making in high-risk women, 2 reasons for PM and reasons for postponing it, 3 the need for additional psychological interventions, and factors associated, and 4 the frequency of psychiatric/psychological treatment history. Methods During a 30 months period, women at high risk considering PM were offered a psychological consultation. The content of these, and follow-up, consultations were analyzed. Results Most women (70 out of 73 accepted the psychological consultation, and 81% proceeded with PM. Main reasons for undergoing PM were to reduce anxiety about cancer, and to reduce the cancer risk. Uncertainty about surgery and the need for further information were the reasons given most frequently for postponing PM. Additional psychological support was given to 31% before and 14% after PM. The uptake of additional support was significantly higher in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. A history of psychiatric/psychological treatment was present in 36%, mainly consisting of depression and grief after death of a mother. Conclusion The uptake-rate of the standard psychological consultation indicates a high level of acceptability of this service for women deciding about PM. Since anxiety is one of the main reasons for considering PM, and depression and grief were present in a third, a standard consultation with a psychologist for high-risk women considering PM may be indicated. This may help them arrive at an informed decision, to detect and manage psychological distress, and to plan psychological support services.

  10. Voriconazole is a safe and effective anti-fungal prophylactic agent during induction therapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antifungal prophylaxis (AFP reduces the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs during induction therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Posaconazole is considered the standard of care. Voriconazole, a generic cheaper alternative is a newer generation azole with broad anti-fungal activity. There is limited data on the use of voriconazole as a prophylactic drug. Materials and Methods: A single-center, prospective study was performed during which patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy received voriconazole as AFP (April 2012 to February 2014. Outcomes were compared with historical patients who received fluconazole as AFP (January 2011-March 2012, n = 66. Results: Seventy-five patients with AML (median age: 17 years [range: 1-75]; male:female 1.6:1 received voriconazole as AFP. The incidence of proven/probable/possible (ppp IFI was 6.6% (5/75. Voriconazole and fluconazole cohorts were well-matched with respect to baseline characteristics. Voriconazole (when compared to fluconazole reduced the incidence of pppIFI (5/75, 6.6% vs. 19/66, 29%; P < 0.001, need to start therapeutic (empiric + pppIFI antifungals (26/75, 34% vs. 51/66, 48%; P < 0.001 and delayed the start of therapeutic antifungals in those who needed it (day 16 vs. day 10; P < 0.001. Mortality due to IFI was also reduced with the use of voriconazole (1/75, 1.3% vs. 6/66, 9%; P = 0.0507, but this was not significant. Three patients discontinued voriconazole due to side-effects. Conclusion: Voriconazole is an effective and safe oral agent for IFI prophylaxis during induction therapy of AML. Availability of generic equivalents makes this a more economical alternative to posaconazole.

  11. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  12. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 4

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  13. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 4th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  14. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Sasabe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  15. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Gong-He; REN Zhao-Yu; GUO Ping; ZHENG Ji-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments,frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors.

  16. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : HAUVILLER First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  17. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 3rd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : Hauviller First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  18. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R

    2009-09-01

    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease.

  19. Hypervelocity Star Candidates in the SEGUE G & K Dwarf Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Palladino, Lauren E; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    We identify 13 candidate hypervelocity stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) G and K dwarf samples. Previous searches for hypervelocity stars have only focused on large radial velocities; in this study we also use proper motions to select the candidates. We determine the hypervelocity likelihood of each candidate, considering the significant errors often associated with high proper motion stars via Monte Carlo simulations. We find that more than half of the candidates exceed their escape velocities with at least 90% probability. All of our candidates also have less than a 60% chance of being a high velocity fluke within the SEGUE sample. Based on orbits calculated using the observed 6-d positions and velocities, few, if any, of these candidates originate from the Galactic Center. If these candidates are truly hypervelocity stars, they were not ejected by interactions with the Milky Way's supermassive black hole. This calls for a more serious examination of alternati...

  20. Prophylactic platelets in dengue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehorn, James; Rodriguez Roche, Rosmari; Guzman, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity...

  1. Effect of prophylactic timolol 0.1% gel on intraocular pressure after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab: a randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pece A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfredo Pece,1 Davide Allegrini,1 Giovanni Montesano,2 Andrea Fabio Dimastrogiovanni1 1Eye Clinic, Melegnano Hospital, Vizzolo Predabissi, 2Eye Clinic, San Paolo Hospital, Università di Milano, Milano, Italy Purpose: The purpose of this study is to make a prospective evaluation of the effect of timolol 0.1% eye gel on short-term intraocular pressure (IOP after an intravitreal injection (IVI of ranibizumab. Participants and methods: One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 IVI-naïve patients with macular edema caused by various pathological conditions (age-related macular degeneration, central or branch retinal vein occlusion, and diabetic retinopathy were scheduled to undergo an IVI of ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 cc. The patients were randomly divided into three groups: 50 were not treated with timolol before the IVI (group 1; 50 received an instillation of timolol 0.1% eye gel the evening before the IVI (group 2; and 50 received an instillation of timolol 0.1% eye gel 2 hours before the IVI (group 3. The incidence of clinically significant intraocular hypertensive spikes (>25 mmHg and >40 mmHg was then assessed. Results: Our findings showed that mean IOP at baseline was significantly higher than at both 5 and 60 minutes after IVI (P<0.01. Spikes of >25 mmHg were recorded at either time in 27 patients (54% in group 1, 23 patients (44% in group 2, and 24 patients (48% in group 3. None of the between-group differences were significant. Spikes of >40 mmHg (which were only detected 5 minutes after IVI were recorded in nine (18%, eight (16%, and one patient (2% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The only significant difference was between the control and group 3 (P=0.012. Conclusion: An increase in IOP after antivascular endothelial growth factor IVI is a frequent complication. The prophylactic use of timolol 0.1% gel effectively reduced the mean IOP when administered 2 hours before IVI and was also effective in preventing dangerous IOP spikes of >40 mm

  2. PS1-42: Beyond Risk Reduction: Decision-Making Factors Among Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendle, Katharine; Halley, Meghan; Ventre, Nicole; Frosch, Dominick; May, Suepattra

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer are electing to undergo contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM)—or removal of the healthy breast—at rapidly increasing rates worldwide. CPM significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of contralateral breast cancer; however, it is also believed to be unnecessary for most patients due to the relatively low risk of contralateral breast cancer, and the effectiveness of less invasive treatment options. Additionally, since the risk of systemic metastases often exceeds the risk of contralateral breast cancer, most patients will not receive any survival benefit. As such, there is a growing need to understand why patients are electing to have CPM. Drawing from prospective, in-depth interviews with breast cancer patients, we explore how women are making this decision and investigate what factors beyond risk reduction may be impacting their decision. Methods Participants were recruited from a multispecialty clinic in Northern California. Participants were interviewed at four time points during their treatment journey. Medical records for each participant were reviewed to confirm therapies received. Analysis of interview transcripts used grounded theory to identify emergent decision-making factors across participants. Results Of the 41 patients enrolled in the study, 11 (27%) women elected to have CPM. The majority of these women underwent BCRA testing (9 or 82%), but only two women received a positive result. Influential factors identified across participants were: 1) desire to reduce or avoid breast cancer treatment; 2) having a close relationship with someone who died from breast cancer; 3) wanting to maintain (or improve) breast appearance; and 4) receiving imaging results that showed “suspicious” but ultimately benign changes in their healthy breast. Conclusions The decision to undergo CPM is impacted by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, risk reduction. Moreover, perceptions of

  3. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  4. Long-term safety and efficacy follow-up of prophylactic higher fluence collagen cross-linking in high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosLaservision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece, and New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet A irradiation cross-linking on completion for cases of high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK.Methods: Forty-three consecutive LASIK cases treated with femtosecond laser flap and the WaveLight excimer platform were evaluated perioperatively for uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected spectacle visual acuity, refraction, keratometry, topography, total and flap pachymetry, corneal optical coherence tomography, and endothelial cell count. All eyes at the completion of LASIK had cross-linking through the repositioned flap, with higher fluence (10 mW/cm2 ultraviolet light of an average 370 µm wavelength and 10 mW/cm2 fluence applied for 3 minutes following an earlier single instillation of 0.1% riboflavin within the flap interface. Mean follow-up duration was 3.5 (range 1.0–4.5 years.Results: Mean uncorrected visual acuity changed from 0.2 to 1.2, best corrected spectacle visual acuity from 1.1 to 1.2, spherical equivalent from -7.5 diopters (D to -0.2 D, keratometry from 44.5 D to 38 D, flap pachymetry from 105 µm to, total pachymetry from 525 to 405, and endothelial cell count from 2750 to 2800. None of the cases developed signs of ectasia or significant regression during follow-up.Conclusion: Prophylactic collagen cross-linking for high-risk LASIK cases appears to be a safe and effective adjunctive treatment for refractive regression and potential ectasia. This application may be viewed as prophylactic customization of the biomechanical behavior of corneal collagen.Keywords: prophylactic collagen cross-linking, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, high-risk, post-LASIK ectasia

  5. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted.

  6. Prophylactic Bilateral Gonadectomy for Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development in a Patient With Mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Yq11.222 Karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E.N. Becker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovotesticular disorder of sex development is historically thought to confer a relatively low risk of germ cell malignancy relative to other disorders of sex development. This is likely due in part to the high prevalence of a normal 46,XX karyotype in these patients. However, disorders of sex development represent a broad phenotypic spectrum, and often patients cannot be neatly categorized with a single diagnosis. We report an atypical case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development in a child with ambiguous genitalia and 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype. Prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy was performed at age 14 months.

  7. SHIELD: Observations of Three Candidate Interacting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Miazzo, Masao; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract:The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies. Using the now-complete Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) source catalog, 82 systems are identified that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich, low-mass galaxies. These systems harbor neutral gas reservoirs smaller than 3x10^7 M_sun, thus populating the faint end of the HI mass function with statistical confidence for the first time. In a companion poster, we present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array D-configuration HI spectral line observations of 32 previously unobserved galaxies. Three galaxies in that study have been discovered to lie in close angular proximity to more massive galaxies. Here we present VLA HI imaging of these candidate interacting systems. We compare the neutral gas morphology and kinematics with optical images from SDSS. We discuss the frequency of low-mass galaxies undergoing tidal interaction in the complete SHIELD sample.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant 1211683 to JMC at Macalester College.

  8. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  9. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 1

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name: MAURINFirst Name:Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives.One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted...

