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Sample records for candidate prophylactic pan-human

  1. Prophylactic HPV vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Aljoša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Cervical and other anogenital cancers, cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis are HPV associated diseases. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are composed of HPV L1 capsid protein that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs when expressed in recombinant systems. Two types of prophylactic vaccines are designed as a bivalent vaccine to protect against high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 and a quadrivalent vaccine designed to protect against HPV 16 and 18, and low-risk, genital wart-causing HPV 6 and 11. Proof-of-principle trials have suggested that intramuscular injections of VLPs result in strong adaptive immune responses that are capable of neutralizing subsequent natural infections. Recent research on the safety and efficacy of candidate prophylactic vaccines against HPV have shown very promising results with nearly 100% efficacy in preventing the development of persistent infections and cervical precancerous lesions in vaccinated individuals.

  2. [Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, G; Iacob, Simona; Cojocaru, Inimioara

    2007-01-01

    Because of a low risk of infection (around 2-3%), prophylactic use of antibiotics in neurosurgery is a controversial issue. Some neurosurgeons consider that there are strong arguments against the use of antimicrobials (promotion of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, superinfection and adverse drug reactions) and meticulous aseptic techniques could be more usefully than prophylactic antibiotics. On the other hand, despite of being rare, the consequences of a neurosurgical infection can be dramatic and may result in a rapid death, caused by meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation or sepsis. Clinical studies emphasized that the most important factors influencing the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery is the patient's immune status, virulence of the pathogens and the type of surgery ("clean contaminated"--procedure that crosses the cranial sinuses, "clean non-implant"--procedure that does not cross the cranial sinuses, CSF shunt surgery, skull fracture). Prophylaxis has become the standard of care for contaminated and clean-contaminated surgery, also for surgery involving insertion of artificial devices. The antibiotic (first/second generation of cephalosporins or vancomycin in allergic patients) should recover only the cutaneous possibly contaminating flora (S. aureus, S. epidermidis) and should be administrated 30' before the surgical incision, intravenously in a single dose. Most studies pointed that identification of the risk factors for infections, correct asepsis and minimal prophylactic antibiotic regimen, help neurosurgeons to improve patient care and to decrease mortality without selecting resistant bacteria. PMID:18293694

  3. Prophylactic platelets in dengue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehorn, James; Rodriguez Roche, Rosmari; Guzman, Maria G;

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a...... result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of...... platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of...

  4. Migraine - Prophylactic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Debashish

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive therapy in migraine constitutes an important aspect of migraine management especially in patients who are not controlled or have significant disability despite taking drugs for acute management. In spite of te recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine, the mechanisms of action of many preventive drugs are largely unknown. Further, these provide only about 50% reduction in frequency in about 2/3rds of migraine sufferers. Hence, risk-benefit ratio must be considered while prescribing these agents. Recent efforts to undertake large-scale meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of these agents have been rewarding and consensus guidelines have evolved. Propanolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, sodium valproate, flunarizine and lisuride have emerged as first line drugs. The role of newer anti-convulsants and botox injections in refractory cases are being investigated. Availability, co-morbidities, medical contraindications, concomitant acute therapy and costs are important determinants for choosing a particular agent. This article reviews the guidelines to be followed in choosing the prophylactic treatment options for migraine.

  5. Prophylactic treatment in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eroğlu, Meliha Zengin; Özpoyraz, Nurgül; Tamam, Lut

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prophylactic treatment response and its relationship between clinical variables among the bipolar disorder patient group followed up in the Bipolar Disorder Unit of Psychiatry Department of Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine. Methods: One hundred patients, in euthymic period, diagnosed as bipolar disorder, were included in this study. “Affective Disorders Patient Registry Form” developed by our unit, SCID-I, Young Mani Rating Scale...

  6. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Katharine

    2016-01-01

    Katharine Yao,1 Mark Sisco,2 Isabelle Bedrosian3 1Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, 3Department of Surgery, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approxim...

  7. Perceptions of Prophylactic Mastectomy in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Han Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasingly, prophylactic mastectomy has been evaluated as a treatment of breast cancer. Hereditary breast cancer now accounts for approximately 5%–10% of all cases of breast cancer, meaning that the widespread implementation of prophylactic mastectomy may significantly reduce the occurrence of breast cancer. However, prophylactic mastectomy is rarely performed in Korea. Therefore, in this study, we assessed Koreans' attitudes toward and awareness of preventive mastectomy. Methods This was a prospective study of a cohort of patients attending outpatient clinics and their relatives. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires assessing sex, age, educational level, knowledge of breast cancer, understanding of prophylactic mastectomy, attitudes toward prophylactic mastectomy, and reasons for choosing prophylactic mastectomy. Results Sixty-five patients were included. Most patients (36.9%) were between 40 and 49 years of age and 58.4% were college graduates. Only six respondents (9%) understood prophylactic mastectomy, and 17 respondents (27%) stated that they would agree to undergo prophylactic mastectomy if necessary. Reasons given for refusing prophylactic mastectomy included aesthetic concerns (38%), the perception that it would not cure the disease (26%), possible surgical complications (24%), and financial cost (6%). Conclusions In this study, most of the respondents showed a poor knowledge of prophylactic mastectomy. Ultimately, it will be necessary to establish medical guidelines for patients with a high risk of breast cancer, with the objective of providing accurate information and proper treatment at hospitals. PMID:26848446

  8. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Christiansen, H.M.; Ehlers, D

    1984-01-01

    The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greate...... of infection and the few side effects of the infections that did occur, prophylactic treatment with an antibiotic is not indicated for transurethral prostatectomy in patients with sterile urine.......The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greater...

  9. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews...... of RCTs were also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants <37 weeks of gestational age. Trials were included if they administered any probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development...

  10. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  11. Alopecia after prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is currently widely used in treatment of patients with lung cancer despite that the data on alopecia after PCI are limited. The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the duration of alopecia after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Two groups of patients were analyzed: group I - 34 patients radically treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and group II - 18 patients undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In group I 12 patients were treated with radiotherapy only, the remaining patients were treated with neo- or adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin + vinorelbine: PN or cisplatin + gemcitabin: PG) in 2 to 6 cycles. PCI was administered during the last tree weeks of thoracic irradiation or . 2 weeks after the last cycle of chemotherapy and consisted of 15 fractions of 2 Gy per day (30 Gy), 5 days per week. Patients from group II received 25 Gy in 10 fractions starting from the second week of thoracic irradiation; chemotherapy (cisplatin + vepesid: PE every 21 days) started concurrently with thoracic irradiation. Alopecia occurred in all patients treated with PCI; hair loss began 2-3 weeks after the initiation of therapy. In group I full re-growth of hair occurred in 33 patients, one patient died during treatment, before hair re-growth had chance to appear. Time to re-growths (TRG) was 1.5-6 months, median 2.5 months. In this group a trend towards longer re-growths in patients who had received more than 3 cycles of chemotherapy (p=0.07). In group II hair re-growths occurred between 5 and 12 months after the completion of treatment, with median time of 10 months, and was significantly longer than in group I. The results suggest that the most important factor for TRG is the type and the number of chemotherapy cycles. (author)

  12. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharine Yao,1 Mark Sisco,2 Isabelle Bedrosian3 1Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, 3Department of Surgery, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women ,40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and

  13. Tackling Ebola: new insights into prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1976, Ebolavirus has caused periodic outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever associated with severe and often fatal disease. Ebolavirus is endemic in Central Africa and the Philippines. Although there is currently no approved treatment available, the past 10 years has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the pathogenicity of Ebolavirus and the development of prophylactic and post-exposure therapies against it. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that Ebolavirus pathogenicity is multifactorial, including viral and host determinants. Besides their function in the virus replication cycle, the viral glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, minor matrix protein and polymerase cofactor are viral determinants of pathogenicity, with evasion of the host innate and adaptive immune responses as the main mechanism. Although no licensed Ebolavirus vaccines are currently available, vaccine research in non-human primates, the 'gold standard' animal model for Ebolavirus, has produced several promising candidates. A combination of DNA vaccination and a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 boost resulted in cross-protective immunity in non-human primates. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine vector protected non-human primates in pre- and post-exposure challenge studies. Several antiviral therapies are currently under investigation, but only a few of these have been tested in non-human primate models. Antisense therapies, in which oligonucleotides inhibit viral replication, have shown promising results in non-human primates following post-exposure treatment. In light of the severity of Ebolavirus disease and the observed increase in Ebolavirus outbreaks over the past decade, the expedited translation of potential candidate therapeutics and vaccines from bench to bedside is currently the most challenging task for the field. Here, we review the current state of Ebolavirus research, with emphasis on prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies

  14. A new classification of prophylactic antiradiation drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New classification of prophylactic radioprotective substances is proposed. Their main specific features are discussed. Examples of the most typical specimens of the each group of radioprotectors are presented. Characteristics are given to their radioprotective activity, role and place in radiation protection system for troops and population

  15. A prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Christine J.; Gusterson, Barry A.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are the Holy Grail for patients and clinicians alike. The possibility that we can be vaccinated against common cancers is very appealing and the socioeconomic consequences are significant. A recent paper from Vincent Tuohy's group, published in the journal Nature Medicine, suggests a new approach for the development of a prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer. Their strategy was to induce mammary gland failure in mice by immunisation with an antibody specific to a milk protein...

  16. Congenital spinal lipomas: Role of prophylactic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital spinal lipomas constitute an important group of lesions causing tethered cord syndrome. Management of these lesions is challenging and role of prophylactic surgery for these lesions is still controversial. Hence, current study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the role of prophylactic surgery in the management of these lesions. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 consecutive patients, treated over a period of 10 years (January 2001-December 2010, are retrospectively analyzed. Results: In our study, 93 patients had conus lipomas, 26 had filum lipomas and 28 had only lipomeningomyelocele. Boys and girls were almost equally represented. The age of patients at the time of surgery ranged from 15 days to 34 years with an average of 62 months (5.2 years. Neurological deficits were present in 101 (68 patients. The patients with neurological deficits were older in comparison to those neurologically intact (average age 6.2 versus 2.8 years, respectively. Difference in age between the two groups was statistically significant (P value 0.03. Neurological deterioration was observed in 8 (5 patients following surgery, out of which six patients developed transient deterioration and only two, had persisting deficits. None of the neurologically asymptomatic patients developed persistent neurological deficits. In the symptomatic group, nine patients (9 showed improvement in neurological status after surgery. Conclusions: In author′s view, prophylactic surgery for congenital spinal lipomas is safe and effective. However, a well designed randomized controlled trial, to definitely and objectively prove the usefulness of prophylactic surgery is needed.

  17. The Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, John C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The Candidate is an attempt to marry elements of journalism and gaming into a format that both entertains and educates the player. The Google-AP Scholarship, a new scholarship award that is given to several journalists a year to work on projects at the threshold of technology and journalism, funded the project. The objective in this prototype version of the game is to put the player in the shoes of a congressional candidate during an off-year election, specificall...

  18. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch, É

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  19. Prophylactic ibuprofed administration during pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-five patients who were to begin pelvic irradiation for malignant disease were randomized to receive ibuprofen 400 mg P.O. q.i.d. during their radiotherapy or standard therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms. Seventeen of 19 patients in the ibuprofen group completed the protocol. There was no significant difference in the daily stool frequency between the ibuprofen and control patients during the 5 to 6 week course of pelvic irradiation; the incidence and severity of diarrhea was the same. There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea reported by the patients but the severity of nausea was less in the ibuprofen group; none of the 17 patients in the ibuprofen group reported vomiting at any time, whereas, 27% of the patients in the control group reported vomiting. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The data suggest that prophylactic ibuprofen administration may be beneficial in reducing the severity of nausea and preventing radiation-induced vomiting in patients who receive pelvic irradiation

  20. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  1. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in American Football

    OpenAIRE

    Salata, Michael J.; Gibbs, Aimee E.; Sekiya, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Knee injuries, particularly of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), are the most common injury sustained in American football. In 1979, Anderson et al described a knee brace that could protect uninjured knees from MCL injuries resulting from lateral impact. Since then, a number of light and free-moving bracing devices have been developed. However, the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing remains in question. Objective: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracin...

  2. Prophylactic Administration of Surfactant in Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz Koch; David Frommhold; Bernd Beedgen; Peter Ruef; Johannes Poeschl

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether prophylactic surfactant administration is superior over selective treatment in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Methods. In our retrospective analysis, we compared premature infants (23 + 0 to 26 + 6 weeks) receiving 200 mg/kg surfactant (curosurf 0 0 0 0 ) within five minutes after birth (prophylactic group, = 3 1 ) with those infants who received surfactant therapy for established RDS (selective group, = 3 4 ). Results. Pr...

  3. Prophylactic HPV vaccination: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, P E; Maza, M

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer and cause of cancer-related death in females worldwide. HPV also causes anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines based on recombinantly expressed virus-like particles have been developed. Two first-generation, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines prevent infections and disease caused by HPV16 and HPV18, the two HPV genotypes that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer, and one of these vaccines also prevents HPV6 and HPV11, the two HPV genotypes that cause 90% of genital warts. A next-generation vaccine, recently approved by the U.S. FDA, targets HPV16, HPV18, and five additional HPV genotypes that together causes approximately 90% of cervical cancer as well as HPV6 and HPV11. In clinical trials, these vaccines have shown high levels of efficacy against disease and infections caused by the targeted HPV genotypes in adolescent females and males and older females. Data indicate population effectiveness, and therefore cost effectiveness, is highest in HPV-naive young females prior to becoming sexually active. Countries that implemented HPV vaccination before 2010 have already experienced decreases in population prevalence of targeted HPV genotypes and related anogenital diseases in women and via herd protection in heterosexual men. Importantly, after more than 100 million doses given worldwide, HPV vaccination has demonstrated an excellent safety profile. With demonstrated efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety, universal HPV vaccination of all young, adolescent women, and with available resources at least high-risk groups of men, should be a global health priority. Failure to do so will result in millions of women dying from avertable cervical cancers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and many thousands of women and men dying from other HPV-related cancers. PMID:26429676

  4. Three Novel Candidate Probiotic Strains with Prophylactic Properties in a Murine Model of Cow's Milk Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neau, Elodie; Delannoy, Johanne; Marion, Candice; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Labellie, Chantal; Holowacz, Sophie; Butel, Marie-José; Kapel, Nathalie; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies can have significant effects on morbidity and on quality of life. Therefore, the development of efficient approaches to reduce the risk of developing food allergies is of considerable interest. The aim of this study was to identify and select probiotic strains with preventive properties against allergies using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches. To that end, 31 strains of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria were screened for their immunomodulatory properties in two cellular models, namely, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T helper 2 (Th2)-skewed murine splenocytes. Six strains inducing a high interleukin-10 (IL-10)/IL-12p70 ratio and a low secretion of IL-4 on the two cellular models were selected, and their protective impact was tested in vivo in a murine model of food allergy to β-lactoglobulin. Three strains showed a protective impact on sensitization, with a decrease in allergen-specific IgE, and on allergy, with a decrease in mast cell degranulation. Analysis of the impact of these three strains on the T helper balance revealed different mechanisms of action. The Lactobacillus salivarius LA307 strain proved to block Th1 and Th2 responses, while the Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis LA308 strain induced a pro-Th1 profile and the Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA305 strain induced pro-Th1 and regulatory responses. These results demonstrate that a combination of in vitro and in vivo screening is effective in probiotic strain selection and allowed identification of three novel probiotic strains that are active against sensitization in mice. PMID:26729723

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  6. Periinterventional prophylactic antibiotics in radiological port catheter implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether catheter-related infections after radiologically placed port catheters can be reduced by single-shot periinterventional antibiosis. Materials and Method: Between January and September 2002, 164 consecutive patients with indication for central venous port catheter implantation were included in the present study. During implantation the interventional radiologist was responsible for deciding whether to administer a prophylactic single-shot antibiosis. The prophylactic antibiosis entailed intravenous administration of ampicillin and sulbactam (3 g Unacid, Pfizer) or 100 mg ciprofloxacine (Ciprobay, Bayer) in the case of an allergy history to penicillins. Catheter-related infection was defined as a local or systemic infection necessitating port catheter extraction. Results: Indication for port catheter implantation was a malignant disease requiring chemotherapy in 158 cases. The port catheter (Chemosite [Tyco Healthcare] [n = 123], low-profile [Arrow International] [n = 35], other port system [n = 6]) was implanted via sonographically guided puncture of the right jugular vein in 139 patients, via the left jugular vein in 24 cases and via the right subclavian vein in one patient. 75 patients received periinterventional prophylactic antibiosis (Unacid [n = 63] Ciprobay [n 12]) and 89 patients did not receive antibiosis. The prophylactic antibiosis caused a minor allergic reaction in one patient that improved with antihistamic and corticoid medication. A total of 7 ports, 6 without prophylactic antibiosis versus one with periinterventional prophylaxis, were extracted due to infectious complications. Conclusion: Single-shot periinterventional prophylactic antibiosis can reduce early and late infectious complications after radiological-interventional placement of central venous port catheters. (orig.)

  7. Prophylactic and thermovision measurements of electric machines and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-voltage measurements of generators, unit and service transformers and some significant motor drives used at a nuclear power plant are described in this paper. Thermovision measurements of electric machines and distribution systems are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Power electric equipment represent one of the most significant components of a nuclear power plant. Turbine mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy within these equipment. Power generated by generators is transformed by transformers so that it can achieve appropriate parameters for both the transmission over the distribution system and the power plant service power supply. The service power supply switchboards and cables provide supply to motors and other consumers necessary for the nuclear power plant technological process. The whole complex of equipment has to be maintained in good technical conditions. It is necessary to make thermovision and prophylactic measurements to identify and verify the electric equipment technical condition. The mentioned measurements warn the operation staff in advance against both gradual deterioration of power connection contact resistances, i.e. power connections overheating, and the machine insulation systems condition deterioration. The operation staff try to prevent the electric equipment operation accidents by early removing the detected failures, thus, improving the nuclear safety. In order to provide the above-mentioned activities a special prophylactic measurement group was established at the NPP Bohunice in 1983. The group specialists make following types of measurements. 1. Prophylactic measurements of electric machines. Prophylactics of 220 MW generators and 6 MW service power generators; Prophylactics of both unit and service transformers and VHV bushings; Prophylactics of major 6 kV motor drives. 2. Thermovision measurements of current connections. Measurements enumarated in paragraph 1 are made on disconnected electric

  8. Patient and parent preferences for characteristics of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlan R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Furlan,1 Sangeeta Krishnan,2 Jeffrey Vietri3 1Advanced Methods, Kantar Health, Epsom, Surrey, UK; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, MA, USA; 3Health Outcomes, Kantar Health, Milan, Italy Introduction: New longer-acting factor products will potentially allow for less frequent infusion in prophylactic treatment of hemophilia. However, the role of administration frequency relative to other treatment attributes in determining preferences for prophylactic hemophilia treatment regimens is not well understood. Aim: To identify the relative importance of frequency of administration, efficacy, and other treatment characteristics among candidates for prophylactic treatment for hemophilia A and B. Method: An Internet survey was conducted among hemophilia patients and the parents of pediatric hemophilia patients in Australia, Canada, and the US. A monadic conjoint task was included in the survey, which varied frequency of administration (three, two, or one time per week for hemophilia A; twice weekly, weekly, or biweekly for hemophilia B, efficacy (no bleeding or breakthrough bleeding once every 4 months, 6 months, or 12 months, diluent volume (3 mL vs 2.5 mL for hemophilia A; 5 mL vs 3 mL for hemophilia B, vials per infusion (2 vs 1, reconstitution device (assembly required vs not, and manufacturer (established in hemophilia vs not. Respondents were asked their likelihood to switch from their current regimen to the presented treatment. Respondents were told to assume that other aspects of treatment, such as risk of inhibitor development, cost, and method of distribution, would remain the same. Results: A total of 89 patients and/or parents of children with hemophilia A participated; another 32 were included in the exercise for hemophilia B. Relative importance was 47%, 24%, and 18% for frequency of administration, efficacy, and manufacturer, respectively, in hemophilia A; analogous values were 48%, 26%, and 21% in

  9. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Tietze, Anna; Khalil, Azza Ahmed;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cerebral irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with response to chemotherapy. The aims of this study were: to evaluate patients undergoing PCI with regard to cerebral recurrence rate, site of recurrence, and overall...

  10. Potential Harm of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusion in Adult Dengue Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tau-Hong; Wong, Joshua G. X.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Thein, Tun-Linn; Ng, Ee-Ling; Lee, Linda K.; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of dengue infection, and bleeding is a dreaded complication of dengue fever. Prophylactic platelet transfusion has been used to prevent bleeding in the management of dengue fever, although the evidence for its benefit is lacking. In adult dengue patients with platelet count 50,000/mm3 and increasing length of hospitalization. PMID:27015272

  11. Prophylactic antimicrobial practice in the Orthopaedic wards of RIPAS Hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Lah Kheng CHUA

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSI) are common healthcare associated infections (HAI) that is associated with increased morbidity and cost. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is effective when used appropriately. This study assesses the prophylactic antimicrobial prescribing and practice in the orthopaedic wards based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to the Orthopaedics wards over...

  12. Prophylactic Administration of Surfactant in Extremely Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether prophylactic surfactant administration is superior over selective treatment in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Methods. In our retrospective analysis, we compared premature infants (23 + 0 to 26 + 6 weeks receiving 200 mg/kg surfactant (curosurf0000 within five minutes after birth (prophylactic group, =31 with those infants who received surfactant therapy for established RDS (selective group, =34. Results. Prophylactic therapy significantly decreased the need for mechanical ventilation (74 hours per patient versus 171 hours per patient, resp.. We observed a reduced incidence of interstitial emphysema (0% versus 9%, resp., pneumothoraces (3% versus 9%, resp., chronic lung disease (26% versus 38%, resp., and surfactant doses per patient (1.3 versus 1.8, resp., although those variables did not reach significance. Conclusion. We conclude that infants under 27 weeks' gestation profit from prophylactic surfactant administration by reducing the time of mechanical ventilation. This in turn could contribute to reduce the risk for mechanical ventilation associated complications, without any detrimental short-term side effects.

  13. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prop...

  14. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy the risk of dying of breast cancer is reduced by 90%, the risk of dying of ovarian cancer is reduced by 95%, and the risk of dying of any cause is reduced by 77%. The risk of breast cancer is further reduced by prophylactic mastectomy. Prophylactic oophorectomy and prophylactic mastectomy pose several challenges within Jewish law that call into question the permissibility of surgery, including mutilation of a healthy organ, termination of fertility, self-wounding, and castration. A growing number of Jewish legal scholars have found grounds to permit prophylactic surgery among BRCA carriers, with some even obligating prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy. Conclusion: Current data suggest a significant reduction in mortality from prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in BRCA carriers. While mutilation of healthy organs is intrinsically forbidden in Jewish law, the ability to preserve human life may contravene and even mandate prophylactic surgery.

  15. Efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in altering renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal allograft rejection is a complex phenomenon involving both cell-mediated and humoral antibody responses. Most transplant programs have used a combination of therapeutic modalites to combat the immune system in an attempt to prolong both allograft and patient survival. Corticosteroids (methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) and prednisone and azathioprine (Imuran) are widely accepted as immunosuppressive drugs; however, both are non-specific and have the disadvantage of compromising the recipients' defense mechanisms. Nevertheless, these drugs have proved to be essential to the success of renal transplantation and they are routinely used while the efficacy of other modalities continues to be evaluated. We could find no reports of a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in the complex therapeutic situation of renal transplantation with the only variable being the administration of local graft irradiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prophylactic graft irradiation for its effectiveness in preventing graft rejection in conjunction with Imuran and corticosteroids

  16. Efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in altering renal allograft survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, R.; Johnson, H.K.; Braren, H.V.; Richie, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    Renal allograft rejection is a complex phenomenon involving both cell-mediated and humoral antibody responses. Most transplant programs have used a combination of therapeutic modalites to combat the immune system in an attempt to prolong both allograft and patient survival. Corticosteroids (methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) and prednisone and azathioprine (Imuran) are widely accepted as immunosuppressive drugs; however, both are non-specific and have the disadvantage of compromising the recipients' defense mechanisms. Nevertheless, these drugs have proved to be essential to the success of renal transplantation and they are routinely used while the efficacy of other modalities continues to be evaluated. We could find no reports of a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in the complex therapeutic situation of renal transplantation with the only variable being the administration of local graft irradiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prophylactic graft irradiation for its effectiveness in preventing graft rejection in conjunction with Imuran and corticosteroids.

  17. Kangri cancer - natural history and role of prophylactic nodal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kashmir Valley the skin cancer has a very peculiar distribution as most of these are directly/indirectly attributed to the use of Kangri -an indigenous fire pot used to generate warmth and used in winter months to protect body from cold. In this presentation authors have tried to evaluate the natural history of this peculiar skin cancer and the protocol of use of prophylactic nodal irradiation to achieve a cure with better quality of life

  18. INTRASITE VANCOMYCIN POWDER AS A PROPHYLACTIC ADJUVANT IN LUMBAR FUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Álvaro González Ross; Alfredo Javier Moheno Gallardo; Eulalio Elizalde Martínez; José Manuel Pérez Atanasio; Ruth Martínez Martínez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify whether the use of prophylactic intrasite vancomycin as an adjuvant is a protective factor against deep tissue infection of the surgical site. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, case-control study evaluating 210 patients, of whom 70 received intrasite vancomycin (case group) and 140 were controls. It was made a follow up for at least one year, reviewing the physical and electronic records. Data were tabulated in spreadsheets (Excel) including all variable...

  19. Prophylactic Effect of Ondansetron for Intrathecal Fentanyl-Induced Pruritus

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Fathi; S. Saeed Jahanbakhsh; Saha Bazyar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using opioids along with local analgesic increase anesthesia duration and provide appropriate postoperative analgesia. However, intrathecal injection of opioids is associated with upsetting side effects including pruritus. Ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor agonist) has anti-pruritus effects. Therefore, we conducted a double blind randomized case-control study to evaluate prophylactic effects of ondansetron for preventing intrathecal fentanyl-induced pruritus. Materials and Methods: T...

  20. Tackling Ebola: new insights into prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Emmie; Feldmann, Heinz; Vincent J Munster

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1976, Ebolavirus has caused periodic outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever associated with severe and often fatal disease. Ebolavirus is endemic in Central Africa and the Philippines. Although there is currently no approved treatment available, the past 10 years has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the pathogenicity of Ebolavirus and the development of prophylactic and post-exposure therapies against it. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that Eb...

  1. A STUDY OF PROPHYLACTIC VALUE OF ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, P.B.; Ramakrishna, P.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The present prospective study is conducted to determine the prophylactic value of antiparkinsonian drug (A.P.) at the time of initiation of antipsychotic therapy. Seventy patients were selected who fulfilled the selection criteria. Thirty five patients received antipsychotic drugs alone (Group A), while another thirty five patients received A.P. drugs concurrently with antipsychotic drugs (Group B.) These patients were assessed weekly for 4 weeks for any extra pyramidal symptoms (E.P....

  2. Designed Chemical Intervention with Thiols for Prophylactic Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sharma; Lokesh Kumar; Ashish Jain; Vikas Verma; Vikas Sharma; Bhavana Kushwaha; Nand Lal; Lalit Kumar; Tara Rawat; Dwivedi, Anil K.; Jagdamba P Maikhuri; Sharma, Vishnu L.; Gopal Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Unlike somatic cells, sperm have several-fold more available-thiols that are susceptible to redox-active agents. The present study explains the mechanism behind the instant sperm-immobilizing and trichomonacidal activities of pyrrolidinium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (PPC), a novel thiol agent rationally created for prophylactic contraception by minor chemical modifications of some known thiol drugs. PPC, and its three derivatives (with potential active-site blocked by alkylation), were synt...

  3. Prophylactic Effect of Dietary Seaweed Fucoidan against Enteral Prion Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Doh-ura, Katsumi; Kuge, Tomoko; Uomoto, Miyuki; Nishizawa, Keiko; Kawasaki, Yuri; Iha, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    Dietary seaweed fucoidan delays the onset of disease of enterally infected mice with scrapie when given orally for 6 days after infection, but not when given before the infection. This effect was not modified at a tested fucoidan dose range and appeared to reach the maximum level at a concentration of 2.5% or less in feed. Daily uptake of fucoidan might be prophylactic against prion diseases caused by ingestion of prion-contaminated materials, although further evaluation of its pharmacology r...

  4. Role of prophylactic antiemetics in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONY) in oral and maxillofacial surgery done under general anaesthesia and to evaluate the purpose of using prophylactic antiemetic drugs. Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of the Study: Oral and Maxillofacial Department, KEMU / Mayo Hospital Lahore, from September 20 II to June 2012. Method: The number of patients who were operated in oral and maxillofacial surgery ward irrespective of age and gender for this study were 240. Risk factors related with PONY including gender, anesthetic drug used, surgical procedure, approach' used, total time of surgery and postoperative use of opioids were investigated. A wait and watch scheme was followed in patients with complaint of PONY. Antiemetics to be given in those cases where more than 2 episodes of vomiting took place. Results: It was found out that only II patients experienced from nausea and vomiting in post operative period. A notable relation was seen between PONY and female population, total time of surgery, anesthetic drug, surgery of tumor and temporomandibular joint. The surgical approach and opioids in postoperative period for PONY were found to be insignificant. Conclusion: PONY is not a significant finding in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We find out that there is no logic for the use of prophylactic antiemetic drugs in maxillofacial surgery. (author)

  5. Is prophylactic placement of drains necessary after subtotal gastrectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoj Kumar; Seung Bong Yang; Vijay Kumar Jaiswal; Jay N Shah; Manish Shreshtha; Rajesh Gongal

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the evidence-based values of prophylactic drainage in gastric cancer surgery.METHODS: One hundred and eight patients, who underwent subtotal gastrectomy with D1 or D2 lymph node dissection for gastric cancer between January 2001 and December 2005, were divided into drain group or no-drain group. Surgical outcome and post-operative complications within four weeks were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the drain group and no-drain group in terms of operating time (171±42 min vs 156±39 min), number of post-operative days until passage of flatus (3.7±0.5d vs 3.5±1.0 d), number of post-operative days until initiation of soft diet (4.9±0.7 d vs 4.8±0.8 d), length of post-operative hospital stay (9.3±2.2 d vs 8.4±2.4 d), mortality rate (5.4% vs 3.8%), and overall postoperative complication rate (21.4% vs19.2%).CONCLUSION: Prophylactic drainage placement is not necessary after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer since it does not offer additional benefits for the patients.

  6. Prophylactic irradiation of intervention sites in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To assess the effectiveness of prophylactic irradiation of intervention track (PIT) to prevent tumor seeding in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted of 171 patients with a histological diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma with some undergoing prophylactic irradiation of intervention sites. Results: Forty-eight patients (28%) received PIT. A majority of patients were followed until death. Thoracoscopy (88%) was the procedure most often performed. Thirty-three percent of patients received chemotherapy. The median dose of PIT was 21 Gy in 3 fractions with electrons or 6 MV photons. The local progression free survival (LPFS) at the intervention site was significantly higher in the PIT group and was not influenced by chemotherapy. At 6 months, LPFS for the intervention sites was 91% with PIT and 74% without PIT (p = 0.002). During the follow-up, 6 patients (13%) in the PIT group had tumor invasion of the subcutaneous tissue compared to 40 patients (33%) in the group without PIT (p = 0.008). Conclusions: This study suggests that PIT in mesothelioma reduces the incidence of procedure tract metastasis. Finally, chemotherapy does not seem to have an influence on the incidence of tract metastasis.

  7. Designed Chemical Intervention with Thiols for Prophylactic Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Kumar, Lokesh; Jain, Ashish; Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lalit; Rawat, Tara; Dwivedi, Anil K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Unlike somatic cells, sperm have several-fold more available-thiols that are susceptible to redox-active agents. The present study explains the mechanism behind the instant sperm-immobilizing and trichomonacidal activities of pyrrolidinium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (PPC), a novel thiol agent rationally created for prophylactic contraception by minor chemical modifications of some known thiol drugs. PPC, and its three derivatives (with potential active-site blocked by alkylation), were synthesized and evaluated against live human sperm and metronidazole-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas vaginalis, in vitro. Sperm hexokinase activity was evaluated by coupled enzyme assay. PPC irreversibly immobilized 100% human sperm in ∼30 seconds and totally eliminated Trichomonas vaginalis more efficiently than nonoxynol-9 and metronidazole. It significantly inhibited (Pnonoxynol-9, the action of thiol-active PPC is apparently much more specific, potent and safe. PPC presents a proof-of-concept for prophylactic contraception via manipulation of thiols in vagina for selective targeting of sperm and Trichomonas, and qualifies as a promising lead for the development of dually protective vaginal-contraceptive. PMID:23826278

  8. Current progress in the development of a prophylactic vaccine for HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena J Gamble

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lena J Gamble1, Qiana L Matthews1,21Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Pathology, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Gene Therapy Center, 2Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Since its discovery and characterization in the early 1980s as a virus that attacks the immune system, there has been some success for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection. However, due to the overwhelming public health impact of this virus, a vaccine is needed urgently. Despite the tireless efforts of scientist and clinicians, there is still no safe and effective vaccine that provides sterilizing immunity. A vaccine that provides sterilizing immunity against HIV infection remains elusive in part due to the following reasons: 1 degree of diversity of the virus, 2 ability of the virus to evade the hosts’ immunity, and 3 lack of appropriate animal models in which to test vaccine candidates. There have been several attempts to stimulate the immune system to provide protection against HIV-infection. Here, we will discuss attempts that have been made to induce sterilizing immunity, including traditional vaccination attempts, induction of broadly neutralizing antibody production, DNA vaccines, and use of viral vectors. Some of these attempts show promise pending continued research efforts.Keywords: HIV, prophylactic vaccine, AIDS, viral vectors, sterilizing immunity

  9. Multiscale Systems-Pharmacology Pipeline to Assess the Prophylactic Efficacy of NRTIs Against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwal, S; Sunkara, V; von Kleist, M

    2016-07-01

    While HIV-1 continues to spread, the use of antivirals in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has recently been suggested. Here we present a modular systems pharmacology modeling pipeline, predicting PrEP efficacy of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) at the scale of reverse transcription, target-cell, and systemic infection and after repeated viral exposures, akin to clinical trials. We use this pipeline to benchmark the prophylactic efficacy of all currently approved NRTIs in wildtype and mutant viruses. By integrating pharmacokinetic models, we find that intracellular tenofovir-diphosphate builds up too slowly to halt infection when taken "on demand" and that lamivudine may substitute emtricitabine in PrEP combinations. Lastly, we delineate factors confounding clinical PrEP efficacy estimates and provide a method to overcome these. The presented framework is useful to screen and optimize PrEP candidates and strategies and to understand their clinical efficacy by integrating the diverse scales which determine PrEP efficacy. PMID:27439573

  10. Designed Chemical Intervention with Thiols for Prophylactic Contraception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    Full Text Available Unlike somatic cells, sperm have several-fold more available-thiols that are susceptible to redox-active agents. The present study explains the mechanism behind the instant sperm-immobilizing and trichomonacidal activities of pyrrolidinium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (PPC, a novel thiol agent rationally created for prophylactic contraception by minor chemical modifications of some known thiol drugs. PPC, and its three derivatives (with potential active-site blocked by alkylation, were synthesized and evaluated against live human sperm and metronidazole-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas vaginalis, in vitro. Sperm hexokinase activity was evaluated by coupled enzyme assay. PPC irreversibly immobilized 100% human sperm in ∼30 seconds and totally eliminated Trichomonas vaginalis more efficiently than nonoxynol-9 and metronidazole. It significantly inhibited (P<0.001 thiol-sensitive sperm hexokinase. However, the molecule completely lost all its biological activities once its thiol group was blocked by alkylation. PPC was subsequently formulated into a mucoadhesive vaginal film using GRaS excipients and evaluated for spermicidal and microbicidal activities (in vitro, and contraceptive efficacy in rabbits. PPC remained fully active in quick-dissolving, mucoadhesive vaginal-film formulation, and these PPC-films significantly reduced pregnancy and fertility rates in rabbits. The films released ∼90% of PPC in simulated vaginal fluid (pH 4.2 at 37°C in 5 minutes, in vitro. We have thus discovered a common target (reactive thiols on chiefly-anaerobic, redox-sensitive cells like sperm and Trichomonas, which is susceptible to designed chemical interference for prophylactic contraception. The active thiol in PPC inactivates sperm and Trichomonas via interference with crucial sulfhydryl-disulfide based reactions, e.g. hexokinase activation in human sperm. In comparison to non-specific surfactant action of OTC spermicide nonoxynol-9, the action of

  11. Value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in contemporary neurosurgical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in diseases leading to intractable epilepsy. We reviewed 11 glioneuronal tumors (GNT) including gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 11 cortical dysplasia (CD), and 33 cavernous angiomas (CA) diagnosed with MRI between the years 2000 and 2008 at the Department of Neurosurgery of Juntendo University in this study. We analyzed retrospectively the followings. Age of seizure onset and seizure severity. Region of each disease leading to intractable epilepsy. Seizure outcome after the surgery. Surgical morbidity. Ages of seizure onset of GNT, CD, and CA were 21.0±12.1, 1.3±7.5, 24.8±18.1 years, respectively. 81.8% of CD and GNT were intractable, however CA progresses to intractable epilepsy in 48.5%. The 66.7% of GNT with intractable seizures located in the mesial temporal lobe and 66.7% of CD had entra-temporal location. CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progressed to intractable epilepsy in 80%. Seizure free ratios of GNT, CD, and CA were 87.5%, 50.0%, 81.3%, respectively. In CDs where was impossible to carry out complete resection resulted in residual seizures. Neurological sequelae after surgery were observed in 3 cases. Morbidity ratios of motor weakness, speech difficulty, and memory disturbances are 4.6%, 4.6%, 2.3%, respectively. Majority of CD, GNT, and CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progress towards intractable epilepsy. Prophylactic epilepsy surgery by experienced surgeon with low complication rates can be an acceptable alternative for these pathological conditions. Seizure outcome of surgery for CD does not reach the success rates of those in GNT and CA. The cause of the unfavorable result in CD is the inapplicability to eloquent areas. Aggressive early surgery for CD may improve outcome considering neuronal plasticity of childhood. (author)

  12. Plant-based solutions for veterinary immunotherapeutics and prophylactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotilin, Igor; Topp, Ed; Cox, Eric; Devriendt, Bert; Conrad, Udo; Joensuu, Jussi; Stöger, Eva; Warzecha, Heribert; McAllister, Tim; Potter, Andrew; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher; Menassa, Rima

    2014-01-01

    An alarming increase in emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens worldwide has become a serious threat to our ability to treat infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. Extensive use of antibiotics by livestock producers promotes the spread of new resistant strains, some of zoonotic concern, which increases food-borne illness in humans and causes significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, consumer preferences for meat/poultry/fish produced without the use of antibiotics shape today's market demand. So, it is viewed as inevitable by the One Health Initiative that humans need to reduce the use of antibiotics and turn to alternative, improved means to control disease: vaccination and prophylactics. Besides the intense research focused on novel therapeutic molecules, both these strategies rely heavily on the availability of cost-effective, efficient and scalable production platforms which will allow large-volume manufacturing for vaccines, antibodies and other biopharmaceuticals. Within this context, plant-based platforms for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins offer significant advantages over conventional expression systems, including lack of animal pathogens, low production costs, fast turnaround and response times and rapid, nearly-unlimited scalability. Also, because dried leaves and seeds can be stored at room temperature for lengthy periods without loss of recombinant proteins, plant expression systems have the potential to offer lucrative benefits from the development of edible vaccines and prophylactics, as these would not require "cold chain" storage and transportation, and could be administered in mass volumes with minimal processing. Several biotechnology companies currently have developed and adopted plant-based platforms for commercial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. In this manuscript, we outline the challenges in the process of livestock immunization as well as the current

  13. Optimizing Prophylactic Antibiotic Practice for Cardiothoracic Surgery by Pharmacists' Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Ma, Jingjing; Gao, Jie; Chen, Shiqi; Bao, Jianan

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacists' role may be ideal for improving rationality of drug prescribing practice. We aimed to study the impact of multifaceted pharmacist interventions on antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing clean or clean-contaminated operations in cardiothoracic department. A pre-test-post-test quasiexperimental study was conducted in a cardiothoracic ward at a tertiary teaching hospital in Suzhou, China. Patients admitted to the ward were collected as baseline group (2011.7-2012.12) and intervention group (2013.7-2014.12), respectively. The criteria of prophylaxis antibiotic utilization were established on the basis of the published guidelines and official documents. During the intervention phase, a dedicated pharmacist was assigned and multifaceted interventions were implemented in the ward. Then we compared the differences in antibiotic utilization, bacterial resistance, clinical and economic outcomes between the 2 groups. Furthermore, patients were collected after the intervention (2015.1-2015.6) to evaluate the sustained effects of pharmacist interventions. 412 and 551 patients were included in the baseline and intervention groups, while 156 patients in postintervention group, respectively. Compared with baseline group, a significant increase was found in the proportion of antibiotic prophylaxis, the proportion of rational antibiotic selection, the proportion of suitable prophylactic antibiotic duration, and the proportion of suitable timing of administration of the first preoperative dose (P pharmacist intervention resulted in favorable outcomes with significantly decreased rates of surgical site infections, prophylactic antibiotic cost, and significantly shortened length of stay (P Pharmacist interventions in cardiothoracic surgery result in a high adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines and a profound culture change in drug prescribing with favorable outcomes. The effects of pharmacist intervention are sustained and the role of pharmacists is

  14. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse if prophylactic cranial irradiation is small cell lung cancer for improved survival is indicated; if adjuvant irradiation could cure the microscopic disease; if and how late effects could be minimized. Data from randomized trials and retrospective studies are critically analysed related to the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in limited disease patients in complete remission with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. The mechanisms of late effects on CNS of prophylactic cranial irradiation and combined treatment are presented. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could decrease the incidence of CNS metastases but could not improve survival. A subgroup of patients (9 to 14%) most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure. The actual used total dose in the range 30 to 40 Gy could only conditionally decrease the CNS failure. Higher total and/or daily doses and combined treatment are related with potentially devastating neurologic and intellectual disabilities. No prospective randomized trial has demonstrated a significant survival advantage for patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Prophylactic cranial irradiation is capable of reducing the incidence of cerebral metastases and delays CNS failure. A subgroup of patients most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation (9 to 14%) includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure, but this had yet to be demonstrated. The toxicity of treatment is difficult to be influenced. Prophylactic cranial irradiation should not be given concurrently with chemotherapy, a larger interval after chemotherapy is indicated. The total dose should be in the range 30 to 36 Gy and the daily fraction size not larger than 2 Gy. (orig.)

  15. [Latest standards of muscle injury prophylactic activities, treatment and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Jacek; Bakowski, Paweł; Tabiszewski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury represents the highest proportion of sport-linked contusions. Experimental and clinical studies aim at increasingly detailed recognition of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. It would allow to set up functional standards and permit to minimize risk of contusions associated with sport activities. In cases of such contusions it would restrict its sequele and would abbreviate the duration of treatment. In the study elements of prophylaxis, treatment and rehabilitation of injured muscles will be discussed, based on current scientific results. Review study includes data from studies investigating prophylactic activities, types of teratment and the effects of different rehabilitation strategy. Latest standards from First European Congress of Football Medicine, Munich 2004, were also taken into account. The prophylactic activities should focus on education attempting to popularize the knowledge of the role of warm-up activities which precede proper physical effort, muscle stretching and activities augmenting muscle strength. The treatment of muscle injury is related to the extent of their damage. First actions should be focused on the RICE principle (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation). In case of torn tissues, local injections of anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents and regeneration-promoting agents used to be applied. Application of NSAIDs and anti-thrombotic prophylaxis is sound but due to their side effects it is recommended as frequently as it is counterindicated by physicians. A threshold in the therapy, not always noted by therapeutists, involves rapid mobilization of the injured tissue. This involves mobility exercises starting at 3-5 days post-trauma, with no load at the beginning, but starting at days 4 to 6 asssociated with appropriate loading. The recently conducted studies aim at stimulation of rapid muscle regeneration, inhibition of scar formation in the site of injury and elimination of already existing scars. The latter seems most

  16. When less is more: can we abandon prophylactic platelet transfusion in Dengue fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukularatne, Changa; Dimatatac, Frederico; Teo, Diana Lt; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee Sin

    2011-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF) has several hematological manifestations including thrombocytopenia and increased bleeding risk. Prophylactic platelet transfusion-in the absence of major bleeding-is utilized in DF with thrombocytopenia with the intention of preventing hemorrhagic complications. However, prophylactic platelet transfusion in DF is neither standardized nor supported by clinical evidence. We conclude that risks, costs and poor resource utilization associated with prophylactic platelet transfusion in DF far outweigh any potential hematological benefit, and as such, should not constitute routine clinical practice. PMID:22294065

  17. Prophylactic Appendectomy during Laparoscopic Surgery for Other Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Occhionorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis remains the most common surgical emergency. Laparoscopy has gained increasing favor as a method of both investigating right iliac fossa pain and treating the finding of appendicitis. A question arises: what to do with an apparent healthy appendix discovered during laparoscopic surgery for other pathology. We present a case of unilateral hydroureteronephrosis complicated with rupture of the renal pelvis, due to gangrenous appendicitis with abscess of the right iliopsoas muscle and periappendicular inflammation in a 67-year-old woman, who underwent laparoscopic right annessiectomy for right ovarian cyst few years earlier, in which a healthy appendix was left inside. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what to do with a normal appendix. The main argument for removing an apparently normal appendix is that endoluminal appendicitis may not be recognized during surgery, leading to concern that an abnormal appendix is left in place. Because of a lack of evidence from randomized trials, it remains unclear whether the benefits of routine elective coincidental appendectomy outweigh the costs and risks of morbidity associated with this prophylactic procedure. Nevertheless, it appears, from limited data, that women aged 35 years and under benefit most from elective coincidental appendectomy.

