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Sample records for candidate ovule development

  1. Candidate gene identification of ovulation-inducing genes by RNA sequencing with an in vivo assay in zebrafish.

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    Wanlada Klangnurak

    Full Text Available We previously reported the microarray-based selection of three ovulation-related genes in zebrafish. We used a different selection method in this study, RNA sequencing analysis. An additional eight up-regulated candidates were found as specifically up-regulated genes in ovulation-induced samples. Changes in gene expression were confirmed by qPCR analysis. Furthermore, up-regulation prior to ovulation during natural spawning was verified in samples from natural pairing. Gene knock-out zebrafish strains of one of the candidates, the starmaker gene (stm, were established by CRISPR genome editing techniques. Unexpectedly, homozygous mutants were fertile and could spawn eggs. However, a high percentage of unfertilized eggs and abnormal embryos were produced from these homozygous females. The results suggest that the stm gene is necessary for fertilization. In this study, we selected additional ovulation-inducing candidate genes, and a novel function of the stm gene was investigated.

  2. Study of some abnormalities of ovule development to seed in Pistacia vera L.

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    Najmeh Hosseini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed production in some crops like pistachio is limited by some abnormalities in ovule development stages. In this study, the ovule developmental stages as well as abnormalities of these stages were investigated. Pistacia vera ovule is single, fullynucellate, monotegumental and converse (anatrope and is set in an ovary with basic placement and the Polygonum type embryo sac is organized in it one week after complete dehiscence. After pollination and fertilization of egg cell, after 6 weeks of complete dehiscence, the pericarpe was grown to final size and even the lignifications of endocarpe started but the zygote cell was in a dormant state and in 6-8 weeks after complete dehiscence the zygote cell division along an increase in endosperm division occured so that cotyledonary embryo was formed in 10-12 weeks after complete dehiscence and the cotyledons attained their final size in 3 weesks after that, namely 15 weeks after complete dehiscence and at this time, the seedless and filled fruits were completely distinguished. During the ovule development stages, some abnormalities were observed such as lack of embryo sac formation, embryo sac degeneration, small and abnormal embryo sac formation, vascular band collapse inside the funicule, presence of zygote without endosperm and presence of endosperm without zygote, and these abnormalities caused lack of enough ovule growth and seedless or semiseedless fruit formation in pistachio.

  3. Induced ovulation and egg deposition in the direct developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui

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    Estrada Alberto R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates ovulation and egg deposition behaviors in the anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui from Puerto Rico in response to stimulation with gonadotropin and gonadotropin releasing hormones. Five hormones were tested by injection over a range of doses, including mammalian LHRH, avian LHRH, fish LHRH, D-Ala6, des-Gly10 ethylamide LHRH and hCG. We report a low level of ovulation and egg deposition in response to all hormones, with the most complete and consistent results from the non-natural D-Ala6, des-Gly10 ethylamide LHRH derivative. To confirm the viability of eggs produced in this manner we performed in vitro fertilization experiments that resulted in the development of normal frogs. Reproductive behaviors in E. coqui are apparently not controlled by a mammalian form of LHRH as reported in other common laboratory anuran species. D-Ala6, des-Gly10 ethylamide LHRH induces ovulation and deposition of mature and fertilizable eggs in E. coqui.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation During Ovule Development of Female-Sterile Rice fsv1

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    Helian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of female fertility is an important field of rice sexual reproduction research. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification that dynamically regulates gene expression during development processes. However, few reports have described the methylation profiles of female-sterile rice during ovule development. In this study, ovules were continuously acquired from the beginning of megaspore mother cell meiosis until the mature female gametophyte formation period, and global DNA methylation patterns were compared in the ovules of a high-frequency female-sterile line (fsv1 and a wild-type rice line (Gui99 using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS. Profiling of the global DNA methylation revealed hypo-methylation, and 3471 significantly differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed in fsv1 ovules compared with Gui99. Based on functional annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes (DMGs, we observed more DMGs enriched in cellular component, reproduction regulation, metabolic pathway, and other pathways. In particular, many ovule development genes and plant hormone-related genes showed significantly different methylation patterns in the two rice lines, and these differences may provide important clues for revealing the mechanism of female gametophyte abortion.

  5. JSAR Innovative Technology Award. Development of ovulation synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination in dairy cows.

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    Yamada, Kyoji

    2005-04-01

    Recently, reproductive management has become more difficult as a result of increased herd size. Problems with missing estrous signs and decrease in conception rate by artificial insemination (AI) performed at wrong timing have caused low AI conception rates. In 1995, ovulation synchronization and fixed-time AI (Ovsynch/TAI) was developed in the USA as a new reproductive technology, which was accepted as an useful reproductive management tool in many countries. However, no information on the use of Ovsynch/TAI was available in Japan. It was, therefore, warranted to show the ovulation rate and conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI using gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-A, fertirelin acetate) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha)-THAM, both were commercially available in this country. The conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI has been known to vary among different herds and individuals. Investigation and analysis of factors affecting the conception rate was also warranted to improve the conception rate. A series of experiments were carried out to establish Ovsynch/TAI using domestically produced GnRH-A and PGF2alpha and to study factors affecting conception rate after Ovsynch protocol. Ovsynch using 100 microg GnRH-A and 25 mg PGF2alpha were observed using ultrasonography. As a result, a high synchronization rate of ovulation at 16 to 20 h after the second GnRH injection was confirmed. The conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI was compared in 87 cows with the conception rate after AI at estrus induced by PGF2alpha (139 cows). Conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI was higher than the figure after AI at induced estrus (59.1% vs 20.9%, Pbody condition score (BCS) was 3.75 at dry period and 3.0 at the day of Ovsynch. In conclusion, Ovsynch/TAI is an effective tool for the reproductive management of dairy cows. A steady and sufficient conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI could be expected by taking the factors affecting the conception rate into the consideration.

  6. Competition between meiotic and apomictic pathways during ovule and seed development results in clonality.

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    Hojsgaard, Diego H; Martínez, Eric J; Quarin, Camilo L

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic and apomictic reproductive pathways develop simultaneously in facultative aposporous species, and compete to form a seed as a final goal. This developmental competition was evaluated in tetraploid genotypes of Paspalum malacophyllum in order to understand the low level of sexuality in facultative apomictic populations. Cyto-embryology on ovules, flow cytometry on seeds and progeny tests by DNA fingerprinting were used to measure the relative incidence of each meiotic or apomictic pathway along four different stages of the plant's life cycle, namely the beginning and end of gametogenesis, seed formation and adult offspring. A high variation in the frequencies of sexual and apomictic pathways occurred at the first two stages. A trend of radical decline in realized sexuality was then observed. Sexual and apomictic seeds were produced, but the efficiency of the sexual pathway dropped drastically, and exclusively clonal offspring remained. Both reproductive pathways are unstable at the beginning of development, and only the apomictic one remains functional. Key factors reducing sexuality are the faster growth and parthenogenetic development in the aposporous pathway, and an (epi)genetically negative background related to the extensive gene de-regulation pattern responsible for apomixis. The effects of inbreeding depression during post-fertilization development may further decrease the frequency of effective sexuality. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Development of the tissues of the ovule of Capsicum annum L. after irradiation during early embryogenesis

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    Ilieva, I.; Zagorska, N. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Genetika)

    1983-01-01

    The interrelation between the embryo, the endosperm and the other tissues of the ovule during the late stages of embryogenesis was surveyed. Observations in vivo were carried out on seeds of C. annum, Gold Medal variety, after irradiation with 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5 krad during the stages of middle and late proembryo. A trend was observed towards higher sensitivity of the endothelium (necrosis vacuolization, etc.), compared with the remaining tissues of the ovule whose destructive changes are not as marked. Most probably the endothelium and the endosperm, which make the connection between the mother organism and the embryo, serve as a kind of filters retaining the metabolites harmful to the embryo.

  8. Development of the tissues of the ovule of Capsicum annum L. after irradiation during early embryogenesis

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    Ilieva, I.; Zagorska, N.

    1983-01-01

    The interrelation between the embryo, the endosperm and the other tissues of the ovule during the late stages of embryogenesis was surveyed. Observations in vivo were carried out on seeds of C. annum, Gold Medal variety, after irradiation with 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5 krad during the stages of middle and late proembryo. A trend was observed towards higher sensitivity of the endothelium (necrosis vacuolization, etc.), compared with the remaining tissues of the ovule whose destructive changes are not as marked. Most probably the endothelium and the endosperm, which make the connection between the mother organism and the embryo, serve as a kind of filters retaining the metabolites harmful to the embryo

  9. Distribution and change patterns of free IAA, ABP 1 and PM H⁺-ATPase during ovary and ovule development of Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    Chen, Dan; Deng, Yingtian; Zhao, Jie

    2012-01-15

    Auxin plays key roles in flower induction, embryogenesis, seed formation and seedling development, but little is known about whether auxin regulates the development of ovaries and ovules before pollination. In the present report, we measured the content of free indole-3-acetic (IAA) in ovaries of Nicotiana tabacum L., and localized free IAA, auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) and plasma membrane (PM) H⁺-ATPase in the ovaries and ovules. The level of free IAA in the developmental ovaries increased gradually from the stages of ovular primordium to the functional megaspore, but slightly decreased when the embryo sacs formed. Immunoenzyme labeling clearly showed that both IAA and ABP1 were distributed in the ovules, the edge of the placenta, vascular tissues and the ovary wall, while PM H⁺-ATPase was mainly localized in the ovules. By using immunogold labeling, the subcellular distributions of IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase in the ovules were also shown. The results suggest that IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase may play roles in the ovary and ovule initiation, formation and differentiation. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Glucocorticoid-Induced Insulin Resistance on Follicle Development and Ovulation1