  10. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARDFirst Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you...

  11. Photon defects in noncommutative standard model candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Center for Particle Theory; Jaeckel, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Restrictions imposed by gauge invariance in noncommutative spaces together with the effects of ultraviolet/infrared mixing lead to strong constraints on possible candidates for a noncommutative extension of the Standard Model. We study a general class of noncommutative models consistent with these restrictions. Specifically we consider models based upon a gauge theory with the gauge group U(N{sub 1}) x U(N{sub 2}) x.. x U(N{sub m}) coupled to matter fields transforming in the (anti)-fundamental, bi-fundamental and adjoint representations. We pay particular attention to overall trace-U(1) factors of the gauge group which are affected by the ultraviolet/infrared mixing. Typically, these trace-U(1) gauge fields do not decouple sufficiently fast in the infrared, and lead to sizable Lorentz symmetry violating effects in the low-energy effective theory. In a 4-dimensional theory on a continuous space-time making these effects unobservable would require making the effects of noncommutativity tiny, M{sub NC} >> M{sub P}. This severely limits the phenomenological prospects of such models. However, adding additional universal extra dimensions the trace-U(1) factors decouple with a power law and the constraint on the noncommutativity scale is weakened considerably. Finally, we briefly mention some interesting properties of the photon that could arise if the noncommutative theory is modified at a high energy scale. (Orig.)

  12. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, G.; Aguilar, J. C.; Dueñas, S.; Hermida, L.; Iglesias, E.; Penton, E.; Lobaina, Y.; Lopez, M.; Mussachio, A.; Falcon, V.; Alvarez, L.; Martinez, G.; Gil, L.; Valdes, I.; Izquierdo, A.; Lazo, L.; Marcos, E.; Guzman, G.; Muzio, V.; Herrera, L.

    2013-03-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October - 2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  13. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 5th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  14. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 5

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  15. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  16. Algal Lectins as Potential HIV Microbicide Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Schols

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development and use of topical microbicides potentially offers an additional strategy to reduce the spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs that show specificity for high mannose carbohydrates on the surface of the heavily glycosylated envelope of HIV are endowed with potent anti-HIV activity. In fact, a number of algal lectins such as cyanovirin-N, microvirin, microcystis viridis lectin, scytovirin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin and griffithsin are considered as potential microbicide candidates to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV through topical applications. They not only inhibit infection of cells by cell-free virus but they can also efficiently prevent virus transmission from virus-infected cells to uninfected CD4+ target T-lymphocytes and DC-SIGN-directed capture of HIV-1 and transmission to CD4+ T lymphocytes. This review focuses on the structural properties and carbohydrate specificity of these algal lectins, their antiviral activity against HIV and several other enveloped viruses, their safety profile and viral resistance patterns.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates for parkinsonian disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu eConstantinescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in atypical parkinsonian disorders compared with PD and healthy controls. The new "omics" techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.

  18. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  19. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 2nd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  20. The FK Comae candidate UX Librae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, B. W.; Goodrich, B. D.; Africano, J. L.; Noah, P. V.; Meredith, R. J.; Palmer, L. H.; Quigley, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    New optical spectroscopic and photometric data are presented for the active chromosphere FK Com candidate UZ Lib. The star is shown to have an extremely large photometric amplitude in V of 0.35 mag, and its rotation period is established as 4.75 + or - 0.01 days. The optical spectrum is that of an early K giant, broadened by a rotation velocity of approximately 65 km/s. H-alpha is visible as a very broad emission feature, with a profile resembling that seen in FK Com. The emission intensity and profile are variable over the rotation period, with the strongest emission present at photometric minimum, in accord with dark starspot models. The photospheric absorption line profiles show variable asymmetries and distortions which are interpreted as due to the effects of the dark starspot rotating across the line of sight. New radial velocity measures are combined with published data to demonstrate the UZ Lib is a member of a binary system in synchronous rotation with a secondary of mass approximately 0.5 solar masses. This information is considered in light of the conflicting models for the origin of the optical and spectral variability of the FK Com stars, as well as their uncertain evolutionary status.

  1. A Catalog of Kepler Habitable Zone Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Hill, Michelle L.; Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Ciardi, David R.; Haghighipour, Nader; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Franck; Torres, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Kepler mission ha s discovered thousands of new planetary candidates, many of which have been confirmed through follow-up observations. A primary goal of the mission is to determine the occurrence rate of terrestrial-size planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their host stars. Here we provide a list of HZ exoplanet candidates from the Kepler Q1–Q17 Data Release 24 data-vetting process. This work was undertaken as part of the Kepler HZ Working Group. We use a variety of criteria regarding HZ boundaries and planetary sizes to produce complete lists of HZ candidates, including a catalog of 104 candidates within the optimistic HZ and 20 candidates with radii less than two Earth radii within the conservative HZ. We cross-match our HZ candidates with the stellar properties and confirmed planet properties from Data Release 25 to provide robust stellar parameters and candidate dispositions. We also include false-positive probabilities recently calculated by Morton et al. for each of the candidates within our catalogs to aid in their validation. Finally, we performed dynamical analysis simulations for multi-planet systems that contain candidates with radii less than two Earth radii as a step toward validation of those systems.

  2. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  3. Characterization for Fusion Candidate Vanadium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Muroga; T. Nagasaka; J. M. Chen; Z. Y. Xu; Q. Y. Huang; y. C. Wu

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent achievements in the characterization of candidate vanadium alloys obtained for fusion in the framework of the Japan-China Core University Program.National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has a program of fabricating high-purity V-4Cr4Ti alloys. The resulting products (NIFS-HEAT-1,2), were characterized by various research groups in the world including Chinese partners. South Western Institute of Physics (SWIP) fabricated a new V-4Cr-4Ti alloy (SWIP-Heat), and carried out a comparative evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heat. The tensile test of hydrogen-doped alloys showed that the NIFS-HEAT maintained the ductility to relatively high hydrogen levels.The comparison of the data with those of previous studies suggested that the reduced oxygen level in the NIFS-HEATs should be responsible for the increased resistance to hydrogen embrittlement.Based on the chemical analysis data of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heats, neutron-induced activation was analyzed in Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP-CAS) as a function of cooling time after the use in the fusion first wall. The results showed that the low level of Co dominates the activity up to 50 years followed by a domination of Nb or Nb and Al in the respective alloys. It was suggested that reduction of Co and Nb, both of which are thought to have been introduced via cross-contamination into the alloys from the molds used should be crucial for reducing further the activation.

  4. [Prophylactic use of prostatilen in rats prior to exposure to +Gz loads as a way of reducing changes in urogenital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V S; Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Gorbachev, A G; Tiurin, A G; Amdiĭ, R E; Iastrebov, D V

    1997-01-01

    Experimental verification of prostatilen prophylactics of changes in the urogenital organs consequent to g-loads was the idea of the work. The experiment was performed with 37 mongrel white male rats weighing 200-250 g who were exposed to the head-pelvis g-loads (+Gl) at 10 units. Behavior reactions of the rats were assessed with the "open field" technique immediately after centrifugation; weighing coefficients of the urogenital organs (the organ/body mass relation) were determined, and histological and morphometric analyses of prostate, testis and kidney were made. A significant moderating effect of prophylactic prostatilen on the stress-reactions in animals was first revealed; prostatilen was also found to speed up adaptation. This was concluded from normalization of the hemodynamics, a decrease in venous plethora and epithelial dystrophy, absence of basophilia in conjunctive tissue of the urogenital organs. Distention and overfilling of acini by secret and the number of epithelial acinus hulled into the lumen were markedly less in prostate. Spermatogenesis in testis was normalized, too. The histological profile of kidney approached the norm. Results of the experiment showed that prostatilen is a promising preparation from the standpoint of moderation of stress-reactions and counteraction of disorders in the urogenital organs caused by g-loads.

  5. Profilaxis con drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas Prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic drugs in neurological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Sposato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso profiláctico de drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas como el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico y hemorrágico, la hemorragia subaracnoidea, el traumatismo de cráneo y los tumores cerebrales ha sido motivo de controversia durante muchos años. Estas drogas son indicadas con el fin de disminuir el daño neurológico secundario a las crisis epilépticas. Sin embargo, la escasa evidencia científica disponible para avalar esta hipótesis, las potenciales interacciones farmacológicas, los efectos adversos y algunos informes sobre neurotoxicidad generan dudas en cuanto a esta conducta terapéutica. En esta revisión, analizamos la evidencia acerca del uso profiláctico de drogas epilépticas en las enfermedades neurológicas arriba mencionadas.Prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs in neurological conditions such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, head injury, and brain tumors has been matter of debate for many years. These drugs are used for reducing secondary neurological damage caused by epileptic seizures. However, the evidence supporting this indication is scarce. Potential drug interactions, side effects, and even neurotoxicity related to these drugs have raised concern about this therapeutic approach. In this review, we examine the evidence on the prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs in the neurological disorders above mentioned.

  6. Prophylactic antibody treatment and intramuscular immunization reduce infectious human rhinovirus 16 load in the lower respiratory tract of challenged cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C.G. Blanco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRV represent the single most important etiological agents of the common cold and are the most frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in humans. Currently the performance of available animal models for immunization studies using HRV challenge is very limited. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus is a well-recognized model for the study of human respiratory viral infections. In this work we show that, without requiring any genetic modification of either the host or the virus, intranasal infection of cotton rats with HRV16 resulted in measurable isolation of infective virus, lower respiratory tract pathology, mucus production, and expression of interferon-activated genes. Intramuscular immunization with live HRV16 generated robust protective immunity that correlated with high serum levels of neutralizing antibodies. In addition, cotton rats treated prophylactically with hyperimmune anti-HRV16 serum were protected against HRV16 intranasal challenge. Finally, protection by immunization was efficiently transferred from mothers to newborn animals resulting in a substantial reduction of infectious virus loads in the lung following intranasal challenge. Overall, our results demonstrate that the cotton rat provides valuable additional model development options for testing vaccines and prophylactic therapies against rhinovirus infection.