  18. Problems of prophylactic CNS radiotherapy in acute children's leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prophylactic treatment of the CNS was conducted by cobalt teletherapy of the cranium and by intrathecal application of MTX after the induction of primary remission in 70 children with acute leukemia throughout 5 years up to the end of 1978. The method of the combined radio- and chemoprophylaxis of the CNS was being changed during the years, especially as far as the radiation dose for the cranium was concerned. A detailed analysis made in a group of 59 children with the minimum interval of 18 months from the beginning of the treatment showed the best results after the application of a dose of 24 Gy/3 weeks. Following this procedure the relapse of leukemia in the CNS occurred in 9% only, whereas on the application of doses of 20 Gy and lower it occurred in 35 to 40%. On the whole 24 out of 59 children, i.e. 41%, are surviving, 35 children, i.e. 59%, died. Mostly complete, but only temporary, epilation was an invariable consequence of the irradiation of the cranium. The somnolence syndrome was only sporadically observed. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of its forms in patients discharged from hospital escaped attention. No case was recorded of serious impairment of the CNS of the leukoencephalopathic type. Up to now the psychomotor, intellectual and emotional development of the surviving children has been normal. (author)

  19. [Two types of diaphragmatic plication; therapeutic plication and prophylactic plication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Sumiko; Sado, Tetsu; Sakurada, Akira; Okada, Yoshinori; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Plication of the hemidiaphragm is effective to relieve respiratory symptoms such as exertional dyspnea and orthopnea of the patients with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. We have experiences of 2 types of diaphragmatic plication;one for the symptomatic patients with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, and the other for the patients who underwent phrenicotomy during extended surgery for a recurrent thymoma. The former plication was performed for a therapeutic purpose to alleviate the patient's symptoms. The latter was performed for a prophylactic purpose to keep the patient free from possible symptoms or postoperative morbidity after phrenicotomy. Case 1:A 65-year-old female with an eventration of the right diaphragm underwent a sternal resection and reconstruction for a large desmoid tumor. After continuous mechanical ventilation for 3 months, she was still under noninvasive positive pressure ventilation( NPPV) for 24 hours a day. Plication of the right hemidiaphragm was performed and the patient was successfully weaned from NPPV. Case 2:A 41-year-old female with myasthenia gravis underwent a surgery for a recurrent thymoma. Left phrenicotomy was necessary to achieve a complete resection of the tumor. Plication of the left diaphragm was performed during the tumor resection to prevent possible respiratory complications. Postoperative course was uneventful, and her vital capacity was well maintained. PMID:25292373

  20. HPV Prophylactic Vaccination in Males Improves the Clearance of Semen Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Foresta

    2015-10-01

    Discussion: Humoral immunity has a major role in healing from HPV infection. Elder ART patients with HPV semen infection may benefit by the union of both specific counselling and available prophylactic vaccination.

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of traditional polyherbal remedy from Odisha, India:Their potential for prophylactic use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; Bangalore; Nagendrappa; Jean-Fran?ois; Franetich; Frederick; Gay; Audrey; Lorthiois; Padma; Venkatasubramanian; Dominique; Mazier

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential prophylactic activity of traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria.Methods:A traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria from Odisha,India was evaluated for its potential prophylactic activity using in vitro hepatic cell lines assay and the murine malaria system Plasmodium yoelii yoelii/Anopheles stephensi.Results:The polyherbal extract inhibited the Plasmodium yoelii hepatic stages in vitro(IC500.74 mg/m L),a therapeutic index of 9.54.In mice treated with the aqueous extract(2 000 mg/kg/day),peak parasitaemia values were 81%lower in the experimental2.35%±0.14%as compared to controls 12.62%±0.52%(P<0.001),suggesting significant prophylactic activity.Conclusions:The observations provide a proof of concept for a traditional malaria prophylactic remedy used by tribal populations in India.

  2. Indications and Outcomes of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Extracranial-to-intracranial Arterial Bypass for Cerebral Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gazyakan, MD, MSc

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The collaboration of neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons in performing EC-IC bypass can result in excellent outcomes with a high bypass patency rate and few complications, particularly for prophylactic EC-IC bypass.

  3. Classification of prophylactic antiradiation drugs as the consistency of conceptual basis of current radiation pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consistency of the classification of prophylactic antiradiation drugs have been given consideration as history of their discovery, theory of the radioprotection mechanisms and their use in applied medicine. Prophylactic drugs consists of radioprotectors with short-term of long-term action, drugs stimulating radioresistance, the ones suppressing symptoms of primary radiation reaction, the ones of early detoxication, the ones for adsorption and elimination of radionuclides from an organism

  4. Prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection (VI level in papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of central lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is very common. However, prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection additionally to thyroidectomy does not significantly affect disease-free and overall survival of PTC patients. Meanwhile its routine conduction is tangibly increase postsurgical complications. From efficacy/safety point of view prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection couldn't be recommended as substantiated in all PTC patients.

  5. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Singh; Vimal Malviya; Anshoo Gautam; Ram Singh; Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate) and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide) are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent) toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostin...

  6. Comparison of intelligence quotient in children surviving leukemia who received different prophylactic central nervous system treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Reisi Nahid; Khalilian Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive deficits and decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ) is one of the complication of prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. In this study, we compare the IQ in survivors of ALL that were treated with different prophylactic CNS treatments. Materials and Methods : We compared 43 long-term survivors of ALL: 21 survivors with intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) as CNS prophylaxis, 22 with IT MTX+1800-2400 rads c...

  7. Prophylactic bundle for radiation-induced oral mucositis in oral or oropharyngeal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita Y; Hayashida S; Funahara M; Umeda M; Saito T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In order to prevent and treat radiation-induced adverse events, especially oral mucositis, in patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, a prophylactic bundle, i.e., a set of oral care management procedures, is conducted and assessed. Subjects and methods: The subjects were 30 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx who underwent radiotherapy. The patients received the prophylactic bundle to prevent radiati...

  8. Prophylactic Pancreatic Stent Placement for Endoscopic Duodenal Ampullectomy: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Woo Ik; Min, Yang Won; Yun, Hwan Sic; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the efficacy of prophylactic pancreatic stent placement for preventing postprocedure pancreatitis in patients undergoing endoscopic papillectomy. Methods This retrospective study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic papillectomy for benign ampullary neoplasm at Samsung Medical Center between August 2002 and June 2011. The patients were subdivided into two groups, namely, those who received prophylactic pancreatic stent placement and those w...

  9. Prophylactic tracheal intubation for upper GI bleeding: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Rahman, Rubayat; Jersak, Samuel T.; Asombang, Akwi W; Hinds, Alisha M.; Hammad, Hazem T.; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Bechtold, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate usefulness of prophylactically intubating upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) patients. METHODS UGIB results in a significant number of hospital admissions annually with endoscopy being the key intervention. In these patients, risks are associated with the bleeding and the procedure, including pulmonary aspiration. However, very little literature is available assessing the use of prophylactic endotracheal intubation on aspiration in these patients. A comprehensive search wa...

  10. Brain damage following prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Marta; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Fuentes, Rafael; Cardenal, Felipe; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bruna, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Long-term toxic effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on cognition in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have not yet been well-established. The aim of our study was to examine the cognitive toxic effects together with brain structural changes in a group of long-term SCLC survivors treated with PCI. Eleven SCLC patients, who underwent PCI ≥ 2 years before, were compared with an age and education matched healthy control group. Both groups were evaluated using a neuropsychological battery and multimodal structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Tract-based Spatial Statistics were used to study gray matter density (GMD) and white matter (WM) microstructural changes. Cognitive deterioration was correlated with GMD and Fractional Anisotropy (FA). Finally, we carried out a single-subject analysis in order to evaluate individual structural brain changes. Nearly half of the SCLC met criteria for cognitive impairment, all exhibiting a global worsening of cognitive functioning. Patients showed significant decreases of GMD in basal ganglia bilaterally (putamen and caudate), bilateral thalamus and right insula, together with WM microstructural changes of the entire corpus callosum. Cognitive deterioration scores correlated positively with mean FA values in the corpus callosum. Single-subject analysis revealed that GMD and WM changes were consistently observed in nearly all patients. This study showed neuropsychological deficits together with brain-specific structural differences in long-term SCLC survivors. Our results suggest that PCI therapy, possibly together with platinum-based chemotherapy, was associated to permanent long-term cognitive and structural brain effects in a SCLC population. PMID:26015269

  11. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  12. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments

  13. Prophylactic Effect of Gossypin Against Percutaneously Administered Sulfur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANSHOO GAUTAM; R.VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    2007-01-01

    through oral route when administered with DMSO(4.8 folds)than with PEG-300(2.4 folds).No protection was observed when gossypin was administered orally with water.Conclusion Percutaneous administration of SM induces oxidative stress and gossypin can protect it as a prophylactic agent by intraperitoneal or oral routes.

  14. Thyroid dose in children undergoing prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the radiation dose received by the thyroid gland as a result of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in childhood leukemia and the factors influencing that dose. Methods and Materials: The dose to the thyroid resulting from simulated cranial irradiation with parallel opposed lateral fields of an adult anthropomorphic (ART) phantom with both 6 MV X-rays and Cobalt-60 γ-rays was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The dependence of thyroid dose on the distance of the field from the thyroid and the proportions of thyroid dose from stray radiation (leakage, scatter from jaws, etc.) and tissue scattered radiation were measured. The effects of a shadow tray and shielding blocks were also determined. Calculation of thyroid dose using the Clarkson scatter integration method was performed for 6 MV X-rays to compare with the measured doses. In vivo thyroid dose estimates were made using TLD measurements for three children receiving PCI with 6 MV X-rays. Results: Using open, unshielded fields, the thyroid region of the phantom received 1.2-1.4% of the prescribed cranial dose for 6 MV X-rays and 1.5-1.7% for Cobalt-60. For both treatment units, stray radiation accounted for approximately two thirds of the thyroid dose and tissue scatter accounted for the remaining one third. The thyroid dose increased as the field moved closer to the thyroid, with an increasing proportion of the dose due to tissue scatter. Placement of a thyroid shielding block on a shadow tray reduced the thyroid dose by only 20% compared with the open, unshielded setup. Thyroid dose from 6 MV using open fields was affected by the orientation of the collimator. When the inferior field edge was defined by the lower jaw, the dose was reduced by 27% compared with the upper jaw. Good correlation of dose to the thyroid region was obtained between phantom measured doses, in vivo measured doses and calculation of dose using the Clarkson method. Conclusion: For PCI doses of

  15. Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors in femoral neck fracture patients - A life - and cost-saving intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Trickett, R; Meyer, Cer; Lewthwaite, S; Ford, D

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Acute gastrointestinal stress ulceration is a common and serious complication of trauma. Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine receptor antagonists have been used in poly-trauma, burns and head and spinal injuries, as well as on intensive care units, for the prevention of acute gastric stress ulcers. Methods We prospectively studied the use of prophylactic PPIs in with femoral neck fracture patients, gathering data on all acute gastric ulcer complications, including coffee-ground vomiting, malena and haematemesis. We then implemented a treatment protocol in which all patients were given prophylactic PPIs, again prospectively collecting all data. Results Five hundred and fifteen patients were included. Prior to prophylactic PPI, 15% of patients developed gastric stress ulcer complications, with 3% requiring acute intervention with oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), 5% requiring transfusions and 4% experiencing surgical delays. All patients had delayed discharges. Following PPI implementation, no patients developed gastric stress ulcer complications. Conclusions Femoral neck fracture patients create a substantial workload for orthopaedic units. The increasingly elderly population often have comorbidities, and concomitantly use medications with gastrointestinal side effects. This, combined with the stress of a fracture and preoperative starvation periods increases the risk of gastric ulcers. Here, the use of prophylactic PPIs statistically reduced the incidence of gastric stress ulcers in patients with femoral neck fractures, resulting in fewer surgical delays, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced stress ulcer-related mortality. PMID:27055405

  16. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  17. Periinterventional prophylactic antibiotics in radiological port catheter implantation; Periinterventionelle prophylaktische Antibiotikagabe bei der radiologischen Portkatheterimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B.; Teichgraeber, U.; Werk, M. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Wagner, H.J. [Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain und am Urban (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether catheter-related infections after radiologically placed port catheters can be reduced by single-shot periinterventional antibiosis. Materials and Method: Between January and September 2002, 164 consecutive patients with indication for central venous port catheter implantation were included in the present study. During implantation the interventional radiologist was responsible for deciding whether to administer a prophylactic single-shot antibiosis. The prophylactic antibiosis entailed intravenous administration of ampicillin and sulbactam (3 g Unacid, Pfizer) or 100 mg ciprofloxacine (Ciprobay, Bayer) in the case of an allergy history to penicillins. Catheter-related infection was defined as a local or systemic infection necessitating port catheter extraction. Results: Indication for port catheter implantation was a malignant disease requiring chemotherapy in 158 cases. The port catheter (Chemosite [Tyco Healthcare] [n = 123], low-profile [Arrow International] [n = 35], other port system [n = 6]) was implanted via sonographically guided puncture of the right jugular vein in 139 patients, via the left jugular vein in 24 cases and via the right subclavian vein in one patient. 75 patients received periinterventional prophylactic antibiosis (Unacid [n = 63] Ciprobay [n = 12]) and 89 patients did not receive antibiosis. The prophylactic antibiosis caused a minor allergic reaction in one patient that improved with antihistamic and corticoid medication. A total of 7 ports, 6 without prophylactic antibiosis versus one with periinterventional prophylaxis, were extracted due to infectious complications. Conclusion: Single-shot periinterventional prophylactic antibiosis can reduce early and late infectious complications after radiological-interventional placement of central venous port catheters. (orig.)

  18. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  19. Particle Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    I give a short overview on some of the favorite particle Cold Dark Matter candidates today, focusing on those having detectable interactions: the axion, the KK-photon in Universal Extra Dimensions, the heavy photon in Little Higgs and the neutralino in Supersymmetry. The neutralino is still the most popular, and today is available in different flavours: SUGRA, nuSUGRA, sub-GUT, Mirage mediation, NMSSM, effective MSSM, scenarios with CP violation. Some of these scenarios are already at the level of present sensitivities for direct DM searches.

  20. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  1. High prevalence of premalignant lesions in prophylactically removed breasts from women at hereditary risk for breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Bult, P.; Widt-Levert, L.M. de; Beex, L.V.A.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Boetes, C.; Manders, P.; Brunner, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women with a hereditary predisposition for breast cancer have an extremely high risk of developing invasive breast carcinoma, and many women consider prophylactic mastectomy to avoid this risk. The use of prophylactic mastectomy is still debated. Identification of frequent premalignant lesi

  2. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  3. Can prophylactic application of immunoglobulin decrease radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mose, S; Adamietz, I A; Saran, F; Thilmann, C; Heyd, R; Knecht, R; Böttcher, H D

    1997-08-01

    Therapeutic application of immunoglobulin is reported to be successful in radiation-induced oral and oropharyngeal mucositis. In this study the efficacy of prophylactic application of immunoglobulin was investigated. In 42 patients with head and neck cancer, postoperative radiation treatment or radiation combined with chemotherapy was performed. In 20 consecutive patients, prophylactic mucositis treatment consisted of panthenol (4 x 10 ml/day) and nystatin (4 x 1 ml/day). The 22 following patients received, supplementary to panthenol and nystatin, 800 mg (5 ml) human immunoglobulin intramuscularly once weekly. During the treatment time, the degree of mucositis was examined 3 times a week. The distribution of maximal mucositis degree revealed slightly more severe mucous membrane reaction in the control group compared with the immunoglobulin group (n.s.). The analysis of mean mucositis degrees in both groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (t test, p = 0.031) related to the entire group (n = 42) and to those 16 patients receiving radiation combined with chemotherapy. There was no significant immunoglobulin-induced effect on mucositis in patients treated by radiation alone. The time from the beginning of therapy to the first interruption could be prolonged 5 days in the immunoglobulin group (n.s.). In conclusion, it is demonstrated that the prophylactic application of immunoglobulin seems to lower the degree of radiation-induced mucositis. In comparison to the published data about therapeutically given immunoglobulin, the clinical efficacy of the prophylactic application of immunoglobulin as it is performed in this study is less evident. PMID:9256900

  4. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  5. Neutron activation appraisal of efficiency of herbs in prophylactic measures of teeth caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of neutron activation analysis of elemental composition of teeth in experimental animals under conditions of pesticides and fluorine influence on an organism have been obtained and the role of black mulberry and zizyphus jujubi mill in prophylactics of teeth caries has been determined. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  6. A Methodological Systematic Review on Surgical Site Infections Following Spinal Surgery: Part 2: Prophylactic Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Pull ter Gunne, A.F.; Schuetz, M.; Habil, D.; Cohen, D.B.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Laarhoven, C.J. van

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: A methodological systematic review. OBJECTIVE.: To critically appraise the validity of preventive effects attributed to prophylactic treatments for surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: As a result of a rapidly increasing number of spinal pro

  7. Long-standing prophylactic therapy vs. episodic treatment in young people with severe haemophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, J; Lethagen, Stefan Rune; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt;

    2014-01-01

    Two distinctly different substitution principles are commonly used in haemophilia: treatment at bleeding episodes only referred to as on-demand treatment, and prophylactic factor administration. The aim of the cross-sectional study which was undertaken in young patients suffering severe haemophil...

  8. A practical technique to avoid the hippocampus in prophylactic cranial irradiation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical technique is presented to deliver hippocampus avoiding prophylactic cranial irradiation for lung cancer patients, using two lateral fields. For a prescribed dose of 12 × 2.5 Gy, sparing of the hippocampi to 6.1 Gy was achieved with a V95% of the brain of 81.7%.

  9. Prophylactic antibiotics at the time of tracheotomy lowers the incidence of pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nicklas Järvelä; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia in relation to tracheotomy is a well-known complication. The aim of the present study was to study prophylactic antibiotics at the time of tracheotomy as a protective factor against nosocomial pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted on...

  10. Prophylactic corticosteroid injection in ulnar wrist pain in distal radius fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Saied

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study it seems that prophylactic corticosteroid injection will be associated with a decrease in the severity of wrist pain in patients with acute distal radius fractures. With regard to the decrease in the number of painless individuals, it seems that the decrease is not persistent. Overall the need for a study with longer followup is obvious.

  11. Parenteral anticoagulation in patients with cancer who have no therapeutic or prophylactic indication for anticoagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Akl; S. Gunukula; M. Barba; V.E.D. Yosuico; F.F. van Doormaal; S. Kuipers; S. Middeldorp; H.O. Dickinson; A. Bryant; H. Schuenemann

    2011-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation may improve survival in patients with cancer through an antitumor effect in addition to the perceived antithrombotic effect. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of parenteral anticoagulants in patients with cancer with no therapeutic or prophylactic indication f

  12. Multicentric ductal and lobular atypia and occult carcinoma in prophylactic subcutaneous mastectomies: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, J M; Kern, W H

    1979-02-01

    A report is made on 2 patients undergoing prophylactic subcutaneous mastectomy and reconstruction following treatment for carcinoma of the opposite breast. The dangers of augmenting, reducing, or correcting the shape of the remaining breast to match the reconstructed one are also examined. PMID:426453

  13. Hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma appearing 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation-induced cerebellar glioma is extremely rare, and the etiology of such a tumor is unknown. We report a rare case of hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma occurring 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. We discuss the etiologies of the radiation-induced hemorrhagic cerebellar glioma as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Prophylactic antibiotics for variceal hemorrhage: Clostridium difficile infection still can be a risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naohiro Okano; Kentaro Iwata

    2011-01-01

    Bron et al presented a retrospective study regarding the prophylactic use of antibiotics for variceal hemorrhage. Antibiotics appeared to improve the survival rate of patients without increasing clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We argue against the conclusion of the authors and consider that this result may be simply due to concurrent use of metronidazole, a therapeutic agent against CDI.

  15. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase: a candidate Helicobacter pylori vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Avril A; Morales, Veronica Athie; Mulligan, Linda; Faheem, Nazia; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot P

    2012-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important etiological agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) and mannosylated AhpC (mAhpC) as candidate vaccines in the C57BL/6J mouse model of H. pylori infection. Recombinant AhpC was cloned, over-expressed and purified in an unmodified form and was also engineered to incorporate N and C-terminal mannose residues when expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mice were immunized systemically and mucosally with AhpC and systemically with mAhpC prior to challenge with H. pylori. Serum IgG responses to AhpC were determined and quantitative culture was used to determine the efficacy of vaccination strategies. Systemic prophylactic immunization with AhpC/alum and mAhpC/alum conferred protection against infection in 55% and 77.3% of mice, respectively. Mucosal immunization with AhpC/cholera toxin did not protect against infection and elicited low levels of serum IgG in comparison with systemic immunization. These data support the use of AhpC as a potential vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection. PMID:22512976

  16. The effect of prophylactic antipyretic administration on post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody response in children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at

  17. Guidelines on the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure during nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the fission products that may be released in a power reactor accident the radio iodines are unique in that the dose received by persons exposed by inhalation of radio iodines in the gaseous plume may be substantially reduced. GMA-9 provides guidance on the medical aspects of the use of stable iodine compounds as a prophylactic measure in the event of a nuclear accident. A review of the physiologic basis for the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure and the effects of radiation on the thyroid gland are provided. Logistic factors that must be considered to provide the optimum level of radiological protection and medical safety are also addressed. 71 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccination against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: Developments and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Major

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in patients and chimpanzees that spontaneously clear Hepatitis C Virus (HCV have demonstrated that natural immunity to the virus is induced during primary infections and that this immunity can be cross protective. These discoveries led to optimism regarding prophylactic HCV vaccines and a number of studies in the chimpanzee model have been performed, all of which resulted in modified infections after challenge but did not always prevent persistence of the virus. Therapeutic vaccine strategies have also been pursued in an effort to reduce the costs and side effects associated with anti-viral drug treatment. This review summarizes the studies performed thus far in both patients and chimpanzees for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination, assesses the progress made and future perspectives.

  19. Amifostine: An Effective Prophylactic Agent against Sulphur Mustard Toxicity (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Pathak

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine, S-2-(aminopropylamino ethylphosphorothioate and two of its analogues have been evaluated as prophylactic agent against SM toxicity. The compounds were administered intraperitoncally (i.p. at 0.2 LD/sub59 dose in mice 30 min prior to dermal application of SM. The protective efficacy was determined by observing the mortality for 14 days. The protection offered by amifostine was better than its analogues. Subsequent study on time-dependent protection, carried out with amifostine (0.2 LD/sub50, i.p. provided significant protection when the drug was administered as 30 min pre-treatment and simultaneous treatment against SM at 155 mg.kg/-1 dose (equal to 19-fold LD/sub50. Furthermore, oral administration of amifostine (30 min pre-treatment showed similar results. These findings suggest that amifostine is a promising prophylactic agent against SM toxicity.

  20. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Boampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Xylopic acid exerted significant (P<0.05 effects on P. berghei infection similar to artemether/lumefantrine, the standard drug. Furthermore, it significantly (P<0.05 reduced the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to prednisolone. Xylopic acid therefore possesses prophylactic and curative antimalarial as well as antipyretic properties which makes it an ideal antimalarial agent.

  1. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  2. Different aspects of breast reconstruction : contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, postmastectomy radiotherapy, complications after biomaterials injection

    OpenAIRE

    Unukovych, Dmytro

    2012-01-01

    The advances in breast reconstruction and oncoplastic surgery have positively affected the cosmetic and functional outcomes without compromising oncological safety. In this thesis, different aspects and challenges of reconstruction of the breast have been addressed. Specifically, reconstructive outcomes and quality of life after contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a personal and family history of breast cancer, the role of implant reconstruction in postmastectomy radioth...

  3. Prophylactic effects of mindfulness: the role of mindfulness in the treatment of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Jemma E.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness derives from meditative traditions and is a form of mental training that is increasingly incorporated into Western treatment approaches for common mental health problems. This thesis addresses the prophylactic effects of mindfulness practice and the implications for the treatment of anxiety. The first paper considers the role of attention as a predominant mechanism of mindfulness. The paper reviews the evidence for the effects of mindfulness on attentional subsets and suggests tha...

  4. Severe Neuropsychiatric Reaction in a Deployed Military Member after Prophylactic Mefloquine

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Alan L.; Robert A. Seegmiller; Schindler, Libby S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient h...

  5. Amifostine: An Effective Prophylactic Agent against Sulphur Mustard Toxicity (Short Communication)

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Kumar, P.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; D. K. Jaiswal

    2002-01-01

    Amifostine, S-2-(aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioate and two of its analogues have been evaluated as prophylactic agent against SM toxicity. The compounds were administered intraperitoncally (i.p.) at 0.2 LD/sub59 dose in mice 30 min prior to dermal application of SM. The protective efficacy was determined by observing the mortality for 14 days. The protection offered by amifostine was better than its analogues. Subsequent study on time-dependent protection, carried out with amifo...

  6. Comparison of droperidol and ondansetron prophylactic effect on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Ferreira da Cunha Brião; Marcio Leal Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros; Ana Paula Behrensdorf; Ingrid Severo; Mariana Antunes Nunes; Roberta Boabaid; André Real

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prophylactic effect of ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus is controversial, while evidence suggests that droperidol prevents pruritus. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of droperidol and ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.METHODS: 180 ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo cesarean sections under subarachnoid anesthesia combined with morphine 0.2 mg were randomized to receive, after the child's birth, metocl...

  7. PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOXYCYCLINE REDUCES CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Kharfan-Dabaja; Mohamed Baydoun; Zaher Otrock; Samar Okaily; Rita Nehme; Racha Abu-Chahine; Ali Hamdan; Samar Noureddine; Souha Kanj; Zeina Kanafani; Ali Bazarbachi

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are usually transfused through a central venous catheter (CVC), which also facilitates administration of medications and intravenous fluids. We had observed high rate of catheter-related blood-stream infection (CR-BSI) at our Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) unit despite prescribing fluoroquinolones for anti-bacterial prophylaxis. Accordingly, we implemented prophylactic use of a relatively inexpensive broad spectrum antibiotic, namely doxycycline to address this pro...

  8. Prophylactic Administration of Doxycycline Reduces Central Venous Catheter Infections in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Baydoun, Mohamed; Otrock, Zaher K.; Okaily, Samar; Nehme, Rita; Abu-Chahine, Racha; Hamdan, Ali; Noureddine, Samar; Kanj, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Bazarbachi, Ali; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are generally transfused through a central venous catheter (CVC), which also facilitates administration of medications and intravenous fluids. We had observed a high rate of CVC infections at our Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) unit. Accordingly, we evaluated the impact of administration of doxycycline as a prophylactic strategy to reduce CVC infection rates. Data was collected retrospectively on 54 consecutive patients, 26 who received doxycycline (doxycycline grou...

  9. EFFECT OF PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTIC ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTION AFTER TENSION-FREE HERNIOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Saskia-Javi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: prophylactic antibiotics were remains applied for hernioplasty treatment at Sanglah General Hospital Bali-Indonesia. On the other hand, there were no comprehensive infection incidence data gathered. This research aims to determine incidence differences of post operative infection inpatients underwent tension-free hernioplasty and received prophylactic antibiotics compared to thosewho received placebo. The general purpose of this research is to determine the necessity of prophylactic antibiotics in the hope of setting new procedural standards in elective hernia procedures thus reducing cost and bacteria resistance.Patients and Method: This was an open label randomizedclinical trial conducted at Sanglah General Hospital Department of General Surgery from October 2011. The target population was all patients who underwent tension-free hernioplasty procedure, in Sanglah General Hospital. The acquired data was analyzed after an independent t test was performed. a Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher’s exact test, and Two-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used todetermine the correlations between variables, where p < 0.05 was regardless of significant.Results: From 54 subjects 3 (5.6% of them were found to have a slight erythema around the operation wound,on the 7th,14th,21th, and 28th day no signs of erythema were found. From the three subjects two (7.4% were from the placebo group and one (3.7% from the antibiotic group. All clinical assessment of post operative wound was made using Southampton Wound Assessment Scale, where erythema is a grade 1C, all subjects healed primarily.Conclusion: An Open Label Randomized Clinical Trial comparing SSI in post tension-free hernioplasty patients who were given prophylactic antibiotics and placebo.No significant difference were found.

  10. Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    OpenAIRE

    M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with eithe...

  11. Estimates of benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzick, J; Thorat, M. A.; Bosetti, C; Brown, P H; Burn, J.; Cook, N. R.; Ford, L. G.; Jacobs, E. J.; Jankowski, J.A.; La Vecchia, C.; Law, M.; Meyskens, F.; Rothwell, P.M.; Senn, H. J.; Umar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence supports an effect of aspirin in reducing overall cancer incidence and mortality in the general population. We reviewed current data and assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population. Methods: The effect of aspirin for site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, cardiovascular events was collated from the most recent systematic reviews. Studies identified through systematic Medline search provided data regarding ha...

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity in a controlled trial of prophylactic surfactant treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennefather, P M; Tin, W.; Clarke, M P; Fritz, S.; Strong, N P

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the incidence of acute and cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a cohort of premature neonates entered into a randomised, multicentre trial of prophylactic exogenous surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) compared with controls receiving surfactant only if severe RDS developed. METHODS: The incidence of acute and cicatricial ROP was assessed in 304 neonates born at less than 30 weeks' gestation in a geographically defined population of approximately...

  13. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Boampong; Ameyaw, E. O.; B. Aboagye; Asare, K.; Kyei, S; Donfack, J. H.; Woode, E.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg) in ICR mice infected wi...

  14. The value of prophylactic (monthly) clotrimazole versus empiric self-treatment in recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, I W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the comparative efficacy and cost benefit of prophylactic monthly (perimenstrual) clotrimazole, versus empiric self-treatment with the same agent at the onset of symptoms in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective, randomised, open cross-over study of women with proven recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clinical and microbiological assessments were done every two months for 12 months. SETTING--Women's Clinic of a University Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS-...

  15. Enhancement of the white matter following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of fatal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is reported. The clinical, CT, and neuropathological findings are described. The CT scan demonstrated symmetrical white-matter enhancement. Histological analysis was consistent with the effects of irradiation and methotrexate. The differential diagnosis of the clinical and CT findings is discussed. Brain biopsy is the diagnostic procedure of choice

  16. Prophylactic lignocaine and early post-coronary artery occlusion dysrhythmias in anaesthetized greyhounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, R J; Parratt, J R

    1980-01-01

    1. Lignocaine (1 mg kg-1 min-1 infused intravenously for 30 min) greatly reduced the incidence of ventricular ectopic beats that resulted from acute coronary artery ligation in anaesthetized greyhound dogs. However, the incidence of ventricular fibrillation was only slightly reduced by this treatment which caused significant myocardial depression. 2. There is no good evidence from this study that lignocaine is a particularly effective prophylactic in acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Glioblastoma multiforme following prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate in a child with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cases of radiation-induced glioma in humans are extremely rare. A 2-year-old boy with acute lymphocytic leukemia had received prophylactic cranial irradiation (2400 rad/2 1/2 weeks) and intrathecal methotrexate. Five years later he developed a glioblastoma multiforme on the left cerebral hemisphere while the leukemia was in remission. This is the first reported association of these disorders. It is possible that the glioma may have been induced by radiation and/or chemotherapy

  18. Effect of prophylactic vitamin D on anesthetic outcome in children with sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Shams; Hamed Al Wadani; Ragaa El-Masry; Ossama Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few previous studies proved that complications related to sickle cell disease (SCD) were common with regional anesthesia compared with general anesthesia while others reported no differences. This study was carried out to evaluate the role of prophylactic vitamin D on anesthetic outcome among male children with SCD undergoing circumcision. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was carried out on 58 children undergoing circumcision with the regional block under light gener...

  19. Use of radiologic methods at stages of prophylactic medical examinations of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the analysis of the literary data available and using the experience of domestic and foreign researchers, a scheme of radionuclide examination of persons belonging to the heigher risk groups 1 and 2 and persons above 40 years old, is proposed. Radioimmunoassay of determining the level of tumor markers in the blood serum at the different stages of the prophylactic examination of population is the most widely used one. 7 refs

  20. Prophylactic use of vitamins against cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation has become an inevitable part of modem civilization with increasing use of nuclear technologies in medical, industrial, engineering and scientific research field as well as for generation of electricity and in nuclear weapons, which are raising the problem of radiation hazards to living being. The present study is an attempt to investigate the prophylactic use of vitamin C and/or E against radiation induced clastogenic changes in the form of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice

  1. Prophylactic administration of chicken cathelicidin-2 boosts zebrafish embryonic innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Viktoria A F; van Dijk, Albert; van der Sar, Astrid M; Kraaij, Marina D; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-07-01

    Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) is a host defense peptide that exhibits immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties. Here we examined effects of CATH-2 in zebrafish embryos in the absence and presence of infection. Yolk-injection of 0.2-1.5 h post-fertilized (hpf) zebrafish embryos with 2.6 ng/kg CATH-2 increased proliferation of phagocytic cells at 48 hpf by 30%. A lethal infection model was developed to test the prophylactic protective effect of CATH-2 peptide. Embryos (0.2-1.5 hpf) were injected with 2.6 ng/kg CATH-2, challenged with a lethal dose of fluorescently labeled Salmonella enteritidis pGMDs3 at 28 hpf and monitored for survival. Prophylactic treatment with CATH-2 was found to delay infection starting at 22 h post-infection (hpi). At 18-20 hpi, significantly lower (2-fold) fluorescence intensity and decreased bacterial loads were detected in peptide-treated embryos. Thus prophylactic administration of low CATH-2 concentrations confer partial protection in zebrafish embryos by boosting the innate immune system. PMID:26920462

  2. Prevention of diabetic microangiopathy by prophylactic transplant of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Xiao-cang CAO; Zhi-hong FANG; Cui-lin ZHENG; Zhi-bo HAN; He REN; Man-chiu POON; Zhong-chao HAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the prophylactic local delivery of mobilized periph-eral blood mononuclear cells (M-PBMNC) could prevent peripheral microangio-pathy in diabetic nude mice. Methods: Diabetic nude mice were induced with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. With the time course of diabetes, we detected the capillary and arteriole density of mice adductor muscles by immuno-histopathy. In situ apoptosis was detected by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. M-PBMNC were labeled and locally delivered to the adductor muscles. Mononuclear cells were also isolated and cultured in vitro for the detection and counting of endothelial progenitor cells(EPC). Results: Rarefication of capillaries and arterioles, enhanced apoptosis in adductor muscles,and reduced circulating EPC in diabetic nude mice. Prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC halted the progression of microvascular rarefaction in hind-limb skel-etal muscles by inhibiting apoptosis. We detected the survival, migration and incorporation of transplanted M-PBMNC into the murine vasculature in vivo. In addition, more EPC were available from M-PBMNC than non-mobilized cells.Conclusion: These results suggested that the prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC may represent a novel approach for the treatment of microvascular complications in diabetics.

  3. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu ZUO; Jinghui FAN; Huixia FAN; Tanqing LI; Xiaobo ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the causative agent of acute diarrhea of new-born piglets that provokes high mortality rates in affected farms. In this study, specific immunoglobulin from egg yolk against TGEV was produced by immunization of White leghorn hens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VN) test revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase on the tenth day post-immunization, reached its peak on the eighth week, and remained at a high level until the last week that we tested. The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was investigated in piglets. IgY was found effective to increase piglets sur-vival rate significantly after challenge exposures in pro-phylactic efficacy analysis. The therapeutic effects test revealed that the mortality was dramatically reduced by orally administered IgY. All these results in our study indicated that IgY specific to TGEV could be an alterna-tive prophylactic method like colostral antibodies against TGEV in piglets.

  4. Effectiveness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with head and neck carcinoma are often provided concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), but they experience severe mucositis and dysphagia. These side effects can lead to decreased oral intake, resulting in interruption of treatment. In our hospital, from September 2007, all patients with oropharyngeal cancer who were to receive CCRT, were principally offered percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) before the start of treatment, and tube feeding was started when swallowing became impaired, to accomplish the treatment as planned. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic PEG, outcome measures in this study included the frequency of unplanned break from CCRT, nutritional deterioration and required analgesic during CCRT, complication of PEG, and patient satisfaction between 15 patients with PEG and 11 patients without PEG as a control group. Although no significant weight loss occurred in either group, there were fewer patients with a Body Mass Index <18.5 in the PEG group after CCRT than in the control group. Regarding the treatment, most patients were satisfied with their PEG and considered that prophylactic PEG was necessary and helpful in completing the CCRT. This study suggests that prophylactic PEG helps patients to complete CCRT both mentally and nutritionally. (author)

  5. The Evidence Base for Prophylactic Antibiotics in Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Cawcutt, Kelly A; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Sampathkumar, Priya; Schears, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate evidence for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and other major databases and included any study that reported rates of infection and whether antibiotic prophylaxis was a part of therapy for patients receiving ECMO. We abstracted rates of infection, microbiology of isolates, prophylactic practices, and individual study inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among 11 studies identified, rates of infection were fairly uniform regardless of prophylaxis use, and the only two studies that directly compared outcomes with and without prophylaxis found no benefit. The causative infectious organisms were heterogeneous, which gives no clear rationale for any particular prophylactic strategy. Although infections during ECMO are serious complications that must be prevented, there is no good evidence to support routine use of prophylactic antibiotics in most patients. Certain subpopulations, such as those with open chests, may have an indication for prophylaxis, but evidence is poor. Future studies should investigate the role of other approaches to infection prevention, such as chlorhexidine bathing and preferential elective cannulation. PMID:26461238

  6. Construction of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Capsid Protein Vaccine Delivered by Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri Strain sh42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng YANG; Xin-Zhong QU; Kai WANG; Jin ZHENG; Lü-Sheng SI; Xiao-Ping DONG; Yi-Li WANG

    2005-01-01

    To express human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in the recombinant strain of Shigella and study the potential of a live attenuated Shigella-based HPV prophylactic vaccine in preventing HPV infection, the icsA/virG fragment of Shigella-based prokaryotic expression plasmid pHS3199 was constructed.HPV type 16 L 1 (HPV 16L 1) gene was inserted into plasmid pHS 3199 to form the pHS3199-HPV 16L1construct, and pHS3199-HPV16L1 was electroporated into a live attenuated Shigella strain sh42. Western blotting analysis showed that HPV 16L1 could be expressed stably in the recombinant strain sh42-HPV 16L1.Sereny test results were negative, which showed that the sh42-HPV16L1 lost virulence. However, the attenuated recombinant strain partially maintained the invasive property as indicated by the HeLa cell infection assay. Specific IgG, IgA antibody against HPV16L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) were detected in the sera,intestinal lavage and vaginal lavage from animals immunized by sh42-HPV 16L 1. The number of antibodysecreting cells in the spleen and draining lymph nodes were increased significantly compared with the control group. Sera from immunized animals inhibited murine hemagglutination induced by HPV16L1 VLPs, which indicated that the candidate vaccine could stimulate an efficient immune response in guinea pig's mucosal sites. This may be an effective strategy for the development of an HPV prophylactic oral vaccine.

  7. Comparison of Performing and Not-Performing the Prophylactic Surgery for Urinary Incontinence in Advanced Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Bastani; Neda Shoari; Sakineh Haj Ebrahimi; Fatemeh Mallah; Azadeh Azadi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the Performing and not-performing of prophylactic surgery for urinary incontinence in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial that performed in department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Tabriz University of medical sciences on women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse without history of urinary incontinence. The effects of performing and not-performing of prophylactic surgery for urinary incontinence in wome...

  8. Comparison of Performing and Not-Performing the Prophylactic Surgery for Urinary Incontinence in Advanced Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Bastani,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the Performing and not-performing of prophylactic surgery for urinary incontinence in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial that performed in department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Tabriz University of medical sciences on women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse without history of urinary incontinence. The effects of performing and not-performing of prophylactic surgery for urinary incontinence in women with advance pelvic organ prolapse evaluated. Results: Mean age of patients was 53.83±5.52 year in the range of 41-66 year. Mean ICIQ-SF questionnaire scores at the first three questions in patients with pelvic organ prolapse with prophylactic surgery was 0.50±1.54 and in patients with pelvic organ prolapse without prophylactic surgery was 0.86±2.02. Significant difference was not found at the answers to the first question (P=0.507, the second question (P=0.415 and to the third question (P=0.445 ICIQ-SF questionnaire of in the patients advance pelvic organ prolapse underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse with and without prophylactic surgery. Conclusion: As regards, a significant difference was not found in the prevention of urinary incontinence between groups with and without prophylactic surgery. Therefore, prophylactic surgery is not recommended routinely for all patients and only we will attempt to do this surgery in symptomatic patients and reduced the additional costs and complications associated with prophylactic surgery in other patients who actually did not need to do this surgery.

  9. The Effect of Prophylactic Antipyretic Administration on Post-Vaccination Adverse Reactions and Antibody Response in Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Ranjan Das; Inusha Panigrahi; Sushree Samiksha Naik

    2014-01-01

    Background Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children. Methods A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. ...

  10. Effect of Prophylactic Low Level Laser Therapy on Oral Mucositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oberoi, Sapna; Zamperlini–Netto, Gabriele; Beyene, Joseph; Treister, Nathaniel S.; Sung, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective was to determine whether prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces the risk of severe mucositis as compared to placebo or no therapy. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylactic LLLT with placebo or no therapy in patients with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All analyses used random effects models. ...

  11. Should long-term prophylactic use of probiotics for infants and young children give cause for concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdankhah, Siamak P.; Narvhus, Judith A.; Eggesbø, Merete; Midtvedt, Tore; Lassen, Jørgen; Halvorsen, Ragnhild

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, several probiotic strains have been investigated for health benefit effects and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been one of the most studied probiotic strains. Short-term beneficial effects on viral infectious diarrhoea have been reported in a number of studies, but a prophylactic effect on diarrhoea has not been documented. Furthermore, while some studies have reported a prophylactic, or even a curative, effect of LGG on atopic eczema in young children, more recent s...

  12. Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Is Associated With Reduction of Early Bleeding Risk After Prophylactic Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Seung Young; Suh, Sang Jun; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) is an effective procedure to control and prevent variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis, but it can be complicated by bleeding from post-EVL ulcers. Several studies have reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease the size of post-EVL ulcers. However, evidence are limited as to whether PPIs actually reduce the risk of bleeding after EVL. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL and to assess the effect of PPI therapy. Five hundred and five cirrhotic patients with high risk esophageal varices who received primary prophylactic EVL were included for this retrospective cohort study. Post-EVL bleeding was defined as bleeding after prophylactic EVL within 8 weeks evidenced by the occurrence of melena or hematemesis, or by a decrease of hemoglobin by >2.0 g/dL. If evidence of bleeding from ulceration of the EVL sites was confirmed by endoscopy, we defined it as post-EVL ulcer bleeding. Fourteen patients developed bleeding after prophylactic EVL. Factors associated with post-EVL bleeding included alcohol as etiology, low albumin, high total bilirubin, high Child-Pugh score, high MELD score, coexistence of gastric varices, and not administrating PPI medication by univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic analysis, Co-existing gastric varix (odds ratio [OR] 5.680, P = 0.005] and not administrating PPIs (OR 8.217, P = 0.002) were associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL. In the subgroup analysis excluding patients whose gastric varices were treated, not administering PPI medication (OR 8.827, P = 0.008) was the sole factor associated with post-EVL bleeding. We suggest that PPI therapy needs to be considered in patients receiving prophylactic EVL to reduce the risk of bleeding after prophylactic EVL. PMID:26937932

  13. Functional MRI in medulloblastoma survivors supports prophylactic reading intervention during tumor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Conklin, Heather M; Scoggins, Matthew A; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Jones, Melissa M; Palmer, Shawna L; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Development of reading skills is vulnerable to disruption in children treated for brain tumors. Interventions, remedial and prophylactic, are needed to mitigate reading and other learning difficulties faced by survivors. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to investigate long-term effects of a prophylactic reading intervention administered during radiation therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma. The fMRI study included 19 reading-intervention (age 11.7 ± 0.6 years) and 21 standard-of-care (age 12.1 ± 0.6 years) medulloblastoma survivors, and 21 typically developing children (age 12.3 ± 0.6 years). The survivors were 2.5 [1.2, 5.4] years after completion of tumor therapies and reading-intervention survivors were 2.9 [1.6, 5.9] years after intervention. Five fMRI tasks (Rapid Automatized Naming, Continuous Performance Test using faces and letters, orthographic and phonological processing of letter pairs, implicit word reading, and story reading) were used to probe reading-related neural activation. Woodcock-Johnson Reading Fluency, Word Attack, and Sound Awareness subtests were used to evaluate reading abilities. At the time of fMRI, Sound Awareness scores were significantly higher in the reading-intervention group than in the standard-of-care group (p = 0.046). Brain activation during the fMRI tasks was detected in left inferior frontal, temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and subcortical regions, and differed among the groups (p reading-intervention group. Standardized reading scores and patterns of brain activation provide evidence of long-term effects of prophylactic reading intervention in children treated for medulloblastoma. PMID:25967954

  14. Prophylactic cerebrovascular reconstructive surgery for occlusive cerebrovascular disease in patients with cardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the outcomes of prophylactic cerebral reconstructive surgery aimed at reducing the incidence of perioperative cerebral infarction in patients with intracranial or extracranial occlusive cerebrovascular disease who were scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery. Before the surgery, carotid artery ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the carotid artery, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRA of the brain were performed on 875 patients. The high-risk group was defined as: patients with cervical carotid artery stenosis of at least 90%, those with a reduced cerebral perfusion reserve because of occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery, and those with a reduced cerebral perfusion reserve because of major intracranial artery stenosis of at least 75%. According to the degree of cardiac reserve, patients in the high-risk group underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA), superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis, or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Of the 875 patients, 29 (3.3%) were classified in the high-risk group, and 16 underwent prophylactic revascularization and cardiac surgery. Prophylactic revascularization included CAS in 7 patients (including stenting of the intracranial internal carotid artery in 1 patient), CEA in 4, STA-MCA in 4 and PTA in 1. Cardiac surgery was performed on 870 of the 875 patients, and perioperative cerebral infarction occurred in 11 (1.3%). It is uncertain whether our treatment strategy significantly reduced the incidence of perioperative cerebral infarction because of the lack of accurate information on the number of patients with this condition before the present study. However, 73% of patients had a score of 1 or 2 on the modified Rankin Scale 1 month after the onset of cerebral infarction, suggesting that our strategy improved the outcome. (author)

  15. Comparison of prophylactic or therapeutic dietary administration of capsaicin for reduction of Salmonella in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, B W; Novak, C L; Pierson, F W; Caldwell, D J; McElroy, A P

    2005-12-01

    In three experiments the effects of prophylactic or therapeutic dietary inclusion of capsaicin, the pungent component of peppers, were evaluated as a nonantibiotic alternative for reduction of Salmonella in broiler chickens through culture and morphologic assessment of cecal tissue. Expt. 1 evaluated the effects of 0 or 10 ppm purified capsaicin (CAP) in the starter phase (days 1-16) on chicks challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) on day of age. Therapeutic inclusion of 10 ppm purified CAP increased (P capsaisin differentially affects broiler susceptibility to Salmonella. PMID:16404994

  16. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: genetics, prophylactic total gastrectomy, and follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Santosh Shenoy1, Carl Palmer2, Teresa Dunsworth3, Stephen McNatt41Department of Surgery, Louis A Johnson VA Medical Center, Clarksburg, WV, USA; 2Department of Medicine, West Virginia University, General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Morgantown, WV, USA; 3General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 4Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USABackground: Germline truncating mutations in the E-cadherin (CDH1 gene have been identified in families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC and lobular breast cancers. This disease entity has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with approximately 70% to 80% penetrance. Currently there is no definitive diagnostic modality for surveillance to detect this form of gastric cancer (GC which carries a poor prognosis and high mortality. Prophylactic total gastrectomy is an option in the affected carriers and may offer improved long term survival for HDGC.Methods: Two siblings from a single family with multi generation history of GC were identified as carriers of the mutation. After genetic counseling, they underwent laparoscopic prophylactic total gastrectomy with Roux-en-y esophagojejunostomy reconstruction. We describe the demographics and pedigree analysis, and postoperative and 5-year outcomes, and review the literature.Results: Pathologic examination of the stomach revealed no foci of cancer in Patient 1; evidence of foci of gastric cancer was noted in Patient 2. Patient 2 subsequently developed lobular carcinoma of breast and underwent prophylactic bilateral mastectomy. No metastatic disease has been noted at 5-year follow up. She also had a successful pregnancy and birth of a healthy baby 3 years post gastrectomy. Both patients had a 30 to 40 lbs (13.5 to 18 kg permanent weight loss. Both patients have maintained their preoperative activities and occupations.Conclusion: HDGC is an uncommon

  17. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K; Greil, W; Kim, M J; Panteleyeva, G; Park, J M; Prilipko, L; Rayushkin, V; Sharma, M; Mellerup, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal...... recurrences. The mean 12-h standard serum lithium concentration was lower in the patients who had recurrences than in those who stayed euthymic. The results suggest that to be effective when administered every second day, lithium must be given in a dose leading to a 12-h standard serum lithium concentration...