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    Hackbart, Katherine S.; Cunha, Pauline M.; Meyer, Rudelle K.; Wiltbank, Milo C.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenemia, polycystic ovaries, and menstrual disturbance and a clear association with insulin resistance. This research evaluated whether induction of insulin resistance, using dexamethasone (DEX), in a monovular animal model, the cow, could produce an ovarian phenotype similar to PCOS. In all of these experiments, DEX induced insulin resistance in cows as shown by increased glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Experiment 1: DEX induced anovulation (zero of five DEX vs. four of four control cows ovulated) and decreased circulating estradiol (E2). Experiment 2: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was administered to determine pituitary and follicular responses during insulin resistance. GnRH induced a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation in both DEX (seven of seven) and control (seven of seven) cows. Experiment 3: E2 was administered to determine hypothalamic responsiveness after induction of an E2 surge in DEX (eight of eight) and control (eight of eight) cows. An LH surge was induced in control (eight of eight) but not DEX (zero of eight) cows. All control (eight of eight) but only two of eight DEX cows ovulated within 60 h of E2 administration. Experiment 4: Short-term DEX was initiated 24 h after induced luteal regression to determine if DEX could acutely block ovulation before peak insulin resistance was induced, similar to progesterone (P4). All control (five of five), no P4-treated (zero of six), and 50% of DEX-treated (three of six) cows ovulated by 96 h after luteal regression. All anovular cows had reduced circulating E2. These data are consistent with DEX creating a lesion in hypothalamic positive feedback to E2 without altering pituitary responsiveness to GnRH or ovulatory responsiveness of follicles to LH. It remains to be determined if the considerable insulin resistance and the reduced follicular E2 production induced by DEX

  11. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

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    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Developing Potential Candidates of Preclinical Preeclampsia

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    Sandra Founds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for developing molecules of interest in preclinical preeclampsia from candidate genes that were discovered on gene expression microarray analysis has been challenged by limited access to additional first trimester trophoblast and decidual tissues. The question of whether these candidates encode secreted proteins that may be detected in maternal circulation early in pregnancy has been investigated using various proteomic methods. Pilot studies utilizing mass spectrometry based proteomic assays, along with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, and Western immunoblotting in first trimester samples are reported. The novel targeted mass spectrometry methods led to robust multiple reaction monitoring assays. Despite detection of several candidates in early gestation, challenges persist. Future antibody-based studies may lead to a novel multiplex protein panel for screening or detection to prevent or mitigate preeclampsia.

  13. Size of ovulatory follicles in cattle expressing multiple ovulations naturally and its influence on corpus luteum development and fertility.

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    Echternkamp, S E; Cushman, R A; Allan, M F

    2009-11-01

    Long-term genetic selection of cattle for fraternal twins has increased the frequency of twin and triplet ovulations. In contrast, the ratio of fetal numbers to ovulation sites in pregnant females with twin (0.83) or triplet (0.73) ovulations is conception in cyclic cattle expressing multiple ovulations naturally, including the effect of ovulation rate on follicle or corpus luteum (CL) size, and their relationship to conception. Diameter of the individual ovulatory follicles was measured by transrectal ultrasonography at AI and ranged from 8 to 30 mm, with a trend for diameter of the individual follicles, and associated CL, to decrease with increasing ovulation rate. Independent of ovulation rate, ovulatory follicles were smaller (P or =2.5 yr). Pregnancy and fetal status were diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography between 42 and 72 d after AI. Fertility was reduced (P or =22 vs. 14 to 17.9 mm). Plasma progesterone concentrations increased with ovulation rate and were correlated positively with total CL or ovulatory follicle volume per female, indicating that CL size and function were influenced by the size of the follicle of origin. Progesterone was greater (P uterine crowding, especially when 2 or more fetuses were contained within 1 uterine horn.

  14. Intrahepatic ovulation

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    Wozniak, Artur L.; Visscher, Kari L.; Bhaduri, Mousumi

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic ovaries are a rare finding in the literature, with fewer than 50 published cases to date. This phenomenon has been found in the omentum, bladder, mesentery, and uterus; attached to the colon; inside the left labia majora; and in the kidney. Various etiologies have been proposed, including postsurgical or postinflammatory transplantation, malignant origins, and abnormal embryologic development. We report the ultrasonographic, computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imagi...

  15. Intrahepatic ovulation

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    Artur L. Wozniak, HBSc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic ovaries are a rare finding in the literature, with fewer than 50 published cases to date. This phenomenon has been found in the omentum, bladder, mesentery, and uterus; attached to the colon; inside the left labia majora; and in the kidney. Various etiologies have been proposed, including postsurgical or postinflammatory transplantation, malignant origins, and abnormal embryologic development. We report the ultrasonographic, computed tomographic (CT, and magnetic resonance (MR imaging of, what is to the best of our knowledge, the first case of an intrahepatic ectopic ovary.

  16. Comparative De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Fertilized Ovules in Xanthoceras sorbifolium Uncovered a Pool of Genes Expressed Specifically or Preferentially in the Selfed Ovule That Are Potentially Involved in Late-Acting Self-Incompatibility.

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    Qingyuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Xanthoceras sorbifolium, a tree species endemic to northern China, has high oil content in its seeds and is recognized as an important biodiesel crop. The plant is characterized by late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI. LSI was found to occur in many angiosperm species and plays an important role in reducing inbreeding and its harmful effects, as do gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI and sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI. Molecular mechanisms of conventional GSI and SSI have been well characterized in several families, but no effort has been made to identify the genes involved in the LSI process. The present studies indicated that there were no significant differences in structural and histological features between the self- and cross-pollinated ovules during the early stages of ovule development until 5 days after pollination (DAP. This suggests that 5 DAP is likely to be a turning point for the development of the selfed ovules. Comparative de novo transcriptome analysis of the selfed and crossed ovules at 5 DAP identified 274 genes expressed specifically or preferentially in the selfed ovules. These genes contained a significant proportion of genes predicted to function in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, consistent with our histological observations in the fertilized ovules. The genes encoding signal transduction-related components, such as protein kinases and protein phosphatases, are overrepresented in the selfed ovules. X. sorbifolium selfed ovules also specifically or preferentially express many unique transcription factor (TF genes that could potentially be involved in the novel mechanisms of LSI. We also identified 42 genes significantly up-regulated in the crossed ovules compared to the selfed ovules. The expression of all 16 genes selected from the RNA-seq data was validated using PCR in the selfed and crossed ovules. This study represents the first genome-wide identification of genes expressed in the fertilized

  17. Urofollitropin and ovulation induction

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    van Wely, Madelon; Yding Andersen, Claus; Bayram, Neriman; van der Veen, Fulco

    2005-01-01

    Anovulation is a common cause of female infertility. Treatment for women with anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is indicated in women with WHO type II anovulation in whom treatment with clomifene citrate (clomifene) has

  18. Molecular control of normal and acrocona mutant seed cone development in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the evolution of conifer ovule-bearing organs.

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    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens F; Englund, Marie; Uddenberg, Daniel; Izquierdo, Liz; Kvarnheden, Anders; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Engström, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Reproductive organs in seed plants are morphologically divergent and their evolutionary history is often unclear. The mechanisms controlling their development have been extensively studied in angiosperms but are poorly understood in conifers and other gymnosperms. Here, we address the molecular control of seed cone development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. We present expression analyses of five novel MADS-box genes in comparison with previously identified MADS and LEAFY genes at distinct developmental stages. In addition, we have characterized the homeotic transformation from vegetative shoot to female cone and associated changes in regulatory gene expression patterns occurring in the acrocona mutant. The analyses identified genes active at the onset of ovuliferous and ovule development and identified expression patterns marking distinct domains of the ovuliferous scale. The reproductive transformation in acrocona involves the activation of all tested genes normally active in early cone development, except for an AGAMOUS-LIKE6/SEPALLATA (AGL6/SEP) homologue. This absence may be functionally associated with the nondeterminate development of the acrocona ovule-bearing scales. Our morphological and gene expression analyses give support to the hypothesis that the modern cone is a complex structure, and the ovuliferous scale the result of reductions and compactions of an ovule-bearing axillary short shoot in cones of Paleozoic conifers. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. First Steps towards the Pharmaceutical Development of Ovules Containing Lactobacillus Strains: Viability and Antimicrobial Activity as Basic First Parameters in Vaginal Formulations.

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    Camilletti, A L; Ruíz, F O; Pascual, L M; Barberis, I L

    2018-02-01

    In the majority of Latin-American countries, including Argentina, there is a limited availability of vaginal bioproducts containing probiotics in the market. In addition, the conventional treatments of genital tract infections in women represent a high cost to the public health systems. The future development of this type of bioproducts that employ specific lactobacilli strains would not only have a meaningful impact on women's health but would also represent a significant challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. The aims of the work described in this paper were (i) to study different pharmaceutical formulations of vaginal ovules containing Lactobacillus fermentum L23 and L. rhamnosus L60, to determine in which formulation lactobacilli viability was sustained for longer time and (ii) to evaluate if probiotic strains maintained both the antimicrobial activity and biofilm-producing ability after being recovered from the ovules. In this study, we developed and characterized three pharmaceutical formulations containing different glycerol amounts and specific lactobacilli strains. Three relevant parameters, cell viability, antimicrobial activity, and biofilm production, by lactobacilli recovered from the ovules were tested. Although the viability of L23 and L60 strains was mainly influenced by high ovule's glycerol proportion, they survived at 4 °C during the 180 days. Both lactobacilli's antimicrobial activity and biofilm-producing ability were maintained for all treatments. In conclusion, employing a much reduced number of components, we were able to select the most suitable pharmaceutical formulation which maintained not only lactobacilli viability for a long period of time but also their antimicrobial activity and biofilm-producing ability.