  7. Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishira Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

  8. Nutritional components and prophylactic values of tartary buckwheat%苦荞麦营养成分和保健功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂薇; 李再贵

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat is introduced into the diet as an alternative crop and raw material for func-tional food due to its excellent nutritive and prophylactic values.It is a rich source of high -quality pro-teins,dietary fibre,vitamins and polyphenols,and the content of rutin in flowers is over 8%.This article has reviewed overseas and domestic research status of tartary buckwheat in the aspect of its nutritional components and prophylactic values,and some rational development strategies were provided based on the current situation and existing problems in tartary buckwheat processing industry.%苦荞麦具有卓越的保健价值和食疗功效,是一种重要的粮食替代作物和功能性食品原料。苦荞麦富含高生物价的蛋白质和丰富的膳食纤维、维生素以及多酚等营养成分,其花序中芦丁含量可高达8%以上。总结了国内外对苦荞营养保健功能成分与作用的研究成果,并针对我国苦荞加工业的现状与存在问题,提出了发展思路。

  9. Antioxidant and Prophylactic Effects of Delonix elata L., Stem Bark Extracts, and Flavonoid Isolated Quercetin against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata L. (Ceasalpinaceae, is widely used by the traditional medical practitioners of Karnataka, India, to cure jaundice, and bronchial and rheumatic problems. The objective of this study was to screen the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Among different stem bark extracts tested, the ethanol extract (DSE has shown significant in vitro antioxidant property in radicals scavenging, metal chelating, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. HPLC analysis of the DSE revealed the presence of known antioxidant molecules, namely, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin, and rutin. Bioassay-guided fractionation of DSE has resulted in the isolation and characterization of quercetin. DSE and quercetin have shown significant prophylactic effects by restoring the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, serum bilirubin, and total protein and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST. These results were proved to be hepatoprotective at par with silymarin and well supported by the histological observations of liver sections with distinct hepatic cells, and mild degree of fatty change and necrosis. The results indicated that the DSE and quercetin were significant for prophylactic activity against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. This activity could be attributed to the antioxidant constituents in the DSE and hence justified the ethnomedicinal claims.

  10. The enhanced healing of a high-risk, clean, sutured surgical incision by prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy as delivered by Prevena™ Customizable™: cosmetic and therapeutic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Calamita, Roberto; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Pierangeli, Marina; Grassetti, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    According to the literature, incisional closure complications may range from postoperative surgical site infections, representing 17-22% of health care-associated infections, surgical wound dehiscence and formation of haematomas or seromas, and can lead to delayed or impaired incision healing. These kinds of situations are more common when wounds are closed under tension or in specific patient morbidities. Obesity, in particular, is associated with an impaired blood flow to tissues, predisposing the patient to increased risk of wound complications by various mechanisms. Incisional complications can become relevant economic burdens for health care systems because of an increase in the average length of hospital stay and readmissions, and additional medical and surgical procedures. Thus, a preventive therapy may have a critical role in the management of healing. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) technology as delivered by Prevena™ Customizable™ (Kinetic Concepts Inc., San Antonio, TX) has recently been the focus of a new investigation, as a prophylactic measure to prevent complications via immediate postoperative application in high-risk, clean, closed surgical incisions. The authors present a 62-year-old class II obese female, who underwent bilateral inguinal dermolipectomy. Prophylactic NPWT as delivered by Prevena™ was performed successfully over surgical incisions. Cosmetic and therapeutic results are shown.

  11. The Effect of a Prophylactic Dose of Ibuprofen on Plasma Level of Interleukin 1, Interleukin 6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in a 1500 m Running Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sepehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: there are controversies about the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on exercised induced changes on plasma cytokines in untrained male athletes, so the primary purpose of this study was to measure the influence of a prophylactic dose of ibuprofen use on plasma cytokines during a 1500 m running race. Approach: Subjects were 10 untrained male Medical University students who consumed 400 mg ibuprofen two hours before the 1500 m running practice and 10 controls that competed in the race but avoided ibuprofen and all other medications. Blood samples were collected before, 1h and 24 h following the 1500 m exercise bout to measure plasma concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β , interleukin-6(IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α . Results: There were not any significant differences between plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF- α during the study period. Also the data showed that there were not any significant differences between plasma level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF- α in ibuprofen and control group during the study period. Conclusions/Recommendation: Our result showed that a prophylactic dose of ibuprofen did not affect acute inflammatory cytokines levels (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF- α in untrained healthy young males. So the etiology of the muscle soreness in athletes actively participating in sport races seems to be independent of inflammatory processes.

  12. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could improve overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Tsinghua University, Medical Center Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Jinyu; Hu, Yi; Lin, Zhi; Jiao, Shunchang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yibao [Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing (China); Zhao, Zhifei [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival (OS) in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer (ESCLC). Between April 2005 and May 2014, 204 patients with ESCLC who had any response (according to RECIST 1.1) to initial chemotherapy were reviewed. All patients had undergone appropriate imaging tests to exclude brain metastases before initial chemotherapy. PCI was performed on 45 patients (22.1 %) and the remaining patients (77.9 %) received no such treatment (control group). Primary endpoint was OS. The incidence of brain metastases, brain metastases-free survival (BMFS), and adverse effects were also evaluated. Survival data of the 204 patients were analyzed statistically. PCI significantly prolonged median OS from 12.6 to 16.5 months as compared to the control group (hazard ratio, HR, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.41 to 0.96; p = 0.033). PCI significantly lowered the risk of brain metastases (HR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.30 to 0.76; p = 0.001). The 1-year incidence of brain metastases was 17.1 and 55.9 % in the PCI and control group, respectively. PCI significantly correlated with the increased median BMFS (p = 0.002). Additionally, multivariate analyses demonstrated that PCI was a favorable independent predictor of OS, BMFS, and the incidence of brain metastases. Acute and chronic adverse effects were generally low grade and well tolerated in patients receiving PCI. PCI after any response to initial chemotherapy significantly improved OS of ESCLC patients analyzed in this study. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung des Effekts der prophylaktischen kranialen Bestrahlung (PCI) auf das Gesamtueberleben (OS) bei Patienten mit ausgedehntem kleinzelligem Lungenkarzinom (ESCLC). Zwischen April 2005 und Mai 2014 wurden 204 Patienten mit ESCLC nach Ansprechen auf eine initiale Chemotherapie (gemaess RECIST 1.1) untersucht. Vor der Chemotherapie wurden bei allen Patienten Untersuchungen mit entsprechenden Bildgebungsverfahren

  13. Primary-Grade Teacher Candidates' Views on Museum Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ayse Mentis

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the primary-grade teacher candidates' views on museum education. The research is a descriptive research that used survey model. The study group is made up of 209 primary-grade teacher candidates who were seniors in the Primary-Grade Teaching Program. They were all attending Konya University's Faculty of Education. A survey…

  14. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  15. Chemical Literacy Levels of Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Turkish science and mathematics teacher candidates' levels of attainment in chemical literacy. These candidates had all studied the new Turkish chemistry curriculum in high school. The sample of the study consisted of 112 students, who were first-year students in the Department of Secondary Science…

  16. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.;

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets...

  17. 11 CFR 106.1 - Allocation of expenses between candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... broadcast communication, the attribution shall be determined by the proportion of space or time devoted to... non-Federal candidates, and that is made by a political committee with separate Federal and non...) An authorized expenditure made by a candidate or political committee on behalf of another...

  18. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  19. Preparing Preservice Teacher Candidates to Differentiate Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Bianca R.

    2013-01-01

    This action research study focused on how various grouping strategies influenced preservice teachers' differentiation of instruction. The participants included a third grade mentor teacher and three preservice teacher candidates. The candidate preparation curriculum consisted of seminars, daily field-based learning experiences, and ongoing…

  20. 11 CFR 100.152 - Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates... U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.152 Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates. (a... the solicitation of contributions means any cost reasonably related to fundraising activity,...

  1. Opinions of Counselor Candidates Regarding Counseling Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Mine; Yaka, Baris; Koç, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of the quality of counseling skills training and counselor education through the medium of understanding the opinions of counselor candidates regarding counseling skills training. The research group consisted of 67 counselor candidates who voluntarily participated in the study. The research…

  2. Writing Instruction for Teacher Candidates: Strengthening a Weak Curricular Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Dana L.; Wolsey, Thomas Devere

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, two teacher educators in literacy examined teacher candidates' (N = 24) learning of writing instruction across a three-course sequence of literacy methods. Data collected included a survey of candidates' knowledge of writing instruction, their formal observations of writing lessons in their student-teaching placements, a…

  3. Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Tice, Kathleen; Collins, Denise; Brown, Amber; Smith, Cleta; Fox, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates…

  4. Fostering the Development of Chemistry Teacher Candidates: A Bioecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2012-01-01

    This ongoing research inquiry investigates through the analysis of teacher candidate experiences the factors influencing two groups of chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in their second and final year of an after-degree bachelor of education at a university in central Canada. The tenets of Bronfenbrenner's…

  5. DAZLA: an important candidate gene in male subfertility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, R.J.T. van; Tuerlings, J.H.A.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Schoute, F.; Hoefsloot, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the role of the autosomal candidate gene DAZLA (Deleted in AZoospermia Like Autosome) in male subfertility. METHODS: We reviewed clinical data of subfertile men with oligozoospermia or azoospermia, mostly candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Mutation detection wa

  6. Facebook Connection Styles among Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogdu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Facebook connection styles of physical education (PE) teacher candidates. The participants were composed of 626 (age = 21.21 ± 2.024) physical education teacher candidates from the departments of Physical Education and Sports. They teach in five different universities. It was done in 2014-2015 academic…

  7. Developing Benchmarks to Measure Teacher Candidates' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Laura Corbin; Brown-Hobbs, Stacy; Palmer, Barbara Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces the development of teacher candidate benchmarks at one liberal arts institution. Begun as a classroom assessment activity over ten years ago, the benchmarks, through collaboration with professional development school partners, now serve as a primary measure of teacher candidates' performance in the final phases of the…

  8. Sensitive radio survey of obscured quasar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars in samples at both low (z ˜ 0.5) and high (z ˜ 2.5) redshift to understand the role of radio activity in accretion, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 6.0 GHz and 1.4 GHz. Our z ˜ 2.5 sample consists of optically selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of νLν[1.4 GHz] ≲ 1040 erg s-1. Only a single source is individually detected in our deep (rms˜10 μJy) exposures. This population would not be identified by radio-based selection methods used for distinguishing dusty star-forming galaxies and obscured active nuclei. In our pilot A-array study of z ˜ 0.5 radio-quiet quasars, we spatially resolve four of five objects on scales ˜5 kpc and find they have steep spectral indices with an average value of α = -0.75. Therefore, radio emission in these sources could be due to jet-driven or radiatively driven bubbles interacting with interstellar material on the scale of the host galaxy. Finally, we also study the additional population of ˜200 faint ( ˜ 40 μJy-40 mJy) field radio sources observed over ˜120 arcmin2 of our data. 60 per cent of these detections (excluding our original targets) are matched in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and are, in roughly equal shares, active galactic nuclei (AGN) at a broad range of redshifts, passive galaxies with no other signs of nuclear activity and infrared-bright but optically faint sources. Spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed star-forming galaxies constitute only a small minority of the matches. Such sensitive radio surveys allow us to address important questions of AGN evolution and evaluate the AGN contribution to the radio-quiet sky.