  18. Practice guideline on prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline that would address the following questions: (a) What is the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited or extensive stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) who have achieved complete remission in response to induction therapy (chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy)? (b) What dose and fractionation schedules of PCI are optimal? (c) Does the use of PCI in patients with SCLC in complete remission affect quality of life? Survival, disease-free survival, quality of life, and adverse effects were the outcomes of interest. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of the published literature was undertaken to provide the data for an evidence-based practice guideline. Results: Six randomized controlled trials and one fully published individual patient data meta-analysis were included in the systematic review of the evidence. For patients who have achieved complete response after induction therapy, there is evidence of a disease-free survival benefit (4 of 6 trials) and an overall survival benefit (meta-analysis). There is insufficient evidence to make a definitive recommendation with respect to dose. There is some indication that 30-36 Gy in 2-3 Gy per fraction, or a biologically equivalent dose, may produce a better outcome than a lower dose or less aggressive fractionation regimen. The schedule commonly used in Canada is 25 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Data from further research, including a trial currently ongoing that compares 25 Gy in 10 fractions with 36 Gy in 18 fractions, will be required to determine optimal dose of PCI. There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations concerning the optimal timing of PCI in relation to the administration of chemotherapy. Lung DSG members generally felt that it should be given as soon as possible after completion of chemotherapy. There is evidence from trials with data for up to 2 years of follow-up that prophylactic cranial

  19. Prophylactic Antibiotic Management of Surgical Patients Noted as "Allergic" to Penicillin at Two Academic Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Jacques, Paul St; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Bombulie, Mark R; Agarwalla, Niraj

    2016-05-01

    We studied prophylactic antibiotics administered at 2 academic medical centers during a 6-year period where a cephalosporin was indicated but an "allergy" to penicillin was noted. Another drug (typically vancomycin or clindamycin) was substituted approximately 80% of the time; this occurred frequently even when symptoms unrelated to acute hypersensitivity were listed. In >50% of cases, the reaction was either omitted or vague (e.g., simply "rash"). Given the estimated 1% cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins with similar R1 side chains, many of these patients could have received either the prescribed cephalosporin or another cephalosporin with a different R1 side chain. PMID:26556109

  20. Prophylactic laser treatment in early age related maculopathy reduced the incidence of exudative complications

    OpenAIRE

    Frennesson, C; Nilsson, S.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the effect of prophylactic laser treatment on drusen area and incidence of exudative lesions in patients with soft drusen maculopathy.
METHODS—In a prospective study, patients with early age related maculopathy (ARM) and good visual acuity were randomised to laser treatment or to a control group. Each group consisted of two subgroups: a fellow eye group and a bilateral drusen group. At 3 years, 36 of 38 enrolled patients remained in the study. Photocoagulation was performed...

  1. Longer-term efficacy of a prophylactic monovalent human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Mao, Constance; Hughes, James P.; Alvarez, Frances B.; Bryan, Janine T; Stephen E., Hawes; Weiss, Noel S.; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted an extended follow-up study (March 2006 – May 2008) to assess the longer-term efficacy of a prophylactic monovalent human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 virus-like particle vaccine in women (n = 290) who had enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of this vaccine during October 1998 – November 1999 in Seattle and remained HPV-16 DNA negative during the course of that trial. During the extended follow-up period, none of the vaccine recipients was found to be infected with HPV-1...

  2. Radiographic Contrast-Media-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Pathophysiology and Prophylactic Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the most widely discussed and debated topics in cardiovascular medicine. With increasing number of contrast-media- (CM-) enhanced imaging studies being performed and growing octogenarian population with significant comorbidities, incidence of CI-AKI remains high. In this review, pathophysiology of CI-AKI, its relationship with different types of CM, role of serum and urinary biomarkers for diagnosing CI-AKI, and various prophylactic strategies used for nephroprotection against CI-AKI are discussed in detail

  3. [Integrated prophylactic care of employees--is it a future model?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szozda, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    The author presents his own experience in the area of prophylaxis and cooperation with safety and health services as well as with occupational hygienists. The attention is turned to an essential difference between two terms "employees" and "workers". The proposed model of integrated prophylactic care is described and the need for cooperation between Trade Unions, National Insurance Company (ZUS) and Agricultural Insurance Company (KRUS) is highlighted. In the author's opinion the integrated occupational health services, safety and health services and occupational hygiene should be a future model of workers' health protection in Poland. Integrated units should cover with their activities all employees throughout the country. PMID:15156774

  4. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  5. The potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination on oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Theresa; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is significantly increasing in the United States. Given that these epidemiologic trends are driven by human papillomavirus (HPV), the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines on the prevention of OPC is of interest. The primary evidence supporting the approval of current prophylactic HPV vaccines is from large phase 3 clinical trials focused on the prevention of genital disease (cervical and anal cancer, as well as genital warts). These trials reported vaccine efficacy rates of 89% to 98% for the prevention of both premalignant lesions and persistent genital infections. However, these trials were designed before the etiologic relationship between HPV and OPC was established. There are differences in the epidemiology of oral and genital HPV infection, such as differences in age and sex distributions, which suggest that the vaccine efficacy observed in genital cancers may not be directly translatable to the cancers of the oropharynx. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy is challenging in the oropharynx because no premalignant lesion analogous to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cervical cancer has yet been identified. To truly investigate the efficacy of these vaccines in the oropharynx, additional clinical trials with feasible endpoints are needed. Cancer 2016;122:2313-2323. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27152637

  6. The efficacy and prophylactic characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids in experimental gingivitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Araghizadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Gingivitis is an inflammatory disease that affects tooth-supporting tissues and is caused by a microbe-immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on immune system regulation and the prevention and treatment of gingivitis using an animal model. Materials and Methods: Gingival inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. Forty adult male rats were divided into four equal groups: 1. Negative control group (sterile saline was injected into gingival tissue followed by oral gavage with saline; 2. Positive control group (LPS injection was followed by oral gavage with saline; 3. Treatment group (LPS injection was followed by oral gavage with omega-3; 4. Prophylactic group (oral gavage with omega-3 was followed by LPS injection. After 24 days, the rats were sacrificed and histological tissue samples were randomly evaluated for the inflammatory tissue changes. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β levels were measured by ELISA. Results: The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the prophylactic group and the level of TNF-α in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the positive control group (P

  7. Can we omit prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation in anal cancer patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Choi, Doo Ho; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Hee Cheol [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the appropriateness of prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation (PINI), we analyzed patterns of failure in anal cancer patients who were inguinal node-negative at presentation and did not receive PINI. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 anal cancer patients treated by definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) between 1994 and 2013. Radiotherapy consisted of a total dose of 44-45 Gy (22-25 fractions in 5 weeks) on the whole pelvis, anus, and perineum. Except inguinal lymphadenopathy was present at initial diagnosis, the entire inguinal chain was not included in the radiation field. In other words, there was no PINI. The median follow-up duration was 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months). Median survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were 57 months (range, 10 to 218 months) and 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months), respectively. Among the survival, the median follow-up duration was 51 months (range, 12 to 218 months). The 5-year overall survival and PFS rates were 93.4% and 88.8%, respectively. Although none of the patients received inguinal node irradiation for prophylactic purposes, there was no inguinal recurrence. Treatment of anal cancer by omitting PINI might be considered in selected patients with clinically uninvolved inguinal nodes.

  8. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostine and DRDE-07 were carried out in rats using a bodyplethysmograph fitted with a volumetric pressure transducer for sensing the respiratory flowsignals. The signals were amplified, digitised, and stored on a personal computer for furtheranalysis. After taking control recordings of respiratory signals, different doses (0.5 LD50, 1.0 LD50and 2.0 LD50 of amifostine and DRDE-07 were administered orally (LD50 amifostine = 2262 mg/kg; DRDE-07 = 1599 mg/kg, and the respiratory changes were monitored for 4 h. Amifostine andDRDE-07 showed a uniform breathing pattern even in 2.0 LD50 dose. However, a significant dosedependentdecrease in respiratory frequency was observed following amifostine administration.DRDE-07 did not show any significant change. The tidal volume was not altered significantlyboth in amifostine and DRDE-07 administered animals. The study shows that DRDE-07, even inlethal doses, may not affect the respiration immediately, whereas, amifostine may decrease therespiratory frequency.

  9. Clinical and psychological impact of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in a community heart failure population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arnous, S

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <\\/= 35%) has increased since the publication of the SCD-HEFT and MADIT-II data. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ICD use in a community heart failure population and to assess the impact on patient\\'s quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-one ICDs were inserted between the years 2002 and 2006. The mean follow-up from time of insertion was 24 +\\/- 11 months. Eighteen patients (25%) had potentially life-saving therapy. Seven (10%) patients received inappropriate shocks. Complications were encountered in five patients (7%). CONCLUSION: In a community heart failure population, prophylactic ICD implantation is associated with a high incidence of life-saving therapy, a low complication rate and a high level of tolerability. These data indicate translation of clinical trial benefits to the general heart failure population.

  10. Growth in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with and without prophylactic cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moell, C.; Garwicz, S.; Marky, L.; Melander, L.; Karlberg, J.

    1988-01-01

    Growth and weight gain were studied longitudinally over a period of four years in thirty-nine children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The children were divided into two groups according to treatment. Twenty-eight children were given prophylactic cranial irradiation and eleven children were treated without such irradiation. The duration of cytostatic treatment was three years in all cases. Average growth during the first two years was similar in the two groups, and the standard deviation scores (SDS) were below average. The rate of growth during the fourth year was significantly higher among those children who had not received cranial irradiation. After four years the average attained height had declined 0.5 SD for children treated with cranial irradiation and 0.2 SD for children without such treatment. Attained weight after four years had increased 0.4 SD more among those children who had not received irradiation. The results suggest that prophylactic cranial irradiation is responsible for the greater part of the prepubertal growth inhibition in these children. (authors).

  11. Growth in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with and without prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth and weight gain were studied longitudinally over a period of four years in thirty-nine children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The children were divided into two groups according to treatment. Twenty-eight children were given prophylactic cranial irradiation and eleven children were treated without such irradiation. The duration of cytostatic treatment was three years in all cases. Average growth during the first two years was similar in the two groups, and the standard deviation scores (SDS) were below average. The rate of growth during the fourth year was significantly higher among those children who had not received cranial irradiation. After four years the average attained height had declined 0.5 SD for children treated with cranial irradiation and 0.2 SD for children without such treatment. Attained weight after four years had increased 0.4 SD more among those children who had not received irradiation. The results suggest that prophylactic cranial irradiation is responsible for the greater part of the prepubertal growth inhibition in these children. (authors)

  12. Can we omit prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation in anal cancer patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the appropriateness of prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation (PINI), we analyzed patterns of failure in anal cancer patients who were inguinal node-negative at presentation and did not receive PINI. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 anal cancer patients treated by definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) between 1994 and 2013. Radiotherapy consisted of a total dose of 44-45 Gy (22-25 fractions in 5 weeks) on the whole pelvis, anus, and perineum. Except inguinal lymphadenopathy was present at initial diagnosis, the entire inguinal chain was not included in the radiation field. In other words, there was no PINI. The median follow-up duration was 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months). Median survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were 57 months (range, 10 to 218 months) and 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months), respectively. Among the survival, the median follow-up duration was 51 months (range, 12 to 218 months). The 5-year overall survival and PFS rates were 93.4% and 88.8%, respectively. Although none of the patients received inguinal node irradiation for prophylactic purposes, there was no inguinal recurrence. Treatment of anal cancer by omitting PINI might be considered in selected patients with clinically uninvolved inguinal nodes

  13. Efficacy of prophylactic anti-diarrhoeal treatment in patients receiving Campto for advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffour, J; Gourgou, S; Seitz, J F; Senesse, P; Boutet, O; Castera, D; Kramar, A; Ychou, M

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of combined prophylactic and curative anti-diarrhoeal medication in advanced colorectal patients treated by irinotecan. Thirty-four pre-treated eligible patients were evaluated. There were 44% women, the median age was 65 and 38% of the patients had a 0 performance status. The patients received sucralfate(4g/d) and nifuroxazide(600 mg/d) prophylactic treatment on days 0-7. In the case of severe diarrhoea, preventive treatment was replaced by loperamide(12 mg/d) and diosmectite (9 g/d). Grade 3 delayed diarrhoea occurred in 18% of patients (90% CI: [9.5-28.9]) and 4.6% of cycles. No grade 4 delayed diarrhoea was observed. Twenty-nine patients (85%) received the preventive treatment at cycle 1, while 14% (90% CI: [6.2-25.7]) experienced grade 3 delayed diarrhoea in 3.7% of cycles for a median 4.5 days. The objective response rate was 8% (90% CI [1.4-23.1]) among the 25 assessable patients. Preventive combined treatment is effective in reducing the incidence of severe delayed diarrhoea, and it should be proposed to patients treated with mono-therapy Campto(r) and evaluated in poly-chemotherapy protocols. PMID:12552984

  14. 3D MODELLING OF PROPHYLACTIC FOOTWEAR FOR A HIGH ARCHED FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTEA Mariana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the methodology of designing customized footwear for high arched foot. The authors propose to reconsider the classical structure of footwear bottom components for people with high arched foot and recommend incorporating custom components, with the role of compensation or adjustment. This study continues the authors’ research, starting from a foot’s 3D shape obtained by 3D scanning, the anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters, shoe lasts’ 3D modelling and continuing with 3D footwear design. Including customized orthosis can help to stop the evolution of abnormalities, diminishes sensations of pain during walking and improves performance in various physical activities carried out during the day, walking, running, and standing. The prophylactic footwear has to meet four main requirements: to protect the foot and ankle during walking and static; to ensure the normal resistance systems (bones, muscle and joint of the foot; to prevent the installation of irreversible structural changes by reducing stress on the foot; to contribute to increased performance in conducting regular physical activity. It is presented the steps of modelling an orthosis, a virtual simulation of its cutting process, followed by the integration and development of the insole, filling and sole for a customized shoe. Delcam Crispin CAD system and its applications for orthopaedics are used to design the bottom components of prophylactic footwear for a high arched foot.

  15. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a role in the management of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treated with radical intent. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMbase, CBM, CNKI and VIP. The quality of the included studies was critically evaluated. Data analyses were performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.1 software. Results: Four randomized controlled trials involving 905 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results meta-analyses showed the incidence of brain metastases was lower in PCI group compared with the observation group (χ2=1.98, P=0.000); but there is no evidence of 1-year overall survival (OS) benefit (χ2=1.12, P=0.880). Only RTOG 2009 provides prospective data: There were no significant differences in global cognitive function (P=0.600) or ADL (P=0.880) after PCI, but there was a significant decline in immediate recall (P=0.030) and delayed recall (P=0.008) at 1 year. At 1 year, there was no significant differences in QOL after PCI (P=0.050). Conclusions: This systematic review show significantly decreases the risk of BM without improving 1-year OS in NSCLC patient receiving prophylactic cranial irradiation. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of PCI in clinical practice. Where possible, patients should be offered entry into a clinical trial. (authors)

  16. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  17. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  18. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  19. Prophylactic antibiotics are associated with a lower incidence of pneumonia in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, David J; Nielsen, Niklas; Fraser, Gilles L;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prophylactic antibiotics (PRO) reduce the incidence of early-onset pneumonia in comatose patients with structural brain injury, but have not been examined in cardiac arrest survivors undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM). We investigated the effect of PRO on the development...... TTM at 32-34 °C were enrolled in the registry. Differences were analyzed in univariate analyses and with logistic regression models to evaluate independent associations of clinical factors with incidence of pneumonia and good functional outcome. RESULTS: 416 of 1240 patients (33.5%) received PRO...... outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic antibiotics were associated with a reduced incidence of pneumonia but a similar rate of good functional outcome....

  20. Paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography: A double blind randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography (HSG). DESIGN: A prospective double blind randomized controlled trial comparing one 1 g of paracetamol (SmithKline Beecham, Brentford, U.K.) to placebo taken 30 min before HSG. One hundred consecutive out-patients were studied prospectively. The analgesic effectiveness during the procedure and at 24 h and 1 week post procedure was analysed by a postal pain score questionnaire. Additional data on the ethnicity of the patient, sex and level of experience of the radiologist performing the hysterosalpingogram, the parity of the patient, the ease of the procedure, and whether pathology was identified were also recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (88%) replied, 39 (44%) received paracetamol and 49 placebo (56%). During the procedure 3/39 (7%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 9/49 (18%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.11). At 24 h, 15/39 (38%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 20/49 (41%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.82). At 1 week, 27/39 (69%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 29/49 (59%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.33). No significant difference in mean pain scores was determined during the procedure (P 0.91), or at 24 h post procedure (P = 0.94). Similarly, no difference in mean pain scores was identified with regard to the ethnicity of the patient, the sex of the radiologist performing the procedure, the level of experience of the radiologist performing the procedure, or whether pathology was present or not. Difficult cannulations were associated with higher mean pain scores, however, there was no difference in mean pain scores between the paracetamol or placebo groups for both easy and difficult cannulations. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol is not effective as a prophylactic analgesic for HSG. If a prophylactic

  1. Impact of lifestyle factors on preneoplastic changes in prophylactic oophorectomies of BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, Helga; Kroiss, Regina; Kalteis, Karin; Rappaport, Christine; Muhr, Daniela; Primas, Christian; Kubista, Ernst; Horvat, Reinhard; Oefner, Peter; Singer, Christian; Wagner And The Austrian Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer Group, Teresa

    2012-03-01

    BRCA mutation carriers are at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. Ovarian malignancies are usually identified at an advanced stage with poor prognosis, attributed to inadequate options of early detection. Because of its risk-reducing effect of nearly 96%, prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy is still the leading option for risk-reduction in women with a positive BRCA mutation status. The presence of ovarian cancer precursor lesions, such as epithelial inclusion cysts (EICs) or cortical invaginations (CIs), has previously been discussed in several studies with diverse conclusions. We retrospectively investigated a large and consistent population (n=94) of BRCA mutation carriers for the presence of potential preneoplastic and neoplastic changes. We also examined the role of specific lifestyle factors. Ninety-four women with disease-associated germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were included in this retrospective study. All women had undergone genetic counseling and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, which was performed at a mean age of 43.33 years (range 27-66). Histological slides of both ovaries were reviewed by an independent pathologist. Data concerning lifestyle factors were collected from medical files and questionnaires. Two malignant lesions (2.1%), one bilateral serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the epithelial surface and one adenocarcinoma of the peritoneum with involvement of the left adnexa, and one lesion (1.1%) with obvious malignant potential, one mucinous borderline tumor of the right ovary, have been identified. We registered a high prevalence of CIs (30; 31.9%) and EICs (44; 46.8%) in prophylactically removed ovaries of BRCA mutation carriers. A significant correlation (P=0.002) was found with regard to the presence of EICs in women with increased BMI. Concerning the regular consumption of alcohol as a risk factor for premalignant lesions, in particular CIs, a statistically insignificant trend (P=0.083) was noted. Overweight women seem to be at

  2. Paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography: A double blind randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, E.M.; Ridley, N.T.F

    2000-09-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography (HSG). DESIGN: A prospective double blind randomized controlled trial comparing one 1 g of paracetamol (SmithKline Beecham, Brentford, U.K.) to placebo taken 30 min before HSG. One hundred consecutive out-patients were studied prospectively. The analgesic effectiveness during the procedure and at 24 h and 1 week post procedure was analysed by a postal pain score questionnaire. Additional data on the ethnicity of the patient, sex and level of experience of the radiologist performing the hysterosalpingogram, the parity of the patient, the ease of the procedure, and whether pathology was identified were also recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (88%) replied, 39 (44%) received paracetamol and 49 placebo (56%). During the procedure 3/39 (7%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 9/49 (18%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.11). At 24 h, 15/39 (38%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 20/49 (41%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.82). At 1 week, 27/39 (69%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 29/49 (59%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.33). No significant difference in mean pain scores was determined during the procedure (P 0.91), or at 24 h post procedure (P = 0.94). Similarly, no difference in mean pain scores was identified with regard to the ethnicity of the patient, the sex of the radiologist performing the procedure, the level of experience of the radiologist performing the procedure, or whether pathology was present or not. Difficult cannulations were associated with higher mean pain scores, however, there was no difference in mean pain scores between the paracetamol or placebo groups for both easy and difficult cannulations. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol is not effective as a prophylactic analgesic for HSG. If a prophylactic

  3. Prophylactic antibiotics for endoscopy-associated peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsu Wu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic procedures, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy-assisted intrauterine device (IUD implantation/removal, performed in CAPD patients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2001 and February 2012. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 125 endoscopies were performed in 45 patients. Eight (6.4% peritonitis episodes developed after the examination. Antibiotics were used in 26 procedures, and none of the patients had peritonitis (0% vs. 8.1% without antibiotic use; p=0.20. The peritonitis rate was significantly higher in the non-EGD group than in the EGD group (15.9% [7/44] vs. 1.2% [1/81]; p<0.005. Antibiotic use prior to non-EGD examinations significantly reduced the endoscopy-associated peritonitis rate compared to that without antibiotic use (0% [0/16] vs. 25% [7/28]; p<0.05. Peritonitis only occurred if invasive procedures were performed, such as biopsy, polypectomy, or IUD implantation, (noninvasive procedures, 0% [0/20] vs. invasive procedures, 30.4% [7/23]; p<0.05. No peritonitis was noted if antibiotics were used prior to examination with invasive procedures (0% [0/10] vs. 53.8% [7/13] without antibiotic use; p<0.05. Although not statistically significant, antibiotics may play a role in preventing gynecologic procedure-related peritonitis (antibiotics, 0% [0/4] vs. no antibiotics, 55.6% [5/9]; p=0.10. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced endoscopy-associated PD peritonitis in the non-EGD group. Endoscopically assisted invasive procedures, such

  4. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  5. Medium-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic agent in children with migraine: A preliminary placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K.J. Bruijn (Jacques); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. Passchier (Jan); H. Locher (Heiko); N. Dijkstra (Natascha); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Riboflavin seems to have a promising effect on migraine in adults. The present study examines whether riboflavin has a prophylactic effect on migraine in children. Objective: To investigate whether riboflavin in a dosage of 50 mg/day has a prophylactic effect on migraine atta

  6. Incidental placenta increta at the time of prophylactic hysterectomy for Lynch syndrome: Insights into individualized decision-making and surgical timing

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Tara A.; David, Stephanie N.; Desouki, Mohamed M; Crispens, Marta A.; Dineo Khabele

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Increta in a prophylactic hysterectomy specimen for Lynch syndrome is rare. • Individualizing risk-reducing procedures after childbearing is important. • Shared decision making should include the timing of prophylactic surgery. • Minimizing surgical risks in the postpartum period should be discussed.

  7. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  8. VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    YAPICI, Asım; KUTLU, M.Oğuz; BİLİCAN, F.Işıl

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined the change in values in time among teacher candidates. The Schwartz Values Inventory was administered to 708 freshmen and senior students studying at Cukurova University, Education Faculty. The results have shown that the students at the department of Science Education valued power, achievement, stimulation; the department of English Teaching Education valued hedonism; and the department of Education of Religious Culture valued un...

  9. Prophylactic use of dressings for pressure ulcer prevention in the critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Elaine

    2016-06-23

    Multiple comorbidities and intensive therapy increase the risk of pressure ulcer (PU) development in critical care unit (CCU) patients. Given the high number of risk factors that CCU patients present with, it is important to acknowledge that not all PUs are entirely preventable, and incidence is thought to be between 14% and 42%. The consequences of acquiring a PU in critical care include increased mortality, morbidity and longer length of stay. Implementing prevention strategies as soon as the patient enters the unit can significantly reduce incidence. By adopting a proactive versus reactive mind-set, one CCU abandoned traditional PU risk assessment and implemented a number of intensive interventions, including the use of a prophylactic sacral dressing as an adjunct. As a result, PU incidence fell from 19.9 per 1000 patient population to 0.84 per 1000 patient population in 2014. In addition, 310 PU-free days were achieved. PMID:27345087

  10. PROPHYLACTIC KINESITHERAPY ROLE IN ADAPTATION TO EFFORT OF THE BODY OF CHILDREN WITH OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristuță A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem globally, increasing in all countries, including Romania, reaching alarming rates in both adults and children, therefore we need to reflect on their negative repercussions on human evolution.The purpose of this research is to popularize the importance of physical activity to combat obesity and its contributing factors and the prevention of the complications arising from it.The means, methods and procedures used, embedded in a well-structured and individualized program, if applied with perseverance, honesty and continuously, lead to the reduction and correction of existing symptoms and prevent other complications.After applying prophylactic kinesitherapy programs, there are improvements on the appearance of the individual somatoscopic, the proportionality become harmonic and the capacity of the effort adaptability of the body improves.

  11. Severe Neuropsychiatric Reaction in a Deployed Military Member after Prophylactic Mefloquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects.

  12. Effectiveness of prophylactic retropharyngeal lymph node irradiation in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for the prevention of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A retrospective review of 76 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiation or postoperative radiotherapy with IMRT or IGRT who were at risk for retropharyngeal nodal recurrences because of anatomic site (hypopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx) and/or the presence of nodal metastases was undertaken. The prevalence of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences was assessed on follow-up positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scans. At a median follow-up of 22 months (4–53 months), no patient developed retropharyngeal nodal recurrences. Prophylactic irradiation of retropharyngeal lymph nodes with IMRT or IGRT provides effective regional control for individuals at risk for recurrence in these nodes

  13. Prophylactic teatment with oral paracetamol for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Akbari Asbagh

    2015-05-01

    Results: There were 16 newborns in each group (20 boys and 12 girls. In 12 newborns of prophylaxis group the ductus arteriosus was closed although in control group in 8 newborns the duct was closed. No significant difference was observed in sex, gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery, multifetal gestation and birth order between two groups. The rate of ductal closure was 75% and 50% in prophylaxis group and control group respectively (P=0.27. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that prophylactic paracetamol is ineffective in PDA closure, although the rate of ductal closure between two groups seems remarkable. Paracetamol as a new strategy for PDA closure because of cost effectiveness and harmlessness may be used in future. However, we presume larger sample size studies are needed to show the efficacy of paracetamol, side effects, and complications in PDA prophylaxis treatment.

  14. Prophylactic UV Radiation and CIE Standard on Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, Genrih; Gavrilkina, Galina

    Two aspects of UV photobiology have come up almost simultaneously for discussion. On the one hand, the CIE has, for all practical purposes, completed discussions of a new standard “CIE S 009/E: 2002 Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems”1), and it was adopted without any amendments. On the other hand, some national standards (for example, in Russia) have for decades insisted on UVA+UVB radiation being used for prophylactic purposes at actinic erythemal doses (around 140 J m-2 per 8 hours of irradiation), which are significantly higher than prohibitive doses of actinic UV hazard (30 J m-2) suggested in the CIE standard. It seems that this arisen situation is to be thought about more carefully.

  15. Guidelines on the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure during nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the fission products that may be released in a power reactor accident the radioiodines are unique in that the dose received by persons exposed by inhalation of radioiodines in the gaseous plume may be substantially reduced. GMA-9 provides guidance on the medical aspects of the use of stable iodine compounds as a prophylactic measure in the event of a nuclear accident. A review of the physiologic basis for the use of stable iodine as a prophylatic measure and the effects of radiation on the thyroid gland are provided. Logistic factors that must be considered to provide the optimum level of radiological protection and medical safety are also addressed. Due to the delay in publishing the French version of this report, some sections of this report have been updated to reflect current practices.71 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Paradoxical role of antibodies in dengue virus infections: considerations for prophylactic vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Eliana G; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Highly effective prophylactic vaccines for flaviviruses including yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus are currently in use. However, the development of a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has been hampered by the requirement of simultaneous protection against four distinct serotypes and the threat that DENV-specific antibodies might either mediate neutralization or, on the contrary, exacerbate disease through the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Therefore, understanding the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and ADE are fundamental for the development of a safe DENV vaccine. Here we summarize current structural and mechanistic knowledge underlying these phenomena. We also review recent results demonstrating that the humoral immune response triggered during natural DENV infection is able to generate neutralizing antibodies binding complex quaternary epitopes only present on the surface of intact virions. PMID:26577689

  17. Up-to-date positions of prophylactic fluorographic examinations of chest (review of literature)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classic fluorography is half as great as all conducting radiological diagnostic investigations of chest now. Prophylactic fluorography makes possible medical examinations of human population for earlier exposure of numerous hidden passing diseases. Except that fluorographic examinations are accompanied by negative effect on patients as a radiation dose exceeding natural background radiation. The dates of native and foreign explorers published in 1990-1999 indicates the advent of alternative method for classic fluorographic examinations. Digital fluorography based on principles of digital radiography is the most effective method as compared with classic fluorography. Good quality of image, high information content, possibility of mathematical treatment, low radiation loading and high capacity of the method as well as low cost price make it possible to reveal the digital radio(fluoro)graphy as a leader of diagnostic examination

  18. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I;

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic...... effect of melatonin in adult patients against depression or depressive symptoms. A search was performed in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO for published trials on November 14th 2013. Inclusion criteria were English language, RCTs or crossover trials. Our outcome was measurement of...... meta-analyses. Melatonin doses varied from 0.5-6 mg daily and the length of follow-up varied from 2 weeks to 3.5 years. Three studies were done on patients without depression at inclusion, two studies in patients with depression and five studies included a mixture. Six studies showed an improvement in...

  19. New antibacterial microporous CaP materials loaded with phages for prophylactic treatment in bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurice, Edwige; Rguiti, Emmanuelle; Brutel, Annie; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Leriche, Anne; Descamps, Michel; Bouchart, Franck

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are materials commonly used in bone repair. The most important problem occurring in bone repair surgery is bacterial infection which is usually overcome by treatment with antibiotics. Currently, emergence of multidrug resistant strains has led to development of alternative treatments such as phage therapy. Phages are bacterial viruses with several advantages over chemotherapy such as specificity of bacterial strain, no side effects and fast response. This study evaluates the possibility of loading hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics used as bone substitutes with phages and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K12. The majority of phages were retained in dense and microporous HA and β-TCP samples during at least 6 days suggesting the occurrence of strong interaction between phages and ceramics, which did not prevent bacterial attachment and lysis. This study has shown for the first time that phage loaded ceramics could be used in prophylactic treatments. PMID:22802104

  20. Prognosis and complications of acute childhood leukemia after prophylactic treatment of the central nervous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 through 1979, 22 children with acute childhood leukemia and in remimmion were treated with preventive central nervous system (CNS) irradiation and simultaneous intrathecal methotrexate. A minimum follow-up duration was five months. Of 22 cases, 20 were acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 2 were acute myelocytic leukemia (ALL). Five-year cumulative survival rate and five-year relapse free survival rate of ALL case were 48% and 46% respectively. Nor neurological disorders after the prophylactic combined therapy were recognized clinically by the time when this follow-up was finished. Of 15 children with ALL who were followed by computed tomography of the brain, 5(33%) had abnormal findings. Dilatation of the ventricles were seen in 3 cases, and low density areas of the occipital regions in 2 cases. (author)

  1. Is 3T-MR Spectroscopy a Predictable Selection Tool in Prophylactic Vertebroplasty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to confirm relationships between decrease of bone mineral density and increase of marrow fat and to delineate, through MR spectroscopy, vertebral body at high risk for compression fracture onset to justify prophylactic vertebroplasty. We enrolled 127 women: 48 osteoporotic, 36 osteopenic, and 43 normal subjects, who underwent DXA and MR examination of spine. Then, we selected 48 patients with at least two acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures with interposed normal 'sandwich' vertebrae; all patients underwent MR examination of spine. Significant statistical differences were found among 'Fat Fraction' (FF) values in normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic subjects: 59.8 ± 5.1%; 64.8 ± 4.4%; and 67.1 ± 3.3%. A mild, significant, negative correlation was observed between T-score and vertebral fat content (r = - 0.585; P = 0.0000). In the second part of the study, 9 new vertebral fractures were observed in 48 patients (19%): 6 were 'sandwich' vertebrae (12.5%), and 3 were located in distant vertebral body. The mean FF in sandwich fractured vertebrae was 72.75 ± 1.95 compared with the FF of the nonfractured sandwich, and distant control vertebrae were 61.83 ± 3.42 and 61.42 ± 3.64. We found a significant statistical difference between fractured and nonfractured vertebrae (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that MR spectroscopy could be a reliable index to predict the risk of new compression vertebral fracture and could be used for vertebroplasty planning contributing to clarify the possibility to add prophylactic PVP to standard treatment.

  2. Prophylactic Ketoconazole Shampoo for Tinea Capitis in a High-Risk Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P. Brandon; Watson, Holly J.; Winters, Shauna D.; Carlson, Adrian L.; Schulz, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although topical agents for the treatment of tinea capitis decrease viable fungal elements and reduce shedding, their use as a prophylactic agent has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral 2%) protocol to reduce the number of clinically evident tinea capitis infections in a high-risk African American, urban population. METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of a ketoconazole prophylaxis protocol that was implemented at an urban pediatric clinic for medically fragile children. Patients at high risk for tinea capitis received twice-weekly ketoconazole shampoo. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction in the number of documented tinea capitis infections between the 12-month preprotocol and 12-month postprotocol periods. A secondary outcome included the evaluation of predisposing risk factors for acquiring tinea infections. RESULTS Ninety-seven patients, with a mean age of 8.06 years, were included. Most patients (78%) were African American. There were a total of 13 tinea capitis infections during the 12-month preprotocol period. During the 12-month postprotocol period, 41 infections were documented: 37 (90.2%) in the prophylaxis group and 4 (9.8%) in the nonprophylaxis group. The average numbers of per-patient infections in the postprotocol period were 0.79 and 0.08 in the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups, respectively. Initiation of prophylaxis did not reduce tinea capitis infections (p=NS). Previous history of infection and a high level of care were significant predictors of infections (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Improved hygiene, adherence to prescribed treatment regimens, and prevention of recurrent environmental exposure to surviving fomites should be stressed in high-risk patients and supersede the need for an antifungal (ketoconazole shampoo) prophylaxis protocol. PMID:22479162

  3. Effect of prophylactic amiodarone in patients with rheumatic valve disease undergoing valve replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of prophylactic single-dose intravenous amiodarone in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery. Maintenance of sinus rhythm is better than maintenance of fixed ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation (AF especially in the presence of irritable left or right atrium because of enlargement. Fifty-six patients with valvular heart disease with or without AF were randomly divided into two groups. Group I or the amiodarone group (n=28 received amiodarone (3 mg/kg in 100 ml normal saline and group II or the control group received same volume of normal saline. The standardized protocol for cardiopulmonary bypass was maintained for all the patients. AF occurred in 7.14% patients in group I, and in group II, 28.57% (P=0.035; ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation was observed in 21.43% patients in group I and 46.43% patients in group II (P=0.089 after release of aortic clamp. Most of the patients in group I (92.86% maintained sinus rhythm without cardioversion or defibrillation after release of aortic cross clamp (P=0.002. Defibrillation or cardio version was needed in 7.14% patients in group I and 28.57% patients in group II (P=0.078. A single prophylactic intraoperative dose of intravenous amiodarone decreased post bypass arrhythmia in this study in comparison to the control group. Single dose of intraoperative amiodarone may be used to decrease postoperative arrhythmia in open heart surgery.

  4. Prophylactic Anti-inflammation Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-induced Emphysema in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲农; 陶晓南; 谢建敏; 向敏; 付薇

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the effect of prophylactic anti-inflammation on the development of smokeinduced emphysema was investigated. Young male guinea-pigs aged 1.5 - 2 months (weighing 198.3±26.9 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (cigarette smoke exposure only),group B (cigarette smoke exposure plus pentoxifylline-rich (PTX, 10 mg/d) forage feeding), group C (cigarette smoke exposure plus intermittent cortical steroid injection (Triamcinolone acetonide, 3mg, im, every three weeks) and control group (group D: animals with sham smoke exposure,raised under the same conditions). Animals in group A, B and C were exposed to smoke of cigarettes for 1 to 1.5 h twice a day, 5 days a week. All animals were killed at the 16th week and followed by morphometrical analysis of the midsagittal sectioned lung slices. Smoke exposure of 16 weeks resulted in visible emphysematous development in Group A but not in Group B and C. It was evidenced by the indicator of air-space size, mean linear intercept (Lm): 120.6±16.0 μm in Group A; 89.8±9.2 μm in Group B and 102.4±17.7 μm in Group C. The average Lm in either group B or group C was shorter than that in Group A (ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test, F=8.80, P=0.0002) but comparable to that (94.8±13.2 μm) in group D (P>0.05). It is concluded that longterm prophylactic anti-inflammation inhibits pulmonary emphysema induced by cigarette smoking in the guinea pigs.

  5. Prevalence of hyperuricemia in children with leukemia and lymphoma with respect to prophylactic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oloomi Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperuricemia is one of the oncologic emergency that occurs most often in patients with hematologic disorders particularly leukemia and high-grade lymphoma. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia with respect to prophylactic treatment (in particular allopurinol in patients with lymphoproliferative disease in the pediatric hematologic ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 316 children (75 females, 241 males under the age of 12 years participated. Among the subjects, 66 patients (20.9% had lymphoma and 250 patients (79.1% had leukemia. Results: Of the 56 (17.7% patients diagnosed with hyperuricemia, 13 with lymphoma (19.7% and 43 (17.2% with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 52 patients showed hyperuricemia after induction of chemotherapy (p<0.001. Hyperuricemia was more prevalent in patients with more advanced disease (50.9% in stage IV, p<0.001. Hyperuricemia was more frequent in male patients (p<0.001. Among the 217 patients who had received prophylaxis (hydration, alkalization, allopurinol, 19 (8.7% subjects had hyperuricemia compare to 37.3% in the group of patients who did not receive prophylactic treatment (p<0.001. Conclusion: From the literature reviewed, a recombinant form of the urate oxidase enzyme (rasburicase is a safe and effective alternative to allopurinol to rapidly control plasma uric acid concentrations in patients with hematologic malignancy at high risk for tumor lysis during induction of chemotherapy. In this respect, we recommend a prospective study to compare allopurinol and rasburicase in children with leukemia and lymphoma.

  6. Prophylactic postoperative ketorolac improves outcomes in diabetic patients assigned for cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Moataz F Elsawy, Nermine Badawi, Hany A KhairyOphthalmology Department, Menoufia University Hospital, Menoufia, EgyptObjective: To evaluate the prophylactic role of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in reducing the incidence of central macular edema (CME in diabetic eyes post-cataract surgery.Patients and methods: This study included 86 eyes (70 patients with high risk characteristics for the development of CME after cataract surgery. All patients underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Patients were divided into two equal groups (n = 43 [eyes]: a control group given topical dexamethasone 0.1%, four times/day for 12 weeks postoperatively and a study group given topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% twice daily in addition to topical dexamethasone 0.1% four times daily for 12 weeks. Patients were examined at 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively for evaluation of CME development. The main study outcome was the change in the retinal fovea thickness measured with ocular coherence topography.Results: Ten eyes developed CME (11.6%; eight eyes in the control group and only two eyes in the study group. Mean retinal fovea thickness was significantly higher in the control group compared to the study group. Moreover, eyes of the control group developed CME significantly earlier than those of the study group.Conclusion: Prophylactic postoperative ketorolac 0.4% may have a role in reducing the frequency and severity of CME in diabetic eyes post-cataract surgery.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cataract surgery, central macular edema, ketorolac, dexamethasone

  7. Myocardial protection with prophylactic oral metoprolol during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: evaluation by troponin I

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    João Manoel Rossi Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biochemical markers of myocardial injury are frequently altered after cardiac surgery. So far there is no evidence whether oral beta-blockers may reduce myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral administration of prophylactic metoprolol reduces the release of cardiac troponin I in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, not complicated by new Q waves. METHODS: A prospective randomized study, including 68 patients, divided in 2 groups: Group A (n=33, control and B (n=35, beta-blockers. In group B, metoprolol tartrate was administered 200 mg/day. The myocardial injury was assessed by troponin I with 1 hour and 12 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting. RESULTS: No significant difference between groups regarding pre-surgical, surgical, complication in intensive care (15% versus 14%, P=0.92 and the total number of hospital events (21% versus 14%, P=0.45 was observed. The median value of troponin I with 12 hours in the study population was 3.3 ng/ml and was lower in group B than in group A (2.5 ng/ml versus 3.7 ng/ml, P<0,05. In the multivariate analysis, the variables that have shown to be independent predictors of troponin I release after 12 hours were: no beta-blockers administration and number of vessels treated. CONCLUSION: The results of this study in uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting, comparing the postoperative release of troponin I at 12 hours between the control group and who used oral prophylactic metoprolol for at least 72 hours, allow to conclude that there was less myocardial injury in the betablocker group, giving some degree of myocardial protection.

  8. Zika Virus Infectious Cell Culture System and the In Vitro Prophylactic Effect of Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Deisy; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja

    2016-01-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen that is linked to fetal developmental abnormalities such as microcephaly, eye defects, and impaired growth. ZIKV is an RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. ZIKV is mainly transmitted by mosquitoes, but can also be spread by maternal to fetal vertical transmission as well as sexual contact. To date, there are no reliable treatment or vaccine options available to protect those infected by the virus. The development of a reproducible, effective Zika virus infectious cell culture system is critical for studying the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV replication as well as drug and vaccine development. In this regard, a protocol describing a mammalian cell-based in vitro Zika virus culture system for viral production and growth analysis is reported here. Details on the formation of plaques by Zika virus on a cell monolayer and plaque assay for measuring viral titer are presented. Viral genome replication kinetics and double-stranded RNA genome replicatory intermediates are determined. This culture platform was utilized to screen against a library of a small set of cytokines resulting in the identification of interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β and IFN-γ as potent inhibitors of Zika viral growth. In summary, an in vitro infectious Zika viral culture system and various virological assays are demonstrated in this study, which has the potential to greatly benefit the research community in elucidating further the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and the evolution of viral virulence. Antiviral IFN-alpha can further be evaluated as a prophylactic, post-exposure prophylactic, and treatment option for Zika virus infections in high-risk populations, including infected pregnant women. PMID:27584546

  9. Effect of prophylactic low level laser therapy on oral mucositis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Oberoi

    Full Text Available Objective was to determine whether prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT reduces the risk of severe mucositis as compared to placebo or no therapy.MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic LLLT with placebo or no therapy in patients with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. All analyses used random effects models.Eighteen RCTs (1144 patients were included. Prophylactic LLLT reduced the overall risk of severe mucositis (risk ratio (RR 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.20 to 0.67; P = 0.001. LLLT also reduced the following outcomes when compared to placebo/no therapy: severe mucositis at the time of anticipated maximal mucositis (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.59, overall mean grade of mucositis (standardized mean difference -1.49, 95% CI -2.02 to -0.95, duration of severe mucositis (weighted mean difference -5.32, 95% CI -9.45 to -1.19 and incidence of severe pain (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37.Prophylactic LLLT reduced severe mucositis and pain in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Future research should identify the optimal characteristics of LLLT and determine feasibility in the clinical setting.