  20. In vivo effect of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1RA on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, ovulation, and early embryonic development in the mare

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    Gérard Nadine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing body of evidence suggests that the interleukin-1 system is involved in periovulatory events. Previous work from our lab demonstrated that in the mare, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta increases the ovulatory rate of metaphase II oocytes. The present study was conducted to analyze in vivo the effect of IL-1 on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, ovulation and pregnancy rate. In the present work, IL-1beta (experiment 1, n = 13; experiment 2, n = 25 and interleukin-1RA (IL-1RA; experiment 1, n = 25 were injected intrafollicularly by using the transvaginal ultrasound-guided injection method. Injections were performed on cyclic mares when the diameter of the growing dominant follicle reached 30–34 mm. In experiment 1, mares were inseminated the day of the treatment and all the other day until ovulation. The time of ovulation was determined and a pregnancy diagnosis was performed 14 days after ovulation of the injected follicle. In experiment 2, the cumulus-oocyte complex from each injected follicle was collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration 38 h after the intrafollicular injection. Oocyte nuclear stage and oocyte cytoplasmic maturation were assessed by analyzing chromatin configuration, cortical granules migration and mitochondria distribution under a confocal microscope. The results from experiment 1 confirm that an intrafollicular injection of 1 microgram IL-1beta induces ovulation in the mare whereas IL-1RA has no effect at the dose used in the present study. Furthemore, we demonstrated, that in our experimental conditions, IL-1beta and IL-1RA induced a decrease in embryo development. Experiment 2 leads us to observe that IL-1beta is unable to induce cortical granules migration and remodelling of mitochondria, that commonly occurs during oocyte maturation, whereas it acts on nuclear maturation. This result may explain the decrease in embryo development we observed after IL-1beta intrafollicular injection. In conclusion

  1. Follicle Online: an integrated database of follicle assembly, development and ovulation.

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    Hua, Juan; Xu, Bo; Yang, Yifan; Ban, Rongjun; Iqbal, Furhan; Cooke, Howard J; Zhang, Yuanwei; Shi, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Folliculogenesis is an important part of ovarian function as it provides the oocytes for female reproductive life. Characterizing genes/proteins involved in folliculogenesis is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms associated with this biological function and to cure the diseases associated with folliculogenesis. A large number of genes/proteins associated with folliculogenesis have been identified from different species. However, no dedicated public resource is currently available for folliculogenesis-related genes/proteins that are validated by experiments. Here, we are reporting a database 'Follicle Online' that provides the experimentally validated gene/protein map of the folliculogenesis in a number of species. Follicle Online is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving folliculogenesis-related experimental data. It provides detailed information for 580 genes/proteins (from 23 model organisms, including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Mesocricetus auratus, Bos Taurus, Drosophila and Xenopus laevis) that have been reported to be involved in folliculogenesis, POF (premature ovarian failure) and PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). The literature was manually curated from more than 43,000 published articles (till 1 March 2014). The Follicle Online database is implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript and this user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. In summary, we have developed a centralized database that provides users with comprehensive information about genes/proteins involved in folliculogenesis. This database can be accessed freely and all the stored data can be viewed without any registration. Database URL: http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/sdap1/follicle/index.php © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. The ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 histone H3 methyltransferase is required for ovule and anther development in Arabidopsis.

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    Paul E Grini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to

  3. Fostering the Development of Chemistry Teacher Candidates: A Bioecological Approach

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    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2012-01-01

    This ongoing research inquiry investigates through the analysis of teacher candidate experiences the factors influencing two groups of chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in their second and final year of an after-degree bachelor of education at a university in central Canada. The tenets of Bronfenbrenner's…

  4. Investigation of a thiazolidinone derivative as an allosteric modulator of follicle stimulating hormone receptor: evidence for its ability to support follicular development and ovulation.

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    Sriraman, Venkataraman; Denis, Deborah; de Matos, Daniel; Yu, Henry; Palmer, Stephen; Nataraja, Selva

    2014-05-15

    FSH signalling through its cognate receptor is critical for follicular development and ovulation. An earlier study had documented thiazolidinone derivatives to activate FSH receptor expressed in CHO cells and rat granulosa cells; however development of this compound for clinical use was halted for unobvious reasons. The objective of the current study is to extend the previous investigations in detail on the ability of thiazolidinone derivative (henceforth referred to as Compound 5) to activate FSH signalling and learn the barriers that preclude development of this derivative for clinical purposes. Our results demonstrate that the Compound 5 in a dose-dependent manner stimulated cAMP production, activated AKT and ERK signalling pathways and induced estradiol production in cultured rat granulosa cells. Compound 5 also caused dose-dependent increase in estradiol production from human granulosa cells. In increasingly more complex in vitro systems, Compound 5 was able to induce the expansion of mouse cumulus-oocyte-complex and support in vitro development of mouse preantral follicle to preovulatory stage and release of oocyte from the follicle. In vivo, the compound stimulated preovulatory follicular development and ovulation in immature rats. Pharmacokinetic and safety investigations reveal poor oral availability and genotoxicity. Together, our results document Compound 5 to act as a FSHR allosteric modulator but have poor pharmacological properties for development of an oral FSH receptor modulator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Update on the Clinical Development of Candidate Malaria Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballou, W. R; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Carucci, Daniel; Richie, Thomas L; Corradin, Giampietro; Diggs, Carter; Druilhe, Pierre; Giersing, Birgitte K; Saul, Allan; Heppner, D. G

    2004-01-01

    ... powerful driver for stimulating clinical development of candidate vaccines for malaria. This new way forward promises to greatly increase the likelihood of bringing a safe and effective vaccine to licensure...

  6. Ovule-to-seed development in Dovyalis caffra (Salicaceae: Flacourtieae with notes on the taxonomic significance of the extranucellar embryo sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Steyn

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dovyalis caffra (Hook.f. & Harv. Hook.f. is a widespread and horticulturally important southern African endemic. Here described, ovule-to-seed development represents the first embryological information on this genus of the tribe Flacourtieae, Salicaceae  sensu lato. Results are discussed in the light of data available on the embryology of the order Malpighiales in general and on the tribe Flacourtieae in particular. It is clear that Dovyalis E.Mey. ex Am. shares many characters with other members of the Flacourtieae. Ovules of D. caffra are anatropous. bitegmic and crassinucellate with both bisporic Allium- and monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One of the most characteristic embryological features of the tribe is the pres­ence of an unusual, extranucellar embryo sac that stretches halfway up into the micropyle. Since this extraordinary-shaped embryo sac also defines the embryo sacs of Salix L. and Populus L., it is suggested that the character provides strong sup­port for the proposed close phylogenetic link between tribes Flacourtieae and Saliceae of Salicaceae sensu lato.

  7. Identification of new ovulation-related genes in humans by comparing the transcriptome of granulosa cells before and after ovulation triggering in the same controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissing, M L; Kristensen, S G; Andersen, C Y

    2014-01-01

    . Many new ovulation-related genes were revealed, such as CD24, ANKRD22, CLDN11 and FBXO32. FF estrogen, androstenedione and anti-Müllerian hormone decreased significantly while progesterone increased, accompanied by radical changes in the expression of steroidogenic genes (CYP17A, CYP19A, HSD11B1......, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The present dataset was generated from women under hormonal stimulation. However, comparison with a macaque natural cycle whole follicle ovulation dataset revealed major overlap, supporting the idea that the ovulation-related genes found in this study are relevant in the human natural...... cycle. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These data will serve as a research resource for genes involved in human ovulation and final oocyte maturation. Ovulation-related genes might be good candidate biomarkers of follicle and oocyte health. Further, some of the ovulation-related genes may serve...

  8. Leadership scheme to develop the careers of talented candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynas, Karen

    2012-02-01

    The Top Leaders programme supports career development by identifying talented staff and equipping them with a range of management skills and approaches. The programme uses a diagnostic test to help candidates assess their strengths, leadership styles and development needs, and offers them 360 degrees feedback. This enables them to identify areas they need to develop to be effective and supportive leaders. Two case studies illustrate the programme in action.

  9. The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ≥7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (Pllama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  11. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P₄-ATPase ALA3 reduces adaptability to temperature stresses and impairs vegetative, pollen, and ovule development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    Full Text Available Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to help create asymmetry in lipid bilayers by flipping specific lipids between the leaflets of a membrane. This asymmetry is believed to be central to the formation of vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a P4-ATPase associated with the trans-Golgi network (ALA3 was previously reported to be important for vegetative growth and reproductive success. Here we show that multiple phenotypes for ala3 knockouts are sensitive to growth conditions. For example, ala3 rosette size was observed to be dependent upon both temperature and soil, and varied between 40% and 80% that of wild-type under different conditions. We also demonstrate that ala3 mutants have reduced fecundity resulting from a combination of decreased ovule production and pollen tube growth defects. In-vitro pollen tube growth assays showed that ala3 pollen germinated ∼2 h slower than wild-type and had approximately 2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length. In genetic crosses under conditions of hot days and cold nights, pollen fitness was reduced by at least 90-fold; from ∼18% transmission efficiency (unstressed to less than 0.2% (stressed. Together, these results support a model in which ALA3 functions to modify endomembranes in multiple cell types, enabling structural changes, or signaling functions that are critical in plants for normal development and adaptation to varied growth environments.