  9. Predictive Factors for Prophylactic Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) Tube Placement and Use in Head and Neck Patients Following Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Treatment: Concordance, Discrepancies, and the Role of Gabapentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuyang; McNutt, Todd R; Dudley, Sara A; Kumar, Rachit; Starmer, Heather M; Gourin, Christine G; Moore, Joseph A; Evans, Kimberly; Allen, Mysha; Agrawal, Nishant; Richmon, Jeremy D; Chung, Christine H; Quon, Harry

    2016-04-01

    The prophylactic placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in the head and neck cancer (HNC) patient is controversial. We sought to identify factors associated with prophylactic PEG placement and actual PEG use. Since 2010, data regarding PEG placement and use were prospectively recorded in a departmental database from January 2010 to December 2012. HNC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were retrospectively evaluated from 2010 to 2012. Variables potentially associated with patient post-radiation dysphagia from previous literature, and our experience was evaluated. We performed multivariate logistic regression on these variables with PEG placement and PEG use, respectively, to compare the difference of association between the two arms. We identified 192 HNC patients treated with IMRT. Prophylactic PEG placement occurred in 121 (63.0 %) patients, with PEG use in 97 (80.2 %) patients. PEG placement was associated with male gender (p < .01), N stage ≥ N2 (p < .05), pretreatment swallowing difficulties (p < .01), concurrent chemotherapy (p < .01), pretreatment KPS ≥80 (p = .01), and previous surgery (p = .02). Concurrent chemotherapy (p = .03) was positively associated with the use of PEG feeding by the patient, whereas pretreatment KPS ≥80 (p = .03) and prophylactic gabapentin use (p < .01) were negatively associated with PEG use. The analysis suggests there were discrepancies between prophylactic PEG tube placement and actual use. Favorable pretreatment KPS, no pretreatment dysphagia, no concurrent chemotherapy, and the use of gabapentin were significantly associated with reduced PEG use. This analysis may help refine the indications for prophylactic PEG placement.

  10. Almost All of Kepler's Multiple Planet Candidates are Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Lissauer, Jack J; Rowe, Jason F; Bryson, Stephen T; Adams, Elisabeth; Buchhave, Lars A; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Gilliland, Ronald L; Holman, Matthew J; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G; Morehead, Robert C; Ragozzine, Darin; Seader, Shawn E; Tanenbaum, Peter G; Torres, Guillermo; Twicken, Joseph D

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically-associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly-distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (a) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significa...

  11. PEACE: Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction -- A software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K J; Jenet, F A; Martinez, J; Dartez, L P; Mata, A; Lunsford, G; Cohen, S; Biwer, C M; Rohr, M; Flanigan, J; Walker, A; Banaszak, S; Allen, B; Barr, E D; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Desvignes, G; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P; Hessels, J W T; Karuppusamy, R; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Lyne, A; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, S; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Spitler, L; Stairs, I; Tan, M; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2013-01-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labor intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called PEACE (Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command enter programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68% of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17% of sorted candidates, 95% ...

  12. A meta-analysis for the effect of prophylactic GTN on the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis and on the successful rate of cannulation of bile ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chun-hui

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN has been shown to be able to relax the sphincter of Oddi (SO both in animals and humans. Theoretically, the use of these compounds during and after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatgraphy (ERCP could relax the biliary and pancreatic sphincters, facilitating cannulation of common bile duct (CBD during the procedure, or minimizing potential pancreatic outflow obstruction after the procedure. However, clinical trials evaluating the protective effect of GTN on the post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatgraphy pancreatitis (PEP have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis is to systematically assess the effect of prophylactic administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN on the prevention of PEP and the effect on the cannulation of bile ducts. Methods By searching PubMed (1966 to September 2009, CENTRAL (Cochrane Controlled trials Register; issue 3, 2009 and EMBASE.com (1984 to September 2009, two independent reviewers systematically identified prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs detecting the effect of prophylactic GTN on the incidence of PEP and on the cannulation of bile ducts. A meta-analysis of these clinical trials was then performed. Results There are 55/899(6.1% patients suffering PEP in the treatment group versus 95/915(10.4% patients in the placebo group. The overall pooled risk of PEP was significantly lower in the GTN group than in the placebo group (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.79, p = 0.001. Subgroup analyses suggested that GTN administered by the sublingual form (OR 0.34,95% CI:0.16 to 0.75, p = 0.007 is more effective than transdermal route(OR 0.64,95% CI:0.40 to 1.01, p = 0.05, and the protective effect of GTN was far more obvious in the centers with high incidence of PEP (OR 0.40, 95% CI:0.24 to 0.67, p = 0.0006 than those centers with a low incidence of PEP (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.47 to 1.20, p = 0.22. Additionally, the meta-analysis suggests that GTN was not

  13. Acute Urinary Morbidity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer with Prophylactic Alpha-Adrenergic Antagonist and Urethral Dose Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Repka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT delivers high doses of radiation to the prostate while minimizing radiation to adjacent critical organs. Large fraction sizes may increase urinary morbidity due to unavoidable treatment of the prostatic urethra. This study reports rates of acute urinary morbidity following SBRT for localized prostate cancer with prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist utilization and urethral dose reduction (UDR.Methods: From April 2013 to September 2014, 102 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with robotic SBRT to a total dose of 35-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. UDR was employed to limit the maximum point dose of the prostatic urethra to 40 Gy. Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated five days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary symptoms. Quality of life (QoL was assessed before and after treatment using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26. Clinical significance was assessed using a minimally important difference (MID of one half standard deviation change from baseline.Results: 102 patients underwent definitive prostate SBRT with UDR and were followed for 3 months. No patient experienced acute urinary retention requiring catheterization. A mean baseline AUA symptom score of 9.06 significantly increased to 11.83 one-week post-SBRT (p = 0.0024 and 11.84 one-month post-SBRT (p = 0.0023 but returned to baseline by 3 months. A mean baseline EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score of 87.7 decreased to 74.1 one-week post-SBRT (p < 0.0001 and 77.8 one-month post-SBRT (p < 0.0001 but returned to baseline at 3 months. EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score changes were clinically significant, exceeding the MID of 6.0. At baseline, 8.9% of men described their urinary function as a moderate to big problem, and that proportion increased to 37.6% one week following completion of SBRT

  14. A Catalog of Kepler Habitable Zone Exoplanet Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R; Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Quintana, Elisa V; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Ciardi, David R; Haghighipour, Nader; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Franck; Torres, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Kepler mission has discovered thousands of new planetary candidates, many of which have been confirmed through follow-up observations. A primary goal of the mission is to determine the occurrance rate of terrestrial-size planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their host stars. Here we provide a list of HZ exoplanet candidates from the Kepler Data Release 24 Q1-Q17 data vetting process. This work was undertaken as part of the Kepler Habitable Zone Working Group. We use a variety of criteria regarding HZ boundaries and planetary sizes to produce complete lists of HZ candidates, including a catalog of 104 candidates within the optimistic HZ and 20 candidates with radii less than two Earth radii within the conservative HZ. We cross-match our HZ candidates with the Data Release 25 stellar properties and confirmed planet properties to provide robust stellar parameters and candidate dispositions. We also include false positive probabilities recently calculated by Morton et al. (2016) for each of the cand...

  15. Pathogenic Network Analysis Predicts Candidate Genes for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to predicate candidate genes in cervical cancer (CC using a network-based strategy and to understand the pathogenic process of CC. Methods. A pathogenic network of CC was extracted based on known pathogenic genes (seed genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs between CC and normal controls. Subsequently, cluster analysis was performed to identify the subnetworks in the pathogenic network using ClusterONE. Each gene in the pathogenic network was assigned a weight value, and then candidate genes were obtained based on the weight distribution. Eventually, pathway enrichment analysis for candidate genes was performed. Results. In this work, a total of 330 DEGs were identified between CC and normal controls. From the pathogenic network, 2 intensely connected clusters were extracted, and a total of 52 candidate genes were detected under the weight values greater than 0.10. Among these candidate genes, VIM had the highest weight value. Moreover, candidate genes MMP1, CDC45, and CAT were, respectively, enriched in pathway in cancer, cell cycle, and methane metabolism. Conclusion. Candidate pathogenic genes including MMP1, CDC45, CAT, and VIM might be involved in the pathogenesis of CC. We believe that our results can provide theoretical guidelines for future clinical application.

  16. 预防性人乳头瘤病毒疫苗的应用进展%Advances on application of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奕; 许国章

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the tumor leading to the second highest mortality of global women.Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely related to cervical cancer.Prophylactic HPV vaccine is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer,and has been gradually adopted.The mechanism,safety and efficacy of HPV vaccination are reviewed in this paper.%宫颈癌是导致全球妇女病死率排名第2位的肿瘤,高危型人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)持续感染与妇女宫颈癌密切相关,预防性HPV疫苗是预防宫颈癌的有效方法,并逐步开展应用.此文对HPV疫苗的作用机制和临床应用的安全性及有效性等进行综述.