  10. Early outcome in acute ischemic stroke is not influenced by the prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeKeyser, J; Herroelen, L; DeKlippel, N

    1997-01-01

    Aspirin reduces the occurrence of ischemic strokes. In some prophylactic trials it was suggested that aspirin might also lessen stroke severity, and hence improve outcome in patients sustaining an ischemic stroke. We examined stroke severity (by using the Mathew scale) and early outcome (Barthel ind

  11. Leukoencephalopathy in childhood hematopoietic neoplasm caused by moderate-dose methotrexate and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy -- an MR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine influential factors related to minor leukoencephalopathy (LEP) caused by moderate-dose methotrexate (MTX) and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in childhood hematopoietic malignancies. We also compared the incidence of LEP following this treatment to that reported in the literature following treatment with high-dose MTX alone. Methods and Materials: Thirty-eight pediatric patients of hematopoietic malignancies (37 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 1 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) who were given CRT (18-24 Gy) as well as prophylactic intrathecal and per os MTX were studied for leukoencephalopathy by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. All the patients were free from grave neuropsychiatric disturbances. The data were examined to elucidate the influential ones of five factors (patients' age, doses of intrathecal and per os MTX, dose of CRT, interval between treatment, and MR study) to develop LEP using multiple regression analysis. To compare the effect of moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT on LEP to that of high-dose MTX alone, we conducted literature review. Results: Seven out of 38 patients (18%) developed LEP. From multiple regression analysis and partial correlation coefficients, the age and CRT dose seemed influential in the subsequent development of LEP. The incidence of LEP following treatment with moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT appears to be less than that reported in the literature following treatment with intravenous high-dose MTX. However, even moderate-dose MTX in combination with CRT can result in a significant incidence of MR-detectable LEP, particularly in children 6 years of age or younger receiving 24 Gy. Conclusion: Leukoencephalopathy was caused by moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT in pediatric patients, probably less frequently than by high-dose MTX treatment alone. The influential factors were patient's age and CRT dose

  12. Leukoencephalopathy in childhood hematopoietic neoplasm caused by moderate-dose methotrexate and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy - an MR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Ko [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)]|[Miyagi Cancer Center (Japan); Takahashi, Shoki; Higano, Shuichi [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-15

    The main purpose of this study was to determine influential factors related to minor leukoencephalopathy (LEP) caused by moderate-dose methotrexate (MTX) and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in childhood hematopoietic malignancies. We also compared the incidence of LEP following this treatment to that reported in the literature following treatment with high-dose MTX alone. Thirty-eight pediatric patients of hematopoietic malignancies (37 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 1 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) who were given CRT (18-24 Gy) as well as prophylactic intrathecal and per os MTX were studied for leukoencephalopathy by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. All the patients were free from grave neuropsychiatric disturbances. The data were examined to elucidate the influential ones of five factors (patients` age, doses of intrathecal and per os MTX, dose of CRT, interval between treatment, and MR study) to develop LEP using multiple regression analysis. To compare the effect of moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT on LEP to that of high-dose MTX alone, we conducted a literature review. Seven out of 38 patients (18%) developed LEP. From multiple regression analysis and partial correlation coefficients, the age and CRT dose seemed influential in the subsequent development of LEP. The incidence of LEP following treatment with moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT appears to be less than that reported in the literature following treatment with intravenous high-dose MTX. However, even moderate-dose MTX in combination with CRT can result in a significant incidence of MR-detectable LEP, particularly in children 6 years of age or younger receiving 24 Gy. Leukoencephalopathy was caused by moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT in pediatric patients, probably less frequently than by high-dose MTX treatment alone. The influential factors were patient`s age and CRT dose. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  14. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted

  15. Promising new cryogenic seal candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the five seal candidates considered for the main propellant system of the Space Shuttle, only one candidate, the fluoroplastic Halar, satisfied all tests including the critical LO2 impact test and the cryogenic compression sealability test. Radiation-cross-linked Halar is a tough, strong thermoplastic that not only endured one hundred 2200 N compression cycles at 83 K while mounted in a standard military O-ring gland without cracking or deforming, but improved in sealability as a result of this cycling. Although these Halar O-rings require much higher sealing forces (approximately 500 N) at room temperature than rubber O-rings, on cooling to cryogenic temperatures the required sealing force only doubles, whereas the sealing force for rubber O-rings increases eightfold. Although these Halar O-rings were inadequately cross-linked, they still exhibited promise as LO2-compatible cryogenic seals. It is expected that their high-temperature properties can be greatly improved by higher degrees of cross-linking (e.g., by 20 mrad of radiation) without compromising their already excellent low-temperature properties. A direct comparison should then be obtained between the best of the cross-linked Halar compounds and the current commercial cryogenic seal materials, filled Teflon and Kel-F

  16. Comparison of Two Phototherapy Methods (Prophylactic vs Therapeutic for Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in Very Low Birth Weight Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Sarah Nazem-Sadati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preterm and low birth weight (LBW infants are at greater risk of developing bilirubin-associated brain damage compared with term infants. Certainly, phototherapy, if used appropriately, is capable of controlling the bilirubin levels in LBW infants; but there is not a unique phototherapy treatment strategy in LBW infants. This study was designed to compare the prophylactic phototherapy and late treatment of jaundiced newborns weighing 1000-1500 grams.Methods: Sixty newborns with birth weight 1000-1500 g were studied. They were divided into two groups: the "Prophylactic" group, in which phototherapy started within six hours after birth and continued for at least 96 hours, and the "Treatment" group, which received phototherapy when indicated according to birth weight and suspended when bilirubin level fell below 50% of bilirubin level for blood exchange. Mean value of daily transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB, duration of phototherapy, the need for blood exchange, and the highest TCB value in both groups were analyzed."nFindings: In the prophylactic group, the highest daily mean rate of TCB was 7.71±1.84 mg/dl, which happened on the third day. In the treatment group, it was 8.74±1.72 mg/dl on the fourth day after birth. The TCB values in prophylactic group were significantly less than those of the treatment group only on the fourth and fifth days after birth (P<0.001. Although the median duration of phototherapy in the treatment group was shorter than that of the prophylactic group (137.60±57.39 vs 168.71±88.01 hours, respectively, this difference was not statistically significant. Only one neonate needed blood exchange in the treatment group."nConclusion: The prophylactic phototherapy treatment for babies weighing 1000-1500 g significantly decreases bilirubin levels on the fourth and fifth days after birth but the clinical course of hyperbilirubinemia does not alter in LBW infant, as indicated by the non-significant change in the duration

  17. Extent of postoperative prophylactic radiotherapy after radical surgery of thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the extent of postoperative prophylactic radiotherapy after radical surgery of thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Should the entire mediastinum (M), bilateral supraclavicular areas(S) and the left gastric area(L) be all included in the irradiation field. Methods The clinical data of 204 such patients treated from 1996 through 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. They were classified into four groups: group A, 26 patients given irradiation to the mediastinum M alone; group B, 139 patients given irradiation to the mediastinum and bilateral supraclavicular areas M + S; group C, 10 patients irradiation to the mediastinum plus left gastric area M + L; and group D, 29 patients irradiation to all these three areas ( M + S + L). The overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan- Meier method and comparison of these groups was done with the Logrank test. Prognostic variables were entered into a Cox regression model controlling the age, gender, length, site, pT, pN, and treatment received. Results: The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates of all 204 patients were 83.8%, 53.2%, 34.1% and 77.8%, 51.6%, 33.8% , respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rates for patients in group A, group B, group C, and group D were 36.3%, 30.7%, 40.0% and 43.6% (χ2 = 3.05, P=0.385), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the pT and pN were independent risk factors for disease-free survival rate, whereas treatment arm gave no significant difference (χ2=2.77, P=0.096). None of the 43 patents without irradiation to the L had abdominal lymph node metastasis from lesions in the upper and upper-middle third (located middle third but invasion to the upper third) thoracic esophagus. The data of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis between patients with and without irradiation showed that S in lesion in the lower and middle-lower third (located middle third but invasion to the lower third) thoracic

  18. Prophylactic administration of Amifostine protects vessel thickness in the setting of irradiated bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Erin E; Deshpande, Sagar S; Nelson, Noah S; Felice, Peter A; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Jose J; Deshpande, Samir S; Buchman, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Although often beneficial in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), radiation therapy (XRT) leads to the depletion of vascular supply and eventually decreased perfusion of the tissue. Specifically, previous studies have demonstrated the depletion of vessel volume fraction (VVF) and vessel thickness (VT) associated with XRT. Amifostine (AMF) provides protection from the detrimental effects of radiation damage, allowing for reliable post-irradiation fracture healing in the murine mandible. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prophylactic ability of AMF to protect the vascular network in an irradiated field. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 17) were divided into 3 groups: control (C, n = 5), radiated (XRT, n = 7), and radiated mandibles treated with Amifostine (AMF XRT, n = 5). Both groups receiving radiation underwent a previously established, human equivalent dose of XRT totaling 35 Gy, equally fractionated over 5 days. The AMF XRT group received a weight dependent (0.5 mg AMF/5 g body weight) subcutaneous injection of AMF 45 min prior to XRT. Following a 56-day recovery period, mandibles were perfused, dissected, and imaged with μCT. ANOVA was used for comparisons between groups and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Stereologic analysis demonstrated a significant and quantifiable restoration of VT in AMF treated mandibles as compared to those treated with radiation alone (0.061 ± 0.011 mm versus 0.042 ± 0.004 mm, p = 0.027). Interestingly, further analysis demonstrated no significant difference in VT between control mandibles and those treated with AMF (0.067 ± 0.016 mm versus 0.061 ± 0.011 mm, p = 0.633). AMF treatment also showed an increase in VVF, however those results were not statistically significant from VVF values demonstrated by the XRT group. Our data support the contention that AMF therapy acts prophylactically to protect vessel thickness. Based on these findings, we support the continued

  19. Anal Canal Cancer: Management of Inguinal Nodes and Benefit of Prophylactic Inguinal Irradiation (CORS-03 Study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the benefit of prophylactic inguinal irradiation (PII) in anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed the outcome of 208 patients presenting with ASCC treated between 2000 and 2004 in four cancer centers of the south of France. Results: The population study included 35 T1, 86 T2, 59 T3, 20 T4, and 8 T stage unknown patients. Twenty-seven patients presented with macroscopic inguinal node involvement. Of the 181 patients with uninvolved nodes at presentation, 75 received a PII to a total dose of 45–50 Gy (PII group) and 106 did not receive PII (no PII group). Compared with the no PII group, patients in the PII group were younger (60% vs. 41% of patients age 2 toxicity of the lower extremity was observed. Conclusion: PII with a dose of 45 Gy is safe and highly efficient to prevent inguinal recurrence and should be recommended for all T3-4 tumors. For early-stage tumors, PII should also be discussed, because the 5-year inguinal recurrence risk remains substantial when omitting PII (about 10%).

  20. Evaluation of isometamidium levels in the serum of sheep and goats after prophylactic treatment against trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Wesongah

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available years, but recently there have been reports of prophylaxis failure under natural conditions. In this study, use of the drug for prophylactic purpose against trypanosomosis in small ruminants was investigated. Forty-two sheep and 44 goats were divided into four treatment groups. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with isometamidium chloride (Samorin(R, Rhone Merieux, Lyon, France at 3-month intervals while groups 3 and 4 were used as controls. All the animals were exposed to natural tsetse challenge and monitored for serum isometamidium levels and anti-trypanosome antibodies. Seven days after drug administration, isometamidium levels were significantly higher in goats 13.7 + 0.07 ng/mℓ than in sheep 6.2 + 0.06 ng/mℓ. However, the elimination half-life in the sheep was 14.2 + 0.92 days and was significantly higher (P > 0.05 than that of the goats 12 + 0.5 days. This study established that isometamidium metabolism differs between sheep and goats and this difference may have important implications in high tsetse challenge areas.

  1. A prophylactic approach for bone marrow transplantation from a hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk; Artit Ungkanont

    2007-01-01

    It has been accepted that bone marrow transplantation (BMT)is the only curative therapeutic option for certain hematologic malignancies.The southeast Asia region is an endemic area of hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection;thus,BMT using a hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)-positive donor is occasionally unavoidable.Organ transplantation using a HBsAg-positive donor can lead to post-transplantation de novo HBV infection and severe HBV-related hepatitis if no effective prophylactic measures are taken prior to and after transplantation.In this report,a four-level approach was designed for a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia,beginning with a booster HBV vaccination before performing BMT with a HBsAg-positive donor.Prior to BMT,the HBV viral load of the donor was reduced to an undetectable level by antiviral therapy.After BMT,hepatitis B immunoglobulin was administered intramuscularly for 1 wk together with a long-term antiviral drug,lamivudine.One year after discontinuation of lamivudine,the patient is still free of HBV infection.

  2. An animal model of prophylactic cranial irradiation: Histologic effects at acute, early and delayed stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, M.; Beach, T.G.; McGeer, E.G.; Ludgate, C.M. (Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    Wistar rats (body wt. 200 g) were subjected to a fractionated course of radiation similar to that used in prophylactic brain irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung (2000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days with {sup 60}Co). Effects of this regimen were assessed by histologic examination of brain sections at 1 week, 1 month and 6 months post-irradiation. With conventional stains there were no apparent differences between control and irradiated brains at any of the post-irradiation intervals. Immunohistochemistry for neurotransmitter synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, failed to uncover any changes in the irradiated animals. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also showed no differences in the irradiated groups. However, an antibody against a major histocompatibility complex, class II antigen (OX-6) revealed a microglial response in grey and white matter beginning at 1 month and increasing up to the 6 month post-irradiation interval. The neuroanatomical basis for this microglial response was suggested by the results of silver stains for nerve axons, which revealed axonal loss in striatal white matter bundles in a pattern implicating vascular insufficiency.

  3. An animal model of prophylactic cranial irradiation: Histologic effects at acute, early and delayed stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistar rats (body wt. 200 g) were subjected to a fractionated course of radiation similar to that used in prophylactic brain irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung (2000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days with 60Co). Effects of this regimen were assessed by histologic examination of brain sections at 1 week, 1 month and 6 months post-irradiation. With conventional stains there were no apparent differences between control and irradiated brains at any of the post-irradiation intervals. Immunohistochemistry for neurotransmitter synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, failed to uncover any changes in the irradiated animals. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also showed no differences in the irradiated groups. However, an antibody against a major histocompatibility complex, class II antigen (OX-6) revealed a microglial response in grey and white matter beginning at 1 month and increasing up to the 6 month post-irradiation interval. The neuroanatomical basis for this microglial response was suggested by the results of silver stains for nerve axons, which revealed axonal loss in striatal white matter bundles in a pattern implicating vascular insufficiency

  4. Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone improves intestinal barrier function and alleviates bacterial translocation in stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁连安; 黎介寿; 李幼生; 刘放南; 谭力

    2004-01-01

    Background Damage to the gut barrier often occurs during critical illnesses. In such cases, it is very important to alleviate impairment of the intestinal barrier and protect intestinal barrier function. This study investigated the protective effect of growth hormone on intestinal barrier function in rats under stress.Methods This study consisted of prospective, randomized, and controlled animal experiments. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats served as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) models and were divided into three groups: TPN group, sepsis (Sep) group, and growth hormone (GH) group. Another 8 rats served as normal controls. Each group received different stress stimuli. Rats were fed for 7 days, and samples were taken for examination 24 hours after garaging with dual saccharides. Results The architecture of the small intestinal mucosa in the Sep group showed the most severe damage among all groups. Nitric oxide levels in blood plasma and immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal mucosa of the GH group were significantly lower than in the Sep group (P<0.02). There were no significant changes in CD3 counts and in the CD4/CD8 ratio between the four groups. Dual sugar tests and bacteriological examinations revealed that intestinal permeability and rate of bacterial translocation in the GH group were lower than in the Sep group (P<0.01, respectively).Conclusion Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone can alleviate damage to intestinal barrier function caused by trauma and endotoxemia in rats under stress.

  5. Single fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of a single 8-Gy fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation regime was assessed in 106 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. All patients had limited stage disease and received combination chemotherapy consisting of either cisplatin or carboplatin with ifosfamide, etoposide, and vincristine (VICE). Cranial irradiation was administered 48 h after the first cycle of chemotherapy and was well tolerated. Actual 2-year survival was 35% and cranial relapse occurred in 22% of those patients who achieved complete remission. This compares favourably with a cranial relapse rate of 45% incomplete remitters previously reported with the same chemotherapy regime after a minimum follow-up of 2 years where PCI was not used. Formal psychometric testing was performed retrospectively on a series of 25 long-term survivors of whom 14 were taken from this reported series. Whilst 75% of patients were impaired on at least one test with 68% performing badly in the most complex task, this was not associated with clinically detectable neurological damage and the patients did not complain of memory or concentration difficulties. In conclusion, single fraction PCI, when used with platinum based combination chemotherapy, appears to be equally effective but may be less neurotoxic than the more standard fractionated regimes

  6. Prophylactic platelets in dengue: survey responses highlight lack of an evidence base.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Whitehorn

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue.

  7. The prophylactic use of a proton pump inhibitor before food and alcohol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Patients report that the prophylactic consumption of a proton pump inhibitor minimizes gastrointestinal symptoms expected to be provoked by late-night food and alcohol consumption. The efficacy of this practice has not been studied formally. AIM: To perform a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of lansoprazole (30 mg) taken prior to a large meal and alcohol consumption. METHODS: Study subjects were recruited randomly from local primary care and hospital physicians. Each participant (n = 56; 37 male, 19 female; mean age, 38 years) completed questionnaires before and after the meal. Approximately 90 min prior to the provocative meal, participants were witnessed taking either placebo or 30 mg lansoprazole. Bar tokens were dispensed to permit the accurate quantification of alcohol consumption (mean, 15 units). RESULTS: Forty per cent of subjects reported significant reflux symptoms. For the entire group, there was no significant difference between lansoprazole and placebo. Post-prandial reflux was more frequent in those consuming > 15 units of alcohol (13\\/26, 50%) compared with those consuming < 15 units (7\\/30, 24%; P < 0.05). In the group who consumed > 15 units of alcohol, lansoprazole was associated with a lower rate of heartburn (5\\/15, 33%) compared with placebo (8\\/11, 73%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A single dose of a proton pump inhibitor prior to indulgence was only associated with reduced heartburn in those consuming > 15 units of alcohol.

  8. The Effect of Prophylactic Polishing Pastes on Surface Roughness of Indirect Restorative Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Can Say

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of prophylactic polishing pastes (PPP; Detartrine (DT, Topex (TP on surface roughness (Ra of indirect composites (IRC; Tescera (TES, Gradia (GRD, and Estenia C&B (EST, a glass ceramic (Empress 2 layering (E2, and a leucite reinforced glass ceramic (Empress Esthetic (EE with two different (glazed (G; polished (P surface preparations. A total of 90 IRC and 120 ceramic discs, 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were prepared. E2 and EE specimens were randomly divided into two groups (n=30. One group was glazed (GE2; GEE, while the other group was polished (PE2; PEE the same as the IRCs. The specimens in each group were subsequently divided into three subgroups: control (C, DT, and TP. Ra (μm was evaluated with a profilometer. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis, followed by the Dunn's multiple comparison tests P0.05. PE2 and PEE were not affected by DT or TP P>0.05, while GE2 and GEE exhibited significant roughening after TP P<0.05. Surface roughness of IRCs and glazed ceramics can be affected by PPP applications.

  9. Comparison of droperidol and ondansetron prophylactic effect on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ferreira da Cunha Brião

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prophylactic effect of ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus is controversial, while evidence suggests that droperidol prevents pruritus. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of droperidol and ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.METHODS: 180 ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo cesarean sections under subarachnoid anesthesia combined with morphine 0.2 mg were randomized to receive, after the child's birth, metoclopramide 10 mg (Group I - control, droperidol 2.5 mg (Group II or ondansetron 8 mg (Group III. Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for pruritus (absent, mild, moderate or severe or other side effects by blinded investigators. Patients were also blinded to their group allocation. The tendency to present more severe forms of pruritus was compared between groups. NNT was also determined.RESULTS: Patients assigned to receive droperidol [Proportional odds ratio: 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.88] reported less pruritus than those who received metoclopramide. Ondansetron effect was similar to metoclopramide [Proportional odds ratio: 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.49-1.83]. The NNT for droperidol and ondansetron was 4.0 and 14.7, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Ondansetron does not inhibit subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.

  10. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  11. Serious response during tilt-table test in elderly and its prophylactic management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yang; LI Xiao-xia; JLANG Wei-li; WANG Zhao-di; CHEN Tian-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the serious response during tilt-table test (TTT) and its prophylactic management. Method:Seventy-six elderly patients were tested at a tilt angle of 70 degrees for a maximum of 45 min and then subjected to isoproterenol-provocative tilt testing. ECG and blood pressure were monitored during the test and patients were kept at normal saline condition through a peripheral intravenous duct. Results: Fifty-one of 76 patients were defined as positive including 23 having serious response; 6 of the 23 patients had arteriosclerosis involving intemal carotid arteries and 7 cases had bradycardia, two of which were associated with Ⅱ°-Ⅰ A-V block and the others with chronic atrial fibrillation. The serious response consisted of cardiac arrest for more than 5 s (6 cases), or serious bradycardia for more than 1 min (7 cases) or serious hypotension for more than 1 min (10 cases).Those with serious response were managed by returning to supine position, thus driving up legs and intravenous atropine, CPR (2cases with cardiac arrest) and needing oxygen supplementation (11 cases). Only 2 hypotension patients recovered gradually by 10min after emergency management, while others recovered rapidly with no complications. Conclusion: Although non-invasive,TTT may result in serious response, especially in elderly. Therefore proper patient selection, control of isoproterenol infusion and close observation of vital signs are decisive for a safe consequence.

  12. Prophylactic iodine in two Tasmanian cultures in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of goitre in two separate cultural groups in Tasmania, the island State of Australia, is discussed, firstly on the basis of serendipitous iodine prophylaxis by a ''primitive race'' (Tasmanian Aborigine), and secondly the deliberate dietary supplementation by European occupation in the 20th Century. The Tasmanian Aborigine did not suffer from goitre. Cultural habits that included diet and craft enabled them to avoid this disease in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment. Following an extended occupation since 1803, and with an eventual change in dietary habit, loss of traditional craft and culture, the population that survived both the introduction of European diseases and incarceration succumbed to goitre that was evidenced in the last half of the 19th Century. This paper explores the reasons why the Tasmanian Aborigines did not develop goitre until after European occupation. It also highlights the fortuitious introduction of iodine as a prophylactic measure in the prevention of goitre in the State of Tasmania during the second half of the 20th Century

  13. Prophylactic iodine in two Tasmanian cultures in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.A.C. [Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: The incidence of goitre in two separate cultural groups in Tasmania, the island State of Australia, is discussed, firstly on the basis of serendipitous iodine prophylaxis by a ``primitive race`` (Tasmanian Aborigine), and secondly the deliberate dietary supplementation by European occupation in the 20th Century. The Tasmanian Aborigine did not suffer from goitre. Cultural habits that included diet and craft enabled them to avoid this disease in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment. Following an extended occupation since 1803, and with an eventual change in dietary habit, loss of traditional craft and culture, the population that survived both the introduction of European diseases and incarceration succumbed to goitre that was evidenced in the last half of the 19th Century. This paper explores the reasons why the Tasmanian Aborigines did not develop goitre until after European occupation. It also highlights the fortuitious introduction of iodine as a prophylactic measure in the prevention of goitre in the State of Tasmania during the second half of the 20th Century.

  14. PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOXYCYCLINE REDUCES CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kharfan-Dabaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells are usually transfused through a central venous catheter (CVC, which also facilitates administration of medications and intravenous fluids. We had observed high rate of catheter-related blood-stream infection (CR-BSI at our Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT unit despite prescribing fluoroquinolones for anti-bacterial prophylaxis. Accordingly, we implemented prophylactic use of a relatively inexpensive broad spectrum antibiotic, namely doxycycline to address this problem. We wanted to investigate whether doxycycline prophylaxis reduces CR-BSI rate. Data was collected retrospectively on 54 consecutive patients, 26 of whom received doxycycline (doxycycline group, and we compared their outcomes to a previous cohort of 28 patients who did not receive doxycycline (comparison group. The groups were comparable in regards to age, gender, hematopoietic cell transplant type, and primary diagnosis. No CVC infection (0% was observed in the doxycycline group, while 5 infection episodes (18.5% occurred in 4 patients in the comparison group (p<0.001. Episodes of CR-BSI were due to: Escherichia-coli (EC=1, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus-spp (CNSS=2, both EC & CNSS=1. Our results demonstrate that CR-BSI was reduced significantly after introducing doxycycline. This finding suggests a beneficial role for systemic use of doxycycline prophylaxis to prevent CR-BSI in adult BMT patients. Nevertheless, a randomized controlled study is warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. Prophylactic effect of artemether on human schistosomiasis mansoni among Egyptian children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmorshedy, Hala; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert N; Sharaf, Soraya; Barakat, Rashida

    2016-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in an endemic focus for Schistosoma mansoni in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt, to evaluate the prophylactic effect of artemether (ART) given in conjunction with praziquantel (PZQ). The study encompassed 913 primary school children randomly assigned to two treatment groups PZQ/ART and PZQ/ART-placebo. At baseline, both groups received 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ twice four weeks apart, after which one group received 6 mg/kg body weight of ART every 3 weeks in 5 cycles during the transmission season and the other group received ART-placebo. At the end of the study, prevalence of infection among the PZQ/ART was approximately half that of the PZQ/ART-placebo group, i.e. 6.7% versus 11.6%, and incidence of new infections for the PZQ/ART was 2.7% versus 6.5% for the PZQ/ART-placebo. In conclusion, PZQ/ART combined therapy might be considered as an adjunct measure against human schistosomiasis, by specifically reducing transmission and therefore contribute to disease elimination. PMID:26921676

  16. Impact of prophylactic CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide application on implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shneh; Thormann, Ulrich; Sommer, Ursula; Stötzel, Sabine; Mohamed, Walid; Schnettler, Reinhard; Domann, Eugen; Chakraborty, Trinad; Alt, Volker

    2015-09-01

    TLR-9 ligand CpG oligodeoxynucleotide type B (CpG ODN) induces a proinflammatory environment. We evaluated the effects of a preoperative CpG ODN application in an implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection model by monitoring bacterial loads and cytokine and chemokine levels. A total of 95 rats were used in four different groups: CpG ODN group (group 1; n=25), non-CpG-ODN group (group 2; n=25); saline pretreatment (group 3; n=25), and one uninfected group (group 4; n=20). A single dose of CpG-ODN was administered to the left tibialis anterior muscle 3days prior to surgery and the tibia midshaft was osteotomized, stabilized by an intramedullary implant and subsequently contaminated with 10(3) colony forming units (CFUs) of S. aureus in groups 1-3. The osteotomy gap in animals of group 4 was not contaminated with S. aureus and those animals did not receive any pretreatment. CpG ODN administration resulted in significant reduction of the bacterial load in tibia tissue homogenate and on the implant surface on day 1 post-infection compared to non-CpG-ODN pretreatment (pmodel, prophylactic administration of a single dose of CpG ODN, resulted in marked reduction of S. aureus load in the infected tibia during the initial stage of infection but failed to prevent development of chronic infection over time. PMID:25959416

  17. Prophylactic effects of humic acid AND#8211; glucan combination against experimental liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Vetvicka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite intensive research, liver diseases represent a significant health problem and current medicine does not offer a substance able to significantly inhibit the hepatotoxicity leading to various stages of liver disease. Based on our previously published studies showing the protective effects of a glucan-humic acid combination, we focused on the hypothesis that combination of these two natural molecules can offer prophylactic protection against experimentally induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: lipopolysaccharide (LPS, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and ethanol were used to experimentally damage the liver. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA, known to correspond to the liver damage, were assayed. Results: Using three different hepatotoxins, we found that in all cases, some samples of humic acid and most of all the glucan-humic acid combination, offer strong protection against liver damage. Conclusion: glucan-humic acid combination is a promising agent for use in liver protection. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 249-255

  18. Capsular contracture by silicone breast implants: possible causes, biocompatibility, and prophylactic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiert AE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andreas E Steiert, Maria Boyce, Heiko Sorg Department of Plastic, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Abstract: The most common implanted material in the human body consists of silicone. Breast augmentation and breast reconstruction using silicone-based implants are procedures frequently performed by reconstructive and aesthetic surgeons. A main complication of this procedure continues to be the development of capsular contracture (CC, displaying the result of a fibrotic foreign body reaction after the implantation of silicone. For many years, experimental and clinical trials have attempted to analyze the problem of its etiology, treatment, and prophylaxis. Different theories of CC formation are known; however, the reason why different individuals develop CC in days or a month, or only after years, is unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that CC formation, might primarily be induced by immunological mechanisms along with other reasons. This article attempts to review CC formation, with special attention paid to immunological and inflammatory reasons, as well as actual prophylactic strategies. In this context, the word “biocompatibility” has been frequently used to describe the overall biological innocuousness of silicone in the respective studies, although without clear-cut definitions of this important feature. We have therefore developed a new five-point scale with distinct key points of biocompatibility. Hence, this article might provide the basis for ongoing discussion in this field to reduce single-publication definitions as well as increase the understanding of biocompatibility. Keywords: biofilm, foreign body reaction, breast augmentation, biocompatibility, fibrosis

  19. Design and synthesis of 3-(azol-1-yl)phenylpropanes as microbicidal spermicides for prophylactic contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Sarswat, Amit; Lal, Nand; Jain, Ashish; Kumar, Sumit; Kiran Kumar, S T V S; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Pandey, Atindra K; Shukla, Praveen K; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2011-01-01

    We designed a series of 25 3-(azol-1-yl)phenylpropanes which yielded 10 compounds (3, 4, 7, 8, 13, 14, 19, 21, 23, 26) that irreversibly immobilized 100% human sperm at 1% (w/v) concentration in 60s; 12 compounds (8, 9, 15, 16, 19-21, 23-25, 27, 28) that showed potent microbicidal activity at 12.5-50 μg/mL against Trichomonas vaginalis; and 17 compounds (3-11, 13, 15, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30) that exhibited potent anticandida activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5-50 μg/mL. Almost all the compounds exhibited high level of safety towards normal vaginal flora (Lactobacillus) and human cervical (HeLa) cells in comparison to the marketed spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9). All the biological activities were evaluated in vitro. Two compounds (4, 8) with good safety profile exhibited multiple (spermicidal, antitrichomonas and anticandida) activities, warranting further lead optimization for furnishing a prophylactic vaginal contraceptive. PMID:21130651

  20. Coordinated prophylactic surgical management for women with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodurka Diane C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations have a substantially increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer compared with the general population. Therefore, prophylactic mastectomy (PM and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO have been proposed as risk-reduction strategies for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We aimed to assess the feasibility of coordinated PM and BSO in hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. Methods High risk women for breast and ovarian cancer who underwent coordinated PM and BSO were included in this study. Clinical characteristics and surgical and oncologic outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Results Twelve patients underwent coordinated PM and BSO. Ten had history of previous breast cancer. Autologous breast reconstruction was performed in ten patients. The mean age at surgery was 43 (range 34–65. Mean operating time was 9.3 hours (range 3–16 with a mean postoperative hospitalization of 5.4 days (range 4–8. Intraoperatively, there were no major surgical complications. Postoperatively, one patient developed an abdominal wound dehiscence, another reoperation for flap congestion; one had umbilical superficial epidermolysis, and one patient developed aspiration pneumonia. At a mean follow-up of 84 months, 10 of patients were cancer-free. Although no patients developed a new primary cancer, two developed a distant recurrence. Conclusion Coordinated PM and BSO is a feasible procedure with acceptable morbidity in selected high-risk patients that desire to undergo surgery at one operative setting.

  1. Development and evaluation of prophylactic methods to control the anaplasmosis and babesiosis in the livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a combined effort of FONAIAP, through the Technological Development Program (PRODETEC I), the University of Illinois (Agreement FONAIAP - ILLINOIS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the part of the Nuclear Investigations Applied to Agriculture Center (CINAGRI), in the Department of Parasitology II V, during the lapse 1982-1990 it was carried out a project whose main objective was the development and evaluation of immuno prophylactics for the control of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle. The results were: (1) In babesiosis, a bivalent vaccine B.Bigemina / B.Bovis, in vitro culture origin ed, which was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions, showing an efficient protection in bovine vaccinated and exposed to the Babesia infection, either experimental or natural. 2) In anaplasmosis, a vaccine inactivated of initial bodies of Ana plasma marginal e, was developed. It was obtained in infected erythrocytes and purified by ultrasonics and differential centrifugation, which showed protective capacity in bovine susceptible of exposure, or parasitic challenge under controlled or field conditions. The obtained vaccines constitute an efficient method, practical and simple, with smaller risk and inferior cost, for protection of bovine against these hemo parasitic diseases illnesses that cause considerable economic lost in the national cattle

  2. Assessment of cognitive functions after prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain irradiation using neuropsychological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.)

  3. Therapeutic and prophylactic activity of itraconazole against human rhinovirus infection in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Aeri; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Ahn, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Chang, Sun-Young; Cha, Younggil; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kweon, Mi-Na; Park, Kwi Sung; Kim, Dong-Eun; Cho, Sungchan; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold. There is a need for appropriate vaccines or therapeutic agents to treat HRV infection. In this study, we investigated whether itraconazole (ICZ) can protect cells from HRV-induced cytotoxicity. Replication of HRV1B was reduced by ICZ treatment in the lungs of HRV1B- as compared to vehicle-treated mice. The numbers of immune cells, including granulocytes and monocytes, were reduced in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by ICZ administration after HRV1B infection, corresponding to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in BALF. A histological analysis of lung tissue showed that ICZ suppressed inflammation caused by HRV1B infection. Interestingly, pretreatment of mice with ICZ in the form of a nasal spray had potent prophylactic antiviral activity. Cholesterol accumulation in the plasma membrane was observed upon HRV infection; ICZ blocked cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane, as well as resulted in its accumulation in subcellular compartments near the nucleus. These findings suggest that ICZ is a potential antiviral agent for the treatment of HRV infection, which can be adopted preventatively as well as therapeutically. PMID:26976677

  4. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Sb; Tassorelli, C;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europe...... and Latin America in a seven-month cohort study. Before and six months after treatment, the degree of disability was measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, while anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: A total of.......7% from 195 to 96 and number of those with anxiety was reduced by 27.1% from 284 to 207 (both P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Disability, depression and anxiety were considerably reduced in patients with MOH by detoxification and prophylactic treatment. This emphasises the urgent need for increased awareness...

  5. The use of gamma radiation as a prophylactic technique in management and control of the diseases of the honeybee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three years experimental essay has been carried out to determine the efficacy of the gamma irradiation for the prophylactic treatment of hive equipment and for the integrated management and control of diseases. The impact of the nuclear techniques on the production yields of the hive has been also evaluated. The results show that the gamma irradiation is a suitable complementary tool to sterilize hive equipment as a non-destructive and low cost method. (author)

  6. Comparison of Two Phototherapy Methods (Prophylactic vs Therapeutic) for Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in Very Low Birth Weight Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh-Sarah Nazem-Sadati; Majid Mohammadizadeh; Ramin Iranpour

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants are at greater risk of developing bilirubin-associated brain damage compared with term infants. Certainly, phototherapy, if used appropriately, is capable of controlling the bilirubin levels in LBW infants; but there is not a unique phototherapy treatment strategy in LBW infants. This study was designed to compare the prophylactic phototherapy and late treatment of jaundiced newborns weighing 1000-1500 grams.Methods: Sixty newborns with bi...

  7. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmad shah Farhat; Abbas Alizadeh kaseb; Fatemeh Khorakian; Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitte...

  8. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmad shah Farhat; Abbas Alizadeh kaseb; Fatemeh Khorakian; Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who adm...

  9. Secondary Clinical Deterioration after Successful Embolization of a Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: a Plea for Prophylactic Anticoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Knopman, J.; Zink, W.; Patsalides, A; Riina, H A; Gobin, Y.P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of delayed aggravation of initially-resolved symptoms in a patient after successful embolization of a T5 spinal dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula with N-butyl cyanoacr- ylate. The symptoms were attributed to venous thrombosis and resolved with systemic antico- agulation after five days of treatment. Although the most adequate treatment for preventing venous thrombosis after spinal dural AV fistula is not known, we describe this patient as a case for more aggressive prophylact...

  10. Randomized phase II exploratory study of prophylactic amifostine in cancer patients who receive radical radiotherapy to the pelvis

    OpenAIRE

    Karavasilis Vasileios; Panelos Ioannis; Capizzello Antonio; Tolis Christos; Bai Maria; Batistatou Anna; Tsekeris Pericles; Briasoulis Evangelos; Katsanos Konstantinos H; Christodoulou Dimitrios; Tsianos Epameinondas V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic amifostine in reducing the risk of severe radiation colitis in cancer patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the pelvis. Methods Patients with pelvic tumours referred for radical radiotherapy who consented participation in this trial, were randomly assigned to receive daily amifostine (A) (subcutaneously, 500 mg flat dose) before radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone (R). Sigmoidoscopy and blinded biopsies were ...

  11. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Uma Pathak; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 ...

  12. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: the experience at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana:

    OpenAIRE

    Stanic, Karmen; Kovac, Viljem

    2010-01-01

    Background Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been used in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to reduce the incidence of brain metastases (BM) and thus increase overall survival. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with SCLC referred to the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, their eligibility for PCI, patterns of dissemination, and survival. Patients and methods Medical charts of 357 patients with SCLC, referred to the Institute of...

  13. Prophylactic Application of CpG Oligonucleotides Augments the Early Host Response and Confers Protection in Acute Melioidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara M Judy; Katherine Taylor; Arpaporn Deeraksa; R Katie Johnston; Endsley, Janice J.; Sudhamathi Vijayakumar; Aronson, Judith F.; D Mark Estes; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Prophylactic administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) is known to confer protection against lethal sepsis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in the mouse model. The mechanisms whereby CpG regulates the innate immune response to provide protection against B. pseudomallei, however, are poorly characterized. In the present study, we demonstrate that intranasal treatment of mice with Class C CpG, results in recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils to the lung at 48 h p...

  14. Post-Laparoscopic Vomiting in Females versus Males: Comparison of Prophylactic Antiemetic Action of Ondansetron versus Metoclopramide

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbous, Aliya; Itani, Mohammad; Kawas, Nicole; Karam, Violette; Aouad, Marie; Baraka, Anis; Khoury, Samar Jabbour; Khoury, Ghattas

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The incidence of postoperative vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is compared in females versus males. The report also compares the prophylactic action of ondansetron versus metoclopramide. Methods: A total of 85 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I and II patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to sex: Group I 53 females, and Group II 32 males. After anaesthetic induction, subjects rece...

  15. Voriconazole is a safe and effective anti-fungal prophylactic agent during induction therapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Akash Shah; Prasanth Ganesan; Venkatraman Radhakrishnan; Krishnarathinam Kannan; Rejiv Rajendranath; Vandana Mahajan; Varalakshmi Vijayakumar; Trivadi Ganesan; Tenali Gnana Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) reduces the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) during induction therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Posaconazole is considered the standard of care. Voriconazole, a generic cheaper alternative is a newer generation azole with broad anti-fungal activity. There is limited data on the use of voriconazole as a prophylactic drug. Materials and Methods: A single-center, prospective study was performed during which patients with AML undergoin...

  16. Comparison of prophylactic higher fluence corneal cross-linking to control, in myopic LASIK, one year results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanellopoulos, John

    2014-01-01

    Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis,1 Costas Karabatsas1 1LaserVision.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To compare 1-year results: safety, efficacy, refractive and keratometric stability, of femtosecond myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with and without concurrent prophylactic high-fluence cross-linking (CXL) (LASIK-CXL).Methods: We studied a total of 155&nbs...

  17. Comparison of prophylactic higher fluence corneal cross-linking to control, in myopic LASIK, one year results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanellopoulos AJ; Asimellis G; Karabatsas C

    2014-01-01

    Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis,1 Costas Karabatsas1 1LaserVision.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To compare 1-year results: safety, efficacy, refractive and keratometric stability, of femtosecond myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with and without concurrent prophylactic high-fluence cross-linking (CXL) (LASIK-CXL).Methods: We studied a total of 155 consec...

  18. Effective treatment of advanced-stage childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma without prophylactic cranial irradiation: Results of St Jude NHL13 study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandlund, John T.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Zhou, Yinmei; Behm, Frederick G.; Onciu, Mihaela; Razzouk, Bassem I.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Campana, Dario; Hudson, Mlissa M.; Ribeiro, Raul C.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a steady improvement in cure rates for children with advanced-stage lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. To further improve cure rates while minimizing long-term toxicity, we designed a protocol (NHL13) based on a regimen for childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which features intensive intrathecal chemotherapy for central-nervous-system-directed therapy and excludes prophylactic cranial irradiation. From 1992 to 2002, 41 patients with advanced-stage lymphoblastic lymp...

  19. Prophylactic Effect of Vancomycin on Infection after Cranioplasty in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Carriers with Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Keun-Tae; Park, Seong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) are major causes of neurosurgical infection. Nasal colonization of MRSA is the most important risk factor and MRSA screening can be a screening method to identify MRSA and MRCNS colonization. We retrospectively evaluated prophylactic effect of vancomycin on MRSA or MRCNS surgical site infection (SSI) after cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy (DC) after t...

  20. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  1. The Incidence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Complications in Macular Surgery After Prophylactic Preoperative Laser Retinopexy: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Gian Marco; Esposti, Pierluigi; Romeo, Napoleone; Marigliani, Davide; Cevenini, Gabriele; Massimo, Patrizio; Nuti, Elisabetta; Esposti, Giulia; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of intraoperative retinal breaks (RBs) and postoperative retinal detachment (RRD) in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular disorders, who were treated preoperatively with prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy.This observational cohort study comprised of 254 patients who underwent macular surgery and were preoperatively subjected to prophylactic laser retinopexy anterior to the equator. The main outcome measures were the incidence and characteristics of intraoperative RBs and postoperative RRD.Intraoperative RBs occurred in 14 patients (5.5%). Ten patients presented a sclerotomy-related RB (3.9%) and 4 patients a nonsclerotomy-related RB (1.6%). Two patients showed postoperative RRD (0.7%). Neither of the 2 patients with postoperative RRD was macula-off at presentation: one of them was successfully operated on with scleral buckling and the other was managed by observation alone. A significantly increased risk for the intraoperative development of sclerotomy-related RB was found in 20-gauge PPV compared with 23/25-gauge PPV.Preoperative prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy does not guarantee the prevention of intraopertaive RBs or postoperative RRD. However, it might prevent the involvement of the macula when RRD occurs postoperatively. PMID:27057893

  2. Association of MDR1, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms with prophylactic migraine treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasayar, Gulfer; Eryilmaz, Isil Ezgi; Karli, Necdet; Egeli, Unal; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Cecener, Gulsah; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Tunca, Berrin; Yildirim, Oznur; Ak, Secil; Tezcan, Gulcin; Can, Fatma Ezgi

    2016-07-15

    Prophylactic therapy response varies in migraine patients. The present study investigated the relationship between the resistance to the drugs commonly used in prophylactic therapy and the possible polymorphic variants of proteins involved in the metabolism of these drugs. Migraine patients with the MDR1 3435TT genotype exhibited a better treatment response to topiramate than migraine patients with the CC and CT genotypes (p=0.020). The MDR1 C3435T polymorphism was also found to be a higher risk factor for topiramate treatment failure in a comparison of the number of days with migraine (β2=1.152, p=0.015). However, there was no significant relationship between the treatment response to topiramate and either the CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 polymorphism, and there were no significant correlations between the treatment responses to amitriptyline, propranolol, and valproic acid and the MDR1, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms. This is the first study to investigate the effect of the polymorphic variants on prophylactic therapy response in migraine patients. PMID:27288795

  3. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  4. Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network 6667 Trial: Effect of Breast MR Imaging Assessments and Patient Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbar, Habib; Hanna, Lucy G.; Gatsonis, Constantine; Mahoney, Mary C.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Lehman, Constance D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that patient factors and not breast MR imaging results significantly affect decisions by women with newly diagnosed breast cancer as to whether to undergo contralateral prophylactic mastectomy.

  5. Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Antibiotics for Prophylactic in Patients with Cesarean Section at Hospitals in Surakarta in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Mutmainah; Puri Setyati; Niken Handasari

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics for prophylactic in sectio cesarean can reduce the risk of infection-related complications and postoperative infections. This study aims to describe and evaluate the usage and the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section patients in two hospitals in Surakarta in year 2010. The study used retrospective data from medical records. The analysis was then conducted on the use of antibiotic including the appropriateness of antibiotic (compare...

  6. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker after endoscopic gastric variceal obturation for first acute episode of gastric variceal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Sang Gyune; Lee, Yun Nah; Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Hwan; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO) using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB) after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study. Methods Ninety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with ac...

  7. An Efficient Approach for Candidate Set Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nawar Malhis; Arden Ruttan; Hazem H. Refai

    2005-01-01

    When Apriori was first introduced as an algorithm for discovering association rules in a database of market basket data, the problem of generating the candidate set of the large set was a bottleneck in Apriori's performance, both in space and computational requirements. At first, many unsuccessful attempts were made to improve the generation of a candidate set. Later, other algorithms that out performed Apriori were developed that generate association rules without using a candidate set. They...