  12. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Katrin; Bhide, Amey S; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  13. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ehlers

    Full Text Available Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2 are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16 is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes for Female Sterility in Pomegranate Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate has two types of flowers on the same plant: functional male flowers (FMF and bisexual flowers (BF. BF are female-fertile flowers that can set fruits. FMF are female-sterile flowers that fail to set fruit and that eventually drop. The putative cause of pomegranate FMF female sterility is abnormal ovule development. However, the key stage at which the FMF pomegranate ovules become abnormal and the mechanism of regulation of pomegranate female sterility remain unknown. Here, we studied ovule development in FMF and BF, using scanning electron microscopy to explore the key stage at which ovule development was terminated and then analyzed genes differentially expressed (differentially expressed genes – DEGs between FMF and BF to investigate the mechanism responsible for pomegranate female sterility. Ovule development in FMF ceased following the formation of the inner integument primordium. The key stage for the termination of FMF ovule development was when the bud vertical diameter was 5.0–13.0 mm. Candidate genes influencing ovule development may be crucial factors in pomegranate female sterility. INNER OUTER (INO/YABBY4 (Gglean016270 and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT homolog genes (Gglean003340 and Gglean011480, which regulate the development of the integument, showed down-regulation in FMF at the key stage of ovule development cessation (ATNSII. Their upstream regulator genes, such as AGAMOUS-like (AG-like (Gglean028014, Gglean026618, and Gglean028632 and SPOROCYTELESS (SPL homolog genes (Gglean005812, also showed differential expression pattern between BF and FMF at this key stage. The differential expression of the ethylene response signal genes, ETR (ethylene-resistant (Gglean022853 and ERF1/2 (ethylene-responsive factor (Gglean022880, between FMF and BF indicated that ethylene signaling may also be an important factor in the development of pomegranate female sterility. The increase in BF observed after spraying with ethephon supported this

  15. SOFT SKILLS COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL TEACHER CANDIDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vocational education curriculum 2013 that applied nationally in the academic year 2014/2015 mandated that religious subject added character educational in which contactwith aspects of soft skills. This needs to be addressed by LPTK as producer vocational teacher candidate, so that future graduates are able to fulfill the mandate of the curriculum. Curriculum vocational teacher candidates who applied seems also still focused on providing hard skills competencies, so that graduates do not have adequate soft skills competence. On the other hand in the world of work has been going on trend shift in terms of hard skills to soft skills.Research and development is designed to go through stages and multiyear to produce soft skills development strategy for prospective teachers of vocational school. Development strategy departs from theoretical studies and mapping needs soft skills aspects of relevant research, analysis and LPTK vocational curriculum, soft skills needs and job requirements of future trends, soft skills required by vocational teachers, teaching soft skills already there, done to map the needs and later for further development until the hypothetical model generated Late models. Subjects were LPTK lecturers, teachers of vocational productive industrials. Data were obtained by observation and interviews, review of documents that the results were analyzed with descriptive qualitative and quantitative techniques. There are several aspects of the soft skills required candidates vocational school teachers, among others: (1 self-discipline, (2 responsibility, (3 the spirit of the work, (4 problem solving, (5 collaboration, (6 the ability of communication, (7 personality, (8 social attitudes, (9 critical thinking, (10 creative thinking and innovative, (11 confidence and (12 self-motivation. Soft skills development strategy skills prospective teachers through extra-curricular with gradual pattern through four stages, namely: (1 the development of

  16. Genetics of ovulation rate in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.

  17. Ovulation induction: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Ioannis E

    2005-10-01

    Ovulation induction is the method for treating anovulatory infertility. For patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, the treatment involves administration of both FSH and LH, while HCG is injected for follicle rupture. Pulsatile GnRH has the same effectiveness as gonadotrophins and the advantage of the low multiple pregnancy rate. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the first treatment choice is clomiphene citrate. With this drug, in properly selected patients, the cumulative pregnancy rate approaches that of normal women. Low-dose protocols of FSH are the second line of treatment, effective in inducing monofollicular development. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling can be an alternative but not as a first choice treatment in clomiphene-resistant patients. Other treatments, such as pulsatile GnRH and GnRH agonists, are hardly used today in PCOS. However, in obese women with PCOS, weight loss and exercise should be recommended as the first line of therapy. Newer agents including aromatase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers, although promising, need further evaluation.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 is required for ovulation and corpus luteum formation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylah D Deady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovulation is critical for successful reproduction and correlates with ovarian cancer risk, yet genetic studies of ovulation have been limited. It has long been thought that the mechanism controlling ovulation is highly divergent due to speciation and fast evolution. Using genetic tools available in Drosophila, we now report that ovulation in Drosophila strongly resembles mammalian ovulation at both the cellular and molecular levels. Just one of up to 32 mature follicles per ovary pair loses posterior follicle cells ("trimming" and protrudes into the oviduct, showing that a selection process prefigures ovulation. Follicle cells that remain after egg release form a "corpus luteum (CL" at the end of the ovariole, develop yellowish pigmentation, and express genes encoding steroid hormone biosynthetic enzymes that are required for full fertility. Finally, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2, a type of protease thought to facilitate mammalian ovulation, is expressed in mature follicle and CL cells. Mmp2 activity is genetically required for trimming, ovulation and CL formation. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of Drosophila ovulation and establish Drosophila as a model for genetically investigating ovulation in diverse organisms, including mammals.

  19. Recent advancements in the hormonal stimulation of ovulation in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox RV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert V Knox Department of Animal Sciences, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Induction of ovulation for controlled breeding is available for use around the world, and conditions for practical application appear promising. Many of the hormones available, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its analogs, as well as porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH, have been shown to be effective for advancing or synchronizing ovulation in gilts and weaned sows. Each of the hormones has unique attributes with respect to the physiology of its actions, how it is administered, its efficacy, and approval for use. The timing for induction of ovulation during the follicle phase is critical as follicle maturity changes over time, and the success of the response is determined by the stage of follicle development. Female fertility is also a primary factor affecting the success of ovulation induction and fixed time insemination protocols. Approximately 80%–90% of female pigs will develop mature follicles following weaning in sows and synchronization of estrus in gilts. However, those gilts and sows with follicles that are less developed and mature, or those that develop with abnormalities, will not respond to an ovulatory surge of LH. To address this problem, some protocols induce follicle development in all females, which can improve the overall reliability of the ovulation response. Control of ovulation is practical for use with fixed time artificial insemination and should prove highly advantageous for low-dose and single-service artificial insemination and for use with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted sperm. Keywords: artificial insemination, follicle, hormone, ovulation, swine

  20. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  1. N-acetyl cysteine in ovulation induction of PCOS women underwent intrauterine insemination: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Behrouzi Lak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was proposed as an adjuvant to clomiphene citratefor ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS without clomiphene citrate resistance. Objective: To evaluate the effect of NAC on pregnancy rate in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 97 PCOS women aged 18-38 years were enrolled in two groups, randomly. For the case group (n=49, NAC (1.2 gr+ clomiphene citrate (100 mg + letrozole (5mg were prescribed Daily from the third day of menstruation cycle for five days. The control group (n=48 had the same drug regimen without NAC. In order to follicular development, GONALF was injected on days of 7-11 menstrual cycles in all participants. When the follicle size was 18mm or more, HCG (10000 IU was injected intramuscular and the intrauterine insemination was performed after 34-36 hr. Results: There were not significant differences between study groups regarding mean endometrial thickness (p=0.14, mean number of mature follicles (p=0.20 and the pregnancy rate (p=0.09. Conclusion: NAC is ineffective in inducing or augmenting ovulation in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination and cannot be recommended as an adjuvant to CC in such patients.

  2. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET in camels: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy S. Vettical

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in other domestic animal species like cattle, reproductive biotechnologies like Artificial Insemination (AI and Embryo Transfer (ET are not well developed and thus are not being used as routine breeding procedures in camels. One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on analyzing the present status of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET in camels and its future perspectives. Camels are induced ovulators, thus require hormonal treatment to induce ovulation and control the follicular cycles, which is the main reason why protocols used in other domestic animal species cannot be directly used in this species. The review suggests that the best method for super stimulation of ovaries in camels is use of a combination of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH at any stage after elimination of dominant follicle if any or at the early stage of the follicular wave and ovulation of the developed multiple follicles can be achieved by mating donors. The review highlights that a better pregnancy rate is achieved with recipients who ovulate 24 h after the donor.

  3. Supporting Clinical Practice Candidates in Learning Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.; Sudeck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to monitor pre-service teacher candidates' progression and implementation of the learning community philosophy along with classroom management strategies. The study took place during their final semester of clinical practice. Data were collected from self-reports, surveys, university supervisor…

  4. Developing HALM Teaching Competencies in PETE Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven; Zanandrea, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The lifetime activities approach, which grew out of the lifetime physical activity model, has informed the practice of one physical education teacher education (PETE) program as it prepares teacher candidates to teach K-12 students about the importance of health, health-related fitness, and physical activity. Health-enhancing behaviors such as…

  5. CVExplorer: identifying candidate developers by mining and exploring their open source contributions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greene, GJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Open source code contributions contain a large amount of technical skill information about developers, which can help to identify suitable candidates for a particular development job and therefore impact the success of a development team. We develop...