  17. 预防性治疗季节性变应性鼻炎临床研究%Clinical study of prophylactic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 刘巧平; 刘建华; 闫占峰; 周蕾; 矫璐璐; 巩政; 耿燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察预防性治疗季节性变应性鼻炎(AR)的疗效。方法选择变应原为蒿属花粉的中-重度持续性 AR 患者60例,随机分为预防性治疗组(以下简称治疗组)及对照组各30例,治疗组在花粉季开始前2周口服中药进行预防性治疗,对照组不予干预。花粉季开始后,2组患者均口服中药治疗6周。随访观察并记录2组患者流涕、鼻痒、喷嚏、鼻塞、眼痒症状评分及鼻部体征,并定期采用鼻结膜炎相关生活质量问卷评价 AR 对生活质量的影响。结果在花粉季高峰时治疗组流涕、鼻痒、鼻塞症状评分及 RQLQ 评分均轻于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.01)。整个花粉季期间,治疗组眼痒症状轻于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.01);治疗组鼻部体征总体程度轻于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论花粉季前2周预防性治疗秋季蒿属花粉过敏的 AR 患者,可有效缓解患者临床症状,提高生活质量。%Objective To investigate the effect of prophylactic treatment on seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR).Methods 60 patients with moderate-severe persistent allergic rhinitis based on mugwort allergen were randomly divided into two groups,with 30 cases each in prophylactic group and control group re-spectively.Patients in prophylactic group were treated with traditional Chinese medicine 2 weeks before pollen season,and control group was given no treatment.At the beginning of pollen season,two groups accepted traditional Chinese medicine for 6 weeks.The symptom score of nose and eye was recorded by using a visual analogue scale.The quality of life was evaluated by rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life ques-tionnaire (RQLQ)periodically.Results In the peak pollen season,the symptom scores of nasal con-gestion,nasal itching,eye itching and nasal signs were significantly lower in the prophylactic group than those in the

  18. Multi-regional local anesthetic infiltration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients receiving prophylactic multi-modal analgesia: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Klarskov, B; Kristiansen, V B;

    1999-01-01

    Pain is the dominant complaint after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No study has examined the combined effects of a somato-visceral blockade during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a somato-visceral local anesthetic blockade on pain and nausea in patients...... undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In addition, all patients received multi-modal prophylactic analgesic treatment. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to receive a total of 286 mg (66 mL) ropivacaine or 66 mL saline via periportal and intraperitoneal infiltration. During the first 3...... postoperative h, the use of morphine and antiemetics was registered, and pain and nausea were rated hourly. Daily pain intensity, pain localization, and supplemental analgesic consumption were registered the first postoperative week. Ropivacaine reduced overall pain the first two hours and incisional pain...

  19. The use of a T-shaped contoured unilocking titanium radial plate for prophylactic internal fixation of the radial osteocutaneous donor site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, C M E; Parmar, S; Martin, Tim

    2010-12-01

    The radial osteocutaneous flap retains a limited role in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery The application of prophylactic internal fixation, using straight 3.5 mm plates, has become established to substantially reduce the incidence of fracture at the radial donor site. New lower profile T-shaped 2.4 mm plates and anatomically contoured 3.5 mm plates are now available, both with unilocking screw fixation systems. These plates are easy to apply and allow the removal of up to 50% of the circumference of the radial bone, including the maximum amount of good quality bone from the distal radius. Although there have been no reports of complications as a result of a stress shielding effect with larger plates these refinements in plate design should lessen any remaining concerns.

  20. Planet Hunters VI: The First Kepler Seven Planet Candidate System and 13 Other Planet Candidates from the Kepler Archival Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Joseph R; Fischer, Debra A; Jek, Kian J; Moriarty, John C; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Schwamb, Megan E; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert; Omohundro, Mark; Winarski, Troy; Goodman, Samuel J; Jebson, Tony; Lacourse, Daryll

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of 14 new transiting planet candidates in the Kepler field from the Planet Hunters citizen science program. None of these candidates overlap with Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), and five of the candidates were missed by the Kepler Transit Planet Search (TPS) algorithm. The new candidates have periods ranging from 124-904 days, eight residing in their host star's habitable zone (HZ) and two (now) in multiple planet systems. We report the discovery of one more addition to the six planet candidate system around KOI-351, marking the first seven planet candidate system from Kepler. Additionally, KOI-351 bears some resemblance to our own solar system, with the inner five planets ranging from Earth to mini-Neptune radii and the outer planets being gas giants; however, this system is very compact, with all seven planet candidates orbiting $\\lesssim 1$ AU from their host star. We perform a numerical integration of the orbits and show that the system remains stable for over 100 million years....

  1. Self-reported preparation of Polish midwives for independent performance of prophylactic activities within the scope of women’s diseases and obstetric pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The objective of the study is an attempt to recognize self-reported preparation of midwives for an independent performance of prophylactic activities within the scope of women’s diseases and obstetric pathologies. material and methods. The study was conducted in a representative all-Polish population sample of 3,569 midwives, by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire technique. The research instrument was a questionnaire form designed by the author containing items concerning the characteristics of respondents and the object of the study, constructed based on the 5-point Liker scale. The relationships between the variables were verified using chi-square test (χ [sup]2[/sup] of independence. The p values p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. results. Analysis of results allows the presumption that in the opinions of midwives the majority of them are prepared for the independent performance of prophylactic activities in the area of women’s diseases (84.28% and obstetric pathologies (77.95%. However, nearly every tenth midwife, irrespective of the region of Poland where she lives, age, and participation in post-graduate training, is not prepared for an independent performance of the prevention of women’s diseases. In turn, the lack of preparation for carrying out prevention of women’s diseases was admitted mainly by midwives from the northern and central regions of Poland, aged 31–40, possessing post-secondary school education, who did not participate in any form of post-graduate training. conclusions. The results of studies and analysis of the relevant literature indicate that it is necessary for midwives to improve their qualifications in the area of prophylaxis of women’s diseases and obstetric pathologies through participation in various forms of post-graduate education

  2. Prophylactic and therapeutic intranasal administration with an immunomodulator, Hiltonol(®) (Poly IC:LC), in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Salazar, Andres M; Wandersee, Miles K; Barnard, Dale L

    2017-03-01

    Hiltonol(®), (Poly IC:LC), a potent immunomodulator, is a synthetic, double-stranded polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly IC) stabilized with Poly-L-lysine and carboxymethyl cellulose (LC). Hiltonol(®) was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. Hiltonol(®) at 5, 1, 0.5 or 0.25 mg/kg/day by intranasal (i.n.) route resulted in significant survival benefit when administered at selected times 24 h prior to challenge with a lethal dose of mouse-adapted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The infected BALB/c mice receiving the Hiltonol(®) treatments were also significantly effective in protecting mice against weight loss due to infection (p < 0.001). Groups of 20 mice were dosed with Hiltonol(®) at 2.5 or 0.75 mg/kg by intranasal instillation 7, 14, and 21 days before virus exposure and a second dose was given 24 h later, prophylactic Hiltonol(®) treatments (2.5 mg/kg/day) were completely protective in preventing death, and in causing significant reduction in lung hemorrhage scores, lung weights and lung virus titers. Hiltonol(®) was also effective as a therapeutic when give up to 8 h post virus exposure; 100% of the-infected mice were protected against death when Hiltonol(®) was administered at 5 mg/kg/day 8 h after infection. Our data suggest that Hiltonol(®) treatment of SARS-CoV infection in mice leads to substantial prophylactic and therapeutic effects and could be used for treatment of other virus disease such as those caused by MERS-CoV a related coronavirus. These properties might be therapeutically advantageous if Hiltonol(®) is considered for possible clinical use.

  3. Adjuvant Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide (DC with prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF on days 8 &12 in breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Yerushalmi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Four cycles of docetaxel/cyclophosphamide (DC resulted in superior survival than doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide in the treatment of early breast cancer. The original study reported a 5% incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN recommending prophylactic antibiotics with no granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF support. The worldwide adoption of this protocol yielded several reports on substantially higher rates of FN events. We explored the use of growth factor (GF support on days 8 and 12 of the cycle with the original DC protocol. METHODS: Our study included all consecutive patients with stages I-II breast cancer who were treated with the DC protocol at the Institute of Oncology, Davidoff Center (Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel from April, 2007 to March, 2012. Patient, tumor characteristics, and toxicity were reported. RESULTS: In total, 123 patients received the DC regimen. Median age was 60 years, (range, 25-81 years. Thirty-three patients (26.8% were aged 65 years and older. Most of the women (87% adhered to the planned G-CSF protocol (days 8 &12. 96% of the patients completed the 4 planned cycles of chemotherapy. Six patients (5% had dose reductions, 6 (5% had treatment delays due to non-medical reasons. Thirteen patients (10.6% experienced at least one event of FN (3 patients had 2 events, all requiring hospitalization. Eight patients (6.5% required additional support with G-CSF after the first chemotherapy cycle, 7 because of FN and one due to neutropenia and diarrhea. IN CONCLUSION: Primary prophylactic G-CSF support on days 8 and 12 of the cycle provides a tolerable option to deliver the DC protocol. Our results are in line with other retrospective protocols using longer schedules of GF support.

  4. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  5. Prophylactic use of gabapentin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Succinylcholine is used for rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia. Fasciculations and myalgia are adverse effects. The pretreatment modalities prevent or minimize its adverse effects. Aims: The present study is designed to evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin on the incidence of fasciculation and succinylcholine-induced myalgia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner. Materials and Methods: Patients of both genders undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in Group I (Gabapentin group received 600 mg of gabapentin orally 2 h prior to surgery and patients in Group II (placebo group received matching placebo. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 3 μg/kg, thiopentone 3-5 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. All patients were observed and graded for fasciculations by a blinded observer and patients were intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen in air, sevoflurane and intermittent vecuronium bromide. After completion of surgery, neuromuscular blockade was reversed. A blinded observer recorded myalgia grade at 24 h. Patients were provided patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. Statistical analysis: Demographic data, fasciculation grade, fentanyl consumption, and myalgia grade were compared using student t test and test of proportions. Results: The study included 76 American Society of Anesthesiologists′ Grade I or II patients of either gender undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But only 70 patients completed the study. Results demonstrated that the prophylactic use of gabapentin significantly decreases the incidence and the severity of myalgia (20/35 vs. 11/35 (P<0.05 and decreases fentanyl consumption significantly in the study group (620+164 μg vs. 989+238 μg (P<0.05 without any effects on the incidence and severity of fasciculations

  6. Lipoic acid and haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements: Implications for prophylactic antioxidant use in tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Joshua; Andreazza, Ana C; Navaid, Bushra; Wilson, Virginia S; Teo, Celine; Nesarajah, Yasika; Wilson, Alan A; Nobrega, José N; Fletcher, Paul J; Remington, Gary

    2017-01-04

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible antipsychotic (AP)-related movement disorder, is a risk with all currently available antipsychotics. AP-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats, a preclinical model of TD, can be attenuated by antioxidant-based treatments although there is a shortage of well-designed studies. Lipoic acid (LA) represents a candidate antioxidant for the treatment of oxidative stress-related nervous system disorders; accordingly, its effects on AP-induced VCMs and striatal oxidative stress were examined. Rats treated with haloperidol decanoate (HAL; 21mg/kg every 3weeks, IM) for 12weeks were concurrently treated with LA (10 or 20mg/kg, PO). VCMs were assessed weekly by a blinded rater, and locomotor activity was evaluated as were striatal lipid peroxidation markers and serum HAL levels. VCMs were decreased by the lower dose (nonsignificant), whereas a significant increase was recorded with the higher dose of LA. HAL decreased locomotor activity and this was unaffected by LA. Striatal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in HAL-treated rats were reduced by both LA doses, while 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels were predictive of final VCM scores (averaged across weeks 10-12). Study limitations include differences between antipsychotics in terms of oxidative stress, LA dosing, choice of biomarkers for lipid peroxidation, and generalizability to TD in humans. Collectively, current preclinical evidence does not support a "protective" role for antioxidants in preventing TD or its progression, although clinical evidence offers limited evidence supporting such an approach.