  8. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  9. Blood calcium dynamics after prophylactic treatment of subclinical hypocalcemia with oral or intravenous calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, C D; Van der List, M; Aly, S S; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Río, N

    2014-11-01

    Total serum Ca dynamics and urine pH levels were evaluated after prophylactic treatment of subclinical hypocalcemia after parturition in 33 multiparous Jersey × Holstein crossbreed cows. Cows were blocked according to their calcemic status at the time of treatment [normocalcemic (8.0-9.9 mg/dL; n = 15) or hypocalcemic (5.0-7.9 mg/dL; n = 18)] and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control [no Ca supplementation (n = 11)]; intravenous Ca [Ca-IV (n = 11), 500 mL of 23% calcium gluconate (10.7 g of Ca and 17.5 g of boric acid as a solubilizing agent; Durvet, Blue Springs, MO)]; or oral Ca [Ca-Oral (n = 11), 1 oral bolus (Bovikalc bolus, Boehringer Ingelheim, St. Joseph, MO) containing CaCl2 and CaSO4 (43 g of Ca) 2 times 12h apart]. Total serum Ca levels were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, and 48 h, and urine pH was evaluated at 0, 1, 12, 24, 36, and 4 8h after treatment initiation. Total serum Ca levels were higher for Ca-IV than for control and Ca-Oral cows at 1, 2, and 4h after treatment initiation, but lower than Ca-Oral cows at 20, 24, and 36 h and lower than control cows at 36 and 48 h. At 1h after treatment initiation, when serum Ca levels for Ca-IV cows peaked (11.4 mg/dL), a greater proportion of Ca-IV (n = 8) cows had total serum Ca levels >10mg/dL than control (n = 0) and Ca-Oral (n = 1) cows. At 24h after treatment initiation, when Ca-IV cows reached the total serum Ca nadir (6.4 mg/dL), a greater proportion of Ca-IV (n = 10) cows had serum Ca levels cows. Treatment, time, and treatment × time interaction were significant for urine pH. Mean urine pH was lower for Ca-Oral cows (6.69) than for control (7.52) and Ca-IV (7.19) cows. Urine pH levels at 1h after treatment were lower for Ca-IV cows compared with both control and Ca-Oral cows, a finding likely associated with the iatrogenic administration of boric acid added as a solubilizing agent of the intravenous Ca solution used. At 12, 24, and 36 h, urine pH levels were lower for Ca

  10. Long-term effect of prophylactic laser treatment for bilateral soft drusen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ying-xiang; XIANG Li-nan; WANG Yan-ling; LI Ming-min; HU Yong-xia

    2011-01-01

    Background Large drusen is a known risk factor for the development of late complications of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and drusen reduction has been found by our previous study. To prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic laser treatment in Chinese patients with bilateral soft drusen, we examined the structure and function of the macula 8 years after treatment.Methods Ten patients with more than 10 soft drusen (>125 mm) and best corrected visual acuity >20/25 in each eye participated in the study. One eye, with relatively more drusen, was exposed to an argon laser (514 nm) to achieve a barely visible retinal lesion. The contralateral eye was used as a control. Fluorescein angiography, Amsler tests,Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potential tests were carried out 8 years later.Results No choroidal neovascularization was seen in the laser-treated eyes or control eyes. There were no significant differences in visual acuity or P100 latency and amplitude between the laser treated eyes and contralateral eyes (t=1.685,1.184; P>0.05). The thickness of the retinal pigment epithelium of the treated eyes was less than that of the contralateral eyes (t=-4.540; P <0.05). The full retinal thickness in treated eyes was slightly, but insignificantly, reduced relative to contralateral eyes (t=-1.746; P >0.05).Conclusions The treatment was associated with a reduction in retinal pigment epithelium thickness elevation compared with the contralateral eyes. Macular function was not impaired.

  11. Prophylactic Antitumor Effect of Mixed Heat Shock Proteins/Peptides in Mouse Sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shu-Yun Liu; Mei Yuan; Yu Tang; Quan-Yi Guo; Xue-Mei Cui; Xiang Sui

    2015-01-01

    Background:To develop a vaccine-based immunotherapy for sarcoma,we evaluated a mixture of heat shock proteins (mHSPs) as a vaccine for sarcoma treatment in a mouse model.Heat shock protein/peptides (HSP/Ps) are autoimmune factors that can induce both adaptive and innate immune responses;HSP/Ps isolated from tumors can induce antitumor immune activity when used as vaccines.Methods:In this study,we evaluated the effects of mHSP/Ps on prophylactic antitumor immunity.We extracted mHSP/Ps,including HSP60,HSP70,GP96,and HSP l 10,from the mouse sarcoma cell lines S 180 and MCA207 using chromatography.The immunity induced by mHSP/Ps was assessed using flow cytometry,ELISPOT,lactate dehydrogenase release,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:Of S180 sarcoma-beating mice immunized with mHSP/Ps isolated from S180 cells,41.2% showed tumor regression and long-term survival,with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 82.3% at 30 days.Of MCA207 sarcoma-bearing mice immunized with mHSP/Ps isolated from MCA207 cells,50% showed tumor regression and long-term survival with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 79.3%.All control mice died within 40 days.The proportions of natural killer cells,CD8+,and interferon-γ-secreting cells and tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity were increased in the immunized group.Conclusions:Vaccination with a polyvalent mHSP/P cancer vaccine can induce an immunological response and a marked antitumor response to autologous tumors.This mHSP/P vaccine exerted greater antitumor effects than did HSPT0,HSP60,or tumor lysates alone.

  12. Safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman; Sevki; Arslan; Ceyhun; Arici; Mustafa; Unal; Erdogan; Cicik; Mehmet; Serhat; Mangan; Eray; Atalay

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To determine the safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty(PKP).METHODS:In this retrospective study of consecutive patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery after PKP, were treated with intracameral moxifloxacin0.5% ophthalmic solution(0.5 mg/0.1 mL). The main outcome measures were anterior chamber reaction, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal endothelial cell count(ECC), and central corneal thickness(CCT).RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were recruited(26 males,29 females). The mean age was 54.36±4.97y(range 45-64y).All eyes had improved postoperative BCVA. The mean BCVA was 0.25 preoperatively and 0.57 postoperatively,which was statistically significant(P <0.001). One eye had 3+, 7 eyes had 2+, 12 eyes had 1+ and 8 eyes had trace amount of aqueous cells on the first day after surgery. All eyes had no anterior chamber cells at subsequent follow up examinations. Effective phacoemulsification time was 4.33 ±1.01 s. The mean ECC was 2340.20 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 1948.75 cells/mm21 mo postoperatively(P <0.001). The increase of21.09 μm in postoperative pachymetry 1mo after surgery was statistically significant(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:Nountowardeffectswereobservedafter intracameral injection of moxifloxacin(0.5 mg/0.1 mL) in terms of anterior chamber reaction, CCT, ECC, and visual rehabilitation at the conclusion of cataract surgery in patients with PKP.

  13. Association Between Baseline Iris Thickness and Prophylactic Laser Peripheral Iridotomy Outcomes in Primary Angle Closure Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y.; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Cui, Qi N.; Porco, Travis C.; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between baseline measurements of iris thickness at three positions and change in anterior segment biometric parameters after prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Design Prospective clinical cohort study. Participants Fifty-two eyes of 52 nonglaucomatous subjects with anatomically narrow angles. Methods Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images captured before and after LPI were analyzed using customized software, the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Differences in preoperative and postoperative measurements for anterior segment biometric parameters were compared by paired Student’s t-tests. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and preoperative pupil diameter, were used to examine the association between the baseline measurements of iris thickness at three positions and the change in anterior segment biometric parameters after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Baseline iris thickness measured at 750μm (IT750) and 2000μm (IT2000) from the scleral spur and maximal iris thickness (ITM). Changes in iris curvature (ICURV) and trabecular–iris space area at 500μm (TISA500) and 750μm (TISA750) from the scleral spur after LPI. Results ICURV significantly decreased, while TISA500 and TISA750 significantly increased following LPI (all PTISA500 and TISA750 (both PTISA500 and TISA750 after LPI. This suggests that eyes with thinner irides undergoing LPI were more likely to exhibit greater magnitude of change in terms of flattening of the iris convexity (i.e., ICURV) and widening of the anterior chamber angle (i.e., TISA500 and TISA750). PMID:24534754

  14. Prophylactic Ankle Taping and Bracing: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Lauren C.; Vela, Luzita I.; Denegar, Craig R.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Taping and bracing are thought to decrease the incidence of ankle sprains; however, few investigators have addressed the effect of preventive measures on the rate of ankle sprains. Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of ankle taping and bracing in reducing ankle sprains by applying a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis to previously published studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, SPORT Discus, and PEDro for original research from 1966 to 2002 with key words ankle taping, ankle sprains, injury incidence, prevention, ankle bracing, ankle prophylaxis, andnumbers needed to treat. We eliminated articles that did not address the effects of ankle taping or bracing on ankle injury rates using an experimental design. DATA SYNTHESIS: The search produced 8 articles, of which 3 permitted calculation of NNT, which addresses the clinical usefulness of an intervention by providing estimates of the number of treatments needed to prevent 1 injury occurrence. In a study of collegiate intramural basketball players, the prevention of 1 ankle sprain required the taping of 26 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 143 without a prior history. In a military academy intramural basketball program, prevention of 1 sprain required bracing of 18 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 39 athletes with no history. A study of ankle bracing in competitive soccer players produced an NNT of 5 athletes with a history of previous sprain and 57 without a prior injury. A cost- benefit analysis of ankle taping versus bracing revealed taping to be approximately 3 times more expensive than bracing. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Greater benefit is achieved in applying prophylactic ankle taping or bracing to athletes with a history of ankle sprain, compared with those without previous sprains. The generalizability of these results to other physically active populations is unknown. PMID:15085217

  15. Atividade moluscicida de plantas: uma alternativa profilática Plant molluscicidal activity: a prophylactic alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Patrícia D. Cantanhede

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Uma das formas de combate a helmintos que possuem moluscos em seu ciclo biológico é o controle da população malacológica. A tentativa de combater os criadouros naturais de hospedeiros intermediários, através de moluscicidas, tem sido uma das formas almejadas para a redução da incidência de enfermidades, como as esquistossomoses e fascioloses. Essa medida epidemiológica tem se concretizado através da utilização dos moluscicidas sintéticos que, dentre outras desvantagens, trazem danos ao ecossistema. Visando a obtenção de novos compostos, os estudos sobre a potencialidade de produtos naturais moluscicidas têm crescido consideravelmente. Alguns pesquisadores apontam os moluscicidas vegetais como fontes alternativas para o tratamento profilático de parasitoses. Tendo em vista a abrangência, endemicidade e relevância, este trabalho revela um maior enfoque à atividade moluscicida de plantas relacionada às esquistossomíases.An effective way to combat helminthes having mollusk in their life cycle is by controlling their population. The attempt to battle the natural breeding of intermediary hosts through molluscicides has been the targeted approach to reduce the incidence of such diseases as schistosomiasis and fascioloses. This epidemiological measure has been performed using synthetic molluscicides which, among other drawbacks, cause damages to the ecosystem. In order to obtain new compounds, studies on the potential of natural molluscicides products are increasing. Researchers draw attention to molluscicides plants as alternative sources for the prophylactic management of parasitoses. In view of the scope, significance and endemism, the present work highlights plant activities related to schistosomiasis.

  16. Comparison of efficacy of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Başak; Aydoğan-Eren, Emel; Canbay, Özgür; Karagöz, Ayşe Heves; Üzümcügil, Filiz; Ankay-Yilbaş, Aysun; Çelebi, Nalan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort/pain in patients undergoing cystoscopy. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 75 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-II patients between 18-75 years of age and undergoing cystoscopy between November 2011 and June 2012 at Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups to receive 1 µ/kg dexmedetomidine, 250 µ/kg intravenous ketamine, or normal saline. All patients were questioned regarding probe-related discomfort, patient satisfaction, and pain at the end of the operation 0 (t0) and 15 (t1), 60 (t2), 120 (t3), and 360 (t4) minutes postoperatively. Evaluations were performed in person at the post-anesthesia care unit, or in ambulatory surgery rooms, or by phone calls. Results: Pain incidence in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.042) was significantly lower than that in the control group (p=0.044). The sedation scores recorded at t0 in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.004) were significantly higher than that of the control group (p=0.017). Patient groups were similar regarding the rate of hallucinations experienced at t1, no patients experienced hallucinations at t2, t3, or t4. Significantly more patients experienced hallucinations at t0 in the ketamine group than in the dexmedetomidine group (p=0.034) and the control group (p=0.005). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine and ketamine had similar analgesic effects in preventing catheter-related pain; however, dexmedetomidine had a more acceptable side effect profile. To identify the optimal doses of dexmedetomidine and ketamine, more large-scale interventional studies are needed. PMID:26739975

  17. Determining the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast cancer surgeries: a survey of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acuna Sergio A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic antibiotics (PAs are beneficial to breast cancer patients undergoing surgery because they prevent surgical site infection (SSI, but limited information regarding their use has been published. This study aims to determine the use of PAs prior to breast cancer surgery amongst breast surgeons in Colombia. Methods An online survey was distributed amongst the breast surgeon members of the Colombian Association of Mastology, the only breast surgery society of Colombia. The scope of the questions included demographics, clinical practice characteristics, PA prescription characteristics, and the use of PAs in common breast surgical procedures. Results The survey was distributed amongst eighty-eight breast surgeons of whom forty-seven responded (response rate: 53.4%. Forty surgeons (85.1% reported using PAs prior to surgery of which >60% used PAs during mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and/or breast reconstruction. Surgeons reported they targeted the use of PAs in cases in which patients had any of the following SSI risk factors: diabetes mellitus, drains in situ, obesity, and neoadjuvant therapy. The distribution of the self-reported PA dosing regimens was as follows: single pre-operative fixed-dose (27.7%, single preoperative dose followed by a second dose if the surgery was prolonged (44.7%, single preoperative dose followed by one or more postoperative doses for >24 hours (10.6%, and single preoperative weight-adjusted dose (2.1%. Conclusion Although this group of breast surgeons is aware of the importance of PAs in breast cancer surgery there is a discrepancy in how they use it, specifically with regards to prescription and timeliness of drug administration. Our findings call for targeted quality-improvement initiatives, such as standardized national guidelines, which can provide sufficient evidence for all stakeholders and therefore facilitate best practice medicine for breast cancer surgery.

  18. Prophylactic Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Does Not Affect Pharmacokinetics or Pharmacodynamics of Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Courtney S; Sciasci, Joseph N; Pauley, Jennifer L; Panetta, John C; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Christensen, Caroline M; Mikkelsen, Torben S; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima; Relling, Mary V

    2016-08-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is used as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci during chemotherapy. Many groups recommend withholding TMP/SMX during high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) for concerns that it will delay methotrexate clearance. We compared methotrexate exposure following HDMTX (NCT00549848) in 424 patients including 783 courses that were given concurrently and 602 courses that were not given concurrently with TMP/SMX. Among 176 patients (555 courses) on the low-risk arm (HDMTX=2.5 g/m/24 h), there was no difference in clearance (110.7 [1.8%] vs. 108.2 [0.9%] mL/min/m, P=0.3) nor in 42 hour methotrexate concentration (0.37 [5.1%] vs. 0.40 (5.0%) μM, P=0.23). Among 248 patients (830 courses) on the standard/high-risk arm (HDMTX ~5 g/m/24 h), there was slightly higher clearance (95.5 [1.4%] vs. 91.2 [0.8%] mL/min/m, P=0.005) in those receiving TMP/SMX, with no difference in the 42 hour methotrexate concentration (0.59 [4.1%] vs. 0.66 [4.2%] μM, P=0.06). There was no difference in neutrophil counts based on TMP/SMX during HDMTX (P=0.83). TMP/SMX also did not have a significant impact on myelosuppression of low-dose methotrexate (40 mg/m) given during continuation therapy among 230 patients enrolled on a prior study (NCT00137111). Thus, we found no evidence for an interaction between methotrexate and TMP/SMX given prophylactically. PMID:27322715

  19. Optimization of a Der p 2-based prophylactic DNA vaccine against house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsawat, Pinya; Pitakpolrat, Patrawadee; Prompetchara, Eakachai; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Hannaman, Drew; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Jacquet, Alain

    2013-03-01

    DNA vaccines encoding allergens are promising immunotherapeutics to prevent or to treat allergy through induction of allergen-specific Th1 responses. Despite anti-allergy effects observed in small rodents, DNA-based vaccines are weak immunogens in primates and humans and particularly when administered by conventional injection. The goal of the present study was to improve the immunogenicity of a prophylactic vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2. In this context, we evaluated the influence of different DNA backbones including notably intron and CpG enriched sequence, the DNA dose, the in vivo delivery by electroporation as well as the heterologous prime boost regimen on the vaccine efficiency. We found that a minimal allergen expression level threshold must be reached to induce the production of specific antibodies but beyond this limit, the intensity of the immune response was independent on the DNA dose and allergen expression. The in vivo DNA delivery by electroporation drastically enhanced the production of specific antibodies but not the IFNg secretion. Vaccination of naïve mice with DNA encoding Der p 2 delivered by electroporation even at very low dose (2μg) prevented the development of house dust mite allergy through Th1-skewed immune response characterized by the drastic reduction of allergen-specific IgE, IL-5 and lung inflammation together with the induction of strong specific IgG2a titers and IFNg secretion. CpG cassette in the DNA backbone does not play a critical role in the efficient prophylaxis. Finally, comparable protective immune responses were observed when using heterologous DNA prime/protein boost or homologous DNA prime/boost. Taken together, these data suggest that the potent Th1 response induced by DNA-based vaccine encoding allergens through electroporation provides the rationale for the evaluation of DNA encoding Der p 2 into HDM allergy clinical trials. PMID:23396105

  20. The Univali Dental students’ knowledge level about the prophylactic and therapeutic use of fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia GAZONI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The knowledge about fluoridated products enables the perception of conditions that make fluoride a toxic or beneficial element. Objective: To verify the knowledge about the prophylactic and therapeutic use of fluoride among students in the 7th, 8th and 9th semester of the Dentistry Course at the Vale do Itajaí University (Univali in the first semester of 2008. Material and methods: It was a transversal descriptive study that gathered primary data through a semi-structured questionnaire, approaching the students’ knowledge about the fluoride application methods, the recommendations and the fluoride concentrations of products used in the clinical routine, as well as the fluoride levels to which the patients are already exposed to.Results:82.75% of the interviewed students know the acute probable toxic dose (PTD and 43.68% of them know the chronic toxic dose Dental fluorosis was mentioned as a chronic clinica manifestation by 71.26% of the students.Professional topical fluoride application(PTFA is used by 90.80% of the students and 85.05% of them recognize that the amount of fluoride toothpaste used in brushing is a relevant factor for chronic intoxication. None student was aware of the fluoride concentration used in Itajaí community water supply, and 77.01% of the students comprehend that the main mode of action of fluoride is topical and primary.Conclusion:Despite the large amount of information about fluoride received by students during the curricular program,most of them do not know how to use it in their clinical practice and are not aware of toxicity, concentrations,indications and correct uses for each patient.

  1. Risk of surgical site infection in paediatric herniotomies without any prophylactic antibiotics: A preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Vaze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different studies underline the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgeries like herniotomy and inguinal orchiopexy. But, the meta-analyses do not recommend nor discard the use of prophylactic pre-operative antibiotics. The scarcity of controlled clinical trials in paediatric population further vitiates the matter. This study assessed the difference in the rate of early post-operative wound infection cases in children who received single dose of pre-operative antibiotics and children who did not receive antibiotics after inguinal herniotomy and orchiopexy. Materials and Methods: This randomised prospective study was conducted in Paediatric Surgery department of PGIMER Chandigarh. Out of 251 patients, 112 patients were randomised to the case group and 139 were ascribed to the control group. The patients in control group were given a standard regimen of single dose of intravenous antibiotic at the time of induction followed by 3-4 days of oral antibiotic. Case group patients underwent the surgical procedure in similar manner with no antibiotic either at the time of induction or post-operatively. Results: The incidence of surgical site infection in case group was 3.73 % and that in control group was 2.22%. The observed difference in the incidence of surgical site infection was statistically insignificant (P value = 0.7027. The overall infection rate in case and control group was 2.89%. Conclusions: Our preliminary experience suggests that there is no statistically significant difference in the proportion of early post-operative wound infection between the patients who received single dose of pre-operative antibiotics and the patients who received no antibiotics after inguinal herniotomy and orchiopexy. The risk of surgical site infection in paediatric heriotomies does not increase even if the child′s weight is less than his/her expected weight for age.

  2. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  3. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates invo...

  4. Evaluation of HPV type-specific antibody response induced by the prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Squarzon, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide and affects approximately 300 million new individuals each year. HPV is considered the primary etiological agent involved in the development of cervical cancer and causes half a million cases per year worldwide. Prevention of genital HPV infection through immunization has led investigators to employ a number of strategies to develop candidate HPV vaccines. Until today, two different vaccines are ava...

  5. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, M.; Aktas, E. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Medical School

    2003-02-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of

  6. Intracavitary cobalt-60 irradiation in the prophylactic treatment of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tadashi; Kigure, Teruaki; Miyagata, Shigeru (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the technique and preliminary clinical results of transurethral intracavitary whole bladder mucosal irradiation (IWI) for the prophylaxis of bladder cancer. In this procedure, first, the balloon catheter (22 Fr.) is inserted into the bladder, and next the balloon is inflated with 100 ml of air. Then a Co-60 pellet with about 110 GBq of activity is driven into the center of the bladder. With this method, we can irradiate the whole bladder mucosa almost equally. From April 1985, 36 patients with recurrent tumor and 26 patients with primary and multiple tumors of the bladder have been treated with IWI after transurethral resection or microwave coagulation of the tumors. Tumor stage and grade were as follows: Tis (7), T{sub a}, T{sub 1} (41), T{sub 2} (14), G1 (16), G2 (30) and G3 (16). The tumors were transitional cell carcinoma in all patients. IWI was performed once a week, usually 3 to 5 times, depending on the patients. The total dose to the bladder mucosa ranged from 20 to 58.5 Gy with an average dose of 37.6 Gy. Recurrence rates before and after IWI were calculated using the following formula: recurrence rates (RR)=(total number of recurrences/total months of follow up)x100. RR in the 36 patients with recurrent tumor was 14.0 before IWI and 1.8 after IWI (mean follow up 37.6 mos.). RR in the 26 patients with multiple tumors was 1.4 after IWI (mean follow up 34.8 mos.). RR in patients with G1, G2 and G3 tumors were 1.2, 1.7 and 2.2. The most common side effect was temporary urinary frequency observed in 36 patients (52.9%). Three patients had contracted bladder, and two had hydronephrosis. However, proctitis or incontinence was not evident. Although the preliminary clinical results suggest that our new technique is an effective prophylactic treatment for bladder cancer, further investigation is needed to determine its efficacy. (author).

  7. National survey on prophylactic cranial irradiation: differences in practice patterns between medical and radiation oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients remains controversial in the oncology community because of its potential for long-term toxicity and unproven survival benefit in randomized trials. A national survey of 9176 oncologists was conducted to characterize the use of PCI with regard to physician demographics, patient characteristics, and oncologists' beliefs. Methods: Data was collected via a questionnaire letter survey. Biographical data, treatment patterns, and clinical impressions were analyzed by the generalized linear model and generalized estimating equations method. Results: There were 1231 responders overall (13.4% of those surveyed), including 628 (51%) radiation oncologists (RO), 587 (48%) medical oncologists (MO), 8 (0.6%) surgical oncologists, and 8 (0.6%) from other oncology subspecialties. Of respondents, 74% overall recommend PCI in limited-stage patients, including 65% of MO and 82% RO (p = 0.001). Of responders who recommend PCI in limited-stage patients, 67% do so only after complete response to initial therapy. Only 30% of respondents recommend PCI for extensive-stage SCLC patients (p = 0.001), and 94% of these recommend PCI only when those patients have a complete response after initial therapy. Interestingly, 38% of responding MO feel that PCI improves survival of limited-stage patients, but only 11% believe PCI improves quality of life. Of the RO, 48% believe PCI improves survival in limited-stage SCLC, and 36% feel PCI improves quality of life (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). MO responders believe PCI causes late neurological sequelae more often than do RO responders (95% vs. 84%, p < 0.05), with impaired memory (37%), chronic fatigue (19%), and loss of motivation (13%) as most commonly seen side effects. Only 1.5% overall, however, routinely obtain neuropsychiatric testing in PCI patients, and 42% overall never obtain them. Conclusion: Results confirm that oncologic

  8. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of

  9. Effects of Prophylactic Ankle Supports on Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Landing: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu, Tienan Feng, Lejun Wang, Chenghua Jiang, Ming Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate on how prophylactic ankle supports (PASs may influence the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF during landing. Therefore, the primary aims of this meta-analysis were to systematically review and synthesize the effect of PASs on vGRF, and to understand how PASs affect vGRF peaks (F1, F2 and the time from initial contact to peak loading (T1, T2 during landing. Several key databases, including Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Physical Activity Index, were used for identifying relevant studies published in English since inception to April 1, 2015. The computerized literature search and cross-referencing the citation list of the articles yielded 3,993 articles. Criteria for inclusion required that 1 the study was conducted on healthy adults; 2 the subject number and trial number were known; 3 the subjects performed landing with and without PAS; 4 the landing movement was in the sagittal plane; 5 the comparable vGRF parameters were reported; and 6 the F1 and F2 must be normalized to the subject’s body weight. After the removal of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 6, 6, 15 and 11 studies were respectively pooled for outcomes of F1, T1, F2 and T2. This study found a significantly increased F2 (.03 BW, 95% CI: .001, .05 and decreased T1 (-1.24 ms, 95% CI: -1.77, -.71 and T2 (-3.74 ms, 95% CI: -4.83, -2.65 with the use of a PAS. F1 was not significantly influenced by the PAS. Heterogeneity was present in some results, but there was no evidence of publication bias for any outcome. These changes represented deterioration in the buffering characteristics of the joint. An ideal PAS design should limit the excessive joint motion of ankle inversion, while allowing a normal range of motion, especially in the sagittal plane.

  10. Effects of Prophylactic Ankle Supports on Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Landing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wenxin; Feng, Tienan; Wang, Lejun; Jiang, Chenghua; Zhang, Ming

    2016-03-01

    There has been much debate on how prophylactic ankle supports (PASs) may influence the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) during landing. Therefore, the primary aims of this meta-analysis were to systematically review and synthesize the effect of PASs on vGRF, and to understand how PASs affect vGRF peaks (F1, F2) and the time from initial contact to peak loading (T1, T2) during landing. Several key databases, including Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Physical Activity Index, were used for identifying relevant studies published in English since inception to April 1, 2015. The computerized literature search and cross-referencing the citation list of the articles yielded 3,993 articles. Criteria for inclusion required that 1) the study was conducted on healthy adults; 2) the subject number and trial number were known; 3) the subjects performed landing with and without PAS; 4) the landing movement was in the sagittal plane; 5) the comparable vGRF parameters were reported; and 6) the F1 and F2 must be normalized to the subject's body weight. After the removal of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 6, 6, 15 and 11 studies were respectively pooled for outcomes of F1, T1, F2 and T2. This study found a significantly increased F2 (.03 BW, 95% CI: .001, .05) and decreased T1 (-1.24 ms, 95% CI: -1.77, -.71) and T2 (-3.74 ms, 95% CI: -4.83, -2.65) with the use of a PAS. F1 was not significantly influenced by the PAS. Heterogeneity was present in some results, but there was no evidence of publication bias for any outcome. These changes represented deterioration in the buffering characteristics of the joint. An ideal PAS design should limit the excessive joint motion of ankle inversion, while allowing a normal range of motion, especially in the sagittal plane. Key pointsPAS can effectively protect the ligamentous structure from spraining by providing mechanical support and cutaneous proprioceptive benefits.Using of PAS can

  11. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80–85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical

  12. Hepatotoxicity Associated with Long-versus Short-Course HIV-Prophylactic Nevirapine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, June M.; Bennett, Charles L.; Scheetz, Marc H.; Differding, Virginia; Chandler, Kevin L.; Scarsi, Kimberly K.; Yarnold, Paul R.; Sutton, Sarah; Palella, Frank; Johnson, Stuart; Obadina, Eniola; Raisch, Dennis W.; Parada, Jorge P.

    2009-01-01

    reactions for non-HIV-infected individuals or pregnant HIV-infected women and their offspring, but administration of prophylactic nevirapine for ≥2 weeks appears to be associated with high rates of hepatotoxicity among non-HIV-infected individuals and HIV-infected pregnant mothers. When full highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens are not available, single-dose nevirapine plus short-course nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to decrease the development of HIV viral resistance is an essential therapeutic option for PMTCT and these data support the safety of single-dose nevirapine in this setting. PMID:19236121

  13. Effect of prophylactic hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation-induced brain injury after stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for radiation-induced brain injury in patients with brain metastasis treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: The data of 78 patients presenting with 101 brain metastases treated with SRS between October 1994 and September 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 32 patients with 47 brain metastases were treated with prophylactic HBO (HBO group), which included all 21 patients who underwent subsequent or prior radiotherapy and 11 patients with common predictors of longer survival, such as inactive extracranial tumors and younger age. The other 46 patients with 54 brain metastases did not undergo HBO (non-HBO group). Radiation-induced brain injuries were divided into two categories, white matter injury (WMI) and radiation necrosis (RN), on the basis of imaging findings. Results: Radiation-induced brain injury occurred in 5 lesions (11%) in the HBO group (2 WMIs and 3 RNs) and in 11 (20%) in the non-HBO group (9 WMIs and 2 RNs). The WMI was less frequent for the HBO group than for the non-HBO group (p = 0.05), although multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that WMI was not significantly correlated with HBO (p = 0.07). The 1-year actuarial probability of WMI was significantly better for the HBO group (2%) than for the non-HBO group (36%) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed a potential value of prophylactic HBO for Radiation-induced WMIs, which justifies further evaluation to confirm its definite benefit

  14. Prophylactic action of imidazole against radiation-induced changes in water and ionic contents of mammalian diaphragm muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When male albino rats of the Wistar strain were exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 8.5 GY, water and sodium contents in the diaphragm muscle increased while the potassium content decreased demonstrating a well pronounced damage to the normal electrolyte pattern. When imidazole was intraperitoneally injected prior to irradiation, those contents restored their normal levels reflecting a prophylactic role of imidazole against such biological effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in relation to the relevant literature

  15. The prophylactic effect of neck irradiation combined with intra-oral electron beam irradiation for early tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1967 and 1988, 102 patients with Stage T1-2N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated with uneven fractional irradiation therapy (intra-oral electron beam irradiation with and without prophylactic ipsilateral upper neck irradiation at the Dept. of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine. Of 102 primary lesions, 89 cases were controlled with this therapy. In this study, these 89 cases were investigated in order to analyze the prophylactic effect of upper neck irradiation. Of the 89 patients, 42 received only intra-oral electron beam irradiation, while the remaining 47 received a combination of intra-oral electron beam irradiation and prophylactic irradiation to the ipsilateral upper neck. Twenty three of the 89 (25.8%) developed metastasis to the neck after the radiotherapy. A breakdown of these 23 cases reveals that 3/21 (14.3%) received 40-50 Gy to the neck, 9/26 (34.6%) received 20-40 Gy to the neck, and 11/42 (26.2%) received no irradiation to the neck (p<0.05 between first and second groups, and between first and third groups). The neck metastasis was classified into one of three categories based on the region in which it first appeared (ipsilateral upper neck, ipsilateral lower neck or contralateral neck). The first metastasis was seen in the ipsilateral upper neck, in the ipsilateral lower neck and in the contralateral neck in 17, 4 and 2 patients, respectively. In 1/19 who had received 40-50 Gy, in 5/21 who had received 20-40 Gy and in 11/42 who had not received neck irradiation the first metastasis appeared in the ipsilateral upper neck. The five year survival rate was 94%, 75% and 85% in the patients receiving 40-50 Gy, 20-40 Gy and no neck irradiation, respectively. These results suggest that prophylactic irradiation of 40-50 Gy to the ipsilateral upper neck might decrease the incidence of neck metastasis and slightly prolong survival time. (author)

  16. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec,Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  17. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these...... genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these...... genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  18. Scattering Properties of Candidate Planetary Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory investigation of the scattering properties of candidate planetary regolith materials is an important technique for understanding the physical properties of a planetary regolith. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  20. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A., E-mail: smlandi@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  1. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION:...

  2. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non- federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request...

  3. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Owais; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Gurpreet; Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  4. Experience and perspectives of extended radical regimen of radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease using prophylactic irradiation of lungs and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayed results of extended radical radiotherapy for stage 2-3 Hodgkin's disease with apparent of risk of relapse in the lung and/or liver are presented. The procedure included prophylactic irradiation of both organs. Ten-year relapse-free survival in the lung-irradiation group was 85.9%, overall 10-year survival - 94.0%; the liver-irradiation group - 90.0 and 94.7%, respectively. Preventive irradiation was shown to decrease significantly the influence of such risks as extended lesions of the mediastinum and spleen. Relapse in the lung was recorded in one case (1.6%) only, with no tumor progression defected in the liver. Significant increase in 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival was established in the lung-irradiation group, as a result of a comparison of the base group and that of controls which showed characteristic signs of intrathoracic risk. Significant difference in overall survival was recorded for the first three years only. As far as the liver-irradiation factor is concerned, the rise in both categories of survival was significant for 10 years. It is suggested that patients with stage 2-3 Hodgkin's disease receive prophylactic irradiation whenever they reveal significant signs of risk of relapse in the lung and/or liver

  5. Impact of a pharmacist/physician cooperative target drug monitoring program on prophylactic antibiotic prescribing in obstetrics and gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K A; Henderson, P L; Newman, R B; Blackwelder, E N; Caldwell, R D

    1992-03-01

    The pharmacist's role in promoting rational, cost-effective use of drugs has been described in the literature. In a target drug monitoring program (TDMP), a single agent or group of agents becomes targeted for review. Antibiotics have been the primary focus of TDMP because of their therapeutic impact and cost considerations. The objectives of this project were to assess the prophylactic antibiotic prescribing habits of OB/GYN physicians and to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist/physician cooperative TDMP on prophylactic antibiotic prescribing and cost. The study was conducted in three phases: 1) a retrospective chart review of 150 patients, 2) an in-service education session, and 3) a concurrent chart review of 107 patients. Patient selection, timing of preoperative dose, and use of single dose prophylaxis were according to criteria in greater than 90% of patients both before and after the in-service training. Compliance with recommended regimens increased from 45 to 73% after the in-service training. A cost savings was not realized because the physicians wished to use a regimen with anti-anaerobic coverage (i.e., cefotetan) rather than a less expensive agent. However, the cost of selection of resistant organisms must be considered when discouraging the use of multiple broad spectrum agents. Active involvement of the medical staff in a pharmacy-based TDMP produces a cooperative atmosphere in which to educate clinicians and promote rational prescribing habits. PMID:10116721

  6. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  7. Prophylactic role of melatonin against radiation induced damage in mouse cerebellum with special reference to Purkinje cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Kumari, Seema; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Bhatia, A L [Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Melatonin, a hormone with a proven antioxidative efficacy, crosses all morphophysiological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and distributes throughout the cell. The present study is an attempt to investigate the prophylactic influence of a chronic low level of melatonin against an acute radiation induced oxidative stress in the cerebellum of Swiss albino mice, with special reference to Purkinje cells. After 15 days of treatment the mice were sacrificed at various intervals from 1 to 30 days. Biochemical parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels as the endpoints. The quantitative study included alterations in number and volume of Purkinje cells. Swiss albino mice were orally administered a very low dose of melatonin (0.25 mg/mouse/day) for 15 consecutive days before single exposure to 4 Gy gamma radiation. Melatonin checked the augmented levels of LPO, by approximately 55%, by day 30 day post-exposure. Radiation induced depleted levels of GSH could be raised by 68.9% by day 30 post-exposure. Radiation exposure resulted in a reduction of the volume of Purkinje cells and their total number. The administration of melatonin significantly protected against the radiation induced decreases in Purkinje cell volume and number. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin resulting in its prophylactic property against radiation induced biochemical and cellular alterations in the cerebellum. The findings support the idea that melatonin may be used as an anti-irradiation drug due to its potent free radical scavenging and antioxidative efficacy.

  8. Vaccine candidates for malaria: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Although it is more than a decade since the parasite genome information was obtained, standardized novel genome-wide selection/prioritization strategies for candidacy of malaria vaccine antigens are still sought. In the quest to systematically identify candidates, it is impossible to overemphasize the usefulness of wheat germ cell-free technology in expressing quality proteins for the post-genome vaccine candidate discovery. PMID:26559316

  9. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  10. Bentonite-induced rat paw oedema as a tool for simultaneous testing of prophylactic and therapeutic effects of anti-inflammatory and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, J

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of screening simultaneously the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a single dose of anti-inflammatory drugs was further tested. Bentonite oedema was induced in the left paw (0.05 ml of 5% bentonite gel subcutaneously). After the measurement of its size in the 23rd h, the rats were given the test drugs (i.m. or p.o.) and 1 h thereafter, bentonite oedema was induced in the right paw. Some of the drugs suppressed the oedema both prophylactically and therapeutically (steroidal and some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sodium aurothiomalate etc.), some others suppressed it only prophylactically (some derivatives of pyrazolone etc.) and some of the remaining drugs tested had no effect at all on the oedema after a single administration. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. PMID:7220586

  11. Role of healthcare workers in early epidemic spread of Ebola: policy implications of prophylactic compared to reactive vaccination policy in outbreak prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltart, Cordelia E M; Johnson, Anne M; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2015-01-01

    Ebola causes severe illness in humans and has epidemic potential. How to deploy vaccines most effectively is a central policy question since different strategies have implications for ideal vaccine profile. More than one vaccine may be needed. A vaccine optimised for prophylactic vaccination in high-risk areas but when the virus is not actively circulating should be safe, well tolerated, and provide long-lasting protection; a two- or three-dose strategy would be realistic. Conversely, a reactive vaccine deployed in an outbreak context for ring-vaccination strategies should have rapid onset of protection with one dose, but longevity of protection is less important. In initial cases, before an outbreak is recognised, healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk of acquiring and transmitting infection, thus potentially augmenting early epidemics. We hypothesise that many early outbreak cases could be averted, or epidemics aborted, by prophylactic vaccination of HCWs. This paper explores the potential impact of prophylactic versus reactive vaccination strategies of HCWs in preventing early epidemic transmissions. To do this, we use the limited data available from Ebola epidemics (current and historic) to reconstruct transmission trees and illustrate the theoretical impact of these vaccination strategies. Our data suggest a substantial potential benefit of prophylactic versus reactive vaccination of HCWs in preventing early transmissions. We estimate that prophylactic vaccination with a coverage >99% and theoretical 100% efficacy could avert nearly two-thirds of cases studied; 75% coverage would still confer clear benefit (40% cases averted), but reactive vaccination would be of less value in the early epidemic. A prophylactic vaccination campaign for front-line HCWs is not a trivial undertaking; whether to prioritise long-lasting vaccines and provide prophylaxis to HCWs is a live policy question. Prophylactic vaccination is likely to have a greater impact on the

  12. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P; Owen, M J; Ophoff, R A; O'Donovan, M C; Corvin, A; Cichon, S; Sullivan, P F

    2015-05-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why historical candidate gene studies did not achieve their primary aims is inadequate statistical power. However, the considerable efforts embodied in these early studies unquestionably set the stage for current successes in genomic approaches to schizophrenia. PMID:25754081

  13. The course of distress in women at increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer due to an (identified) genetic susceptibility who opt for prophylactic mastectomy and/or salpingo-oophorectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, P.J.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Niermeijer, M.F.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Dooren, S. van; Geel, A.N. van; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    The levels and course of psychological distress before and after prophylactic mastectomy (PM) and/or prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy (PSO) were studied in a group of 78 women. General distress was measured through the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), cancer-related distress using the

  14. Closing the door on dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold dark matter candidates - if they exist - will be present in, and perhaps dominate the mass density of, the halo of our Galaxy. As they pass the vicinity of the Sun, such halo particles will be focussed gravitationally, pass through the Sun and - occasionally - be captured and accumulate in the solar core. When the density in the core of the Sun of dark matter candidates has increased sufficiently, they will annihilate and among the annihilation products will be energetic (≥ GeV) ''ordinary'' neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) which are detectable in deep underground experiments. The event rates in such detectors from the capture and annihilation of various dark matter candidates (Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, Sneutrinos and Photinos) are presented and it is shown how comparison with data may lead to constraints on (or, the exclusion of) the masses of these particles. 6 refs

  15. Prophylactic Effects of Mitomycin-C on Regression and Haze Formation in Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To study the effect of prophylactic application of mitomycin-C on regression and corneal haze formation after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK for high myopia. METHODS: Fifty-four eyes of 28 high myopic patients were enrolled in this prospective study. All eyes underwent PRK with application of 0.02% mitomycin-C for two minutes and irrigation with 15-20 ml of normal saline. Follow-up visits were scheduled for the first 7 days and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Hanna grading (in the scale of 0 to 4+ was used to assess corneal haze. RESULTS: Mean spherical equivalent refraction (SE was -7.08 ± 1.11 diopters (D, preoperatively. All eyes were examined on the first 7 days and one month after surgery; 48 eyes (88.9% were evaluated 3 and 6 months post-surgery. Six months after surgery, all eyes had uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA of 20/40 or better and 37 eyes (77.1 % achieved UCVA of 20/20 or better, 45 eyes (93.7% had SE within ±1.00D of emmetropia. One month postoperatively, 2 eyes (3.7% had grade 0.5 haze, while at 3 and 6 months after surgery no visited eye had haze at all. There was no decrease in best corrected visual acuity after 6 months. In spatial frequencies of 6 and 12 cycle/degree, contrast sensitivity decreased immediately after PRK but increased to the preoperative values by the 6th postoperative month

  16. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  17. A controlled prospective trial of the prophylactic effect of a single dose of ivermectin against onchocerca volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussinesq M.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial was conducted in Cameroon in order to evaluate in humans the possible effect of a single dose of ivermectin (150 μg per kg on the pre-adult stages of Onchocerca volvulus.The incidence of the skin microfilariae was measured in two groups of patients who initially had negative biopsies, and who were subsequently treated, immediately after the seasonal peak of transmission of O. volvulus ,either with a combination of ivermectin + ferrous sulphate, or with ferrous sulphate alone. One year after the treatment, i.e. 14 months after the start of the transmission period, the proportion of patients with positive skin biopsies, and their mean microfilarial loads, did not differ significantly between the two groups. Thus a single dose of ivermectin does not seem to have any perceptible prophylactic effect against O.volvulus.

  18. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly......Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100...... fewer ulcerations (4/cm2). The concentrations of 5-ASA and/or its acetylated metabolite were several times higher in the cecum content and twice as high in plasma in the SASP group, indicating a difference in the absorption patterns of 5-ASA and the two drugs. These results and the etiological...

  19. Anti-hemorrhagic effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid in benign hysterectomy - a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink Topsøe, Märte; Bergholt, Thomas; Ravn, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    to benign hysterectomy is still missing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-hemorrhagic effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid in elective benign hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted at four Gynecological departments in Denmark from April 2013...... in 2004, 8% of all women in Denmark undergoing benign hysterectomy experienced a bleeding complication. Tranexamic acid is an anti-fibrinolytic agent that has shown to effectively reduce bleeding complications within other surgical and medical areas. However, knowledge on the drugs effect in relation...... to October 2014. A total of 332 women undergoing benign abdominal, laparoscopic or vaginal hysterectomy were included in the trial, and randomized to either 1 g of intravenous tranexamic acid or placebo at start of surgery. Chi-test and Student T-test statistical analyses were applied. RESULTS: The...

  20. Short communication: Drug residues in goat milk after prophylactic use of antibiotics in intravaginal sponges for estrus synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, T; Balado, J; Althaus, R L; Beltrán, M C; Molina, M P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the prophylactic use of antibiotics in intravaginal sponges used for estrus synchronization in goats may result in the presence of inhibitors in milk and, therefore, of positive results by microbial screening tests. Ninety-eight Murciano-Granadina goats were used, divided into 7 groups of 14 animals. Intravaginal sponges were placed in 6 groups using 2 concentrations of 3 different antibiotics: doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfathiazole-framycetin. The sponges of the control group were placed without antibiotics. Milk samples were collected daily until 7 d posttreatment and analyzed using 3 microbial tests. Positive samples were retested by specific receptor-binding assays to confirm the positive results. Vaginal status was evaluated by visual assessment of the external aspect of the sponges after removal. The microbial test response was not affected by either day posttreatment or dose of antibiotic used, except for oxytetracycline at the higher concentration. Moreover, no positive results were obtained using receptor-binding assays, suggesting that residues, if present in milk, did not exceed the regulatory (safety) levels established for these drugs. The occurrence of soiled sponges was higher in the control group. With respect to the dose of antibiotics used, no significant differences were found for the lower dose administered. However, a significant increase in the percentage of clean sponges was observed for the higher dose of doxycycline. We conclude that the prophylactic use of low doses of doxycycline, oxytetracycline, or sulfathiazole in intravaginal sponges used for synchronization of estrus helps to reduce clinical vaginitis in dairy goats and does not seem to be the cause of positive results in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in goat milk. PMID:26585470

  1. Prophylactic Embolization of the Cystic Artery Prior to Radioembolization of Liver Malignancies—An Evaluation of Necessity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powerski, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.powerski@med.ovgu.de; Busse, Anke, E-mail: anke.busse@med.ovgu.de; Seidensticker, Max, E-mail: max.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de; Fischbach, Frank, E-mail: frank.fischbach@med.ovgu.de; Seidensticker, Ricarda, E-mail: ricarda.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de; Strach, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.strach@med.ovgu.de; Dudeck, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.dudeck@med.ovgu.de; Ricke, Jens, E-mail: jens.ricke@med.ovgu.de; Pech, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.pech@med.ovgu.de [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposePrior to radioembolization (RE) of hepatic tumors, many centers prophylactically occlude the cystic artery (CA) during evaluation angiography (EVA) to prevent radiation-induced cholecystitis. There is no conclusive evidence for the protective effect of CA embolization and it bears the risk of inducing ischemic cholecystitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the justification for CA embolization by comparing clinical and morphologic imaging parameters between patients undergoing coil occlusion of the cystic artery (COCA) and those with uncoiled CA (UCCA).Materials and MethodsRetrospective comparison of 37 patients with UCCA versus 68 patients with COCA in terms of clinical findings (CRP, leukocyte count, body temperature, upper abdominal pain) and morphologic imaging parameters associated with cholecystitis (gallbladder (GB) wall thickness, free fluid in GB bed, bremsstrahlung SPECT) after EVA, after RE, and at 6-week follow-up.ResultsAt none of the 3 time points (EVA, RE, 6-week follow-up) was there any significant difference in CRP, leukocyte count, body temperature, or upper abdominal pain between the UCCA and COCA group. There was also no significant difference between the two groups with regard to GB wall thickness, fluid in the GB bed, and bremsstrahlung in SPECT. One patient of the UCCA group and two patients of the COCA developed cholecystitis requiring treatment.ConclusionComparison of clinical and imaging findings between patients with and without CA embolization prior to RE identified no predictors of radiogenic or ischemic cholecystitis after RE. Our study provides no evidence for a benefit of prophylactic CA embolization before RE.