  6. Developing Expertise: Using Video to Hone Teacher Candidates' Classroom Observation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Steadman, Sharilyn C.; Stapleton, Joy; Hodge, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the impact of a video observation model developed for teacher candidates in an early experiences course. Video Grand Rounds (VGR) combines a structured observation protocol, videos, and directed debriefing to enhance teacher candidates' observations skills within nonstructured and field-based observations. A comparative…

  7. Leishmaniasis vaccine candidates for development: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali; Rafati, Sima; Davoudi, Noushin; Maboudi, Fereidoun; Modabber, Farrokh

    2006-03-01

    A vaccine against different forms of leishmaniasis should be feasible considering the wealth of information on genetics and biology of the parasite, clinical and experimental immunology of leishmaniasis, and the availability of vaccines that can protect experimental animals against challenge with different Leishmania species. However, there is no vaccine against any form of leishmaniasis for general human use. One major factor is the lack of a conceived market for human leishmaniasis vaccines. Hence pharmaceutical industries involved in vaccine development are not interested in investing millions of dollars and a decade that is required for developing a new vaccine. Besides, leishmaniasis is a local/regional problem and not a global one. According to the estimates of the World Health Organization, 90 per cent of visceral leishmaniasis occurs in five countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal and Sudan). Those in need are amongst the poorest people in these countries. It should therefore be the objectives of these countries to develop a vaccine. Fortunately, both Brazil and India have designated the control of visceral leishmaniasis as a top priority for their respective Ministries of Health. The purpose of this review is to present only the vaccines in use and those in development for use in dogs or humans. This is not an exhaustive review of vaccine discovery or the principles of clinical immunology underlying vaccine development.

  8. Developing integrated crop knowledge networks to advance candidate gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Castellote, Martin; Esch, Maria; Hindle, Matthew; Lysenko, Artem; Taubert, Jan; Rawlings, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    The chances of raising crop productivity to enhance global food security would be greatly improved if we had a complete understanding of all the biological mechanisms that underpinned traits such as crop yield, disease resistance or nutrient and water use efficiency. With more crop genomes emerging all the time, we are nearer having the basic information, at the gene-level, to begin assembling crop gene catalogues and using data from other plant species to understand how the genes function and how their interactions govern crop development and physiology. Unfortunately, the task of creating such a complete knowledge base of gene functions, interaction networks and trait biology is technically challenging because the relevant data are dispersed in myriad databases in a variety of data formats with variable quality and coverage. In this paper we present a general approach for building genome-scale knowledge networks that provide a unified representation of heterogeneous but interconnected datasets to enable effective knowledge mining and gene discovery. We describe the datasets and outline the methods, workflows and tools that we have developed for creating and visualising these networks for the major crop species, wheat and barley. We present the global characteristics of such knowledge networks and with an example linking a seed size phenotype to a barley WRKY transcription factor orthologous to TTG2 from Arabidopsis, we illustrate the value of integrated data in biological knowledge discovery. The software we have developed (www.ondex.org) and the knowledge resources (http://knetminer.rothamsted.ac.uk) we have created are all open-source and provide a first step towards systematic and evidence-based gene discovery in order to facilitate crop improvement.

  9. SYNCHRONIZATION OF OVULATION IN BEEF HERDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IMPROVED CONCEPTION RATE AFTER AND INTERRUPTED COURSE ... with normal first insemination figures uncomplicated by synchronization and ... get her pregnant again so that she can consistently recalve ... Delayed ovulation may also contribute towards lower .... Effect of syttdtottizotbn on genad hcrd fatility.

  10. Development of recombinant vaccine candidate molecule against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, S T S; Kaur, G; Sivaramakrishna, U; Singh, D; Bansal, A

    2016-10-17

    Shigellosis is an acute bacillary diarrheal disease caused by the gram negative bacillus Shigella. The existence of multiple Shigella serotypes and their growing resistance to antibiotics stress the urgent need for the development of vaccine that is protective across all serotypes. Shigella's IpaB antigen is involved in translocon pore formation, promotes bacterial invasion and induces apoptosis in macrophages. S. Typhi GroEL (Hsp 60) is the immunodominant antigen inducing both arms of immunity and has been explored as adjuvant in this study. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant IpaB domain-GroEL fusion protein in mice against lethal Shigella infection. The IpaB domain and GroEL genes were fused using overlap extension PCR and cloned in pRSETA expression vector. Fused gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 cells and the resulting 90 KDa fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization of mice with fusion protein increased the IgG and IgA antibody titers as compared to the group immunized with IpaB and GroEL and control PBS immunized group. Also IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies induced in fusion protein immunized mice were higher than co-immunized group. Significant increase in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10), indicates induction of both Th1 and Th2 immune responses in both immunized groups. Immunization with fusion protein protected 90-95% of mice whereas 80-85% survivability was observed in co-immunized group against lethal challenge with S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei. Passive immunization conferred 60-70% protection in mice against all these Shigella species. Organ burden and histopathology studies also revealed significant decrease in lung infection as compared to the co-immunized group. Since IpaB is the conserved dominant molecule in all Shigella species, this study will lead to an ideal platform for the development of safe

  11. Developing the Sufficiency Perception Scale in the Area of Accompaniment with Piano for Candidate Music Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    PİJİ, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    The music teacher’s accompanying the songs by piano in music education at schoolappears to be important regarding the development of melody, rhythm and harmony feelingsof the students. The music teacher candidates receive their knowledge and skill in the areaof piano accompaniment through the Accompaniment lesson within the Music TeachingLicense Program. In this research, with the purpose of defining the perception of sufficiencyregarding the accompaniment levels of music teacher candidates a...

  12. Ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavath, Balasubramanian; Carson, Sandra A

    2012-03-01

    Infertility is frequently caused by anovulation. The affected women present with irregular menstrual cycles and the most common diagnosis is polycystic ovary syndrome. Ovulation induction is commonly used to treat these women. Clomiphene citrate (a selective estrogen receptor modulator or SERM) remains the most used medication for treating this condition. Alternatives that have been used include other SERMs such as tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, insulin sensitizing agents, and ovarian drilling. Evidence for and against the effectiveness of these agents has fluctuated over the last decade. Controversies surrounding the use of ovulation induction such as development of functional cysts, high-order multiple births, and development of ovarian cancer have been further studied and some controversies have almost been laid to rest in the last decade. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adventive plants from ovules and nucelli in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochba, J; Spiegel-Roy, P; Safran, H

    1972-09-01

    1- to 8-week-old ovules and nucelli from three Citrus cultivars-Shamouti and Valencia (Citrus sinensis) oranges and Marsh Seedless (C. paradisi) grapefruit-were cultured in vitro. No embryo differentiation was observed in the explants prior to culture. The Shamouti ovules had degenerated and were apparently unfertilized. Embryoids formed on Murashige and Tucker nutrient medium supplemented with 500 mg/l malt extract. Whole plants developed on the same basal medium supplemented with kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), coconut milk or gibberellic acid (GA3). A higher kinetin/IAA ratio or the addition of coconut milk favoured stem elongation more than root formation while a lower kinetin/IAA ratio favoured root formation and inhibited stem elongation. The addition of GA3 to the basal medium stimulated rooting and stem elongation. These results can be of aid in mutation research, allowing irradiation at stages prior to embryonic development.

  14. Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Ovules Is Anther-Dependent at Maturation and Changes Dynamically upon Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Larsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin is a vital component for plant reproduction as it regulates the development of both male and female reproductive organs, including ovules and gynoecia. Furthermore, auxin plays important roles in the development and growth of seeds and fruits. Auxin responses can be detected in ovules shortly after fertilization, and it has been suggested that this accumulation is a prerequisite for the developmental reprogramming of the ovules to seeds, and of the gynoecium to a fruit. However, the roles of auxin at the final stages of ovule development, and the sources of auxin leading to the observed responses in ovules after fertilization have remained elusive. Here we have characterized the auxin readout in Arabidopsis ovules, at the pre-anthesis, anthesis and in the immediate post-fertilization stages, using the R2D2 auxin sensor. In addition we have mapped the expression of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation genes, as well as that of auxin transporting proteins, during the same developmental stages. These analyses reveal specific spatiotemporal patterns of the different auxin homeostasis regulators. Auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin transport proteins define a pre-patterning of vascular cell identity in the pre-anthesis funiculus. Furthermore, our data suggests that auxin efflux from the ovule is restricted in an anther-dependent manner, presumably to synchronize reproductive organ development and thereby optimizing the chances of successful fertilization. Finally, de novo auxin biosynthesis together with reduced auxin conjugation and transport result in an enhanced auxin readout throughout the sporophytic tissues of the ovules soon after fertilization. Together, our results suggest a sophisticated set of regulatory cascades that allow successful fertilization and the subsequent transition of the female reproductive structures into seeds and fruits.