  7. Campaigning on the Internet: 2008 Presidential General Election Candidate Webpage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is becoming an increasingly important component of political campaigns. This study employed content analysis to apply Functional Theory and Issue Ownership Theory to Obama’s and McCain’s presidential candidate webpages in the 2008 campaign. Acclaims (92% were more common than attacks (98%; defenses did not occur in this sample. Policy (82% was addressed more than character (18%. When discussing policy, these candidates addressed future plans most frequently, followed by general goals and then past deeds; on character, candidates discussed ideals, then personal qualities, and then leadership ability. This study shows that as candidates use the Internet to reach voters, their webpages conform to theoretical expectations.

  8. Spectroscopy of candidate electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, Iain A; Piascik, Andrzej S

    2016-01-01

    A programme of worldwide, multi-wavelength electromagnetic follow-up of sources detected by gravitational wave detectors is in place. Following the discovery of GW150914 and GW151226, wide field imaging of their sky localisations identified a number of candidate optical counterparts which were then spectrally classified. The majority of candidates were found to be supernovae at redshift ranges similar to the GW events and were thereby ruled out as a genuine counterpart. Other candidates ruled out include AGN and solar system objects. Given the GW sources were black hole binary mergers, the lack of an identified electromagnetic counterpart is not surprising. However the observations show that is it is possible to organise and execute a campaign that can eliminate the majority of potential counterparts. Finally we note the existence of a "classification gap" with a significant fraction of candidates going unclassified.

  9. 11 CFR 100.148 - Volunteer activity for candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., magazines, billboards, direct mail or similar types of general public communication or political advertising... developed by the candidate. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subparts D and E for...

  10. 11 CFR 100.88 - Volunteer activity for candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., billboards, direct mail or similar types of general public communication or political advertising. (b) The... developed by the candidate. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subparts D and E for...

  11. 15 CFR 922.21 - Selection of active candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the SEL for Active Candidate consideration based on a preliminary assessment of the designation... environmental impact statement shall be published in the Federal Register and in newspapers in the area(s)...

  12. 根治性治疗后非小细胞肺癌的预防性脑照射%Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Preventing Brain Metastases in Patients Undergoing Radical Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟雄; 黄玉娟

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 文献来源 Lester JF,Coles B,Macbeth FR.Prophylactic cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases in patients undergoing radical treatment for non-small cell lung cancer[DB/CD].The Cochrane Library 2007,Issue 3.

  13. Female BRCA mutation carriers with a preference for prophylactic mastectomy are more likely to participate an educational-support group and to proceed with the preferred intervention within 2 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsbergen, K.M.; Prins, J.B.; Kamm, Y.J.L.; Brunner, H.G.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.

    2010-01-01

    Women with a BRCA mutation face a complex choice between breast cancer surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy. We determined risk management preferences shortly after genetic test disclosure and mastectomy status after a median observation period of 2 years. The effect of an educational-support gr

  14. The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

  15. Radiative Neutrino Mass via Both Minimal Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah; Picek, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    We identify a minimal model achieving one-loop radiative neutrino masses due to couplings with dark matter. Interestingly the model contains both the quintuplet fermion and the septuplet scalar identified as minimal dark matter candidates by Cirelli, Fornengo and Strumia - it gives radiative neutrino mass due to both minimal dark matter candidates. The model is related to those proposed in a recent work (dubbed minimal R$\

  16. 5-aminosalicylic acid is an attractive candidate agent for chemoprevention of colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Cheng; Pierre Desreumaux

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is classically subdivided into ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with IBD have increased risk for colorectal cancer. Because the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma has not been entirely defined yet and there is no ideal treatment for colon cancer, cancer prevention has become increasingly important in patients with IBD. The two adopted methods to prevent the development of colon cancer in clinical practice include the prophylactic colectomy and colonoscopic surveillance.But patients and physicians seldom accept colectomy as a routine preventive method and most patients do not undergo appropriate colonoscopic surveillance. Chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or to delay the process of carcinogenesis.Chemoprevention is a particularly useful method in the management of patients at high risk for the development of specific cancers based on inborn genetic susceptibility, the presence of cancer-associated disease, or other known risk factors. Prevention of colorectal cancer by administration of chemopreventive agents is one of the most promising options for IBD patients who are at increased risks of the disease. The chemopreventive efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against intestinal tumors has been well established. But with reports that NSAIDs aggravated the symptoms of colitis, their sustained use for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention has been relatively contraindicated in IBD patients. Another hopeful candidate chemoprevention drug for IBD patients is 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is well tolerated by most patients and has limited systemic adverse effects, and no gastrointestinal toxicity. 5-ASA lacks the well-known side effects of longterm NSAIDs use. Retrospective correlative studies have suggested that the long-term use of 5-ASA in IBD patients may significantly reduce the risk of development of colorectal cancer

  17. Transiting exoplanet candidates from K2 Campaigns 5 and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Benjamin J. S.; Parviainen, Hannu; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a new transit search and vetting pipeline for observations from the K2 mission, and present the candidate transiting planets identified by this pipeline out of the targets in Campaigns 5 and 6. Our pipeline uses the Gaussian process-based K2SC code to correct for the K2 pointing systematics and simultaneously model stellar variability. The systematics-corrected, variability-detrended light curves are searched for transits with the box-least-squares method, and a period-dependent detection threshold is used to generate a preliminary candidate list. Two or three individuals vet each candidate manually to produce the final candidate list, using a set of automatically generated transit fits and assorted diagnostic tests to inform the vetting. We detect 145 single-planet system candidates and 5 multi-planet systems, independently recovering the previously published hot Jupiters EPIC 212110888b, WASP-55b (EPIC 212300977b) and Qatar-2b (EPIC 212756297b). We also report the outcome of reconnaissance spectroscopy carried out for all candidates with Kepler magnitude Kp ≤ 13, identifying 12 targets as likely false positives. We compare our results to those of other K2 transit search pipelines, noting that ours performs particularly well for variable and/or active stars, but that the results are very similar overall. All the light curves and code used in the transit search and vetting process are publicly available, as are the follow-up spectra.

  18. 22 CFR 11.11 - Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affirmative factor in the selection of candidates for appointment as Foreign Service officer career candidates..., experience, and skills needed by the Foreign Service at the mid-level. (3) Age. All career candidate... terminated and the candidate so informed. (10) Foreign language requirement. All candidates who pass the...

  19. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey. III. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 1629 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Baker, Anna; Roberts, Sarah; Ciardi, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results of our search for stars nearby 1629 Kepler planet candidate hosts. With survey sensitivity to objects as close as ∼0.″15, and magnitude differences Δm ≤slant 6, we find 223 stars in the vicinity of 206 target KOIs; 209 of these nearby stars have not been previously imaged in high resolution. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 12.6 % +/- 0.9 % at separations between 0.″15 and 4.″0. Particularly interesting KOI systems are discussed, including 26 stars with detected companions that host rocky, habitable zone candidates and five new candidate planet-hosting quadruple star systems. We explore the broad correlations between planetary systems and stellar binarity, using the combined data set of Baranec et al. and this paper. Our previous 2σ result of a low detected nearby star fraction of KOIs hosting close-in giant planets is less apparent in this larger data set. We also find a significant correlation between detected nearby star fraction and KOI number, suggesting possible variation between early and late Kepler data releases.

  20. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey III: Adaptive Optics Imaging of 1629 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Carl; Morton, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Baker, Anna; Roberts, Sarah; Ciardi, David R

    2016-01-01

    The Robo-AO \\textit{Kepler} Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every \\textit{Kepler} planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We present in this paper the results of our search for stars nearby 1629 \\textit{Kepler} planet candidate hosts. With survey sensitivity to objects as close as $\\sim$0.15" and magnitude differences $\\Delta$m$\\le$6, we find 223 stars in the vicinity of 206 target KOIs; 209 of these nearby stars have not previously been imaged in high resolution. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for \\textit{Kepler} planet candidates of 12.6\\%$\\pm$0.9\\% out to a separation of 4.0". Particularly interesting KOI systems are discussed, including 23 stars with detected companions which host rocky, habitable zone candidates, and five new candidate planet-hosting quadruple star systems. We explore the broad correlations between planetary systems...

  1. Properties of Optically Selected Supernova Remnant Candidates in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in M33 based on optical narrow band images in the Local Group Survey. We identify emission line objects that have enhanced [SII]:H{\\alpha} (> 0.4) and circular shapes using continuum-subtracted H{\\alpha}and [SII] images and produce a list of 199 SNR candidates, of which 79 are previously unknown. We classify them considering two types of criteria: their progenitor type (Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs) and their morphological type. Of the total sample, 170 are likely remnants of CC SNe and 29 are likely remnants of Type Ia SNe. We obtain a cumulative size distribution of the SNR candidates, showing that it follows a power law with an index,{\\alpha}= 2.38{\\pm}0.05 (17 < D < 50 pc). This indicates that most of the M33 SNR candidates found in this study are in the Sedov-Taylor phase, consistent with previous findings. The [SII]:H{\\alpha} distribution of the SNR candidates shows two peaks at [SII]:H{\\alpha} ~0.55 and ~0.8. Interestingly X-ray and...

  2. Fuzzy Logic Based Trusted Candidate Selection for Stable Multipath Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata V. Mallapur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, providing reliable and stable communication paths between wireless devices is critical. This paper presents a fuzzy logic stablebackbone-based multipath routing protocol (FLSBMRP for MANET that provides a high-quality path for communication between nodes. The proposed protocol has two main phases. The first phase is the selection of candidate nodes using a fuzzy logic technique. The second phase is the construction of a routing backbone that establishes multiple paths between nodes through the candidate nodes, thus forming a routing backbone. If any candidate node in the path fails due to a lack of bandwidth, residual energy or link quality, an alternate path through another candidate node is selected for communication before the route breaks, because a candidate node failure may lead to a broken link between the nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol performs better in terms of the packet delivery ratio, overhead, delay and packet drop ratio than the major existing ad hoc routing protocols.