  2. Periprocedural Prophylactic Antithrombotic Strategies in Interventional Radiology: Current Practice in the Netherlands and Comparison with the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during the periprocedural period during (percutaneous) peripheral arterial interventions (PAIs) is still a matter of dispute, and clear evidence-based guidelines are lacking. To create those guidelines, a study group was formed in the Netherlands in cooperation with the Dutch Society of Vascular Surgery and the Society of Interventional Radiology. The study group is called “Consensus on Arterial PeriProcedural Anticoagulation (CAPPA).” Materials and Methods: The CAPPA study group devised and distributed a comprehensive questionnaire amongst Dutch interventional radiologists (IRs). Results: One hundred forty-two IRs responded (68 %) to the questionnaire. Almost no IR stopped acetyl salicylic acid before interventions, and 40 % stopped clopidogrel before PAI but not before carotid artery stenting (CAS). A flushing solution on the sideport of the sheath was used routinely by 30 % of IRs in PAI and by 50 % of IRs during CAS. A minority of IRs used a heparinised flushing solution (28 %). Unfractionated heparin was used by 95 % of IRs as bolus; 5000 IU was the most used dosage. Timing of administration varied widely. A majority of IRs (75 %) repeated heparin administration after 1 h. Conclusion: A substantial variety exists amongst IRs in the Netherlands regarding the use of prophylactic periprocedural antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during PAI. When compared with varying results regarding the use of heparin in the United Kingdom, the variety in the Netherlands showed a different pattern. The proven variety in these countries, and also between these countries, emphasises the need for authoritative studies to develop evidence-based practical guidelines

  3. Vaccination with embryonic stem cells protects against lung cancer: is a broad-spectrum prophylactic vaccine against cancer possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Yaddanapudi

    Full Text Available The antigenic similarity between tumors and embryos has been appreciated for many years and reflects the expression of embryonic gene products by cancer cells and/or cancer-initiating stem cells. Taking advantage of this similarity, we have tested a prophylactic lung cancer vaccine composed of allogeneic murine embryonic stem cells (ESC. Naïve C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with ESC along with a source of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in order to provide immunostimulatory adjuvant activity. Vaccinated mice were protected against subsequent challenge with implantable Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC. ESC-induced anti-tumor immunity was not due to a non-specific "allo-response" as vaccination with allogeneic murine embryonic fibroblasts did not protect against tumor outgrowth. Vaccine efficacy was associated with robust tumor-reactive primary and memory CD8(+ T effector responses, Th1 cytokine response, higher intratumoral CD8(+ T effector/CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T regulatory cell ratio, and reduced myeloid derived suppressor cells in the spleen. Prevention of tumorigenesis was found to require a CD8-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response because in vivo depletion of CD8(+ T lymphocytes completely abrogated the protective effect of vaccination. Importantly, this vaccination strategy also suppressed the development of lung cancer induced by the combination of carcinogen administration and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Further refinement of this novel vaccine strategy and identification of shared ESC/tumor antigens may lead to immunotherapeutic options for lung cancer patients and, perhaps more importantly, could represent a first step toward the development of prophylactic cancer vaccines.

  4. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine in the maintenance phase of bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, Eric D; Clevenger, Steven; IsHak, Waguih W

    2016-07-01

    Mood stabilizers are used clinically for the management of bipolar disorder. Prophylactic therapy with mood stabilizers is the primary treatment for preventing depressive and manic relapses in bipolar patients once they are stabilized. In this study, we examined the relative efficacy of the three most commonly used mood-stabilizing agents: lithium (Li), valproic acid (VPA), and carbamazepine (CBZ), in preventing relapse episodes. A total of 225 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the present analysis. Patients taking Li, VPA, or CBZ were followed up for up to 124 months, until suffering a manic, mixed, or depressive episode (relapse), or until the end of the study/study termination (no relapse), whichever came first. The median unadjusted survival time was 36 months for patients taking VPA, 42 months for patients taking CBZ, and 81 months for patients taking Li. These results indicate that patients stayed longer on Li, suggesting that it might have been better tolerated than either CBZ or VPA. χ-Analysis showed that patients taking Li were significantly less likely to experience relapse during the observational period than patients taking either VPA or CBZ (P<0.05). A Cox regression model showed that the hazard of experiencing relapse was significantly predicted by the total number of depressive (P=0.007) and manic symptoms (P=0.02) assessed before the observation period. In addition, after controlling for symptom covariates, the hazard of experiencing relapse was 1.66 times (95% confidence interval 1.03-2.67) or 66% higher for patients taking VPA compared with patients taking Li (P=0.037). Although the hazard of experiencing relapse was higher for patients taking CBZ compared with those taking Li, the risk was not elevated by a significant amount. Notwithstanding the limitations of the naturalistic design of this study, the differences in relapse prevention and survival time observed in these medications show Li fairing relatively better in

  5. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  6. The therapeutic and prophylactic role of oral zinc sulfate in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis ras in comparison with dapsone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to evaluate the therapeutic and prophylactic effectiveness of oral zinc sulfate in recurrent aphthous stomatitis RAS in comparison with dapsone. A double-blind placebo controlled study, conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospitals, Baghdad, Iraq between May 2005 and October 2006, in which 45 patents with RAS were recruited and divided into 3 equal groups: group A on zinc sulfate 150 mg twice daily, group B on dapsone 50 mg twice daily and group C on glucose 250 mg as placebo. The drugs were prepared in identical capsules and patents were instructed to take the capsules twice daily after meals in a double blind manner. Assessment of each patient was carried out by the Oral Clinical Manifestation Index OCMI and the diameter of the ulcers at day 0, day 4 and the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth and twelfth weeks of the therapy. Forty-five patients were included in the study 25 males and 20 females and their ages ranged between 16-45 years mean +/-SD 31.24+/-8.14. In group A, the mean of OCMI and diameters of the ulcers improved, with a p=0.0001 for OCMI, and 0.0001 for the diameter for ulcers at the end of the twelfth week of therapy, which was statistically significant. Group B also showed significant improvement, however, the action was lower and slower p=0.0001 for OCMI and 0.001 for the diameter for ulcers. Group C revealed slight non-significant improvement p=0.028 for OCMI and 0.034 for the diameter of ulcers. In the sixth week of therapy, zinc sulfate was more effective than dapsone in reducing in reducing the reducing the OCMI of the ulcers p=0.007. The present study showed that both zinc sulfate and dapsone had significant therapeutic and prophylactic affects in controlling RAS, however, zinc sulfate had much more rapid and sustained action. (author)

  7. Early T Cell Recognition of B Cells following Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Identifying Potential Targets for Prophylactic Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jill M; Long, Heather M; Tierney, Rose J; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Leese, Alison M; Fitzpatrick, Martin; Taylor, Graham S; Rickinson, Alan B

    2016-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus, a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, has strong aetiologic links with several malignancies and has been implicated in certain autoimmune diseases. Efforts to develop a prophylactic vaccine to prevent or reduce EBV-associated disease have, to date, focused on the induction of neutralising antibody responses. However, such vaccines might be further improved by inducing T cell responses capable of recognising and killing recently-infected B cells. In that context, EBNA2, EBNA-LP and BHRF1 are the first viral antigens expressed during the initial stage of B cell growth transformation, yet have been poorly characterised as CD8+ T cell targets. Here we describe CD8+ T cell responses against each of these three "first wave" proteins, identifying target epitopes and HLA restricting alleles. While EBNA-LP and BHRF1 each contained one strong CD8 epitope, epitopes within EBNA2 induced immunodominant responses through several less common HLA class I alleles (e.g. B*3801 and B*5501), as well as subdominant responses through common class I alleles (e.g. B7 and C*0304). Importantly, such EBNA2-specific CD8+ T cells recognised B cells within the first day post-infection, prior to CD8+ T cells against well-characterised latent target antigens such as EBNA3B or LMP2, and effectively inhibited outgrowth of EBV-transformed B cell lines. We infer that "first wave" antigens of the growth-transforming infection, especially EBNA2, constitute potential CD8+ T cell immunogens for inclusion in prophylactic EBV vaccine design. PMID:27096949

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROPHYLACTIC METOCLOPRAMIDE VERSUS ONDANSETRON FOR CONTROL OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING (PONV ASSOCIATED WITH IV TRAMADOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: This prospective double blind randomized study was conducted to compare: 1. The efficacy and safety of prophylactic administration of Metoclopramide versus Ondansetron in the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving intravenous Tr amadol as postoperative analgesic. 2. To study the incidence of post operative nausea and vomiting with IV bolus Tramadol. METHODS: 90 patients ASA grade I and II, age 18 - 60 years, posted for hernia, hydrocele and other peripheral lower limb surgeries under subarachnoid block were selected . Patients were randomly allocated into three groups of thirty each. All surgeries were performed under subarachnoid block and received IV Tramadol 100 m g 8 hourly for 24 hours as post - operative analgesic. Group N received no prophylactic antiemetic. Group M received 10 mg Metoclopramide 12 hourly. Group O received 4 mg Ondansetron 12 hourly. Vital signs, nausea, vomiting, pain, sedation, need for rescue a ntiemetic, rescue analgesic and adverse effects were recorded for 24 hours. RESULTS: Ondansetron group (Group O significantly reduced the incidence of PONV as compared to Metoclopramide (Group M and no antiemetic group (Group N .But Metoclopramide was fo und to be not significantly effective in controlling PONV in patients receiving Tramadol as analgesic. None of the patients in Group O required rescue antiemetic as compared to 13.3% patients in Group M and 26.7% patients in Group N. There was statisticall y no significant difference between the 3 groups with respect to requirement of rescue analgesic. No major adverse effects were observed which can be attributed to either Metoclopramide or Ondansetron. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron was more effective than Metoclopramide in controlling PONV, in patients receiving IV Tramadol as post-operative analgesia

  9. [Human papillomavirus and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck region : Prognostic, therapeutic and prophylactic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, M; Wagner, S; Würdemann, N; Sharma, S J; Prigge, E-S; Sauer, M; Wittig, A; Wittekindt, C; von Knebel Doeberitz, M; Klussmann, J P

    2016-07-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are responsible for approximately half of all oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and incidence rates of HPV-associated OPSCC continue to increase substantially. The defined viral carcinogenesis permits development of specific diagnostic, therapeutic, and prophylactic approaches. Laboratory identification of HPV-associated OPSCC may be achieved by p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry combined with HPV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using tumor tissue. Patients with HPV-associated OPSCC have a relatively good prognosis; therefore, the HPV status plays an important role in patient guidance. Due to the relatively favorable prognosis, ongoing studies are evaluating whether less rigorous therapy for HPV-positive patients results in equally good cure rates. The criteria for patient selection are, however, still uncertain. Particularly markers for detection of HPV-positive patients with a high risk of treatment failure are lacking. Besides tumor stage and comorbidities, distinct genomic, epigenetic, and immunologic alterations are prognostically relevant for HPV-associated OPSCC, and might be of predictive value. Furthermore, the characteristic molecular alterations suggest the possibility of novel vigilant and specific therapy approaches. These may be inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is frequently activated in HPV-associated OPSCC, and immunotherapeutic methods, e. g., therapeutic vaccination. Although prophylactic HPV vaccinations may also prevent development of HPV-associated OPSCC, foreseeable effects on OPSCC incidence will be low, given the low vaccination rates in Germany. This highlights the fact that interdisciplinary research networks should enhance the necessary activities related to HPV-associated OPSCC. PMID:26864190

  10. Periprocedural Prophylactic Antithrombotic Strategies in Interventional Radiology: Current Practice in the Netherlands and Comparison with the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersema, Arno M., E-mail: arno@wiersema.nu [Westfriesgasthuis, Hoorn, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Vos, Jan-Albert, E-mail: j.a.vos@antonius.net [St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Bruijninckx, Cornelis M. A., E-mail: cmabruijninckx@planet.nl [Equipe Zorg Bedrijven, Rotterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Reijnen, Michel M. P. J., E-mail: mmpj.reijnen@gmail.com [Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Vahl, Anco, E-mail: a.c.vahl@olvg.nl [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J., E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com [University of Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Moll, Frans L., E-mail: F.L.Moll@umcutrecht.nl [University of Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during the periprocedural period during (percutaneous) peripheral arterial interventions (PAIs) is still a matter of dispute, and clear evidence-based guidelines are lacking. To create those guidelines, a study group was formed in the Netherlands in cooperation with the Dutch Society of Vascular Surgery and the Society of Interventional Radiology. The study group is called 'Consensus on Arterial PeriProcedural Anticoagulation (CAPPA).' Materials and Methods: The CAPPA study group devised and distributed a comprehensive questionnaire amongst Dutch interventional radiologists (IRs). Results: One hundred forty-two IRs responded (68 %) to the questionnaire. Almost no IR stopped acetyl salicylic acid before interventions, and 40 % stopped clopidogrel before PAI but not before carotid artery stenting (CAS). A flushing solution on the sideport of the sheath was used routinely by 30 % of IRs in PAI and by 50 % of IRs during CAS. A minority of IRs used a heparinised flushing solution (28 %). Unfractionated heparin was used by 95 % of IRs as bolus; 5000 IU was the most used dosage. Timing of administration varied widely. A majority of IRs (75 %) repeated heparin administration after 1 h. Conclusion: A substantial variety exists amongst IRs in the Netherlands regarding the use of prophylactic periprocedural antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during PAI. When compared with varying results regarding the use of heparin in the United Kingdom, the variety in the Netherlands showed a different pattern. The proven variety in these countries, and also between these countries, emphasises the need for authoritative studies to develop evidence-based practical guidelines.

  11. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy planning in the evaluation of post-operative prophylactic irradiation fields for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Evaluation of the dose distribution in esophageal bed region was carried out with prophylactic irradiation fields after esophagectomy by three dimensional conformal radiation therapy planning . Methods: From 2001 to 2003, 38 esophageal cancer patients who had received radical esophagectomy were given chest CT scanning and reconstruction of organs and contours by the three-dimensional conformal treatment planning system. Design of the anterior, posterior vertical and double horizontal lateral fields was made. For each patient, double pattern irradiation was adopted as three (Anterior, Left, Right) or four (A, P, L, R) fields. The field sizes were 7 cm x 22 cm and 6 cm x 22 cm or 7 cm x 18 cm and 6 cm x 18 cm. According to dose weight of each field in the irradiated field of the same length, these patients were again divided into eight groups to compare the mean value of maximum dose, minimum dose and mean dose in the esophageal bed target and also to compare the maximum dose, mean dose and the mean value of dose volume on the spinal cord and, simultaneously, the V20, V15 of bilateral lungs in the different groups. Results: When the length of the field increased, the uniformity of dose distribution in the esophageal bed target became poor, with the mean value of maximum dose in the spinal cord also increased. The dose distribution of four irradiation fields was better than of three fields, with inconspicuous increase in the mean value of maximum dose of spinal cord. However there was insignificant difference in V20, V15 no matter four or three fields were used. Conclusion: The authors recommend that four irradiation fields be used rather than three fields for esophageal carcinoma postoperative prophylactic irradiation. For prescription dose of 50 Gy , the dose weight in each field should be 18, 16 Gy or 18,18 Gy for anterior and posterior fields; 8, 8 Gy or 7, 7 Gy for double horizontal lateral fields

  12. Prophylactic Effects of Melatonin on Sodium Valproate-Induced Neural Tube Defects and Skeletal Malformations in Rat Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolbanin Rahgazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some reports showed the teratogenic effects of sodium valproate can be prevented by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Therefore, in this study, the prophylactic effect of melatonin on teratogenic effects of sodium valproate was compared. Approach: This study was performed on 31 pregnant rats that were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline and test groups received sodium valproate (300 mg kg−1, sodium valproate (300 mg kg−1 plus melatonin (5 mg kg−1 and sodium valproate (300 mg kg−1 plus melatonin (10 mg kg−1 and melatonin (10 mg kg−1, intraperitonealy at 8-9th days of gestation, respectively. Fetuses were collected at 20th day of gestation and after determination of weight and length; they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. Results: Cleft palate, spina bifida and exencephaly incidence were 17.70, 20 and 20% in fetuses of rats that received only sodium valproate. Cleft palate, spina bifida and exencephaly incidence were 4.16, 8.33 and 8.33% range in group which received sodium valproate plus melatonin (5 mg kg−1, respectively. However, Cleft palate, spina bifida and excencaphaly incidence were 4/76, 0 and 0% in group which received sodium valproate plus melatonin (10 mg kg−1, respectively. The mean of weight and length of animals fetuses that received melatonin were significantly greater than those received only sodium valproate. Conclusion: It is concluded that melatonin with dose of 10 mg kg−1 had significantly more prophylactic effect than melatonin with dose of 5 mg kg−1 on incidence of sodium valproate-induced skeletal malformations.

  13. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: outcome of recursive partitioning analysis group 1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onal Cem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI has been demonstrated to reduce or delay the incidence of brain metastases (BM in locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC patients with various prognostic groups. With this current cohort we planned to evaluate the potential usefulness of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI specifically in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA Group 1, which is the most favorable group of LA-NSCLC patients. Methods Between March 2007 and February 2008, 62 patients in RPA group 1 were treated with sequential chemoradiotherapy and PCI for stage IIIB NSCLC. The induction chemotherapy consisted of 3 courses of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 and docetaxel (80 mg/m2; each course was given every 21 days. Thoracic radiotherapy (TRT was given at a dose of 60 Gy using 3-D conformal planning. All patients received a total dose of 30 Gy PCI (2 Gy/fr, 5 days a week, beginning on the first day of the TRT. Then, all patients received 3 further courses of the same chemotherapy protocol. Results Six (9.7% patients developed brain metastases during their clinical course. Only one (2% patient developed brain metastasis as the site of first treatment failure. Median brain metastasis-free survival, overall survival, and progression free survival were 16.6, 16.7, and 13.0 months, respectively. By univariate analysis, rates of BM were significantly higher in patients younger than 60 years of age (p = 0.03. Multivariate analysis showed no significant difference in BM-free survival according to gender, age, histology, and initial T- and N-stage. Conclusion The current finding of almost equal bone metastasis free survival and overall survival in patients with LA-NSCLC in RPA group 1 suggests a longer survival for patients who receive PCI, and thereby have a reduced risk of BM.

  14. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment in infants (IPTi from Ghana and Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels Benno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP reduces the incidence of malaria episodes in young children. The exact mechanism by which the protective effect is mediated needs to be defined. This study aimed to investigate therapeutic, prophylactic, and possible exceeding effects of SP-based IPTi in two clinical trials. Methods Protective efficacies from two IPTi trials performed in Kumasi, Ghana, and Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for overlapping time series of 61 days. For six-months periods after each of three IPTi doses a multivariate Poisson regression model with the respective cohort as co-variate was generated and effect modification of protective efficacy with time strata was evaluated by log-likelihood tests. Results Protective efficacies were not significantly different between the two study cohorts. Study-cohort corrected protective efficacy was highest for the first 61 days after each IPTi application and decreased continuously. For the first 61 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2, and IPTi-3 the protective efficacy was 71%, 44%, and 43%, respectively. A reduction of the malaria incidence rate was detectable for the first 60, 30 and 40 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2 and IPTi-3 drug application, respectively. After IPTi-3 a higher risk for malaria could be seen after day 60. This effect was mainly based on the overwhelming influence of the Kumasi cohort. Conclusion The results suggest that SP-based IPTi mainly works through a therapeutic and prophylactic effect over 30 to 60 days after drug application and that a sustained effect beyond post-treatment prophylaxis might be very low. Trial registration Data analysis from clinical trials NCT ID # 00206739 (Kumasi Trial and NCT ID # 00167843 (Lambaréné Trial, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  15. Early T Cell Recognition of B Cells following Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Identifying Potential Targets for Prophylactic Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus, a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, has strong aetiologic links with several malignancies and has been implicated in certain autoimmune diseases. Efforts to develop a prophylactic vaccine to prevent or reduce EBV-associated disease have, to date, focused on the induction of neutralising antibody responses. However, such vaccines might be further improved by inducing T cell responses capable of recognising and killing recently-infected B cells. In that context, EBNA2, EBNA-LP and BHRF1 are the first viral antigens expressed during the initial stage of B cell growth transformation, yet have been poorly characterised as CD8+ T cell targets. Here we describe CD8+ T cell responses against each of these three "first wave" proteins, identifying target epitopes and HLA restricting alleles. While EBNA-LP and BHRF1 each contained one strong CD8 epitope, epitopes within EBNA2 induced immunodominant responses through several less common HLA class I alleles (e.g. B*3801 and B*5501, as well as subdominant responses through common class I alleles (e.g. B7 and C*0304. Importantly, such EBNA2-specific CD8+ T cells recognised B cells within the first day post-infection, prior to CD8+ T cells against well-characterised latent target antigens such as EBNA3B or LMP2, and effectively inhibited outgrowth of EBV-transformed B cell lines. We infer that "first wave" antigens of the growth-transforming infection, especially EBNA2, constitute potential CD8+ T cell immunogens for inclusion in prophylactic EBV vaccine design.

  16. Preservation of the rat parotid gland function after radiation by prophylactic pilocarpine treatment: radiation dose dependency and compensatory mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the ability of a prophylactic pilocarpine administration to preserve the rat parotid gland function after unilateral irradiation with graded doses of X-rays. Methods: The right parotid gland of male albino Wistar rats was irradiated with single doses of X-rays (10-30 Gy, at 1.5 Gy min-1). Pilocarpine (4 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, 1 hour prior to irradiation. Saliva samples of both left and right parotid gland were collected by means of miniaturized Lashley cups 4 days before and 3, 7, 10, and 30 days after irradiation. The parotid salivary flow rate (μl/min) was used as a parameter for the assessment of parotid gland function. Results: Our data confirm that a single prophylactic treatment of pilocarpine can attenuate radiation-induced loss of gland function. Surprisingly, the effect of pilocarpine was not restricted to the irradiated gland only. Pilocarpine also enhanced the flow rate in the contralateral, nonirradiated gland. The latter effect was found for all doses above 10 Gy and became apparent around 7 days after the radiation treatment. The effectiveness of pilocarpine to attenuate function loss in the irradiated gland decreased with increasing dose and was lost after single doses of 30 Gy. Conclusions: Our data provide direct evidence that increasing the compensatory potential of the non damaged gland, at least in part, underlies the 'radioprotective effect' of pilocarpine in case of unilateral radiation. The ability of pilocarpine to ameliorate the early radiation-induced impairment of the parotid gland function in the irradiated gland may therefore be dependent on the remaining number of functional cells, and thus on the volume of the gland that lies within the radiation portal

  17. Comparison of the Occurrence of Transportation-associated Fever in 2 Years Old Thoroughbreds before and after Introduction of Prophylactic Marbofloxacin Administration

    OpenAIRE

    ENDO, Yoshiro; TSUCHIYA, Takeru; Akiyama, Kentaro; TAKEBE, Naoya; NAKAI, Kenji; KOROSUE, Kenji; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; TSUZUKI, Nao; HOBO, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to reveal the preventive effect of marbofloxacin (MRFX) administration just before transportation, we compared the occurrence of transportation-associated fever before and after introduction of MRFX administration. After the introduction of prophylactic MRFX administration, the rectal temperatures of horses after transportation were significantly lower than before the introduction of MRFX administration (P

  18. Cost-effectiveness of the prophylactic HPV vaccine : An application to the Netherlands taking non-cervical cancers and cross-protection into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjeboer, J.; Westra, T.A.; Wilschut, J.C.; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an effective screening programme, 600-700 women are still diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Netherlands each year. In 2009 a prophylactic vaccine against HPV-type 16 and 18 was implemented in the national immunisation programme to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. There is evide

  19. Plasma level of D-dimer accompanying different types of gynecologic surgery and effects of prophylactic subcutaneous injection of heparin calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakika Yanai

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Plasma levels of D-dimer on POD-1 were higher than those on the DPE in each type of gynecologic surgery. The D-dimer level remained high even on POD-6, and not changed by prophylactic subcutaneous injection of heparin calcium. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 551-554

  20. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, N.C.J.; Masereeuw, R.; Holme, P.A.; Kraaij, M.G.J. van; Laros, B.A.P.; Peyvandi, F.; Heerde, W.L. van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten factor VII deficient patients

  1. Impact of the prophylactic gastrostomy for unresectable squamous cell head and neck carcinomas treated with radio-chemotherapy on quality of life: Prospective randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Concomitant radio-chemotherapy is the gold standard treatment for unresectable head and neck carcinomas. Placement of prophylactic gastrostomy has been proposed to provide adequate nutrition during the therapeutic sequence. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of prophylactic gastrostomy on the 6-month quality of life, and to determine the factors related to this quality of life. Materials and methods: Design. randomized, controlled, open study ('systematic percutaneous gastrostomy' versus 'no systematic gastrostomy'). Patients. squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (stages III and IV, UICC 1997). Setting. oncological departments of French university teaching hospitals. Treatment. optimal concomitant radio-chemotherapy. Evaluations. T0 baseline evaluation, T1 during the treatment, T2 end of the treatment, and T3 6-month post-inclusion. Primary endpoint. 6-month quality of life (Qol) assessed using SF36, EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ H and N35 questionnaires. Results: The Qol changes from baseline included a decline (T1 and T2) followed by an improvement (T3). Qol at 6 months was significantly higher in the group receiving systematic prophylactic gastrostomy (p = 10-3). Higher initial BMI and lower initial Karnofsky index were significant factors related to a higher 6-month Qol. Conclusions: The study results suggest that prophylactic gastrostomy improves post-treatment quality of life for unresectable head and neck cancer patients, after adjusting for other potential predictive quality of life factors.

  2. Body image and psychological distress after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction in genetically predisposed women: a prospective long-term follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, M. den; Seynaeve, C.; Timman, R.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Vanheusden, K.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.; Tibben, A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the course of psychological distress and body image at long-term follow-up (6-9 years) after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction (PM/BR) in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, and to identify pre-PM risk factors for poor body image on the long-term. METHODS:

  3. The prophylactic effect of ceftazidime on early bacterial infection after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段明辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic ceftazidime on early bacterial infection in APBSCT recipients during neutropenia.Methods APBSCT recipients were prospectively randomly assigned to intravenous ceftazidime treatment group and control group (no prophylaxis of antibiotics) .The treatment started from the first day until resolution of neutropenia or the

  4. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of taurine against aluminum-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2011-08-30

    Aluminum is a well known neurotoxin and a possible candidate of hepatotoxins to humans. Using natural antioxidants against metal-induced hepatotoxicity is a modern approach. In the present study, Aluminum (AlCl(3)) intoxication (a single injection of 25mg Al(3+)/kg, i.p.) for 24h in mice resulted in elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and serum tumor necrosis factor and hepatic malondialdehyde levels. Aluminum reduced the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, quinone oxidoreductase, and catalase in liver. In addition, Al caused hepatic hemorrhage, cellular degeneration as well as necrosis of hepatocytes. Ultrastructure examination showed swelling of mitochondria, derangement of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and pleomorphic nuclei with abnormal chromatin distribution. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid was administered to mice daily for 5 days before (at 100mg/kg, i.p.) or 2h after (a single dose of 1g/kg, i.p.) aluminum administration. Treating mice with taurine at either dosing regimens, pre- or post-aluminum administration alleviated aluminum oxidative damaging effects. The rate of recovery was better when taurine was administered prior to Al. Taurine had anaphylactic and therapeutic activity against hepatotoxicity induced by aluminum in mice. PMID:21703760

  5. Synthetic ozonide drug candidate OZ439 offers new hope for a single-dose cure of uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Susan A; Arbe-Barnes, Sarah; Bathurst, Ian C; Brun, Reto; Campbell, Michael; Charman, William N; Chiu, Francis C K; Chollet, Jacques; Craft, J Carl; Creek, Darren J; Dong, Yuxiang; Matile, Hugues; Maurer, Melanie; Morizzi, Julia; Nguyen, Tien; Papastogiannidis, Petros; Scheurer, Christian; Shackleford, David M; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Stingelin, Lukas; Tang, Yuanqing; Urwyler, Heinrich; Wang, Xiaofang; White, Karen L; Wittlin, Sergio; Zhou, Lin; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L

    2011-03-15

    Ozonide OZ439 is a synthetic peroxide antimalarial drug candidate designed to provide a single-dose oral cure in humans. OZ439 has successfully completed Phase I clinical trials, where it was shown to be safe at doses up to 1,600 mg and is currently undergoing Phase IIa trials in malaria patients. Herein, we describe the discovery of OZ439 and the exceptional antimalarial and pharmacokinetic properties that led to its selection as a clinical drug development candidate. In vitro, OZ439 is fast-acting against all asexual erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum stages with IC(50) values comparable to those for the clinically used artemisinin derivatives. Unlike all other synthetic peroxides and semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives, OZ439 completely cures Plasmodium berghei-infected mice with a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg and exhibits prophylactic activity superior to that of the benchmark chemoprophylactic agent, mefloquine. Compared with other peroxide-containing antimalarial agents, such as the artemisinin derivatives and the first-generation ozonide OZ277, OZ439 exhibits a substantial increase in the pharmacokinetic half-life and blood concentration versus time profile in three preclinical species. The outstanding efficacy and prolonged blood concentrations of OZ439 are the result of a design strategy that stabilizes the intrinsically unstable pharmacophoric peroxide bond, thereby reducing clearance yet maintaining the necessary Fe(II)-reactivity to elicit parasite death. PMID:21300861

  6. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  7. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  8. The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toremen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates' responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstructured interview method…

  9. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  10. FAME's Search for Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.

    FAME is a five year survey mission to observe the positions, proper motions, and parallaxes of 40,000,000 stars down to 15th magnitude with accuracies of 50 microarcseconds at 9th magnitude. In addition to producing an astrometric and photometric catalog unparalleled for its accuracy and size, the survey will provide significant astrophysics results and search for extrasolar planet candidates.

  11. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  12. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  13. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  14. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  15. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  16. 22 CFR 11.8 - Travel expenses of candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of candidates. 11.8 Section 11... Travel expenses of candidates. The travel and other personal expenses of candidates incurred in... Department may issue round-trip invitational travel orders to bring candidates to Washington at...

  17. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations. PMID:20672542

  18. Recurrent urinary tract infections in children: Preventive interventions other than prophylactic antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Kishor; Narchi, Hassib

    2015-06-26

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common childhood infections. Permanent renal cortical scarring may occur in affected children, especially with recurrent UTIs, leading to long-term complications such as hypertension and chronic renal failure. To prevent such damage, several interventions to prevent UTI recurrences have been tried. The most established and accepted prevention at present is low dose long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. However it has a risk of break through infections, adverse drug reactions and also the risk of developing antibiotic resistance. The search is therefore on-going to find a safer, effective and acceptable alternative. A recent meta-analysis did not support routine circumcision for normal boys with no risk factors. Vaccinium Macrocarpon (cranberry), commonly used against UTI in adult women, is also effective in reducing the number of recurrences and related antimicrobial use in children. Sodium pentosanpolysulfate, which prevents bacterial adherence to the uroepithelial cells in animal models, has shown conflicting results in human trials. When combined with antibiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) and Bifidobacterium, by blocking the in vitro attachment of uropathogenic bacteria to uroepithelial cells, significantly reduce in the incidence of febrile UTIs. Deliberate colonization of the human urinary tract of patients with recurrent UTI with Escherichia-coli (E. coli) 83972 has resulted in subjective benefit and less UTI requiring treatment. The non-pathogenic E. coli isolate NU14 DeltawaaL is a candidate to develop live-attenuated vaccine for the treatment and prevention of acute and recurrent UTI. Diagnosing and treating dysfunctional elimination syndromes decrease the incidence of recurrent UTI. A meta-analysis found the lack of robust prospective randomized controlled trials limited the strength of the established guidelines for surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. In conclusion, several interventions

  19. Candidate Species Selection: Cultural and Photosynthetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cultural information is provided for a data base that will be used to select candidate crop species for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Lists of food crops which will satisfy most nutritional requirements of humans and also fit within the scope of cultural restrictions that logically would apply to a closed, regenerating system were generated. Cultural and environmental conditions that will allow the most rapid production of edible biomass from candidate species in the shortest possible time are identified. Cultivars which are most productive in terms of edible biomass production by (CE) conditions, and which respond to the ever-closed approach to optimization realized by each shortened production cycle are selected. The experimental approach with lettuce was to grow the crop hydroponically in a growth chamber and to manipulate such variables as light level and duration, day/night temperature, and nutrient form and level in the solution culture.

  20. New drug candidates in tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Evranos Aksöz

    2014-12-01

    makes them quit the treatment. From these problems emerges the need for development of effective new drugs, with smaller duration of therapy, less side effects and without the problem of resistance. After a long period such as 40 years, a new drug molecule bedaquiline was approved in December 2012 by FDA while the drug was in phase II research. Bedaquiline will be used in multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy. When the chemical structures of bedaquilline and other candidate drugs were examined, the structures such as diarylquinoline, oxazolidinone, nitroimidazole, ethylenediamine drew attention. These common structures will be directive in designing new molecules. In this review, bedaquiline and other candidate drug molecules such as sutezolide, linezolide, PA-824, delamanide, rifapentine, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, BTZ-043, TBA-354, CPZEN-45, DC-159a, Q201, SQ-609, SQ-641 were mentioned.

  1. Optical Nova Candidate in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 14.46 and 16.46 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.7. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h42m37.72s, Dec = +41d12'30.0"(J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 1'14" west and 3'39" south of the core of M 31. All magnitudes given are obtained from a photometric solution using R magnitudes of the Local Group Survey M 31 catalogue (Massey et al.

  2. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars and not...... planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  3. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam Aliya; Brohan Elaine; Thornicroft Graham; Lewis-Holmes Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  4. Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, Monica; Weyant, C. M.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Faber, K. T.

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) oxide, due to its high-temperature capabilities and thermal expansion coefficient similar to silicon nitride, is a promising candidate for environmental barriers for silicon (Si) nitride-based ceramics. This paper focuses on the development of plasma-sprayed Ta oxide as an environmental barrier coating for silicon nitride. Using a D-optimal design of experiments, plasma-spray processing variables were optimized to maximize coating density. The effect of processing variables on c...

  5. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  6. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...

  7. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  8. Comparing Candidate Selection : A Feminist Institutionalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnegard, Elin; Kenny, Meryl

    2016-01-01

    This contribution evaluates the theoretical and methodological challenges ofresearching the gendered dynamics of candidate selection in comparativeperspective. It argues that comparative studies should take into account not only thegendered nature of political parties and their wider institutional context, but mustalso investigate the informal aspects of the selection process and their genderedconsequences. The article explores these dynamics by revisiting original in-depthresearch on the can...

  9. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF ALLOSENSITIZED CARDIAC TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Mauricio; Johnson, Maryl R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation remains the best treatment in advanced heart failure patients with a high risk of death. However, an inadequate supply of donor hearts decreases the likelihood of transplantation for many patients. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are being increasingly used as a bridge to transplant in patients who may not survive long enough to receive a heart. This expansion in VAD use has been associated with increasing rates of allosensitization in cardiac transplant candidates. A...

  11. Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu PİJİ KÜÇÜK; Yusuf Barış UZUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant İzzet B...

  12. Preoperative Anxiety in Candidates for Heart Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi, Mehdi; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Joudi, Marjan; Joudi, Mitra; Mahdikhani, Helia; Ferasatkish, Rasool; Bakhshandeh, Houman; Jabbari Nooghabi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate preoperative anxiety and its predisposing factors in a group of adult patients who were candidate for any kind of heart surgery. Methods: We evaluated preoperative anxiety in 300 patients undergoing heart surgery whose ages ranged between 18-65 years. Relationship of probable demographic factors like gender, educational level, marital status, number of children, family support, opium addiction, occupational status, and left ventricular ejectio...

  13. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  14. Comparison of prophylactic higher fluence corneal cross-linking to control, in myopic LASIK, one year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis,1 Costas Karabatsas1 1LaserVision.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To compare 1-year results: safety, efficacy, refractive and keratometric stability, of femtosecond myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with and without concurrent prophylactic high-fluence cross-linking (CXL (LASIK-CXL.Methods: We studied a total of 155 consecutive eyes planned for LASIK myopic correction. Group A represented 73 eyes that were treated additionally with concurrent prophylactic high-fluence CXL; group B included 82 eyes subjected to the stand-alone LASIK procedure. The following parameters were evaluated preoperatively and up to 1-year postoperatively: manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE, refractive astigmatism, visual acuity, corneal keratometry, and endothelial cell counts. We plotted keratometry measurements pre-operatively and its change in the early, interim and later post-operative time for the two groups, as a means of keratometric stability comparison.Results: Group A (LASIK-CXL had an average postoperative MRSE of -0.23, -0.19, and -0.19 D for the 3-, 6-, and 12-month period, respectively, compared to -6.58±1.98 D preoperatively. Flat keratometry was 37.69, 37.66, and 37.67 D, compared to 43.94 D preoperatively, and steep keratometry was 38.35, 38.36, and 38.37 D, compared to 45.17 D preoperatively. The predictability of Manifest Refraction Spherical Equivalent (MRSE correction showed a correlation coefficient of 0.979. Group B (stand-alone LASIK had an average postoperative MRSE of -0.23, -0.20, and -0.27 D for the 3-, 6-, and 12-month period, respectively, compared with -5.14±2.34 D preoperatively. Flat keratometry was 37.65, 37.89, and 38.02 D, compared with 43.15 D preoperatively, and steep keratometry was 38.32, 38.57, and 38.66 D, compared with 44.07 D preoperatively

  15. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  16. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report

  17. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Stoicescu, Kristen; Reddy, Maryada Venkatarami; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL), a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3) and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple filarial infections

  18. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajalakshmi Dakshinamoorthy

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL, a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3 and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple

  19. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration, a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7-10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30-43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37 °C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4 °C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice

  20. OUTCOME OF ELECTIVE PROPHYLACTIC ILIOINGUINAL NEURECTOMY IN PREVENTION OF CHRONIC GROIN PAIN AFTER OPEN INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic groin pain is one of the most important complications of the repair of inguinal hernia. Randomized trials have identified that chronic groin pain (>10% surpasses recurrence (<2%. Factors proposed as predictors of post-operative pain are damage to inguinal nerves, nerve entrapment during suturing, fibrosis of the placed material as well as that of surrounding area, mesh implantation, partial division and neuroma formation. Routine ilioinguinal division or excision has been associated with a lower incidence of post-operative neuralgia compared to nerve preservation with reduced morbidity and no detrimental effect on quality of life. OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prophylactic ilioinguinal neurectomy on the incidence and intensity of groin pain after open inguinal hernia repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients with uncomplicated inguinal hernias were subjected to Lichtenstein mesh hernioplasty with prophylactic ilioinguinal neurectomy over a period of one year (November 2014 - October 2015. Relation of pain to Rest (R, Activities (A and Exercise (E preoperatively and at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery was noted. McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to assess pain 1 week after surgery, 4 weeks after surgery and after 3 and 6 months of surgery. RESULTS Routine ilioinguinal neurectomy during open groin hernia repair was associated with mean McGill pain score of 1.76 and 1.48 at follow-up period of 3 and 6 months, respectively. Numbness was present in 12% patients at follow-up period of 3 and 6 months. At 3 and 6 months follow-up, pain at rest was present in 2% and 0% patients; pain only during daily activities was present in 4% and 2% patients; and pain only during exercise was present in 6% and 4% patients, respectively. Only 2% patients required analgesics to control pain at 3 months and no patient required analgesics to control pain at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Ilioinguinal neurectomy during

  1. Selective induction of cell-mediated immunity and protection of rhesus macaques from chronic SHIVKU2 infection by prophylactic vaccination with a conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques by the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is considered to be a suitable preclinical model for directly testing efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the HIV-1 envelope. We used this model for prophylactic vaccination with a peptide-cocktail comprised of highly conserved HIV-1 envelope sequences immunogenic/antigenic in macaques and humans. Separate groups of macaques were immunized with the peptide-cocktail by intravenous and subcutaneous routes using autologous dendritic cells (DC) and Freund's adjuvant, respectively. The vaccine elicited antigen specific IFN-γ-producing cells and T-cell proliferation, but not HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The vaccinated animals also exhibited efficient cross-clade cytolytic activity against target cells expressing envelope proteins corresponding to HIV-1 strains representative of multiple clades that increased after intravenous challenge with pathogenic SHIVKU2. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were either undetectable or present only transiently at low levels in the control as well as vaccinated monkeys after infection. Significant control of plasma viremia leading to undetectable levels was achieved in majority of vaccinated monkeys compared to mock-vaccinated controls. Monkeys vaccinated with the peptide-cocktail using autologous DC, compared to Freund's adjuvant, and the mock-vaccinated animals, showed significantly higher IFN-γ production, higher levels of vaccine-specific IFN-γ producing CD4+ cells and significant control of plasma viremia. These results support DC-based vaccine delivery and the utility of the conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail, capable of priming strong cell-mediated immunity, for potential inclusion in HIV vaccination strategies

  2. Good practice in occupational health services: Recommendations for prophylactic examinations and medical certifications in persons with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marcinkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes and a significant proportion of unawareness of its risk among the patients indicate the need to include into general prophylactic examinations the standards of medical certification, which would prevent discrimination and ensure public safety. In certifying medical predispositions to work in a person with diabetes mellitus the key issue is to distinguish 2 categories of medical requirements: the higher - related to qualifying workers for jobs demanding psychophysical abilities, which affect the safety of the workers and their environment and the lower - related to qualifying workers for jobs characterized by harmful factors and nuisances, which might have a negative effect on the course of diabetes. The very fact of having diabetes cannot be the reason for the patient being disqualified and the decision on certifying the capacity to perform a particular job should always be based on an individual health assessment of the patient, taking into account the risk of hypoglycemia, metabolic control, the progression and dynamics of chronic complications, as well as the level of health awareness in patients. The objective assessment of the health status of the patient with diabetes involves the judgment of an attending physician, additionally supported by the consultation of a diabetes specialist to ensure that the patient is able to perform properly the job, requiring psychomotor abilities. Med Pr 2014;65(1:131–141

  3. Prophylactic Role of Oral Melatonin Administration on Neurogenesis in Adult Balb/C Mice during REM Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Armas, Gabriela; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; Soto-Rodríguez, Sofía; Rusanova, Iryna; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario; González-Perez, Oscar; González-Castañeda, Rocío Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin in the proliferation of neural progenitors, melatonin concentration, and antiapoptotic proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice exposed to 96 h REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) prophylactic administration of melatonin for 14 days. Material and Methods. Five groups of Balb/C mice were used: (1) control, (2) REMSD, (3) melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus REMSD, (4) melatonin and intraperitoneal luzindole (once a day at 5 mg/kg) plus REMSD, and (5) luzindole plus REMSD. To measure melatonin content in hippocampal tissue we used HPLC. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins were measured by Western Blot and neurogenesis was determined by injecting 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU/nestin expressing cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were quantified by epifluorescence. Results. The melatonin-treated REMSD group showed an increased neural precursor in 44% with respect to the REMSD group and in 28% when contrasted with the control group (P expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion. The exogenous administration of melatonin restores the tissue levels of sleep-deprived group and appears to be an efficient neuroprotective agent against the deleterious effects of REMSD. PMID:27579149

  4. Prophylactic Role of Oral Melatonin Administration on Neurogenesis in Adult Balb/C Mice during REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Soto-Rodríguez, Sofía; González-Perez, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin in the proliferation of neural progenitors, melatonin concentration, and antiapoptotic proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice exposed to 96 h REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) prophylactic administration of melatonin for 14 days. Material and Methods. Five groups of Balb/C mice were used: (1) control, (2) REMSD, (3) melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus REMSD, (4) melatonin and intraperitoneal luzindole (once a day at 5 mg/kg) plus REMSD, and (5) luzindole plus REMSD. To measure melatonin content in hippocampal tissue we used HPLC. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins were measured by Western Blot and neurogenesis was determined by injecting 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU/nestin expressing cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were quantified by epifluorescence. Results. The melatonin-treated REMSD group showed an increased neural precursor in 44% with respect to the REMSD group and in 28% when contrasted with the control group (P < 0.021). The melatonin-treated REMSD group also showed the highest expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion. The exogenous administration of melatonin restores the tissue levels of sleep-deprived group and appears to be an efficient neuroprotective agent against the deleterious effects of REMSD.