  15. Ovulation following gonadotrophin treatment and determination of serum estradiol and progesterone by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, B.; Lisse, K.; Ittrich, G.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gonadotrophins to release ovulation is indicated in women with urgent desire for children and with negative response to clomiphene therapy. 69 patients treated with 100 therapeutic gonadotrophin series were examined. Estrogens and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. The treatment resulted in ovulation in 54 women, 12 patients developed an ovarian reaction with an increase of estrogen, and in 34 cases no ovarian response was detectable. 6 women became pregnant during gonadotrophin therapy and further 2 after treatment

  16. Effect of Ovule Position within the Pod on the Probability of Seed Production in Bauhinia ungulata (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENA-ALÍ, JORGE I.; ROCHA, OSCAR J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims It has been claimed that ovules linearly ordered within a fruit differ in their probabilities of reaching maturity. This was investigated by studying the effect the position of an ovule within the pod has on seed abortion and seed production in Bauhinia ungulata. • Methods Fruits collected during the dry seasons of 1999, 2000 and 2001 were opened, and the number, position and status of each ovule within the fruit were recorded. A GLM model was used to assess the effects of population, tree identity and ovule position within the pod on ovule fertilization, seed abortion, seed damage and seed maturation in two populations of B. ungulata. • Key Results Nearly 30 % of the ovules were not fertilized in 1999; this percentage dropped to 5 % the following two years. Seed abortion (50 %) and seed damage (15 %) were the same every year during the study period. Only 15 % of the initial ovules developed into mature seeds in 1999; this value increased to 35 % in 2000 and 2001. However, seed survivorship was dependent on the position of the ovule within the pod; non-fertilized and early aborted ovules were found more often near the basal end of the ovary. The frequency of seed damage was not affected by position. Mature seeds were found mainly in the stylar half of fruits, where ovules are likely to be fertilized by fast pollen tubes. • Conclusions The pattern of seed production in B. ungulata is non-random but is dependent upon the position of the ovule within the pod. The results suggest that the seeds produced within a fruit might differ in their vigour. PMID:15596452

  17. Synchronisation of ovulation for management of reproduction in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Santos, J E P

    2014-05-01

    Important developments have occurred in the last two decades, since the advent of the Ovsynch protocol, on the understanding and use of synchronisation programmes for management of reproduction in dairy herds. This better understanding of oestrus cycle control associated with suboptimal reproductive performance in dairy herds has led dairy producers to quickly adopt timed artificial insemination (AI) protocols. Recent surveys have documented that fixed-time AI has become an important component of management of reproduction in high-producing herds. Furthermore, timed AI protocols have also demonstrated benefits in pasture-based milk production systems because of the ability to increase insemination rate. In general, successful use of the Ovsynch protocol requires some fundamental physiological principles to be respected, including: induction of ovulation to synchronise follicle growth in the first 2 days of the programme such that a young antral follicle is recruited; maintenance of high concentrations of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle, but also effectively lyse the corpus luteum to result in very low concentration of progesterone at AI; and having a healthy pre-ovulatory follicle of moderate diameter that is highly oestrogenic and responsive to gonadotropins to synchronously ovulate 12 to 18 h after insemination. Current methods oestrous and ovulation synchronisation are still not optimal and future improvements will likely require new technologies for hormone formulation and delivery such that additional interventions are minimised to maintain acceptance by producers.

  18. Baseline AMH Level Associated With Ovulation Following Ovulation Induction in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L; Legro, Richard S; Diamond, Michael P; Coutifaris, Christos; Steiner, Anne Z; Schlaff, William D; Alvero, Ruben; Christman, Gregory M; Casson, Peter R; Huang, Hao; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2016-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) reduces aromatase activity and sensitivity of follicles to FSH stimulation. Therefore, elevated serum AMH may indicate a higher threshold for response to ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study sought to determine the association between AMH levels and ovulatory response to treatment among the women enrolled into the Pregnancy in PCOS II (PPCOS II) trial. This was a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial in academic health centers throughout the United States Participants: A total of 748 women age 18-40 years, with PCOS and measured AMH levels at baseline, were included in this study. Couples were followed for up to five treatment cycles to determine ovulation (midluteal serum progesterone > 5 ng/mL) and the dose required to achieve ovulation. A lower mean AMH and AMH per follicle was observed among women who ovulated compared with women who never achieved ovulation during the study (geometric mean AMH, 5.54 vs 7.35 ng/mL; P = .0001; geometric mean AMH per follicle, 0.14 vs 0.18; P = .01) after adjustment for age, body mass index, T, and insulin level. As AMH levels increased, the dose of ovulation induction medication needed to achieve ovulation also increased. No associations were observed between antral follicle count and ovulation. These results suggest that high serum AMH is associated with a reduced response to ovulation induction among women with PCOS. Women with higher AMH levels may require higher doses of medication to achieve ovulation.

  19. Using a Teaching Philosophy Statement as a Professional Development Tool for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caukin, Nancy G.; Brinthaupt, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Most new teachers are expected to develop a teaching philosophy statement (TPS). In the present paper, we describe some of the major functions of a TPS and how it can be beneficial to the professional development of teacher candidates. We then describe a case example of a Residency I program and how the features of that program help teacher…

  20. The Perception of Educational Software Development Self-Efficacy among Undergraduate CEIT Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Adem; Ozkilic, Ruchan; Senturk, Aysan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze self-efficacy perceptions for education software development of teacher candidates studying at Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies, with respect to a range of variables. The Educational Software Development Self-Efficacy Perception Scale was used as data collection tool. Sixty…

  1. Use of urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide to confirm ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecochard, R; Leiva, R; Bouchard, T; Boehringer, H; Direito, A; Mariani, A; Fehring, R

    2013-10-01

    Urinary hormonal markers may assist in increasing the efficacy of Fertility Awareness Based Methods (FABM). This study uses urinary pregnanediol-3a-glucuronide (PDG) testing to more accurately identify the infertile phase of the menstrual cycle in the setting of FABM. Secondary analysis of an observational and simulation study, multicentre, European study. The study includes 107 women and tracks daily first morning urine (FMU), observed the changes in cervical mucus discharge, and ultrasonography to identify the day of ovulation over 326 menstrual cycles. The following three scenarios were tested: (A) use of the daily pregnandiol-3a-glucuronide (PDG) test alone; (B) use of the PDG test after the first positive urine luteinizing hormone (LH) kit result; (C) use of the PDG test after the disappearance of fertile type mucus. Two models were used: (1) one day of PDG positivity; or (2) waiting for three days of PDG positivity before declaring infertility. After the first positivity of a LH test or the end of fertile mucus, three consecutive days of PDG testing over a threshold of 5μg/mL resulted in a 100% specificity for ovulation confirmation. They were respectively associated an identification of an average of 6.1 and 7.6 recognized infertile days. The results demonstrate a clinical scenario with 100% specificity for ovulation confirmation and provide the theoretical background for a future development of a competitive lateral flow assay for the detection of PDG in the urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Y. Liu

    2013-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10 decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50 decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes.

  3. Bryological exploration: field-trip based learning to develop competencies of science teacher candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisanti; Astriani, D.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was analyze the competencies of science teacher candidate after the bryological exploration. The intended competence of science teacher candidate was the ability to apply the concept and science ability to explore plant diversity that could be found around the environment.This field trip was conducted by exploring liverworts, hornworts, and mosses as well. This descriptive research was conducted during March until April 2017 at Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA) and Sumber Brantas Arboretum in Malang, as the location of exploration. The subjects of this study were 76 candidate of teachers from science educations department, which is divided into three classes. The competences observed on this study were describing, identifying, collecting specimens, furthermore. The research instruments were observation sheets, product assessment sheets, and response questionnaire. The data were analyzed descriptive-quantitatively, in percentage and then categorized. The results of this study indicated that: the describing skill was categorized as ‘good’ identifying skill and collecting bryophytes was categorized as ‘very good’ and communicating skills was categorized ‘good’. In addition, the teacher candidates gave a very good response to field-trip-based learning. It can be concluded that the bryological exploration can develop the competences of science teacher candidates of Science Education Department of UNESA.

  4. 5 CFR 412.302 - Criteria for a Senior Executive Service candidate development program (SESCDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an SESCDP must have: (1) A documented development plan based upon a competency-based needs... candidate with respect to leadership competencies and the ECQs. Assignments need not be restricted to the... position created for developmental purposes connected with the SESCDP. Exercising its authority under § 302...

  5. Gonadotrophins for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Nienke S.; Nahuis, Marleen; Bayram, Neriman; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation induction with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is the second-line treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who do not ovulate or conceive on clomiphene citrate (CC). To compare the effectiveness and safety of gonadotrophins as a second-line treatment for ovulation

  6. Mono-ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch Petersen, Kathrine; Pedersen, Nina Gros; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    . Ovulation rates are improved by lifestyle interventions in overweight women. Metformin may improve the menstrual cycle within 1-3 months, but does not improve the live birth rate. Letrozole is effective for ovulation induction, but is an off-label drug in many countries. Ovulation induction in women...

  7. Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vause, Tannys D R; Cheung, Anthony P

    2010-05-01

    To review current non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This guideline reviews the evidence for the various options for ovulation induction in PCOS. Ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates, risks, and side effects are the outcomes of interest. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and of health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The evidence gathered was reviewed and evaluated by the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The quality of evidence was quantified using the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Benefits include weight reduction and improvements in ovulation, pregnancy, and live birth rates. Potential harms include medication side effects and multiple pregnancies. These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Committee of the SOGC. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Weight loss, exercise, and lifestyle modifications have been proven effective in restoring ovulatory cycles and achieving pregnancy in overweight women with PCOS and should be the first-line option for these women. (II-3A) Morbidly obese women should seek expert advice about pregnancy risk. (III-A) 2. Clomiphene citrate has been proven effective in ovulation induction for women with PCOS and should be considered the first-line therapy. Patients should be informed that there is an increased risk

  8. Technology pedagogy: Six teacher candidates' developing pedagogical models for the use of computers in science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Oddmund Reidar

    1997-12-01

    This study investigated how teacher candidates' developing pedagogical beliefs and knowledge of technology influenced their perception of such tools in the teaching of subject matter as they complete the initial course work of their professional program. The purpose of the study was to conceptualize more clearly the relationship between prospective teachers' thinking about computer technology and the content of their professional education. A case study methodology was used to investigate changes in six pre-service secondary science teachers' thinking about technology as a pedagogical tool. Two of the teachers had extensive experience with technology upon entering the teacher preparation course-work, whereas the other four were novice computer users. Data included three semi structured interviews and non-participant observations during the technology course-work. Additional data were collected in the form of interviews with university faculty and cooperating teachers. Analysis of these data indicated that prospective candidates entered teacher education viewing technology as a tool that supports a teacher centered classroom. As the candidates explored more student centered approaches to teaching, they found less room for technology in their images of their future practice. The data also indicated that the technology course-work was isolated from the rest of the teacher education program and many of the misconceptions about technology that the candidates brought to their professional preparation were left unchallenged.