  3. Transiting exoplanet candidates from K2 Campaigns 5 and 6

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Benjamin J S; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new transit search and vetting pipeline for observations from the K2 mission, and present the candidate transiting planets identified by this pipeline out of the targets in Campaigns 5 and 6. Our pipeline uses the Gaussian Process-based K2SC code to correct for the K2 pointing systematics and simultaneously model stellar variability. The systematics-corrected, variability-detrended light curves are searched for transits with the Box Least Squares method, and a period-dependent detection threshold is used to generate a preliminary candidate list. Two or three individuals vet each candidate manually to produce the final candidate list, using a set of automatically-generated transit fits and assorted diagnostic tests to inform the vetting. We detect 147 single-planet system candidates and 5 multi-planet systems, independently recovering the previously-published hot~Jupiters EPIC 212110888b, WASP-55b (EPIC 212300977b) and Qatar-2b (EPIC 212756297b). We also report the outcome of reconnaissance spec...

  4. On security arguments of the second round SHA-3 candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart;

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) announced a call for the design of a new cryptographic hash algorithm in response to vulnerabilities like differential attacks identified in existing hash functions, such as MD5 and SHA-1. NIST received many submissions, 51...... of which got accepted to the first round. 14 candidates were left in the second round, out of which five candidates have been recently chosen for the final round. An important criterion in the selection process is the SHA-3 hash function security. We identify two important classes of security arguments...... for the new designs: (1) the possible reductions of the hash function security to the security of its underlying building blocks and (2) arguments against differential attack on building blocks. In this paper, we compare the state of the art provable security reductions for the second round candidates...

  5. BL LAC candidates for TeV observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; Errando, M.; D' Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Funk, S.

    2013-07-01

    BL Lac objects are the most numerous class of extragalactic TeV-detected sources. One of the biggest difficulties in investigating their TeV emission is due to their limited number, since only 47 BL Lac objects are known to be TeV emitters. In this paper, we propose new criteria to select TeV BL Lac candidates based on infrared and X-ray observations. We apply our selection criteria to the BL Lac objects listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog, thereby identifying 41 potential TeV emitters. We then perform a search over a more extended sample combining the ROSAT bright source catalog and the WISE all-sky survey, revealing 54 additional candidates for TeV observations. Our investigation also led to a tentative classification of 16 unidentified X-ray sources as BL Lac candidates. This analysis provides new interesting BL Lac targets for future observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  6. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development.

  7. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H; Borucki, William J; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Douglas A; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Fressin, François; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Haas, Michael J; Holman, Matthew J; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Moorhead, Althea V; Morehead, Robert C; Marcy, Geoffrey; MacQueen, Phillip J; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compos...

  8. Additional TWA Members? Spectroscopic verification of kinematically selected TWA candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Song, I; Zuckerman, B; Song, Inseok

    2002-01-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of the 23 new candidate members of the TW Hydrae Association from Makarov & Fabricius (2000). Based on Halpha and Li 6708 A strengths together with location on a color-magnitude diagram for Hipparcos TWA candidates, we found only three possible new members (TYC 7760-0835-1, TYC 8238-1462-1, and TYC 8234-2856-1) in addition to the already known member, TWA 19. This eliminated most of the candidates more distant than 100 pc. Three Tycho stars, almost certainly members of the Lower Centaurus Crux association, are the most distant members of the TWA. A claim of isotropic expansion of TWA has to be re-evaluated based on our new results. Generally, one cannot identify new members of a diffuse nearby stellar group based solely on kinematic data. To eliminate interlopers with similar kinematics, spectroscopic verification is essential.

  9. Planetary Nebula Candidates Uncovered with the HASH Research Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fragkou, Vasiliki; Frew, David; Parker, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A detailed examination of new high quality radio catalogues (e.g. Cornish) in combination with available mid-infrared (MIR) satellite imagery (e.g. Glimpse) has allowed us to find 70 new planetary nebula (PN) candidates based on existing knowledge of their typical colors and fluxes. To further examine the nature of these sources, multiple diagnostic tools have been applied to these candidates based on published data and on available imagery in the HASH (Hong Kong/ AAO/ Strasbourg H{\\alpha} planetary nebula) research platform. Some candidates have previously-missed optical counterparts allowing for spectroscopic follow-up. Indeed, the single object spectroscopically observed so far has turned out to be a bona fide PN.

  10. Prophylactic tolperisone for post-exercise muscle soreness causes reduced isometric force--a double-blind randomized crossover control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Prem; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Svensson, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The role of tolperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant in relieving painful muscle spasm is recently being discussed. The present study hypothesizes that the prophylactic use of tolperisone hydrochloride may effectively relieve post-exercise muscle soreness, based on the spasm theory of exercise pain. Twenty male volunteers, aged 25.2 +/- 0.82 years (mean +/- SEM) participated in 10 sessions in which they received oral treatment with placebo or the centrally acting muscle relaxant tolperisone hydrochloride (150 mg) three times daily for 8 days, in randomized crossover double-blind design. Time course assessments were made for pressure pain threshold, Likert's pain score (0-5), pain areas, range of abduction, isometric force, and electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS) during maximum voluntary isometric force on day 1 and 6, immediately after an eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle, and 24 and 48 h after the exercise. Treatment with placebo or tolperisone hydrochloride was initiated immediately after the assessments on the first day baseline assessments. On the sixth day baseline investigations were repeated and then the subjects performed six bouts of standardized intense eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle for provocation of post-exercise muscle soreness (PEMS). Perceived intensity of warmth, tiredness, soreness and pain during the exercise bouts were recorded on a 10 cm visual analogue pain scale. VAS scores and pressure pain thresholds did not differ between tolperisone and placebo treatment. All VAS scores increased during the exercise bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as compared to bout 1. Increased pain scores and pain areas were reported immediately after, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Pressure pain thresholds were reduced at 24 and 48 h after the exercise in the exercised hand. Range of abduction of the index finger was reduced immediately after the exercise and was still reduced at 24 h as compared to the

  11. Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidotti M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

  12. Application of Continuous Nursing in Prophylactic Ileostomy%延续护理在预防性末端回肠造口中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏桂花; 黄健; 石春红

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨出更好的提高末端回肠造口患者自我护理能力和生活质量的护理方法。方法:选择2014年6月-2016年9月在笔者所在医院行预防性末端回肠造口患者40例,按照随机数字表法分为观察组(延续护理组)和对照组(常规护理组)。观察组在围手术期常规护理基础上进行为期3个月的以电话访问、家庭访视等形式行延续护理干预,对照组行围手术期常规护理。观察并评价两组患者的自我护理能力、生活质量、造口并发症。结果:观察组自我护理能力和生活质量优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:延续护理应用于预防性末端回肠造口患者,可提高自我护理能力和生活质量。%Objective:To explore a better way to improve self-care ability and quality life of patients with terminal ileum stoma.Method:From June 2014 to September 2016,a total of 40 colorectal cancer patients undergoing prophylactic terminal ileum stoma in our hospital were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.Patients in the control group were given perioperative routine nursing,and patients in the observation group received continuity nursing intervention by professional nurses for a period of 3 months,including forms of tele-phone interviews,home visits,and so on.Self-care ability,quality of life and complications of two groups were observe and evaluate.Result:Self care ability and quality of life of the observation group were better than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Continuous nursing applied to patients with prophylactic terminal ileum stoma can improve self-care ability and quality of life.

  13. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    coefficients is also reported. Maps of differences in the vertical field intensity at Earth’s surface between the candidates and weighted mean models are presented. Candidates with anomalous aspects are identified and efforts made to pinpoint both troublesome coefficients and geographical regions where large...... vector satellite data is demonstrated; based on internal consistency DGRF-2005 has a formal root mean square vector field error over Earth’s surface of 1.0 nT. Difficulties nevertheless remain in accurately forecasting field evolution only five years into the future....

  14. Light Sensor Candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Knoetig, M L; Kurz, M; Hose, J; Lorenz, E; Schweizer, T; Teshima, M; Buzhan, P; Popova, E; Bolmont, J; Tavernet, J -P; Vincent, P; Shayduk, M

    2011-01-01

    We report on the characterization of candidate light sensors for use in the next-generation Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope project called Cherenkov Telescope Array, a major astro-particle physics project of about 100 telescopes that is currently in the prototyping phase. Our goal is to develop with the manufacturers the best possible light sensors (highest photon detection efficiency, lowest crosstalk and afterpulsing). The cameras of those telescopes will be based on classical super-bi-alkali Photomultiplier tubes but also Silicon Photomultipliers are candidate light sensors. A full characterisation of selected sensors was done. We are working in close contact with several manufacturers, giving them feedback and suggesting improvements.

  15. Former Head of CNOOC Named as Candidate for Governor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party has appointed Wei Liucheng, Former President of CNOOC and Former Chairman and CEO of CNOOC Limited, as Deputy Secretary of Hainan Provincial Committee and named him as the candidate for Governor of Hainan Province. At a conference of Hainan Provincial Committee of the Party held on October 8, at which the organization department of the Communist Party of China announced nomination of Wei as the deputy Party secretary of Hainan, which is the second highest position in the provincial government. Wei was also chosen as a candidate for the governor of the island province.

  16. Practical Large Scale Syntheses of New Drug Candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Yin Li

    2001-01-01

    @@ This presentation will be focus on Practical large scale syntheses of lead compounds and drug candidates from three major therapeutic areas from DuPont Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratory: 1). DMP777-a selective, non-toxic, orally active human elastase inhibitor; 2). DMP754-a potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist; 3). R-Wafarin-the pure enantiomeric form of wafarin. The key technology used for preparation these drug candidates is asymmetric hydrogenation under very mild reaction conditions, which produced very high quality final products at large scale (>99% de, >99 A% and >99 wt%). Some practical and GMP aspects of process development will be also discussed.

  17. Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    candidates’ faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties’ nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three...... facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantly these relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties’ nomination strategies and candidates’ age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two...