  5. Salicylic acid derivatives as potential anti asthmatic agents using disease responsive drug delivery system for prophylactic therapy of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Kalidhindi Rama Satyanarayana; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Mulukutla, Shashank; Gupta, Saurabh; Murthy, Vishakantha; Kumar, M N Kiran; Madhunapantula, Subba Rao V; Kuppuswamy, Gowthamarajan; Elango, Kannan

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a multi-factorial and complicated lung disorder of the immune system which has expanded to a wider ambit unveiling its etiology to be omnipresent at both ends of the spectrum involving basic pharmacology and in-depth immunology. As asthma occurs through triggered activation of various immune cells due to different stimuli, it poses a great challenge to uncover specific targets for therapeutic interventions. Recent pharmacotherapeutic approaches for asthma have been focused on molecular targeting of transcription factors and their signaling pathways; mainly nucleus factor kappa B (NFκB) and its associated pathways which orchestrate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, GM-CSF), chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1a, eotaxin), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and inflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS). 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sodium salicylate are known to suppress NFκB activation by inhibiting inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKκB). In order to target the transcription factor, a suitable carrier system for delivering the drug to the intracellular space is essential. 5-ASA and sodium salicylate loaded liposomes incorporated into PEG-4-acrylate and CCRGGC microgels (a polymer formed by crosslinking of trypsin sensitive peptide and PEG-4-acrylate) could probably suit the needs for developing a disease responsive drug delivery system which will serve as a prophylactic therapy for asthmatic patients. PMID:26643666

  6. Randomized phase II exploratory study of prophylactic amifostine in cancer patients who receive radical radiotherapy to the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karavasilis Vasileios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic amifostine in reducing the risk of severe radiation colitis in cancer patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the pelvis. Methods Patients with pelvic tumours referred for radical radiotherapy who consented participation in this trial, were randomly assigned to receive daily amifostine (A (subcutaneously, 500 mg flat dose before radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone (R. Sigmoidoscopy and blinded biopsies were scheduled to conduct prior to initiation and following completion of radiotherapy and again 6 to 9 months later. Radiation colitis was assessed by clinical, endoscopic and histolopathological criteria. Results A total 44 patients were enrolled in this trial, the majority with rectal (20 patients and cervical cancer (12 patients and were assigned 23 in R arm and 21 in the A arm. In total 119 sigmoidoscopies were performed and 18 patients (18/44, 40.9% were diagnosed with radiation colitis (15 grade 1 and 2, and 3 grade 3 and 4. Of them, 6 patients belonged to the A group (6/21, 28.6% and 12 to the R group (12/23, 52.2%. Acute and grade IV radiation colitis was only developed in four patients (17.4% in the R group. Amifostine side effects were mild. Amifostine treated patients were less likely to develop histologically detectable mucosal lesions, which indicate protection from acute mucosal injury. Conclusions Amifostine given subcutaneously can lower the risk of acute severe radiation colitis in patients who receive radical radiotherapy to pelvic tumors.

  7. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A ≤3, B ≤7, C ≤14, D ≤21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered ≤3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p 3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  8. Prophylactic potential of resiquimod against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) challenge in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Kumar, B S Anand; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kumar, Vimal; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Varghese, Berin P; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluated the prophylactic potential of resiquimod (R-848), a synthetic TLR7 agonist, against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection in chicken. Specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks of three week age were treated with R-848 (50μg/bird, intramuscular) or PBS (n=26/group). Twenty four hour later, half of the birds from each group were challenged with 10(5) ELD50 of vvIBDV and observed for 10days. To understand the effect of R-848, immune response genes such as interferon (IFN)-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 were analyzed at 24 and 48h post-challenge in PBMCs ex vivo by real-time PCR (n=6/group). On day 4 post-challenge, representative birds (n=3/group) were sacrificed to study the bursal damage and IBDV antigen clearance. Immunosuppression was assessed by antibody response against live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, which was administered on day 10 post-challenge. R-848 pre-treatment significantly upregulated the transcripts of each immune response gene studied (Pchicken when challenged with vvIBDV, which could be due to the upregulation of immune response genes. PMID:27066705

  9. Anorexia, serum zinc, and immunologic response in small cell lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, A M; Piper, B F

    1986-01-01

    Anorexia is a major clinical problem for patients with certain types of cancer. The specific mechanisms that result in this spontaneous decline in food intake remain unknown. In noncancer populations, zinc has been shown to play a role in maintaining normal appetite, taste acuity, and immunocompetence. One purpose of this prospective, longitudinal study of cachexia in ten males with small cell lung carcinoma was to determine if anorexia (caloric intake), perceived taste changes, zinc intake, and impaired cellular immunity were associated with serum zinc concentrations. The average daily caloric intake declined 490 kcal from time of diagnosis to seven months after diagnosis (mean caloric intake = 72% of RDA). Daily zinc intake ranged from 6.5 to 25.4 mg over the seven months. During this period, the mean serum zinc concentrations, although low (71 micrograms/dl), remained within the normal range. The average weight declined from 81.7 to 74.1 kg. There was no identifiable pattern of perceived taste changes; most of the perceived changes were recorded during the period coinciding with prophylactic cranial radiation. At the initial testing, four of nine subjects were anergic to a battery of skin test antigens (mumps, candida, tuberculin purified protein derivative). The only subject who remained responsive to two antigens throughout the study remained alive at 12 months. Caloric intake was inadequate to maintain weight. While zinc intake was low, low normal serum zinc concentrations were maintained; thus in this sample, serum zinc does not appear to be the anorexigenic factor. PMID:3022247

  10. Can prophylactic breast irradiation contribute to cardiac toxicity in patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppressing drugs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) might increase the risk of cardiac morbidity in prostate cancer patients. Possible explanations were provided, however, they disregard the potential contribution of prophylactic radiotherapy to the mamillary regions (PMRT, prescribed to avoid gynecomastia). We studied the exposure of the heart in a typical electron beam PMRT setting by evaluating computed tomography (CT) scans in 40 non-cancer patients (age 65 and 75 years in 50% each) and 17 prostate cancer patients. Five of the younger, 7 of the older and 4 of the cancer patients had significant cardiac disease. The median distance between skin and outer heart contour decreased with age. In all three groups, patients with cardiac morbidity had smaller distances. When using the CT-determined PMRT beam energy, 10% of the younger, 15% of the older and none of the prostate cancer patients would receive approximately 50% of the prescription dose to a part of the heart (2 had no history of cardiac disease). When using the clinically rather than CT-determined beam energy, as often done in daily practice, an additional 12.5% of the non-cancer and 12% of the prostate cancer patients would be exposed to comparably high doses. The present data provide preliminary evidence that PMRT might be a factor that contributes to cardiac side effects. Previous studies that established a relationship between AST and cardiac morbidity did not include information on delivery of PMRT

  11. Prophylactic action of lipoic acid on oxidative stress and growth performance in broilers at risk of developing ascites syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, Antonio; Serret, Maurilio; Ramírez, Guadalupe; Avila, Ernesto; Guinzberg, Raquel; Piña, Enrique

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with lipoic acid (LA) on broilers maintained at 2235 m above sea level with high risk to develop ascites syndrome (AS). A total of 2040 chicks were fed under commercial conditions with water and specific diets ad libitum during 7 weeks in two consecutive experiments. Mortality and indicators of performance and oxidative stress were compared weekly in broilers fed a basal diet plus 0, 10, 20, or 40 parts/10(6) LA. The effects of LA at 40 parts/10(6) were also studied during the initial 3 weeks or the last 4 weeks of the production cycle. Diets supplemented with 40 parts/10(6) of LA during 7 weeks significantly improved feed conversion, decreased general mortality and mortality attributable to AS, and lowered thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroxyl radicals in liver, and increased total glutathione pool. Smaller doses or shorter periods of exposure to LA were partially effective. In conclusion, LA under our experimental conditions has a prophylactic action in broilers with high risk to develop AS due to oxygen availability limitation. PMID:14676017

  12. Evaluation of cognitive function in patients with limited small cell lung cancer prior to and shortly following prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cognitive deficits after treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have been attributed to prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). A prospective study of neuropsychological function was undertaken to document the evolution and magnitude of neuropsychologic deficits. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with limited stage SCLC who responded well (29 complete response (CR), 1 partial response (PR)) to combination chemotherapy plus thoracic irradiation or resection were studied with neuropsychological tests in the cognitive domains of intelligence, frontal lobe function, language, memory, visual-perception, and motor dexterity prior to a planned course of PCI. Nine patients had a neurologic history that could influence testing. Results: An unexpected 97% (29 out of 30) of patients had evidence of cognitive dysfunction prior to PCI. The most frequent impairment was verbal memory, followed by frontal lobe dysfunction, and fine motor incoordination. Of the patients with no prior neurologic or substance abuse history, 20 out of 21 (95%) had impairments on neuropsychological assessment. This neurologically normal group was just as impaired as the group with such a history with respect to delayed verbal memory and frontal lobe executive function. Eleven patients had neuropsychological testing 6 to 20 months after PCI; no significant differences were found from their pretreatment tests. Conclusions: A high proportion of neurologically normal patients with limited SCLC and favorable responses to combination chemotherapy have specific cognitive deficits before receiving PCI. Short-term (6 to 20 months) observations after PCI have shown no significant deterioration

  13. The prophylactic and protective effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli on radiation-induced enteritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the prophylactic and protective effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against Escherichia coli on radiation-induced enteritis in rats. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (group A), radiation control group (group B) and IgY treatment group (group C). The rats of groups B and C were subjected to whole abdominal irradiation of 1000 cGy. Feeding IgY began since the day before irradiation in group C. Four days later, all the rats were killed and the intestinal bacteria translocation, the concentration of endotoxin in blood, and pathological changes of intestinal mucosa were measured or observed. Results: Bacteria translocation was not found in group A, but evident in group B (96.7%), and much lighter in group C(13.3%) than in group B. The concentration of endotoxin in blood was very low in group A (0.001 EU/ml) and very high in group B (0.829 EU/ml), but it was much lower in group C(0.249 EU/ml) than in group B. The villus edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells in mucosa and epithelial desquamation were found in group B, but these pathological changes were much milder in group C and not found at all in group A. Conclusion: Whole abdomen irradiation will evidently cause enteritis in rats, and followed by bacteria translocation and endotoxemia; IgY against Escherichia coli can diminish these changes

  14. Experimental Study of the Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effects of Venin on Metastasis and Recurrence of Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingjingSun; ZhiyongWu; XindaZhou; YinkunLiu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the inhibitory effect of venin on adhesion and invasive ability of SMMC-7721 cells and to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of venin on liver cancer metastasis and recurrence after hepatectomy.METHODS The blocking effect of venin on the intercellular adhesive molecule (ICAM-1) of 7721 cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. The influence of venin on the invasive ability of 7721 cells was observed by cell-migration experimentation and detachment of 7721 cells attached to fibronectin (FN), and the influence of venin on adhesion of 7721 cells to FN by the MTT method, 7721 cells to 7721 cells, 7721 cells to lymphocytes, and 7721 cells to endothelial cells by a cellular adhesion test. The preventive and therapeutic effect of venin onmetastasis and recurrence of a liver cancer model was observed in nudemice after hepatectomy. RESULTS The expression of ICAM-1 in the venin-treated group was significantly lower than that in the untreated group. Venin could not inhibit the invasive ability of 7721 cells, and could not exfoliate the 7721 cells adhered to FN. It could inhibit the adhesion between 7721 cells and 7721 cells, and between 7721 and endothelial cells, but could not inhibit the adhesion between 7721 and lymphocytes. The nude mice treated with venin had less intrahepatic or extrahepatic metastases and recurrences after hepatectomy. CONCLUSION Venin can inhibit the adhesive ability of SMMC-7721 cells and can also prevent and treat the metastasis and recurrence of liver cancer in nude mice after hepatectomy.

  15. Combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation as a prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Capozzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT is a safe and effective prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. We report the case of a 17 years old patient with a history of congenital glaucoma, trabeculectomy and multiple corneal graft rejections, presenting total limbal cell deficiency. To reduce the possibility of graft rejection in the left eye after a new PK, a two step procedure was performed. At first the patient underwent a combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft (LAT and AMT and then, 10 months later, a new PK. Results. During 12 months of follow-up, the corneal graft remained stable and smooth, with no sign of graft rejection. Conclusions. In our patient, the prophylactic use of LAT from HLA-matched donors and AMT before PK, may result in a better prognosis of corneal graft survival.

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus, an ongoing medical dilemma: an expert commentary on respiratory syncytial virus prophylactic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals currently in clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Lindsay; Groves, Helen; Shields, Michael D; Power, Ultan F.

    2015-01-01

    As the most important viral cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and increasing recognition as important in the elderly and immunocompromised, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for a massive health burden worldwide. Prophylactic antibodies were successfully developed against RSV. However, their use is restricted to a small group of infants considered at high risk of severe RSV disease. There is still no specific therapeutics or vaccines to combat RSV. As such, it rema...

  17. Comparison of Three Distinct Prophylactic Agents Against Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients Undergoing Haplo-identical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    El-Cheikh, Jean; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Vai, Andrea; Furst, Sabine; Bramanti, Stefania; Sarina, Barbara; Granata, Angela; Faucher, Catherine; Mohty, Bilal; Harbi, Samia; Bouabdallah, Reda; Vey, Norbert; Santoro, Armando; Chabannon, Christian; Castagna, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have remained an important problem in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). The optimal approach for prophylactic antifungal therapy has yet to bedetermined. We conducted a retrospective analysis, comparing the safety and efficacy of micafungin 50mg/day vs. fluconazole 400mg/day vs. itraconazole 200mg/day as prophylaxis for adult patients with various haematological diseases receiving haploi...

  18. Role of healthcare workers in early epidemic spread of Ebola: policy implications of prophylactic compared to reactive vaccination policy in outbreak prevention and control.

    OpenAIRE

    Coltart, CE; Johnson, AM; Whitty, CJ

    2015-01-01

    Ebola causes severe illness in humans and has epidemic potential. How to deploy vaccines most effectively is a central policy question since different strategies have implications for ideal vaccine profile. More than one vaccine may be needed. A vaccine optimised for prophylactic vaccination in high-risk areas but when the virus is not actively circulating should be safe, well tolerated, and provide long-lasting protection; a two- or three-dose strategy would be realistic. Conversely, a react...

  19. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenwen; Jiang, Wenjing; Luan, Linlin; Wang, Lili; Zheng, Xiangrong; Wang, Gongchao

    2014-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 13% of all lung cancer cases. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 13% of all lung cancer cases. The purpose of the present article is to assess the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) by performing a systematic review of the randomized trials published in the literature. Methods Randomized controlled trials were identified that compared brain metastases incidence and overall su...

  20. Management of brain metastasis with magnetic resonance imaging and stereotactic irradiation attenuated benefits of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Omae, Minako; Fujii, Masato; Matsui, Takashi; KATO, Masato; Sagisaka, Shinya; Asada, Kazuhiro; Karayama, Masato; Shirai, Toshihiro; Yasuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Yutaro; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables a more sensitive detection of brain metastasis and stereotactic irradiation (SRI) efficiently controls brain metastasis. In limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with good responses to initial treatment is recommended based on the survival benefit shown in previous clinical trials. However, none of these trials evaluated PCI effects using the management of brain metastasis with MRI...

  1. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis Expressing the Outer Membrane Protein 26-Kilodalton Antigen Confers Prophylactic Protection against Helicobacter pylori Infection ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Lin; Zeng, Han-qing; Wang, Pi-Long; Shen, Wei; Xiang, Ting-xiu; Mei, Zhe-chuan

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is prevalent worldwide and results in chronic gastritis, which may lead to gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. We have previously reported that oral immunization with recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing the H. pylori outer membrane protein 26-kilodalton (Omp26) antigen affords therapeutic protection against H. pylori infection in mice. In the present study, we investigated the prophylactic effects of this vaccine cand...

  2. Effect of chlorhexidine-containing prophylactic agent on the surface characterization and frictional resistance between orthodontic brackets and archwires: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Farazdaghi, Habibeh; Mehrabi, Arash; Razavi, Elham S Emadian

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the surface characterization and frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and two types of orthodontic wires made of stainless steel and nickel-titanium alloys after immersion in a chlorhexidine-containing prophylactic agent. Methods Stainless steel orthodontic brackets with either stainless steel (SS) or heat-activated nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wires were immersed in a 0.2% chlorhexidine and an artificial saliva environment for 1...

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Prophylactic Amiodarone in Preventing Early Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia (JET) in Children After Cardiac Surgery and Determination of Its Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrousy, Doaa El; Elshehaby, Walid; Feky, Wael El; Elshmaa, Nagat S

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative arrhythmia is a common complication after open heart surgery in children. JET is the most common and dangerous arrhythmia. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of prophylactic amiodarone in preventing JET in children underwent cardiac surgery and to assess risk factors for JET among our patients. In total, 117 children who underwent cardiac surgery for CHD at Tanta University Hospital from October 2011 to April 2015 were divided in two groups; amiodarone group (65 patients) was given prophylactic amiodarone intraoperatively and placebo group (52 patients). Amiodarone is started as loading dose of 5 mg/kg IV in the operating room after induction of anesthesia and continued for 3 days as continuous infusion 10-15 μg/kg/min. Primary outcome and secondary outcomes of amiodarone administration were reported. We studied pre-, intra- and postoperative factors to determine risk factors for occurrence of JET among these children. Prophylactic amiodarone was found to significantly decrease incidence of postoperative JET from 28.9 % in placebo group to 9.2 % in amiodarone group, and symptomatic JET from 11.5 % in placebo group to 3.1 % in amiodarone group, and shorten postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stay without significant side effects. Risk factors for occurrence of JET were younger age, lower body weight, longer cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamp time, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, acidosis and high dose of inotropes. JET was more associated with surgical repair of right ventricular outlet obstruction as in case of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis. Most of JET 15/21 (71.4 %) occurred in the first day postoperatively, and 6/21 occurred in the second day (28.6 %). Prophylactic amiodarone is safe and effective in preventing early JET in children after open heart surgery. PMID:26818850

  4. Optical Nova Candidates in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 06.47 and 07.47 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.9.

  5. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  6. Dark Matter and its Particle Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bottino, A

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures we first briefly review the main observational facts which imply that most part of matter in the Universe is not visible and some recent intriguing experimental data which would point to a significant contribution to Omega due to a cosmological constant. We subsequently discuss some particle candidates for dark matter, with particular emphasis for the neutralino. We present the main properties of this particle, also in the light of the most recent experimental results in direct search for relic particles; furthermore, we discuss the perspectives for their indirect searches.

  7. Assessment of candidate accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of candidate accident management strategies, whose purpose is to prevent or mitigate in-vessel core damage, were identified from various Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry reports. These strategies have been grouped in this report by the challenges they are intended to meet, and assessed to provide information which may be useful to individual licensees for consideration when they perform their Individual Plant Examinations. Each assessment focused on describing and explaining the strategy, considering its relationship to existing requirements and practices as well as identifying possible associated adverse effects. 10 refs

  8. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  9. Candidate gene effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerljung, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of five candidate genes to the variation in meat tenderness, pH, colour, marbling and water holding capacity (WHC) was analysed in muscle samples from 243 young bulls of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, or Simmental breed, raised in Swedish commercial herds. The animals were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding calpain 1 (CAPN1:c.947G>C), calpastatin, (CAST:c.155C>T), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), leptin (UASMS2C>T) a...

  10. Role of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants: Systematic review and implications for clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on mortality and morbidity of preterm infants weighing less than 1000 g at birth. The study conducted a systematic search of available database from 1996-2008. Retrieved articles were assessed for eligibility and data was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Decisions to include studies for review and the methodological quality of included studies were asssessed in duplicate based on predetermined criteria. No language restrictions were applied. Only one eligible study that enrolled 84 extremely low birth weight infants was identified. Prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA resulted in a statistically significant reduction of severe stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis, [RR 0.25, 95% CI (0.08, 0.83), P value 0.02, number needed to treat 5]. The study, however, found no statistically significant difference in mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Current evidence does not support the use of prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA in the management of the preterm infants

  11. Prophylactic use of Ganoderma lucidum extract may inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication in a new mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan eQin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection (LTBIthat mimics latent tuberculosis infection in humans is valuable for drug/vaccine development and the study of tuberculosis. However, most LTBI mouse models require interventions, and a spontaneous LTBI mouse model with a low bacterial load is difficult to establish. In this study, mice were IV-inoculated with 100 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and a persistent LTBI was established with low bacterial loads (0.5~1.5log10 CFU in the lung; <4log10 CFU in the spleen. Histopathological changes in the lung, spleen, and liver were mild during the first 20 weeks post-inoculation. The model was used to demonstrate the comparative effects of prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Ganoderma lucidum extract (spores and spores lipid in preventing H37Rv replication in both lung and spleen. H37Rv was inhibited with prophylactic use of G. lucidum extract relative to that of the untreated control and therapy groups, and observed in the spleen as early as post-inoculation week 3. H37Rv infection in the therapy group was comparable to that of the untreated control mice. No significant mitigation of pathological changes was observed in either the prophylactic or therapeutic groups. Our results suggest that this LTBI model is an efficient means of testing anti-tuberculosis vaccines and drugs. The use of G. lucidum extract prior to M. tuberculosis infection may protect the host against bacterial replication to some extent.

  12. Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Antibiotics for Prophylactic in Patients with Cesarean Section at Hospitals in Surakarta in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Mutmainah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics for prophylactic in sectio cesarean can reduce the risk of infection-related complications and postoperative infections. This study aims to describe and evaluate the usage and the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section patients in two hospitals in Surakarta in year 2010. The study used retrospective data from medical records. The analysis was then conducted on the use of antibiotic including the appropriateness of antibiotic (compare to the standard of WHO, the appropriateness of dose and the time of administration. The data from two hundred of patients showed that 76% of patients were between 20–35 years old and the patients with aterm pregnancy were 90.5%, 46.5% of patients had the length of stay in hospital more than 5 days and 29% of cesarean delivery indicated by amniotic premature rupture. Antibiotics that used for prophylactic were ampicillin (24%, ampicillin-sulbactam (23%, ceftriaxone (19.5%, cefotaxime (16%, amoxicillin-clavulanate (11%, and cefazolin (6.5%. It was found that 30,5% of drugs were selected based on standard, 6.5% of drugs were given in the appropriate dose and 52% of drugs were administrated on-time. In conclusion, the antibiotics are 100% effective to prevent the incidence of surgical wound infection.

  13. A randomized trial of prophylactic uterosacral ligament suspension at the time of hysterectomy for Prevention of Vaginal Vault Prolapse (PULS): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Marianna; Weinstein, Milena; Kivnick, Seth; Duong, Thinh H; Menefee, Shawn

    2013-07-01

    The primary aim of this randomized trial is to evaluate whether a standardized uterosacral ligament suspension colpopexy (USLSC), added to a planned hysterectomy for an indication other than pelvic organ prolapse (POP), decreases the rate of subsequent vaginal vault prolapse in women without preoperative symptomatic POP. Secondary aims include comparison of perioperative complications, urinary, bowel and sexual functions between subjects with and without concomitant USLSC. If shown to be beneficial, the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic USLSC at the time of hysterectomy will be evaluated. This trial will be performed at 4 centers across the United States. The data will be analyzed by the data-coordinating center of the Southern California Kaiser Permanente. Standardized questionnaires and objective measurements will be obtained. The patients and providers performing assessments are masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome, defined as absence of POP at/distal to the hymen on Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantitative examination, will be determined 12 months post-operatively. Secondary outcomes include: no prolapse symptoms by questionnaires, and no treatment for POP besides the prophylactic study intervention. Additional follow-up occurs annually for a total of 5 years. Accrual is projected to take 3 years. Given cost and morbidity of surgical repair of post-hysterectomy prolapse, preventive strategies are of outmost importance. The risks and benefits of prophylactic USLSC have never been studied prospectively. This trial is designed to determine if USLSC is an appropriate clinical adjunct at the time of hysterectomy, with subsequent reduction of symptomatic POP. PMID:23587538

  14. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Kalijn F; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Pots, Jeanette M; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A M; van de Rakt, Mandy W M M; Scharenborg, Nicole M; de Boer, Annemiek J; van Oorschot, Tom G M; Croockewit, Sandra A J; Blokx, Willeke A M; Oyen, Wim J G; Boerman, Otto C; Mus, Roel D M; van Rossum, Michelle M; van der Graaf, Chantal A A; Punt, Cornelis J A; Adema, Gosse J; Figdor, Carl G; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim, Act-HIB) and prostaglandin E2 (VAC-DC). Stage III and IV melanoma patients were vaccinated via intranodal injection (12 patients) or combined intradermal/intravenous injection (16 patients) with VAC-DC loaded with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and mRNA encoding tumor antigens gp100 and tyrosinase. Tumor antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored in blood and skin-test infiltrating-lymphocyte cultures. Almost all patients mounted prophylactic vaccine- or KLH-specific immune responses. Both after intranodal injection and after intradermal/intravenous injection, tumor antigen-specific immune responses were detected, which coincide with longer overall survival in stage IV melanoma patients. VAC-DC induce local and systemic CTC grade 2 and 3 toxicity, which is most likely caused by BCG in the maturation cocktail. The side effects were self-limiting or resolved upon a short period of systemic steroid therapy. We conclude that VAC-DC can induce functional tumor-specific responses. Unfortunately, toxicity observed after vaccination precludes the general application of VAC-DC, since in DC maturated with prophylactic vaccines BCG appears to be essential in the maturation cocktail. PMID:26861670

  15. Role of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants: Systematic review and implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosalli Rafat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives :To investigate the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA on mortality and morbidity of preterm infants weighing less than 1000 g at birth. Materials :The study conducted a systematic search of available database from 1996-2008. Retrieved articles were assessed for eligibility and data was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Decisions to include studies for review and the methodological quality of included studies were asssessed in duplicate based on predetermined criteria. No language restrictions were applied. Results :Only one eligible study that enrolled 84 extremely low birth weight infants was identified. Prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA resulted in a statistically significant reduction of severe stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis, [RR 0.25, 95% CI (0.08, 0.83, P value 0.02, number needed to treat 5]. The study, however, found no statistically significant difference in mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions :Current evidence does not support the use of prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA in the management of the preterm infants.

  16. Effect of prophylactic treatments on the superficial roughness of dental tissues and of two esthetic restorative materials Efeito de tratamentos profiláticos na rugosidade superficial de tecidos dentais e de dois materiais restauradores estéticos

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Salami; Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira Luz

    2003-01-01

    Dental prophylaxis is a common way to remove dental plaque and stain, both undesirable factors in most dentistry procedures. However, besides cleaning the tooth surface, prophylactic techniques may increase the surface roughness of restorations and dental tissues, which, in turn, may result in plaque accumulation, superficial staining and superficial degradation. This study evaluated the effect of three prophylactic techniques - sodium bicarbonate jet, pumice paste and whiting paste - on the ...

  17. Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Günthardt, G I; Camperi, J A; Díaz, R J; Gomez, P L; Bosch, G; Schirmer, M

    2015-01-01

    NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object i...

  18. Tracking quintessence and cold dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the generation of a kination-dominated phase in the context of a quintessential model with an inverse-power-law potential and a Hubble-induced mass term for the quintessence field. The presence of kination is associated with an oscillating evolution of the quintessence field and the barotropic index. We find that, in sizeable regions of the parameter space, a tracker scaling solution can be reached sufficiently early to alleviate the coincidence problem. Other observational constraints originating from nucleosynthesis, the inflationary scale, the present acceleration of the universe and the dark-energy-density parameter can be also met. The impact of this modified kination-dominated phase on the thermal abundance of cold dark matter candidates is also investigated. We find that: 1. the enhancement of the relic abundance of the WIMPs with respect to the standard paradigm, crucially depends on the hierarchy between the freeze-out temperature and the temperature at which the extrema in the evolution of the quintessence field are encountered, and; 2. the relic abundance of e-WIMPs takes its present value close to the temperature at which the earliest extremum of the evolution of the quintessence field occurs and, as a consequence, both gravitinos and axinos arise as natural cold dark matter candidates. In the case of unstable gravitinos, the gravitino constraint can be satisfied for values of the initial temperature well above those required in the standard cosmology

  19. Pulsar Candidates Toward Fermi Unassociated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Jagannathan, P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for steep spectrum radio sources within the 95% confidence error ellipses of the Fermi unassociated sources from the Large Array Telescope (LAT). Using existing catalogs and the newly released GMRT all-sky survey at 150 MHz we identify compact radio sources that are bright at MHz frequencies but faint or absent at GHz frequencies. Such steep spectrum radio sources are rare and constitute a sample of pulsar candidates, selected independently of period, dispersion measure, interstellar scattering and orbital parameters. We find point-like, steep spectrum candidates toward 11 Fermi sources. Based on the gamma-ray/radio positional coincidence, the rarity of such radio sources, and the properties of the 3FGL sources themselves, we argue that many of these sources could be pulsars. They may have been missed by previous radio periodicity searches due to interstellar propagation effects or because they lie in an unusually tight binary. If this hypothesis is correct, then renewed gamma-ray and ra...

  20. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  1. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Eisele

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  2. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  3. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  4. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  5. CASE via MS: Ranking Structure Candidates by Mass Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Adalbert; Meringer, Markus; Rücker, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Two important tasks in computer-aided structure elucidation (CASE) are the generation of candidate structures from a given molecular formula, and the ranking of structure candidates according to compatibility with an experimental spectrum. Candidate ranking with respect to electron impact mass spectra is based on virtual fragmentation of a candidate structure and comparison of the fragments’ isotope distributions against the spectrum of the unknown compound, whence a structure–spectrum compat...

  6. Identity Functions and Empathetic Tendencies of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Alpaslan; Kadi, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research is to investigate identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. Sample consists of 232 teacher candidates in social studies teacher education. Survey model is preferred to investigate the difference between identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. And also correlational…

  7. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  8. Perceptions of Candidate Teachers about Concept of the Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate candidate teachers' metaphors about project concept in Turkey. Study group of research is 171 candidate teachers enrolled 2011-2012 educational terms one of the faculty of education in Turkey. Data was obtained from the candidate teachers' completion of the sentence "Project is like ..., because ...".…

  9. Prophylactic use of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a single center hospital-based case-control study in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Panic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD develops through the loss of normal bacterial intestinal flora. We have conducted a case-control study in order to assess whether prophylactic administration of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii prevents occurrence of AAD among adult hospitalized patients. Methods. Single-center hospital based case-control study was conducted in University Clinic “Dr Dragisa Misovic-Dedinje”, Belgrade, Serbia. Hospital records were screened in order to identify all the patients developing AAD in period January 1. 2010 – August 31. 2015. For every case, one age and gender matched control was randomly selected among patients hospitalized at the same time at the same department who were administered with antibiotics and did not develop AAD. For both cases and controls data were extracted on demographics, medical history, indication for use of antibiotics, antibiotics used, and prophylactic use of S.boulardii probiotics. The relationship between occurrence of AAD and putative risk factors were measured using the odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence interval (CI derived from logistic regression analysis. Results. Number of 59 cases and 59 controls were included in the study. Most of AAD cases were associated with old age (mean age of 78.05, and almost half (49.15% were hospitalized on geriatrics department. Most prescribed class of antibiotics among cases was III generation cephalosporins (50.85%, followed by fluoroquinolones (28.81% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (20.34%. Significantly more cases than controls were treated with carbapenems (16.95% vs. 5.08% respectively, p=0.04. Significantly less cases were administered with prophylactic S. boulardii probiotics (18.64% vs. 42.37% p=0.005. We identified prophylactic use of S. boulardii to act protectively against development of AAD from both univariate (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.72 and multivariate analysis (OR:0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80. Use of

  10. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3 and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 mg/kg was used and for other analogues, equimolar dose of DRDE-07 was used. For amifostine, N-acetyl cysteine, melatonin and sodium thiosulphate, oral dose was 185 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg respectively. The animals were observed for mortality for 14 days. The protection index (PI was calculated as a ratio of LD50 with treatment to LD50 without treatment. The protection of the antidotes was also determined by intraperitoneal route and half of the oral dose of the antidotes was given. The estimated percutaneous LD50 of HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 and sulphur mustard was 11.9 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 7.1 mg/kg and 7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-1 were DRDE-10 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-2 were amifostine, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-30, DRDE-35 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-3 were amifostine, DRDE-30, DRDE-35, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin with a PI of 1.7. In the case of sulphur mustard, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30, and DRDE-35 gave a good protection with a PI of more than 5.0. Amifostine and sodium thiosulphate gave a PI of 4.5 and 4.0, respectively, while DRDE-09, N-acetyl cysteine and melatonin gave less protection against sulphur mustard. Intraperitoneally administered amifostine, DRDE-30, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin gave marginal protection against HN-2 with a PI of 1.2, while

  11. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitted in our NICU which had inclusion criteria were eligible in this trial. Included neonates were randomly placed in two groups (case and control and before intervention the total serum bilirubin (TSB was measured at second day. The participant received either 20 mg of zinc sulfate or placebo through NG-tube divided in two doses till day seven of age. Then total and indirect bilirubin was measured at 3ed, 5th and 7th day of life. If any of newborns in duration of hospitalization develop clinical jaundice, after assessment of bilirubin, need for phototherapy was evaluated based on phototherapy and exchange schedule as described by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The termination point of phototherapy was defined as a bilirubin level less than 50 percent of starting point. After gathering Data, they were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5 and T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurement tests. Results: Seventy eight patients enrolled in this trial that 18 cases were excluded and the remaining cases divided into two equal groups (N=30 in each group. Demographic condition was similar in two groups. There were no different between two groups in decreasing total serum bilirubin and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion: This study showed that zinc sulfate has no preventing effective in hyperbilirubinemia in preterm very low birth weight neonates. It has also no effect on duration of phototherapy.

  12. Body image issues after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction in healthy women at risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Jessica P; Mureau, Marc A M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Timman, Reinier; Tibben, Aad

    2013-09-01

    The outcome of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction (BPM-IBR) in healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be potentially burdensome for body image and the intimate relationship. Therefore, in the current analysis the impact on body image, sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was prospectively investigated in women opting for BPM-IBR as well as cancer distress and general quality of life. Healthy women undergoing BPM-IBR completed questionnaires preoperatively (T0, n = 48), at 6 months (T1, n = 44) and after finishing breast reconstruction (median 21 months, range 12-35) (T2, n = 36). With multi-level regression analyses the course of outcome variables was investigated and a statistically significant change in body image and/or sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was predicted by baseline covariates. Body image significantly decreased at T1. At T2 sexual relationship satisfaction and body image tended to be lower compared to baseline. The overall partner relationship satisfaction did not significantly change. At T2, 37 % of the women reported that their breasts felt unpleasantly, 29 % was not satisfied with their breast appearance and 21 % felt embarrassed for their naked body. Most body image issues remained unchanged in 30 % of the women. A negative body image was predicted by high preoperative cancer distress. BPM-IBR was associated with adverse impact on body image in a substantial subgroup, but satisfaction with the overall sexual and partner relationship did not significantly change in time. The psychosocial impact of BPM-IBR in unaffected women should not be underestimated. Psychological support should ideally be integrated both before and after BPM-IBR. PMID:23224779

  13. Prophylactic thyroidectomy for asymptomatic 3-year-old boy with positive multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A mutation (codon 634

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    Ješić Maja D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A syndrome, comprising medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC, pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is most frequently caused by codon 634 activating mutations of the RET (rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene on chromosome 10. For this codon-mutation carriers, earlier thyroidectomy (before the age of 5 years would be advantageous in limiting the potential for the development of MTC as well as parathyroid adenomas. Case Outline. This is a case report of 3-year-old boy from the MEN 2A family (the boy’s father and grandmother and paternal aunt in which cysteine substitutes for phenylalanine at codon 634 in exon 11 of the RET proto-oncogene, who underwent thyroidectomy solely on the basis of genetic information. A boy had no thyromegaly, thyroidal irregularities or lymphadenopathy and no abnormality on the neck ultrasound examination. The pathology finding of thyroid gland was negative for MTC. Two years after total thyroidectomy, 5-year-old boy is healthy with permanent thyroxine replacement. His serum calcitonin level is <2 pg/ml (normal <13 pg/ml, has normal serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels and negative urinary catecholamines. Long-term follow-up of this patient is required to determine whether very early thyroidectomy improves the long-term outcome of PHPT. Conclusion. Children with familial antecedents of MEN 2A should be genetically studied for the purpose of determining the risk of MTC and assessing the possibilities of making prophylactic thyroidectomy before the age of 5 years.

  14. Early initiation of prophylactic heparin in severe traumatic brain injury is associated with accelerated improvement on brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis (VTEp is often delayed following traumatic brain injury (TBI, yet animal data suggest that it may reduce cerebral inflammation and improve cognitive recovery. We hypothesized that earlier VTEp initiation in severe TBI patients would result in more rapid neurologic recovery and reduced progression of brain injury on radiologic imaging. Study Design: Medical charts of severe TBI patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center in 2009-2010 were queried for admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, head Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score (ISS, osmotherapy use, emergency neurosurgery, and delay to VTEp initiation. Progression (+1 = better, 0 = no change, −1 = worse of brain injury on head CTs and neurologic exam (by bedside MD, nurse was collected from patient charts. Head CT scan Marshall scores were calculated from the initial head CT results. Results: A total of 22, 34, and 19 patients received VTEp at early (5 days time intervals, respectively. Clinical and radiologic brain injury characteristics on admission were similar among the three groups (P > 0.05, but ISS was greatest in the early group (P < 0.05. Initial head CT Marshall scores were similar in early and late groups. The slowest progression of brain injury on repeated head CT scans was in the early VTEp group up to 10 days after admission. Conclusion: Early initiation of prophylactic heparin in severe TBI is not associated with deterioration neurologic exam and may result in less progression of injury on brain imaging. Possible neuroprotective effects of heparin in humans need further investigation.

  15. Voriconazole is a safe and effective anti-fungal prophylactic agent during induction therapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antifungal prophylaxis (AFP reduces the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs during induction therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Posaconazole is considered the standard of care. Voriconazole, a generic cheaper alternative is a newer generation azole with broad anti-fungal activity. There is limited data on the use of voriconazole as a prophylactic drug. Materials and Methods: A single-center, prospective study was performed during which patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy received voriconazole as AFP (April 2012 to February 2014. Outcomes were compared with historical patients who received fluconazole as AFP (January 2011-March 2012, n = 66. Results: Seventy-five patients with AML (median age: 17 years [range: 1-75]; male:female 1.6:1 received voriconazole as AFP. The incidence of proven/probable/possible (ppp IFI was 6.6% (5/75. Voriconazole and fluconazole cohorts were well-matched with respect to baseline characteristics. Voriconazole (when compared to fluconazole reduced the incidence of pppIFI (5/75, 6.6% vs. 19/66, 29%; P < 0.001, need to start therapeutic (empiric + pppIFI antifungals (26/75, 34% vs. 51/66, 48%; P < 0.001 and delayed the start of therapeutic antifungals in those who needed it (day 16 vs. day 10; P < 0.001. Mortality due to IFI was also reduced with the use of voriconazole (1/75, 1.3% vs. 6/66, 9%; P = 0.0507, but this was not significant. Three patients discontinued voriconazole due to side-effects. Conclusion: Voriconazole is an effective and safe oral agent for IFI prophylaxis during induction therapy of AML. Availability of generic equivalents makes this a more economical alternative to posaconazole.

  16. The Effect of Cotrimoxazole Prophylactic Treatment on Malaria, Birth Outcomes, and Postpartum CD4 Count in HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Anna; Hudgens, Michael G.; Van Rie, Annelies; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Chome, Nelecy; Turner, Abigail Norris; Kacheche, Zebrone; Jamieson, Denise J.; Chasela, Charles; van der Horst, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background. Limited data exist on cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) in pregnant women, including protection against malaria versus standard intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp). Methods. Using observational data we examined the effect of CPT in HIV-infected pregnant women on malaria during pregnancy, low birth weight and preterm birth using proportional hazards, logistic, and log binomial regression, respectively. We used linear regression to assess effect of CPT on CD4 count. Results. Data from 468 CPT-exposed and 768 CPT-unexposed women were analyzed. CPT was associated with protection against malaria versus IPTp (hazard ratio: 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.20, 0.60). After adjustment for time period this effect was not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.52). Among women receiving and not receiving CPT, rates of low birth weight (7.1% versus 7.6%) and preterm birth (23.5% versus 23.6%) were similar. CPT was associated with lower CD4 counts 24 weeks postpartum in women receiving (−77.6 cells/μL, 95% CI: −125.2, −30.1) and not receiving antiretrovirals (−33.7 cells/μL, 95% CI: −58.6, −8.8). Conclusions. Compared to IPTp, CPT provided comparable protection against malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and against preterm birth or low birth weight. Possible implications of CPT-associated lower CD4 postpartum warrant further examination. PMID:24363547

  17. The Effect of Cotrimoxazole Prophylactic Treatment on Malaria, Birth Outcomes, and Postpartum CD4 Count in HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist on cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT in pregnant women, including protection against malaria versus standard intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp. Methods. Using observational data we examined the effect of CPT in HIV-infected pregnant women on malaria during pregnancy, low birth weight and preterm birth using proportional hazards, logistic, and log binomial regression, respectively. We used linear regression to assess effect of CPT on CD4 count. Results. Data from 468 CPT-exposed and 768 CPT-unexposed women were analyzed. CPT was associated with protection against malaria versus IPTp (hazard ratio: 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.20, 0.60. After adjustment for time period this effect was not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.52. Among women receiving and not receiving CPT, rates of low birth weight (7.1% versus 7.6% and preterm birth (23.5% versus 23.6% were similar. CPT was associated with lower CD4 counts 24 weeks postpartum in women receiving (−77.6 cells/μL, 95% CI: −125.2, −30.1 and not receiving antiretrovirals (−33.7 cells/μL, 95% CI: −58.6, −8.8. Conclusions. Compared to IPTp, CPT provided comparable protection against malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and against preterm birth or low birth weight. Possible implications of CPT-associated lower CD4 postpartum warrant further examination.

  18. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Murly BM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women at increased (genetic risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this study was to asses: 1 the acceptance of the offer of a standard psychological consultation as part of pre-surgical decision-making in high-risk women, 2 reasons for PM and reasons for postponing it, 3 the need for additional psychological interventions, and factors associated, and 4 the frequency of psychiatric/psychological treatment history. Methods During a 30 months period, women at high risk considering PM were offered a psychological consultation. The content of these, and follow-up, consultations were analyzed. Results Most women (70 out of 73 accepted the psychological consultation, and 81% proceeded with PM. Main reasons for undergoing PM were to reduce anxiety about cancer, and to reduce the cancer risk. Uncertainty about surgery and the need for further information were the reasons given most frequently for postponing PM. Additional psychological support was given to 31% before and 14% after PM. The uptake of additional support was significantly higher in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. A history of psychiatric/psychological treatment was present in 36%, mainly consisting of depression and grief after death of a mother. Conclusion The uptake-rate of the standard psychological consultation indicates a high level of acceptability of this service for women deciding about PM. Since anxiety is one of the main reasons for considering PM, and depression and grief were present in a third, a standard consultation with a psychologist for high-risk women considering PM may be indicated. This may help them arrive at an informed decision, to detect and manage psychological distress, and to plan psychological support services.

  19. Therapeutic and prophylactic thalidomide in TNBS-induced colitis: Synergistic effects on TNF-α, IL-12 and VEGF production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Teresa Carvalho; Cláudio Tortori; Ilana Dines; Jane Carvalho; Eduardo Rocha; Celeste Elia; Heitor Souza; Antonio Jose Carneiro; Morgana Castelo-Branco; Kalil Madi; Alberto Schanaider; Flavia Silva; Fernando Antonio Pereira Jú'nior; Márcia G Pereira

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluated the therapeutic and prophylactic effect of thalidomide on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Thalidomide has been reported to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-12, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hallmarks of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten animals each. Four groups received a rectal infusion of TNBS in ethanol. The first group was sacrificed 7 d after colitis induction. The second and third groups received either thalidomide or placebo by gavage and were sacrificed at 14 d. The fourth group received thalidomide 6 h before TNBS administration, and was sacrificed 7 d after induction. The fifth group acted as the control group and colitis was not induced. Histological inflammatory scores of the colon were performed and lamina propria CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and VEGF+ cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. TNF-α and IL-12 were quantified in the supernatant of organ cultures by ELISA.RESULTS: Significant reduction in the inflammatory score and in the percentage of VEGF+ cells was observed in the group treated with thalidomide compared with animals not treated with thalidomide. Both TNF-α and IL-12 levels were significantly reduced among TNBS induced colitis animals treated with thalidomide compared with animals that did not receive thalidomide.TNF-α levels were also significantly reduced among the animals receiving thalidomide prophylaxis compared with untreated animals with TNBS-induced colitis. Intestinal levels of TNF-α and IL-12 were significantly correlated with the inflammatory score and the number of VEGF+ cells.CONCLUSION: Thalidomide significantly attenuates TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting the intestinal production of TNF-α, IL-12, and VEGF. This effect may support the use of thalidomide as an alternate approach in selected patients with CD.