  9. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  10. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and uterine length of developing gilts fed two lysine and three metabolizable energy concentrations from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements, and to determine relationships between these traits and growth trajectories. Crossbred Large White × L...

  11. HMG versus rFSH for ovulation induction in developing countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis based on the results of a recent meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Inany, Hesham G; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Aboulghar, Mohamed A; Mansour, Ragaa T; Serour, Gamal I

    2006-02-01

    Both cost and effectiveness should be considered conjointly to aid judgments about drug choice. Therefore, based on the results of a recent published meta-analysis, a Markov model was developed to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis for estimation of the cost of an ongoing pregnancy in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. In addition, Monte Carlo micro-simulation was used to examine the potential impact of assumptions and other uncertainties represented in the model. The results of the study reveal that the estimated average cost of an ongoing pregnancy is 13,946 Egyptian pounds (EGP), and 18,721 EGP for a human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) and rFSH cycle respectively. On performing a sensitivity analysis on cycle costs, it was demonstrated that the rFSH price should be 0.61 EGP/IU to be as cost-effective as HMG at the price of 0.64 EGP/IU (i.e. around 60% reduction in its current price). The difference in cost between HMG and rFSH in over 100,000 cycles would result in an additional 4565 ongoing pregnancies if HMG was used. Therefore, HMG was clearly more cost-effective than rFSH. The decision to adopt a more expensive, cost-ineffective treatment could result in a lower number of cycles of IVF/ICSI treatment undertaken, especially in the case of most developing countries.

  12. Development of an inactivated candidate vaccine against Chandipura virus (Rhabdoviridae: Vesiculovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadi, R S; Sudeep, A B; Barde, P V; Arankalle, V A; Mishra, A C

    2011-06-20

    A Vero cell based vaccine candidate against Chandipura (CHP) virus (Rhabdoviridae: Vesiculovirus), was developed and evaluated for immunogenicity in mice. Virus was purified by ultracentrifugation on 30% glycerol cushion followed by differential centrifugation on 10-60% sucrose gradient and inactivated with β-propio lactone at a concentration of 1:3500. The inactivated product was blended with aluminium phosphate (3%) and immunized 4-week-old Swiss albino mice. Neutralizing antibodies in the range of 1:10 to 160 and 1:80 to 1:320 was detected with 85% and 100% sero-conversion after 2nd and 3rd dose, respectively. All the immunized mice with antibody titer above 1:20 survived live virus challenge. The vaccine candidate has potential to be an efficient vaccine against CHP virus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Candidate Screening for the Recruitment of Critical Research and Development Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin

    inventive activity make a candidate attractive for firms specializing in clean technology or mechanical elements. The report is based on a combination of survey and experimental data collected from 194 HR decision makers in German high-tech firms and from 89 technology experts in the clean technology......The report focuses on résumé-based screening strategies for the recruitment of highly qualified research and development (R&D) workers (critical R&D workers) in high-tech firms. We investigate which kinds of professional background, job-related experience, motivations, specific skills, and previous...... and mechanical elements fields. A mixed logit model is used to analyse hiring preferences because this model allows us to deal with repeated choices. We find that HR decision makers prefer candidates with technology-specific patenting experience, an engineering background, analytical thinking skills...

  14. Selecting Soldiers and Civilians into the U.S. Army Officer Candidate School : Developing Empirical Selection Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    ultimately led to the development of the Officer Selection Battery ( OSB ),4 which was administered to incoming OCS candidates in 1975. The Army...officially authorized the use of the OSB for selecting OCS candidates in 1979, where it remained for a number of years. However, no other selection tool...replaced the OSB for screening OCS candidates after it was dropped from use. The current eligibility requirements for both in-service and

  15. The comparative study of anatomical structure of stem and ovule development of four cultivars of Glycine max L. merr in water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Jonoubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important limiting factors that affect different aspects of plants vegetative and reproductive growth. It is one of the most important limiting factors of crop productivity. Regarding to the importance of soybean as an oilseed plant, and in order to identify the drought tolerant cultivars as well as evaluating of the effects of drought stress on anatomical structureof four soybean cultivars (Clin, Clark, M9 and L17, two series of experiments were carried out as randomized complete design. In the first experiment, at optimum conditions, plants were irrigated after 50 mm evaporation from germination to the end of growing period, whereas the second experiment was irrigated after 150 mm (sever stress evaporation from evaporation pan. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on cortex thickness and number of layers, Phloem and xylem thickness, diameter of vessel elements, number of vessel element rows, number of vessel elements in stem, pith and stele thickness, stem diameter and number of trichomes were significant. Relative acceleration of embryo sac development was observed in all plants under water deficit stress except for Clark cultivar. Evaluation of anatomical factors on these cultivars showed that Clin cultivar was more tolerant to water deficit stress compared to other cultivars.

  16. Update on Multiple Ovulations in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Kira; Kastelic, John P; Colazo, Marcos G

    2018-04-24

    This review updates the causal mechanisms and risk factors for multiple ovulations (MOV) in cattle. Clearly, MOV can lead to twin pregnancies, which negatively affects the health, production, and reproduction of cows. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors causing MOV may help to reduce twinning. Multiple ovulations occur after two or more follicles deviate and achieve codominance. The MOV rate is influenced by a complex network of hormones. For example, MOV is more common during periods of low progesterone (P4), that is, in anovulatory cattle or when luteolysis coincides with the selection of the future ovulatory follicle. There is also strong evidence for the luteinizing hormone (LH) being the primary factor leading to codominance, as high P4 concentrations suppress the transient LH surges and can reduce the ovulation rate in cattle or even inhibit deviation. Rates of MOV are increased in older and higher-producing dairy cows. Increased milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) increases hormone clearance, including P4; however, the association between milk yield and MOV has not been consistent. Additional risk factors for MOV include ovarian cysts, diet, season, and genetics.

  17. Development of Candidate Reference Materials of Endosulfan Sulfate and Bifenthrin in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhani Aryana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The candidate reference materials of endosulfan sulfate and bifenthrin in black tea have been developed according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Preparation of candidate material includes grinding and sieving of the black tea leaves, spiking the black tea powder by both analytes, homogenization, and bottling. Homogeneity and short-term stability test were performed using a GC-µECD instrument. Meanwhile, the characterization was carried out by a collaborative study using both of GC-µECD and GC-MS instruments. The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample inhomogeneity, short-term instability and variability in the characterization procedure. In a dry mass fraction, endosulfan sulfate was assigned to be 491 µg kg-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of ± 33.2%, and bifenthrin was assigned to be 937 µg kg-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of ± 18.5%. The candidate reference materials are aimed to support the need of matrix CRM especially for the measurement of pesticide residue for quality assurance work done by laboratories in Indonesia.

  18. Development, evaluation, and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The seven candidate waste forms, evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and gelogic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes were borosilicate glass, SYNROC, tailored ceramic, high-silica glass, FUETAP concrete, coated sol-gel particles, and glass marbles in a lead matrix. The evaluation, completed on August 1, 1981, combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at Department of Energy (DOE) defense waste-sites and at independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate-based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms, respectively, for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. The borosilicate glass and ceramic forms were further compared during FY-1982 on the basis of risk assessments, cost comparisons, properties comparisons, and conformance with proposed regulatory and repository criteria. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at DOE defense HLW sites; they are also candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This paper describes the waste form screening process, discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms in 1981, and presents a brief summary of the comparisons of the two forms during 1982 and the selection process to determine the final form for SRP defense HLW

  19. Professional Identity Development of Teacher Candidates Participating in an Informal Science Education Internship: A Focus on Drawings as Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Phyllis; McGinnis, J. Randy; Hestness, Emily; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Dai, Amy; Pease, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the professional identity development of teacher candidates participating in an informal afterschool science internship in a formal science teacher preparation programme. We used a qualitative research methodology. Data were collected from the teacher candidates, their informal internship mentors, and the researchers. The…

  20. Implementing Action Research and Professional Learning Communities in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…

  1. Effect of postpartum suppression of ovulation on uterine involution in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Heppelmann, M; Brömmling, A; Weinert, M; Piechotta, M; Wrenzycki, C; Bollwein, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of time of first postpartum ovulation after calving on uterine involution in dairy cows with and without uterine puerperal disease. Transvaginal follicular puncture (FP) of follicles >6 mm suppressed ovulation and development of a CL until Day 42 after calving. Fifty-three lactating Holstein Friesian cows (3.4 ± 1.2 years old, parity 2.5 ± 1.0 [median ± mean absolute deviation]) were divided into groups on the basis of the presence (UD...

  2. Spontaneous ovulation or male effect in alpacas and llamas

    OpenAIRE

    Sumar JB

    2016-01-01

    New discoveries in ovulation induced mammals, researchers considered the question of whether spontaneous and induced ovulations are distinct entities or individual parts of a single continuum of a “malefacilitated oestrus and ovulation”. This rigid classification should be taken with precaution, because is possible that the various mechanisms involved in the spontaneous ovulation can, under specific conditions coexist in some determined species. It is possible that male hormones can provoke t...

  3. Production of interspecific Campanula hybrids by ovule culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röper, A. C.; Lütken, H.; Christensen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Campanula genus comprises several economically important ornamental plants species. Wide hybridisation is a method to increase phenotypic variability, but is limited due to interspecies hybridisation barriers. In this study we investigated whether ovule culture could be used to increase....... With this study, a protocol for ovule culture was established and the usefulness of ovule culture to obtain interspecific hybrids of selected Campanula species was demonstrated....