  18. Facial discrimination of political candidates and voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Duduciuc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After a review of psychosociological research concerning the sources of prejudices and discriminations, this article brings into discussion the cognitive approach of perceiving the other as being „otherwise” than the members of the in-group. We will discuss the situations, structural and personal factors as being some determining ones for discriminant behavior. Within the lines of cognitive paradigm, we ask how the individual does discriminate, by perceptive processes, between candidates which are considered attractive, which go together with the expectations of the electorate concerning the physical aspects and candidates who are „less desirable”.

  19. A preliminary systems assessment of the Starlite Demo candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C.G.

    1995-12-01

    The Starlite project has evaluated the following five tokamaks as candidates for the US Demo Power Plant: (1) steady state, first stability regime; (2) pulsed, first stability regime; (3) steady state, second stability regime; (4) steady state, reversed shear; and (5) steady state, low aspect ratio. Systems analysis of these candidates has played an important role in the selection of a reversed-shear tokamak for further conceptual design as a US Demo Power Plant. The cost-based systems analysis that led to the selection of a reversed-shear tokamak is described herein.

  20. On Intrinsic Magnetic Moments In Black Hole Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, S L; Robertson, Stanley L.; Leiter, Darryl J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we found that many of the spectral properties of low mass x-ray binaries, including galactic black hole candidates could be explained by a magnetic propeller model that requires an intrinsically magnetized central object. Here we describe how the Einstein field equations of General Relativity and equipartition magnetic fields permit the existence of highly red shifted, extremely long lived, collapsing, radiating objects. We examine the properties of these collapsed objects and discuss characteristics that might lead to their confirmation as the source of black hole candidate phenomena.

  1. Practical Large Scale Syntheses of New Drug Candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Yin; Li

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will be focus on Practical large scale syntheses of lead compounds and drug candidates from three major therapeutic areas from DuPont Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratory: 1). DMP777-a selective, non-toxic, orally active human elastase inhibitor; 2). DMP754-a potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist; 3). R-Wafarin-the pure enantiomeric form of wafarin. The key technology used for preparation these drug candidates is asymmetric hydrogenation under very mild reaction conditions, which produced very high quality final products at large scale (>99% de, >99 A% and >99 wt%). Some practical and GMP aspects of process development will be also discussed.……

  2. Operational support and analysis a guide for ITIL exam candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Sansbury, John

    2014-01-01

    This user-friendly book aims to assist candidates pass the ITIL® OSA Intermediate examination. It references material from the core ITIL texts and gives practical guidance. This new edition includes the latest ITIL guidance as well as additional insights from the author's own experience of developing effective solutions. An ITIL® licensed product.

  3. Integrated spectral study of reddened globular clusters and candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, E.; Claria, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Bonatto, C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents integrated spectra in the range 6700 - 9500 Angstroms for 20 Galactic globular clusters (and candidates) in the bulge and 5 others projected on the Galactic disk (|l|>30mbox {^{\\circ}}\\ and |b|Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), Argentina, and European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile.

  4. Investigation of Teacher Candidates' Learning Styles and Critical Thinking Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Açışlı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study teacher candidates’ learning styles and critical thinking dispositions were investigated. The study group is composed of 938 students attending class teaching and science teaching departments of Artvin Çoruh, Karadeniz Technical, and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Universities. Colb Learning Styles Inventory and California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI were used as a means of data-collection. The data were analysed with SPSS 17, and it was detected that there are some differences between the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in terms of the variables. It was also observed that 40,9 % of students have "assimilator", 31,2 % of students have "diverger", 15,9 % of students have "converger" , and 11,9 % of students have "accommodator" learning style. The teacher candidates got the highest score from the "being analytical" subscale. As for teacher candidates critical thinking dispositions according to the class levels, a statistically meaningful difference was seen for those attending the final classes only in "open-mindedness" subscale. Upon the analysis of whether teacher candidates critical thinking dispositions differ according to school type variable, a meaningful difference was detected at the subscales of curiosity and seeking for truth while a meaningful difference was not found at the subscales of being analytical, being systematical, and self-confidence.

  5. Supervising PETE Candidates Using the Situational Supervision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Linda S.; Johnson, Lynn V.

    2012-01-01

    Physical education teacher candidates (PETCs) often, as part of their curricular requirements, engage in early field experiences that prepare them for student teaching. Matching the PETC's developmental level with the mentor's supervision style enhances this experience. The situational supervision model, based on the situational leadership model,…

  6. Primary School Teacher Candidates' Geometric Habits of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Nilu¨fer Y.; Tanisli, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Geometric habits of mind are productive ways of thinking that support learning and using geometric concepts. Identifying primary school teacher candidates' geometric habits of mind is important as they affect the development of their future students' geometric thinking. Therefore, this study attempts to determine primary school teachers' geometric…

  7. Direct Dark Matter Searches: Fits to WIMP Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introduction to dark matter in general and to WIMPs as candidates, we review recent results of direct dark matter searches. We concentrate on older and more recent hints pointing to light WIMP's with mass below 10 GeV.

  8. Supporting Clinical Practice Candidates in Learning Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.; Sudeck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to monitor pre-service teacher candidates' progression and implementation of the learning community philosophy along with classroom management strategies. The study took place during their final semester of clinical practice. Data were collected from self-reports, surveys, university supervisor…

  9. IT Service Management A guide for ITIL Foundation Exam candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Ernest; Lawes, Aidan; Sansbury, John

    2012-01-01

    ITIL® is a framework for IT service management and provides best management practice to meet ISO/IEC 20k. This guide introduces ITIL to Foundation Exam candidates and offers a practical understanding of IT service management. The new edition is fully updated and contains several additional processes. An ITIL® licensed product.

  10. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  11. Are Teacher and Principal Candidates Prepared to Address Student Cyberbullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Bonner, Jessica L.; Styron, Jennifer L.; Bridgeforth, James; Martin, Cecelia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preparation of teacher and principal candidates to address problems created in K-12 settings as a result of cyberbullying. Participants included teacher and principal preparation students. Findings indicated that respondents were familiar with the most common forms of cyberbullying and its impact on…

  12. Documenting Teacher Candidates' Professional Growth through Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Suh, Jennifer; Parsons, Seth A.; Parker, Audra K.; Ramirez, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, colleges of education are responding to demands for increased accountability. The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's implementation of a performance evaluation tool during final internship that measures teacher candidates' development across four domains: Planning and Preparation,…

  13. First microlensing candidates from the MEGA survey of M 31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JTA; Kuijken, K; Crotts, APS; Sackett, PD; Sutherland, WJ; Uglesich, RR; Baltz, EA; Cseresnjes, P; Gyuk, G; Widrow, LM

    2004-01-01

    We present the first M 31 candidate microlensing events from the Microlensing Exploration of the Galaxy and Andromeda (MEGA) survey. MEGA uses several telescopes to detect microlensing towards the nearby Andromeda galaxy, M 3 1, in order to establish whether massive compact objects are a significant

  14. Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Scientists: Images and Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The masculine image of scientists as elderly men wearing white coats and glasses, working alone in the laboratory has been documented since the 1950s. Because it is important that teacher candidates have a scientifically literate image of scientists due to the impact they have on their future students, this investigation is salient. This study…

  15. NIR Flare of the AGN Candidate PMNJ0107+0333

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Miramon, J.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the new NIR flare of the AGN candidate PMNJ0107+0333, cross identified with the X-ray source 1RXS J010729.5+033341. On November 13th,2016 (MJD 2457705.699), we found the source with the following flux in the NIR band: H = 14.657 +/- 0.05.

  16. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I.

  17. Nonequilibrium Candidate Monte Carlo Simulations with Configurational Freezing Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Edoardo; Gellini, Cristina; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Cardini, Gianni; Chelli, Riccardo

    2014-10-14

    Nonequilibrium Candidate Monte Carlo simulation [Nilmeier et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011, 108, E1009-E1018] is a tool devised to design Monte Carlo moves with high acceptance probabilities that connect uncorrelated configurations. Such moves are generated through nonequilibrium driven dynamics, producing candidate configurations accepted with a Monte Carlo-like criterion that preserves the equilibrium distribution. The probability of accepting a candidate configuration as the next sample in the Markov chain basically depends on the work performed on the system during the nonequilibrium trajectory and increases with decreasing such a work. It is thus strategically relevant to find ways of producing nonequilibrium moves with low work, namely moves where dissipation is as low as possible. This is the goal of our methodology, in which we combine Nonequilibrium Candidate Monte Carlo with Configurational Freezing schemes developed by Nicolini et al. (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2011, 7, 582-593). The idea is to limit the configurational sampling to particles of a well-established region of the simulation sample, namely the region where dissipation occurs, while leaving fixed the other particles. This allows to make the system relaxation faster around the region perturbed by the finite-time switching move and hence to reduce the dissipated work, eventually enhancing the probability of accepting the generated move. Our combined approach enhances significantly configurational sampling, as shown by the case of a bistable dimer immersed in a dense fluid.

  18. HMGA1a recognition candidate DNA sequences in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Manabe

    Full Text Available High mobility group protein A1a (HMGA1a acts as an architectural transcription factor and influences a diverse array of normal biological processes. It binds AT-rich sequences, and previous reports have demonstrated HMGA1a binding to the authentic promoters of various genes. However, the precise sequences that HMGA1a binds to remain to be clarified. Therefore, in this study, we searched for the sequences with the highest affinity for human HMGA1a using an existing SELEX method, and then compared the identified sequences with known human promoter sequences. Based on our results, we propose the sequences "-(G/A-G-(A/T-(A/T-A-T-T-T-" as HMGA1a-binding candidate sequences. Furthermore, these candidate sequences bound native human HMGA1a from SK-N-SH cells. When candidate sequences were analyzed by performing FASTAs against all known human promoter sequences, 500-900 sequences were hit by each one. Some of the extracted genes have already been proven or suggested as HMGA1a-binding promoters. The candidate sequences presented here represent important information for research into the various roles of HMGA1a, including cell differentiation, death, growth, proliferation, and the pathogenesis of cancer.

  19. Candidate eco-friendly gas mixtures for MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Ferrini, M.; Parvis, M.; Grassing, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Kjøbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  20. Evaluation of Candidate Teachers Related to the Weblog Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Tugba; Demirgünes, Sercan

    2016-01-01

    Weblogs offer a new writing and reading environment. Most people in the education process may improve their writing skills and achieve new perspectives related to writing via weblogs. In this study the changes that weblog writing process created in undergraduates'/candidate teachers' minds regarding writing are revealed. The weblog writing process…