  20. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: the experience at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been used in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to reduce the incidence of brain metastases (BM) and thus increase overall survival. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with SCLC referred to the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, their eligibility for PCI, patterns of dissemination, and survival. Medical charts of 357 patients with SCLC, referred to the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between January 2004 and December 2006, were reviewed to determine characteristics of patients chosen for PCI. The following data were collected: age, gender, performance status (PS), extent of the disease, smoking status, type of primary treatment with outcome, haematological and biochemical parameters, PCI use, and finally brain metastases (BM) status at diagnoses and after treatment. PCI was performed in 24 (6.7%) of all patients. Six (25%) patients developed brain metastases after they were treated with PCI. Brain was the only site of metastases in 4 patients, two progressed to multiple organs. Median overall survival of patients with PCI was 21.9 months, without PCI 12.13 months (p = 0.004). From the collected data there were good prognostic factors: age under 65 years, limited disease (LD), performance status, normal levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and normal levels of C-reactive protein levels (CRP). Other prognostic factors did not show statistical significant values. Survival of patients with LD, who have had PCI, was significantly better than those who had not. We decided to perform PCI in patients with LD, in those with complete or near complete response, and those with good performance status (≥ 80). We did not use PCI in extended disease (ED). The reason for that shall be addressed in the future. Doses for PCI were not uniform, therefore more standard approach should be considered

  1. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of the literature was carried out to determine the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) . To be eligible, full published trials needed to deal with SCLC and to have randomly assigned patients to receive PCI or not. Trials quality was assessed by two scores (Chalmers and ELCWP). Twelve randomised trials (1547 patients) were found to be eligible. Five evaluated the role of PCI in SCLC patients who had complete response (CR) after chemotherapy. Brain CT scan was done in the work-up in five studies and brain scintigraphy in six. Chalmers and ELCWP scores are well correlated (p < 0.001), with respective median scores of 32.6 and 38.8 %. This meta-analysis based on the available published data reveals a decrease of brain metastases incidence (hazard ratio (HR): 0.48; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.39 - 0.60) for all the studies and an improvement of survival (HR: 0.82; 95 % CI: 0.71 - 0.96) in patients in CR in favour of the PCI arm. Unfortunately, long-term neurotoxicity was not adequately described . PCI decreases brain metastases incidence and improves survival in CR SCLC patients but these effects were obtained in patients who had no systematic neuropsychological and brain imagery assessments. The long-term toxicity has not been prospectively evaluated. If PCI can be recommended in patients with SCLC and CR documented by a work-up including brain CT scan, data are lacking to generalise its use to any CR situations

  2. Follow-up neurological evaluation in patients with small cell lung carcinoma treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has recently been questioned, based on reports of computerized tomographic abnormalities mainly seen in children, who received PCI and chemotherapy, primarily for acute lymphocytic leukemia. In order to clarify the significance of these findings, we examined a series of adult patients who were long term survivors (18 to 48 months, median 26 months, after all treatment). These patients were treated with combination radiotherapy and chemotherapy for small cell lung carcinoma and received cranial irradiation in the absence of known brain involvement by tumor. Patients were divided into three groups: three patients who received PCI + intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) (Group 1), and ten who received only PCI (Group 2). An additional three patients (Group 3) were identified as long term survivors (41 to 70 months after all treatments) of a similar treatment program without any central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis. All patients received an extensive evaluation of a variety of clinical parameters, EEG, and computer tomography (CT). Although CT abnormalities were detectable (mild cerebral atrophy in eight patients, encephalomalacia in one of the 13 patients with CNS prophylaxis, and mild atrophy in two of the three patients without CNS prophylaxis), no significant clinical abnormalities or EEG changes were detectable. While this group of patients is small, it is a unique cohort: adults who have received cranial irradiation in the absence of known brain tumor with long term follow-up. The precise role of CNS prophylaxis in the etiology of CT abnormalities is unclear, and the lack of clinically significant changes would suggest no contraindication to PCI when indicated

  3. Role of prophylactic brain irradiation in limited stage small cell lung cancer: clinical, neuropsychologic, and CT sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-four patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer treated between 1981 and 1985 with a regimen including prophylactic brain irradiation (PBI) after combination chemotherapy were assessed for compliance with PBI, brain relapse, and neurologic morbidity. Seventy-seven percent of patients had PBI and of these, 22% developed brain metastases after a median time of 11 months post treatment. The brain was the apparent unique initial site of relapse in 10% of PBI cases but more commonly brain relapse was preceded or accompanied by failure at other sites, especially the chest. Brain metastases were the greatest cause of morbidity in 50% of PBI failures. Twelve of 14 PBI patients alive 2 years after treatment had oncologic, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluation, and brain CT. All long-term survivors were capable of self care and none fulfilled diagnostic criteria for dementia, with three borderline cases. One third had pretreatment neurologic dysfunction and two thirds post treatment neurologic symptoms, most commonly recent memory loss. Fifty percent had subtle motor findings. Intellectual functioning was at the 38th percentile with most patients having an unskilled occupational history. Neuropsychologic impairment ratings were borderline in three cases and definitely impaired in seven cases. CT scans showed brain atrophy in all cases with mild progression in those having a pre-treatment baseline. Periventricular and subcortical low density lesions identical to the CT appearance of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy were seen in 82% of posttreatment CT studies, and lacunar infarcts in 54%. Neuropsychologic impairment scores and the extent of CT periventricular low density lesions were strongly associated

  4. Late neurological complications after prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: The Toronto experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 58 long-term survivors of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (greater than 2 years) for neurological complications and their impact on the well-being of these patients. We also attempted to have patients complete a questionnaire regarding any possible neurological problems. This was done in 14 patients. Metastasis to the CNS occurred significantly less often in patients who received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in a dose of 20 Gy in five equal fractions (two of 48), compared with patients who did not receive it (four of 10) (P less than .006). Delayed neurological complications occurred in nine of 48 (19%) patients who received PCI. However, in only two patients did PCI appear to be responsible for progressive dementia. In the other seven patients (one with weakness in the arms and legs, one with transient left hemiparesis, two with hearing loss, and three with various visual disturbances), chemotherapeutic agents (mainly cisplatin and vincristine) and underlying diseases probably contributed significantly to the occurrence of these complications. In addition, these neurological disturbances were transient or ran a stable course and did not adversely affect the daily life of these patients. In comparison, among the 10 patients who did not receive PCI one had progressive dementia and another had hemiparesis secondary to probable brain embolism. We conclude that the use of PCI in these doses was effective in reducing the frequency of CNS metastases and had an adverse effect on the daily life and well-being only in a minority of the patients. Until results of controlled randomized studies show otherwise, PCI should continue to be used as a part of the combined modality treatment of completely responding patients with limited SCLC

  5. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  6. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 3rd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : Hauviller First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  7. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : HAUVILLER First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  8. Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-09-01

    The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

  9. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 4th candidate

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  10. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 4

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  11. Radion Candidate for the LHC Diphoton Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Chakraborty, Amit; Maitra, Ushoshi; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Samui, Tousik

    2015-01-01

    The recent observation of a modest excess in diphoton final states at the LHC, by both the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, has sparked off the expected race among theorists to find the right explanation for this proto-resonance, assuming that the signal will survive and not prove to be yet another statistical fluctuation. We carry out a general analysis of this `signal' in the case of a scalar which couples only to pairs of gluons (for production) and photons (for diphoton decay modes), and establish that an explanation of the observed resonance, taken together with the null results of new physics searches in all the other channels, requires a scalar with rather exotic behaviour. We then demonstrate that a fairly simple-minded extension of the minimal Randall-Sundrum model can yield a radion candidate which might reproduce this exotic behaviour.

  12. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R

    2009-09-01

    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease. PMID:19446931

  13. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Gong-He; REN Zhao-Yu; GUO Ping; ZHENG Ji-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments,frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors.

  14. UCD Candidates in the Hydra Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Wehner, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    NGC 3311, the giant cD galaxy in the Hydra cluster (A1060), has one of the largest globular cluster systems known. We describe new Gemini GMOS (g',i') photometry of the NGC 3311 field which reveals that the red, metal-rich side of its globular cluster population extends smoothly upward into the mass range associated with the new class of Ultra-Compact Dwarfs (UCDs). We identify 29 UCD candidates with estimated masses > 6x10^6 solar masses and discuss their characteristics. This UCD-like sequence is the most well defined one yet seen, and reinforces current ideas that the high-mass end of the globular cluster sequence merges continuously into the UCD sequence, which connects in turn to the E galaxy structural sequence.

  15. CRISPLD2: a novel NSCLP candidate gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, Brett T; Lidral, Andrew C; Stal, Samuel; Mulliken, John B; Moreno, Lina M; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Arco-Burgos, Mauricio; Valencia-Ramirez, Consuelo; Blanton, Susan H; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2007-09-15

    Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) results from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Candidate gene analysis and genome scans have been employed to identify the genes contributing to NSCLP. In this study, we evaluated the 16q24.1 chromosomal region, which has been identified by multiple genome scans as an NSCLP region of interest. Two candidate genes were found in the region: interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2). Initially, Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP multiplex families and simplex parent-child trios were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both IRF8 and CRISPLD2. CRISPLD2 was subsequently genotyped in a data set comprised of NSCLP families from Colombia, South America. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified a significant association between CRISPLD2 and NSCLP in both our Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP cohorts. SNP rs1546124 and haplotypes between rs1546124 and either rs4783099 or rs16974880 were significant in the Caucasian multiplex population (P=0.01, P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). An altered transmission of CRISPLD2 SNPs rs8061351 (P=0.02) and rs2326398 (P=0.06) was detected in the Hispanic population. No association was found between CRISPLD2 and our Colombian population or IRF8 and NSCLP. In situ hybridization showed that CRISPLD2 is expressed in the mandible, palate and nasopharynx regions during craniofacial development at E13.5-E17.5, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that genetic variation in CRISPLD2 has a role in the etiology of NSCLP. PMID:17616516

  16. Deletions and candidate genes in Williams syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jurado, L.A.; Peoples, R.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemizygosity at the elastin locus (ELN) on chromosome 7q11.23 has recently been reported in several familial and sporadic cases of the developmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS). Because the deletion is greater than the span of the ELN gene, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome has been suggested as the probable molecular basis for this condition. Thus far, neither the size of the deletion(s), nor other genes within it are known. We have analyzed samples from 27 sporadic WS patients by genotyping two multiallelic ELN intragenic polymorphisms, detectable by PCR amplification, and by Southern blotting for ELN gene dosage. Twenty four patients were hemizygous at the ELN locus while 3 showed no deletion or detectable rearrangement. Genotype studies on parental DNA were informative in 12 of the deletions. All 12 were due to de novo events, 8 in the maternal and 4 in the paternal chromosome. In an attempt to identify genes involved in WS we are also using a candidate gene approach. Delayed clearance of an exogenous calcium load with normal or slightly increased calcitonin levels in serum has been documented in WS patients suggesting a defective calcitonin action or calcium sensing function. The calcitonin receptor (CTR) gene is, therefore, a good candidate since CTR has a dual role as a hormonal receptor for calcitonin and an extracellular calcium sensor. We have mapped the CTR gene to chromosome 7q21.1 by PCR-SSCA of somatic cell hybrids and FISH analysis. Using two color FISH with probes for ELN and CTR, both loci are located on 7q at a distance of {approximately}10 Mb, CTR being telomeric. Our CTR probe does not detect any genomic abnormality by FISH or Southern blot in the patients` samples analyzed. We have identified a diallelic polymorphism in the CTR cDNA and are currently testing the hypothesis of an impaired CTR expression as responsible for some of the clinical features of WS by analysing the CTR transcripts by RT-PCR.

  17. [Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: prophylactic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, C; Rouberol, F

    2014-11-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a complex process. It causes contractile fibrocellular membranes that may prevent retinal reattachment. PVR therefore remains one of the most severe complications of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD), with an incidence of 5-11%, and is among the most frequent causes of surgical failure (50-75%). Its severity derives from the complexity of the surgery required to treat patients and from its uncertain anatomic and functional prognosis. The first step in preventing PVR is to identify patients at risk by means of clinical and/or biological factors such as the characteristics of retinal tears (large size, number) and detachment (preexisting PVR, extent), and the use of cryotherapy. Surgeons must therefore adapt their surgical approach to the risk of PVR. The study of animal models and the natural history of the condition in humans demonstrate the importance of early antiproliferative treatment in the early stage of the disease. Combining 5-fluoro-uracil and heparin in the vitrectomy infusion lowers the rate of postoperative PVR onset in patients with PVR risk factors. The evaluation of new molecules and new dosages will lead to a decisive step in the fight against PVR. PMID:25012973

  18. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  19. Understanding the interaction between Betanodavirus and its host for the development of prophylactic measures for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Janina Z; Thompson, Kim D

    2016-06-01

    Over the last three decades, the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease has become a serious problem of marine finfish aquaculture, and more recently the disease has also been associated with farmed freshwater fish. The virus has been classified as a Betanodavirus within the family Nodaviridae, and the fact that Betanodaviruses are known to affect more than 120 different farmed and wild fish and invertebrate species, highlights the risk that Betanodaviruses pose to global aquaculture production. Betanodaviruses have been clustered into four genotypes, based on the RNA sequence of the T4 variable region of their capsid protein, and are named after the fish species from which they were first derived i.e. Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV), Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), while an additional genotype turbot betanodavirus strain (TNV) has also been proposed. However, these genotypes tend to be associated with a particular water temperature range rather than being species-specific. Larvae and juvenile fish are especially susceptible to VER, with up to 100% mortality resulting in these age groups during disease episodes, with vertical transmission of the virus increasing the disease problem in smaller fish. A number of vaccine preparations have been tested in the laboratory and in the field e.g. inactivated virus, recombinant proteins, virus-like particles and DNA based vaccines, and their efficacy, based on relative percentage survival, has ranged from medium to high levels of protection to little or no protection. Ultimately a combination of effective prophylactic measures, including vaccination, is needed to control VER, and should also target larvae and broodstock stages of production to help the industry deal with the problem of vertical transmission. As yet there are no commercial vaccines for VER and the

  20. Prophylactic use of amifostine to prevent radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the prophylactic properties of amifostine against acute and late toxicities from radiochemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients were randomized to receive conventional radiotherapy (RT) (2-Gy fractions, 5 days weekly, to a total of 60-74 Gy, depending on the tumor localization and TNM classification) and carboplatin (90 mg/m2 infusion once per week before RT). Amifostine (300 mg/m2) was administered in the study group only 15-30 min before RT for 6-7.5 weeks. The primary study end point was the grading of acute and late nonhematologic toxicities (mucositis, dysphagia, xerostomia) induced by radiochemotherapy. Secondary end points included treatment duration, hematologic toxicity, and clinical outcome. Results: The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the amifostine-treated group (p=0.013), because treatment interruptions were more frequent in the control group. Acute toxicities (mucositis and dysphagia) were less severe in the amifostine-treated group. By Week 3, all in the control group experienced Grade 2 mucositis compared with only 9% in the amifostine-treated group (p<0.0001). By Week 5, 52.2% of the patients in the control group experienced Grade 4 mucositis compared with 4.5% in the amifostine-treated group (p=0.0006). Similar results were obtained for dysphagia. At 3 months of follow-up, only 27% of patients in the study group experienced Grade 2 xerostomia compared with 73.9% in the control group (p=0.0001). Eighteen months after cessation of therapy, the proportion of patients with Grade 2 xerostomia was 4.5% vs. 30.4% for each respective treatment group (p=0.047). Cytoprotection with amifostine did not affect treatment outcome, with 90.9% complete responses in the amifostine-treated group compared with 78.3% in the control group (p=0.414). Conclusion: Amifostine was effective in reducing mucositis and dysphagia resulting from radiochemotherapy in patients with head

  1. Application of radiotracers in the assessment of prophylactic role of zinc in experimental model of colon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The present study elucidated the modulatory effects of zinc in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis using radiotracer techniques. Rats were segregated into four groups viz., untreated control, DMH treated, zinc treated, DMH+zinc treated. Colon carcinogenesis was induced through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/Kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Zinc was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 227mg/L in drinking water, ad libitum. The prophylactic role of zinc was assessed by following radiotracer techniques viz: whole body biological half life of 65 Zn and 65 Zn biodistribution, subcellular distribution, uptake of 3H-Thymidine to assess rate of DNA synthesis, radiorespirometric determination of 14C-D-Glucose metabolism and in-vitro uptake of labeled aminoacids. The statistical significance of the data has been determined by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple post - hoc test. The carcinogenic state in the animals was confirmed by histopathological examination, whereby, well-differentiated signs of dysplasia were evident in colonic tissue sections of DMH treated rats. The biokinetics study of zinc revealed a significant decrease in the biological half life of 65 Zn. Also, DMH treatment caused a significant increase in the percent uptake values of 65 Zn in the colon, small intestine, kidney and blood, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver. The uptake rates of amino acids viz: 14C-glycine, 14C-alanine and 14C-lysine were significantly higher in the DMH treated colons. Moreover, a significant increase in the uptake and turnover of 14C-D-Glucose was also observed after DMH treatment. A significant increase in the (3H)-thymidine uptake was observed following 16 weeks DMH treatment. However, supplementation of zinc significantly reversed the proliferative effect of DMH as evidenced by ameliorating the altered parameters. Radiotracer techniques play an important role in assessing positive

  2. Incidence of tumor lysis syndrome in children with advanced stage Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia before and after introduction of prophylactic use of urate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wössmann, W; Schrappe, M; Meyer, U; Zimmermann, M; Reiter, A

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical benefit of the prophylactic use of urate oxidase in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we analyzed the incidence and complications of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) or stage III/IV Burkitt's lymphoma and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level > or =500 U/l before and after the introduction of a protocol amendment to use urate oxidase for the prophylaxis of TLS. Data from 1791 children with NHL enrolled in the two subsequent multicenter studies NHL-BFM 90 and 95 were evaluated. The presence of the side effects TLS, anuria, sepsis, and other complications during the first 2 weeks after admission were registered. Until March 1996, no urate oxidase was used (period 1). From November 1997 all children with B-ALL or stage III and IV B-NHL and LDH > or =500 U/l should receive urate oxidase prophylactically (period 3). In between (period 2), urate oxidase was given in a minority of hospitals therapeutically. Initial chemotherapy was identical. Altogether, 78 children (4.4%) developed a TLS. Patients with B-ALL had the highest risk to develop a TLS (26.4%) followed by B-ALL/Burkitt's lymphoma and a LDH > or =500 U/l (14.9%). In period 1, 16.1% and 9.2% of the latter children developed a TLS or anuria, respectively, compared to 12.3% and 6.2% in period 3 ( p=NS). The incidence of sepsis remained unchanged (5.0% vs 4.6%). In children with B-ALL the differences in the incidence of TLS and anuria between period 3 and period 1 were more pronounced, reaching significance for anuria (15.4% vs 3.8%, p=0.03). Our results suggest that patients with the highest risk to develop a TLS might benefit from the prophylactic use of urate oxidase. PMID:12634948

  3. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. (paper)

  4. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  5. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 2nd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates for parkinsonian disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RaduConstantinescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in atypical parkinsonian disorders compared with PD and healthy controls. The new "omics" techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.

  7. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name: MAURINFirst Name:Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives.One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted...

  8. New optical nova candidate in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of a possible nova in M 31 on a 12x60s stacked R filter CCD image obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k, 13.5 micron sq. pixels) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA) on 2010 December 11.095 UT with magnitude of 16.6. The object is visible on all individual images. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h42m31.08s, Dec = +41d27'20.3"(J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 149" west and 672" north of the core of M 31. We do not detect the object on a 4x60s stacked SLOTIS CCD image obtained on2010 December 5.213 UT (limiting R magnitude at the position of 19.0). There is no entry in VizieR/CDS for this object and no minor planet could be found on this position using the MPC/IAU Minor Planet Checker (see http://scully.harvard.edu/~cgi/CheckMP) . All magnitudes given are obtained from a photometric solution using R magnitudes of the Local Group Survey M 31 catalogue (Massey et al.

  9. Comet candidates among quasi-Hilda objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; García-Migani, E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present the results of a search for quasi-Hilda comets. We wanted to find objects that have recently arrived from the Centaur zone that could became active near the perihelion of their orbits. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-seven objects from the ASTORB database were selected following a dynamical criteria to constrain the unstable quasi-Hilda region. These objects were integrated backward 50 000 yr in order to identify those that have recently arrived from the outer regions of the solar system. Results: The backward integration showed that 11 objects could be Centaurs or transneptunian objects that ended their dynamical evolution as quasi-Hilda comets. The dynamical evolution of these objects from a statistical point of view was studied by computing the time-averaged distribution of a number of clones as a function of the aphelion and perihelion distances. All the candidates show a dynamical behavior that is expected for comets injected in the inner solar system from the Centaur or transneptunian regions and reaching the quasi-Hilda region.

  10. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARDFirst Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you...

  11. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  12. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, G.; Aguilar, J. C.; Dueñas, S.; Hermida, L.; Iglesias, E.; Penton, E.; Lobaina, Y.; Lopez, M.; Mussachio, A.; Falcon, V.; Alvarez, L.; Martinez, G.; Gil, L.; Valdes, I.; Izquierdo, A.; Lazo, L.; Marcos, E.; Guzman, G.; Muzio, V.; Herrera, L.

    2013-03-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October - 2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  13. MR imaging of cochlear implant candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the value of diagnostic imaging in the workup of patients for possible placement of a multichannel intracochlear hearing device. Forty-five candidates for cochlear implantation were examined with both CT and MR imaging. In 32 adult patients coronal and axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences were performed. In 10 patients, we used a T2*-weighted gradient-echo three-dimensional sequence with axial presaturation instead. Three children were examined with an ultrafast snapshot sequence for scout viewing, followed by a T2-weighted axial half-Fourier spin-echo sequence. In 36 patients we found the cochlea to be patent. Thirty-three of these patients successfully received an implant device. Three patients still await surgery. Six patients showed pathologic conditions in at least one ear at CT and MR alone. In 3 patients there was evidence of bony occulsion of the cochlear duct at CT; MR revealed a reduced signal intensity in the cochlea as well. Two patients with normal CT results showed abnormal conditions at MR imaging (reduced signal on T2-weighted images) and were not operated on

  14. Radio observations of candidate magnetic O stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schnerr, R S; van der Horst, A J; Oosterloo, T A; Miller-Jones, J C A; Henrichs, H F; Spoelstra, T A Th; Foley, A R; 10.1051/0004-6361:20066299

    2010-01-01

    Context: Some O stars are suspected to have to have (weak) magnetic fields because of the observed cyclical variability in their UV wind-lines. However, direct detections of these magnetic fields using optical spectropolarimetry have proven to be very difficult. Aims: Non-thermal radio emission in these objects would most likely be due to synchrotron radiation. As a magnetic field is required for the production of synchrotron radiation, this would be strong evidence for the presence of a magnetic field. Such non-thermal emission has already been observed from the strongly magnetic Ap/Bp stars. Methods: We have performed 6 & 21 cm observations using the WSRT and use these, in combination with archival VLA data at 3.6 cm and results from the literature, to study the radio emission of 5 selected candidate magnetic O stars. Results: Out of our five targets, we have detected three: $\\xi$ Per, which shows a non-thermal radio spectrum, and $\\alpha$ Cam and $\\lambda$ Cep, which show no evidence of a non-thermal s...

  15. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 5

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  16. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 5th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  17. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  18. Fission reactor irradiation of candidate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of eleven candidate ceramics (MgO. xAl2O3 in five forms, and Al2O3, Si3N4 and SiC in two forms each) have been sent to the EBR-II fission reactor for neutron irradiation testing. EBR-II is being used because of its high neutron flux and the absence of thermal neutrons which cause undesirable nuclear reactions with 14N. The four families of ceramics selected for inclusion have all shown acceptable performance in irradiation tests carried out by the LASL Ceramics Program or by others. The present study will in some cases yield results at temperatures not yet investigated, and in others will allow the evaluation of forms of these ceramics never before irradiated. Samples will be irradiated at 675 and 825 K to approx. 2.4 x 1022 n/cm2 (E/sub n/ > 0.1 MeV), after which changes in electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties will be determined

  19. Potential Reduction of Contralateral Second Breast-Cancer Risks by Prophylactic Mammary Irradiation: Validation in a Breast-Cancer-Prone Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Shuryak; Lubomir B Smilenov; Kleiman, Norman J.; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term breast-cancer survivors have a highly elevated risk (1 in 6 at 20 years) of contralateral second breast cancer. This high risk is associated with the presence of multiple pre-malignant cell clones in the contralateral breast at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis. Mechanistic analyses suggest that a moderate dose of X-rays to the contralateral breast can kill these pre-malignant clones such that, at an appropriate Prophylactic Mammary Irradiation (PMI) dose, the ...

  20. Investigation of the possibility of developing iodine-containing treatment and prophylactic pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the treatment and prophylactic pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis was demonstrated. NAA was used to determine the background level of iodine concentration as well as of element-impurities in the Spirulina biomass. The optimal range of iodine concentrations used for loading the nutrient media for Spirulina platensis cultivation for production of iodine-containing pharmaceuticals with a desirable iodine content was found. The technological parameters to produce iodinated pellets were established and the mode of their labeling was offered

  1. Prophylactic Bilateral Gonadectomy for Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development in a Patient With Mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Yq11.222 Karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E.N. Becker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovotesticular disorder of sex development is historically thought to confer a relatively low risk of germ cell malignancy relative to other disorders of sex development. This is likely due in part to the high prevalence of a normal 46,XX karyotype in these patients. However, disorders of sex development represent a broad phenotypic spectrum, and often patients cannot be neatly categorized with a single diagnosis. We report an atypical case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development in a child with ambiguous genitalia and 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype. Prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy was performed at age 14 months.

  2. Prophylactic Bilateral Gonadectomy for Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development in a Patient With Mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)q11.222 Karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Russell E N; Akhavan, Ardavan

    2016-03-01

    Ovotesticular disorder of sex development is historically thought to confer a relatively low risk of germ cell malignancy relative to other disorders of sex development. This is likely due in part to the high prevalence of a normal 46,XX karyotype in these patients. However, disorders of sex development represent a broad phenotypic spectrum, and often patients cannot be neatly categorized with a single diagnosis. We report an atypical case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development in a child with ambiguous genitalia and 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype. Prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy was performed at age 14 months. PMID:26793590

  3. Prophylactic Treatment with Paroxetine Ameliorates Behavioral Deficits and Retards the Development of Amyloid and Tau Pathologies in 3xTgAD Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Rhonda L.; Guo, Zhihong; Halagappa, Veerendra Madala; Pearson, Michelle; Gray, Audrey J.; Matsuoka, Yasuji; Brown, Martin; Clark, Robert F.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    A history of depression is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), suggesting the possibility that antidepressants administered prophylactically might retard the disease process and preserve cognitive function. Here we report that pre-symptomatic treatment with the antidepressant paroxetine attenuates the disease process and improves cognitive performance in the 3xTgAD mouse model of AD. Five month-old male and female 3xTgAD and non-transgenic mice were administered either paroxetine or s...

  4. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted. PMID:24931134

  5. Primary anaplastic astrocytoma of the brain after prophylactic cranial irradiation in a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6½-year-old boy had developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was treated with systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal triple drug regimen and prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 10 years he developed anaplastic astrocytoma of the postero-superior cerebellum on the left side while leukemia was in remission. He was treated with surgical excision, followed by adjuvant three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and is on salvage chemotherapy with temozolamide. It is possible that the anaplastic astrocytoma may be a radiation induced malignancy.

  6. TEACHER CANDIDATES' PERCEPTIONS ABOUT TEACHING AND ASSESSING FLUENT READING

    OpenAIRE

    ULUSOY, MUSTAFA; DEDEOĞLU, Hakan; Ertem, İhsan Seyit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher candidates' perceptions about how to teach and assess fluent reading. To this end, the data was collected from 180 candidates by using a survey consisting of 5 open-ended questions. The data was analyzed by using qualitative techniques and frequency analysis. Most of the teacher candidates believed that fluent reading should be done by considering spelling and punctuation, and the process should result in comprehension. The results also sho...

  7. Physical education candidate teachers' beliefs about vocational self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    OZSAKER, Murat; CANPOLAT, A. Meliha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...

  8. The presidential candidates on Twitter during the 2009 Romanian elections

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio MOMOC

    2012-01-01

    What changes introduced Twitter in political communication? Which are the advantages and disadvantages of Twitter usage in electoral communication for candidates and for voters? As the specialized literature barely mentions the use of Twitter in the Romanian elections, we shall answer the question regarding the way in which the 2009 presidential candidates used their own Twitter accounts. This article starts from the assumption that presidential candidates use the online communication tools i...

  9. Newly identified YSO candidates towards the LDN 1188

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Gábor; Kiss, Csaba; Smidla, József

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  10. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  11. Corrosion resistance of candidate transportation container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is currently remediating several sites that have been contaminated over the years with hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. Regulatory guidelines require strict compliance demonstrating public safety during remediation and the transport of these hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. The compatibility of the metallic transportation containers with the contents they are designed to transport is an ultimate concern that must be satisfied to ensure public safety. The transportation issue is inherently complicated due to the complex, varied, and unknown composition of the hazardous, mixed and radioactive waste that is being, considered for transport by the DOE facilities. Never before have the interactions between the waste being transported and the materials that comprise the transportation packages been more important. Therefore, evaluation of material performance when subjected to a simulated waste will ensure that all regulatory issues and requirements for transportation of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes are satisfied. The tasks encompassed by this study include defining criteria for candidate material selection, defining a test matrix that will provide pertinent information on the material compatibility with the waste stimulant, and evaluation of material performance when subjected to a stimulant waste. Our goal is to provide package design engineers with a choice of materials which exhibit enhanced performance upon exposure to hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste that is similar in composition to the waste stimulant used in this study. Due to the fact that there are many other possible waste compositions, additional work needs to be done to broaden our materials compatibility/waste stream data base

  12. Characterization for Fusion Candidate Vanadium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Muroga; T. Nagasaka; J. M. Chen; Z. Y. Xu; Q. Y. Huang; y. C. Wu

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent achievements in the characterization of candidate vanadium alloys obtained for fusion in the framework of the Japan-China Core University Program.National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has a program of fabricating high-purity V-4Cr4Ti alloys. The resulting products (NIFS-HEAT-1,2), were characterized by various research groups in the world including Chinese partners. South Western Institute of Physics (SWIP) fabricated a new V-4Cr-4Ti alloy (SWIP-Heat), and carried out a comparative evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heat. The tensile test of hydrogen-doped alloys showed that the NIFS-HEAT maintained the ductility to relatively high hydrogen levels.The comparison of the data with those of previous studies suggested that the reduced oxygen level in the NIFS-HEATs should be responsible for the increased resistance to hydrogen embrittlement.Based on the chemical analysis data of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heats, neutron-induced activation was analyzed in Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP-CAS) as a function of cooling time after the use in the fusion first wall. The results showed that the low level of Co dominates the activity up to 50 years followed by a domination of Nb or Nb and Al in the respective alloys. It was suggested that reduction of Co and Nb, both of which are thought to have been introduced via cross-contamination into the alloys from the molds used should be crucial for reducing further the activation.

  13. Prophylactic Use of Ganoderma lucidum Extract May Inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis Replication in a New Mouse Model of Spontaneous Latent Tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingjun; Tang, Jun; Lin, Shuzhu; Xu, Yanfeng; Xu, Yuhuan; Qin, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    A mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) that mimics LTBI in humans is valuable for drug/vaccine development and the study of tuberculosis. However, most LTBI mouse models require interventions, and a spontaneous LTBI mouse model with a low bacterial load is difficult to establish. In this study, mice were IV-inoculated with 100 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and a persistent LTBI was established with low bacterial loads (0.5~1.5log10 CFU in the lung; Ganoderma lucidum extract (spores and spores lipid) in preventing H37Rv replication in both lung and spleen. H37Rv was inhibited with prophylactic use of G. lucidum extract relative to that of the untreated control and therapy groups, and observed in the spleen and lung as early as post-inoculation week 3 and week 5 respectively. H37Rv infection in the therapy group was comparable to that of the untreated control mice. No significant mitigation of pathological changes was observed in either the prophylactic or therapeutic group. Our results suggest that this new LTBI mouse model is an efficient tool of testing anti-tuberculosis drug, the use of G. lucidum extract prior to M. tuberculosis infection may protect the host against bacterial replication to some extent. PMID:26779146

  14. Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of ginko biloba extract (Egb761 on mortality of intestinal deep ischemia-reperfusion model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ateş

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761 is a standardized form of Ginkgo Biloba plant leaves which have been used by Chines nearly 5000 years and Its’ antioxidant activity is known. In this study we aimed to investigate effect use of EGb761 on mortality in Megison'un deep ischemia reperfusion model of rats.Materials and Methods: 138 male Spraque-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups: Group I (control group, Group II (deep ischemia-reperfusion group, Group III (Group of prophylaxis and treatment of deep ischemia-reperfusion with EGb 761, Group IV (group of treatment with EGb 761 during deep ischemia. Deep ischemia was applied 30 minutes. Rats were followed-up one week after laparotomy. Differences between numbers of mortality in groups during one week follow-up were compared.Results: Number of died rats in Group I, II, III, and IV during one week follow-up were 2 (7.7%, 22 (61.1%, 6 (13.6%, and 11 (34.3% respectively. Mortality rate decreased statistically significant with use of EGb761 with pro-phylactic and therapeutic purposes (p<0.001, p<0.028.Conclusion: EGb761's prophylactic and therapeutic benefit on intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury was observed. However, these results should be supported with further biochemical and histopathological studies.

  15. Profilaxis con drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas Prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic drugs in neurological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Sposato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso profiláctico de drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas como el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico y hemorrágico, la hemorragia subaracnoidea, el traumatismo de cráneo y los tumores cerebrales ha sido motivo de controversia durante muchos años. Estas drogas son indicadas con el fin de disminuir el daño neurológico secundario a las crisis epilépticas. Sin embargo, la escasa evidencia científica disponible para avalar esta hipótesis, las potenciales interacciones farmacológicas, los efectos adversos y algunos informes sobre neurotoxicidad generan dudas en cuanto a esta conducta terapéutica. En esta revisión, analizamos la evidencia acerca del uso profiláctico de drogas epilépticas en las enfermedades neurológicas arriba mencionadas.Prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs in neurological conditions such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, head injury, and brain tumors has been matter of debate for many years. These drugs are used for reducing secondary neurological damage caused by epileptic seizures. However, the evidence supporting this indication is scarce. Potential drug interactions, side effects, and even neurotoxicity related to these drugs have raised concern about this therapeutic approach. In this review, we examine the evidence on the prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs in the neurological disorders above mentioned.

  16. EFFECT OF PROPHYLACTIC BROMFENAC 0.09% ON CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA ASSESSED USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY QUANTIFICATION OF TOTAL MACULAR VOLUME AFTER CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic administration of the topical nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drug (NSAID Bromfenac 0.09% on acute (within 4 weeks of surgery cystoids macular edema (CME and total macular volume (TMV in patients having phacoemulsification cataract surgery. SETTING : Department of Ophthalmology, shantiram general hospital, nandyal. METHODS : This open - l abel nonmasked randomized (random number assignment study comprised 100 eyes. Exclusion criteria included hypersensitivity to the NSAID drug class, aspirin/NSAID - induced asthma, and pregnancy in the third trimester. Bromfenac 0.09%was administered startin g 1 day before surgery and for 28 days after surgery for a total of 30 days. The outcome measure was macular swelling, which was quantified by the optical coherence tomography. RESULTS : At 1 month, there was a statistically significant difference in TMV be tween the control group (0.4420 mm3 and the Bromfenac 0.09%group (0.2392 mm3, with the Bromfenac 0.09%group having 45.8% less macular swelling ( P Z. 009. Multiple linear regression with backward selection indicated a 44.3% ( P Z. 013 and 46.1% ( P Z. 030 r eduction in macular swelling in the Bromfenac 0.09% group at 1 week and 1 month, respectively. CONCLUSION : Used prophylactically after cataract surgery, Bromfenac 0.09% was efficacious in decreasing postoperative macular edema

  17. Prophylactic antibody treatment and intramuscular immunization reduce infectious human rhinovirus 16 load in the lower respiratory tract of challenged cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C.G. Blanco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRV represent the single most important etiological agents of the common cold and are the most frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in humans. Currently the performance of available animal models for immunization studies using HRV challenge is very limited. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus is a well-recognized model for the study of human respiratory viral infections. In this work we show that, without requiring any genetic modification of either the host or the virus, intranasal infection of cotton rats with HRV16 resulted in measurable isolation of infective virus, lower respiratory tract pathology, mucus production, and expression of interferon-activated genes. Intramuscular immunization with live HRV16 generated robust protective immunity that correlated with high serum levels of neutralizing antibodies. In addition, cotton rats treated prophylactically with hyperimmune anti-HRV16 serum were protected against HRV16 intranasal challenge. Finally, protection by immunization was efficiently transferred from mothers to newborn animals resulting in a substantial reduction of infectious virus loads in the lung following intranasal challenge. Overall, our results demonstrate that the cotton rat provides valuable additional model development options for testing vaccines and prophylactic therapies against rhinovirus infection.

  18. The efficacy of prophylactic outpatient antibiotics for the prevention of neutropenic fever associated with high-dose etoposide (VP-16) for stem cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, R K; Pohlman, B L; Mossad, S B; Goormastic, M; Longworth, D L; Kalaycio, M E; Sobecks, R M; Andresen, S W; Kuczkowski, E; Bernhard, L; Ostendorf, H; Wise, K; Bolwell, B J

    2002-09-01

    High-dose etoposide (2 g/m(2)) plus G-CSF is a very effective regimen for peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) mobilization. Unfortunately, neutropenia is common. The infectious complications associated with high-dose etoposide have not been previously described. After noting a high incidence of hospitalizations for neutropenic fever, we began a vigorous prophylactic antibiotic regimen for patients receiving high-dose etoposide plus G-CSF, attempting to reduce infectious complications. Ninety-eight patients underwent etoposide mobilization between December 1997 and June 2000. Three chronological patient groups received: (1) no specific antibiotic prophylaxis (n = 44); (2) vancomycin i.v., cefepime i.v., clarithromycin p.o., and ciprofloxacin p.o. (n = 27); and (3) vancomycin i.v., clarithromycin p.o., and ciprofloxacin p.o. (n = 27). The patients not receiving antibiotic prophylaxis had a 68% incidence of hospitalization for neutropenic fever. In the patients receiving prophylaxis, the incidence was reduced to 26% and 15% respectively, for an overall incidence of 20% (P < 0.001 for comparison between prophylaxed and unprophylaxed groups). We conclude that etoposide mobilization is associated with a significant incidence of neutropenic fever, which can be substantially reduced by a vigorous antimicrobial prophylactic program. PMID:12209353

  19. Prophylactic use of Mepitel Film prevents radiation-induced moist desquamation in an intra-patient randomised controlled clinical trial of 78 breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Safetac-based soft silicone dressings used in a management setting decrease the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions but do not affect moist desquamation rates. Here we investigate the prophylactic use of another Safetac product, Mepitel Film, on moist desquamation rates. Material and methods: A total of 80 breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were recruited between October 2012 and April 2013; 78 participants contributed data for analysis. Lateral and medial halves of the skin areas to be irradiated were randomised to Mepitel Film or aqueous cream; skin dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters; skin reaction severity was assessed using RISRAS and RTOG scales. Results: Overall skin reaction severity was reduced by 92% (p < 0.0001) in favour of Mepitel Film (RISRAS). All patients developed some form of reaction in cream-treated skin which progressed to moist desquamation in 26% of patients (RTOG grades I: 28%; IIA: 46%; IIB: 18%; III: 8%). Only 44% of patients had a skin reaction under the Film, which did not progress to moist desquamation in any of the patients (RTOG grades I: 36%; IIA: 8%). Conclusions: Mepitel Film completely prevented moist desquamation and reduced skin reaction severity by 92% when used prophylactically in our cohort

  20. 苦荞麦营养成分和保健功能%Nutritional components and prophylactic values of tartary buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂薇; 李再贵

    2016-01-01

    苦荞麦具有卓越的保健价值和食疗功效,是一种重要的粮食替代作物和功能性食品原料。苦荞麦富含高生物价的蛋白质和丰富的膳食纤维、维生素以及多酚等营养成分,其花序中芦丁含量可高达8%以上。总结了国内外对苦荞营养保健功能成分与作用的研究成果,并针对我国苦荞加工业的现状与存在问题,提出了发展思路。%Tartary buckwheat is introduced into the diet as an alternative crop and raw material for func-tional food due to its excellent nutritive and prophylactic values.It is a rich source of high -quality pro-teins,dietary fibre,vitamins and polyphenols,and the content of rutin in flowers is over 8%.This article has reviewed overseas and domestic research status of tartary buckwheat in the aspect of its nutritional components and prophylactic values,and some rational development strategies were provided based on the current situation and existing problems in tartary buckwheat processing industry.

  1. 创伤后抗菌药物预防性使用策略%Strategies in the prophylactic use of antibiotics following trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊健; 都定元; 梁华平; 向小勇

    2013-01-01

    The trauma caused by accidents or violence has become a major factor of social death and disa -bility. Post-traumatic infections are recognized complications , the goal of prophylactic antibiotic use is to decrease the risk of infection and infectious complications in the post -traumatic injury. This article reviews time ,type,dose, duration and route of administration of prophylactic use of antibiotics following traumatic injury.%由各种事故或暴力所导致的创伤已成为当今社会死亡和致残的主要因素.感染是创伤后公认的并发症,预防性使用抗菌药物能够减少创伤后感染及其并发症的发病率.笔者就创伤后预防性使用抗菌药物的时间、种类、剂量、疗程及给药途径进行阐述.

  2. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  3. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  4. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or national security as a result of the preliminary risk assessment, the candidate or the Provider... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14... CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  5. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  6. Opinions of Counselor Candidates Regarding Counseling Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Mine; Yaka, Baris; Koç, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of the quality of counseling skills training and counselor education through the medium of understanding the opinions of counselor candidates regarding counseling skills training. The research group consisted of 67 counselor candidates who voluntarily participated in the study. The research…

  7. Facebook Connection Styles among Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogdu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Facebook connection styles of physical education (PE) teacher candidates. The participants were composed of 626 (age = 21.21 ± 2.024) physical education teacher candidates from the departments of Physical Education and Sports. They teach in five different universities. It was done in 2014-2015 academic…

  8. Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Tice, Kathleen; Collins, Denise; Brown, Amber; Smith, Cleta; Fox, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates…

  9. Chemical Literacy Levels of Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Turkish science and mathematics teacher candidates' levels of attainment in chemical literacy. These candidates had all studied the new Turkish chemistry curriculum in high school. The sample of the study consisted of 112 students, who were first-year students in the Department of Secondary Science…

  10. Teacher Candidates' Views of Digital Games as Learning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research study was to explore teacher candidate views toward digital learning games using an immersive strategy. Specifically, we were interested in finding out what game use in classroom settings taught candidates about the role of teacher as facilitator of instruction. The procedures first focused teacher candidate…

  11. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  12. Elections, Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    The quality of political candidates often depends on the current state of the world, for example because their personal characteristics are more valuable in some situations than in others. We explore the implications of state-dependent candidate quality in a model of electoral competition where v...

  13. 11 CFR 9033.1 - Candidate and committee agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to 11 CFR part 9039. The candidate and authorized committee(s) shall facilitate the audit by... authorized committee(s) will comply with the conditions set forth in 11 CFR 9033.1(b). The candidate may... committee(s) will comply with the documentation requirements set forth in 11 CFR 9033.11. (3) The...

  14. PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF VISUAL LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali GÖÇER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to expose perceptions of teacher candidates about the concept of visual literacy through metaphors. The participants for this study included 131 teacher candidates from Erciyes Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi. In order to collect data, teacher candidates were asked to complete the prompt “Visual literacy is like ... because ...”. The study was designed as a phenomenological study within the qualitative approach. The data was analyzed with using the content analysis technique. According to the data, teacher candidates produced 73 valid metaphors about the concept of visual literacy. Analyzing the metaphors which were investigated in terms of qualifications, different conceptual categories were identified. According to the result of this study, teacher candidates have positive perceptions towards the visual literacy.

  15. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  16. PEACE: Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction -- A software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K J; Jenet, F A; Martinez, J; Dartez, L P; Mata, A; Lunsford, G; Cohen, S; Biwer, C M; Rohr, M; Flanigan, J; Walker, A; Banaszak, S; Allen, B; Barr, E D; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Desvignes, G; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P; Hessels, J W T; Karuppusamy, R; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Lyne, A; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, S; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Spitler, L; Stairs, I; Tan, M; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2013-01-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labor intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called PEACE (Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command enter programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68% of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17% of sorted candidates, 95% ...

  17. A Catalog of Kepler Habitable Zone Exoplanet Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R; Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Quintana, Elisa V; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Ciardi, David R; Haghighipour, Nader; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Franck; Torres, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Kepler mission has discovered thousands of new planetary candidates, many of which have been confirmed through follow-up observations. A primary goal of the mission is to determine the occurrance rate of terrestrial-size planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their host stars. Here we provide a list of HZ exoplanet candidates from the Kepler Data Release 24 Q1-Q17 data vetting process. This work was undertaken as part of the Kepler Habitable Zone Working Group. We use a variety of criteria regarding HZ boundaries and planetary sizes to produce complete lists of HZ candidates, including a catalog of 104 candidates within the optimistic HZ and 20 candidates with radii less than two Earth radii within the conservative HZ. We cross-match our HZ candidates with the Data Release 25 stellar properties and confirmed planet properties to provide robust stellar parameters and candidate dispositions. We also include false positive probabilities recently calculated by Morton et al. (2016) for each of the cand...

  18. Clinical efficacy of radical intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with reduction in dose of prophylactic irradiation in treatment of stage Ⅲ small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and toxicities of radical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with reduction in dose of prophylactic irradiation in the treatment of stage Ⅲ small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 40 patients with stage Ⅲ SCLC who were admitted from January 2010 to August 2012. The prescribed dose was 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the primary gross tumor volume and was 54 Gy in 30 fractions to the planning target volume. All patients received induction chemotherapy,31 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 22 patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy; the platinum-based chemotherapy combined with etoposide or teniposide was adopted. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (25 Gy in 10 fractions) was administered to 17 patients. The short-term tumor response was evaluated by RECIST 1.0, and radiation-related toxicities were assessed by CTCAE 4.0. Overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The short-term tumor response rate was 98%. The follow-up rate was 100%. Twenty-two patients were followed up for at least 2 years. The 1-and 2-year OS rates were 84% and 48%, respectively; the LRFS rates were 89% and 85%, respectively; the PFS rates were 61% and 41%, respectively. Grade 0-1 radiation-related pneumonia was observed in 65% (26/40) of all patients, grade 2 in 25% (10/40),grade 3 in 5% (2/40), and grade 5 in 5% (2/40). Grade 0-1 radiation-related esophagitis was observed in 53% (21/40) of all patients, grade 2 in 43% (17/40), and grade 3 in 5 % (2/40). Conclusions: Preliminary results from this study suggested that IMRT combined with reduction in dose of prophylactic irradiation is safe and effective in patients with stage Ⅲ SCLC and is worth further evaluation in a large, prospective, randomized study. (authors)

  19. Academic Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Etem YEŞİLYURT

    2013-01-01

    This study aims determining academic self-efficacy perception of teacher candidates. It is survey model. Population of the study consists of teacher candidates in 2010-2011 academic years at Ahmet Keleşoğlu Education Faculty of Education Formation of Selçuk University. A simple random sample was selected as sampling method and the study was conducted on 312 teacher candidates. The data of this study was obtained by “academic selfefficacy scale” which was developed by Jerusalem and Schwazer (1...

  20. Detecting candidate cosmic bubble collisions with optimal filters

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D; Johnson, M C; Peiris, H V

    2012-01-01

    We review an optimal-filter-based algorithm for detecting candidate sources of unknown and differing size embedded in a stochastic background, and its application to detecting candidate cosmic bubble collision signatures in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7-year observations. The algorithm provides an enhancement in sensitivity over previous methods by a factor of approximately two. Moreover, it is optimal in the sense that no other filter-based approach can provide a superior enhancement of these signatures. Applying this algorithm to WMAP 7-year observations, eight new candidate bubble collision signatures are detected for follow-up analysis.