  4. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  5. Current evidence supporting "letrozole" for ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitor "letrozole" was first introduced as a potential ovulation induction (OI drug almost a decade back. Large number of studies has been published using letrozole for OI: In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women, clomiphene citrate (CC resistant women, for intrauterine insemination and also in various protocols of mild stimulation for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. Letrozole appears to be a good option, with its oral route of administration, cost, shorter half-life and negligible side effects. However, the verdict on efficacy and safety of letrozole is still uncertain. This review explores the current scientific data supporting letrozole for OI.

  6. A comparison of the structure of ovules and seeds in Stemona (Stemonaceae) and Pentastemona (Pentastemonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, F.; Devente, N.

    1992-01-01

    Stemona and Pentastemona differ clearly in the size and structure of their ovules and seeds. Especially the development, shape, and cell wall thickenings of the endotestal cells, and by consequence the origin of the seed ridges, show marked differences. The embryological and seed anatomical

  7. Flow cytometric analysis of FSHR, BMRR1B, LHR and apoptosis in granulosa cells and ovulation rate in merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sheena L P; McFarlane, James R; O'Shea, Tim; Andronicos, Nicholas; Arfuso, Frank; Dharmarajan, Arun; Almahbobi, Ghanim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the direct cause of the mutation-induced, increased ovulation rate in Booroola Merino (BB) sheep. Granulosa cells were removed from antral follicles before ovulation and post-ovulation from BB (n=5) and WT (n=12) Merino ewes. Direct immunofluorescence measurement of mature cell surface receptors using flow cytometry demonstrated a significant up-regulation of FSH receptor (FSHR), transforming growth factor beta type 1, bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR1B), and LH receptor (LHR) in BB sheep. The increased density of FSHR and LHR provide novel evidence of a mechanism for increasing the number of follicles that are recruited during dominant follicle selection. The compounding increase in receptors with increasing follicle size maintained the multiple follicles and reduced the apoptosis, which contributed to a high ovulation rate in BB sheep. In addition, we report a mutation-independent mechanism of down-regulation to reduce receptor density of the leading dominant follicle in sheep. The suppression of receptor density coincides with the cessation of mitogenic growth and steroidogenic differentiation as part of the luteinization of the follicle. The BB mutation-induced attenuation of BMPR1B signaling led to an increased density of the FSHR and LHR and a concurrent reduction in apoptosis to increase the ovulation rate. The role of BMPs in receptor modulation is implicated in the development of multiple ovulations. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  8. The induction of ovulation by pulsatile administration of GnRH: an appropriate method in hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Fotini; Pitteloud, Nelly; Gomez, Fulgencio

    2017-08-01

    The induction of ovulation by the means of a pump which assures the pulsatile administration of GnRH is a well-known method that applies to women suffering from amenorrhea of hypothalamic origin. Although a simple and efficient method to establish fertility, it is underused. Twelve patients suffering from this condition, 1 Kallmann syndrome, 4 normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and 7 functional hypothalamic amenorrhea desiring pregnancy were treated. They underwent one or more cycles of pulsatile GnRH, at a frequency of 90 minutes, either by the intravenous or the subcutaneous route. An initial dose of 5 μg per pulse in the intravenous route was administered and of 15 μg per pulse in the subcutaneous route. The treatment was monitored by regular dosing of gonadotropins, estradiol and progesterone, and the development of follicles and ovulation was monitored by intra-vaginal ultrasonography. All the patients had documented ovulation, after a mean of 17 days on pump stimulation. Single ovulation occurred in 30 of 33 treatment cycles, irrespective of the route of administration. Ovulation resulted in 10 pregnancies over 7 patients (2 pregnancies in 3 of them), distributed in the 3 diagnostic categories. For comparison, a patient with PCOS treated similarly, disclosed premature LH surge without ovulation.

  9. Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Candidate 1 Is Necessary for Correct Hematopoietic and B Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Deleyto-Seldas, Nerea; Dominguez, Veronica; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Ura, Kiyoe; Rocha, Pedro P; Kim, JungHyun; Aljoufi, Arafat; Esteve-Codina, Anna; Dabad, Marc; Gut, Marta; Heyn, Holger; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Nimura, Keisuke; Skok, Jane A; Martinez-Frias, Maria Luisa; Cobaleda, Cesar

    2017-05-23

    Immunodeficiency is one of the most important causes of mortality associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a severe rare disease originated by a deletion in chromosome 4p. The WHS candidate 1 (WHSC1) gene has been proposed as one of the main genes responsible for many of the alterations in WHS, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we present in vivo genetic evidence showing that Whsc1 plays an important role at several points of hematopoietic development. Particularly, our results demonstrate that both differentiation and function of Whsc1-deficient B cells are impaired at several key developmental stages due to profound molecular defects affecting B cell lineage specification, commitment, fitness, and proliferation, demonstrating a causal role for WHSC1 in the immunodeficiency of WHS patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Candidate 1 Is Necessary for Correct Hematopoietic and B Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Campos-Sanchez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency is one of the most important causes of mortality associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS, a severe rare disease originated by a deletion in chromosome 4p. The WHS candidate 1 (WHSC1 gene has been proposed as one of the main genes responsible for many of the alterations in WHS, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we present in vivo genetic evidence showing that Whsc1 plays an important role at several points of hematopoietic development. Particularly, our results demonstrate that both differentiation and function of Whsc1-deficient B cells are impaired at several key developmental stages due to profound molecular defects affecting B cell lineage specification, commitment, fitness, and proliferation, demonstrating a causal role for WHSC1 in the immunodeficiency of WHS patients.

  11. Identification and development of a promising novel mumps vaccine candidate strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Ma, Shaohui; Liu, Longding; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Jiang, Li; Xie, Zhongping; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Qihan

    2010-12-01

    Mumps epidemics are usually caused by airborne transmission of mumps virus (MuV) and have high morbidity in non-immunized children. Epidemiological studies in many regions of China show that the genotype F viral strain is the most prevalent. However, the genotype A strain is currently used to prepare vaccines. Regional epidemiological MuV data suggest a significant application for the development of live attenuated mumps vaccines targeting specific genotypes. This article reports the isolation and culture of a genotype F MuV candidate strain that could be used to prepare a live attenuated mumps vaccine. This strain is shown to have good immunological efficacy and stability in neurovirulence evaluations. This work should facilitate the implementation of mumps vaccination in mainland China by targeting the most prevalent MuV genotype, genotype F. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of ovulation in endemic Chalcarburnus chalcoides, living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... vehicle (physiological serum 0.9%) at 0.5 ml/kg body weight. Intramuscular injections were performed by penetration of the dorsal muscles at the base of the dorsal fin. The fish were kept under constant observation in order to detect the ovulation precise- ly. Ovulation was checked by gently massaging the ...

  13. Makeup and Menstrual Cycle: Near Ovulation, Women Use More Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that women near ovulation change their appearance in order to look more attractive. I hypothesized that, near ovulation, women would use more cosmetics. In a first study, female participants received an LH test in a laboratory setting to determine their fertility risk. Participants estimated the time they had spent…

  14. Development and testing of new candidate psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires combining optimal questions from existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Laura C; Walsh, Jessica; Haroon, Muhammad; FitzGerald, Oliver; Aslam, Tariq; Al Balushi, Farida; Burden, A D; Burden-Teh, Esther; Caperon, Anna R; Cerio, Rino; Chattopadhyay, Chandrabhusan; Chinoy, Hector; Goodfield, Mark J D; Kay, Lesley; Kelly, Stephen; Kirkham, Bruce W; Lovell, Christopher R; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; McHugh, Neil; Murphy, Ruth; Reynolds, Nick J; Smith, Catherine H; Stewart, Elizabeth J C; Warren, Richard B; Waxman, Robin; Wilson, Hilary E; Helliwell, Philip S

    2014-09-01

    Several questionnaires have been developed to screen for psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but head-to-head studies have found limitations. This study aimed to develop new questionnaires encompassing the most discriminative questions from existing instruments. Data from the CONTEST study, a head-to-head comparison of 3 existing questionnaires, were used to identify items with a Youden index score of ≥0.1. These were combined using 4 approaches: CONTEST (simple additions of questions), CONTESTw (weighting using logistic regression), CONTESTjt (addition of a joint manikin), and CONTESTtree (additional questions identified by classification and regression tree [CART] analysis). These candidate questionnaires were tested in independent data sets. Twelve individual questions with a Youden index score of ≥0.1 were identified, but 4 of these were excluded due to duplication and redundancy. Weighting for 2 of these questions was included in CONTESTw. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that involvement in 6 joint areas on the manikin was predictive of PsA for inclusion in CONTESTjt. CART analysis identified a further 5 questions for inclusion in CONTESTtree. CONTESTtree was not significant on ROC curve analysis and discarded. The other 3 questionnaires were significant in all data sets, although CONTESTw was slightly inferior to the others in the validation data sets. Potential cut points for referral were also discussed. Of 4 candidate questionnaires combining existing discriminatory items to identify PsA in people with psoriasis, 3 were found to be significant on ROC curve analysis. Testing in independent data sets identified 2 questionnaires (CONTEST and CONTESTjt) that should be pursued for further prospective testing. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SEVERAL OVULATION INDUCING HORMONES ON PIKEPERCH (SANDER LUCIOPERCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. KORBULY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of European freshwater aquaculture needs diversification of its production with reliable culture methods of new fish species. From the last two decades, more research efforts were done in order to develop culture of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.. Most market size pikeperch come from open waters and relatively few are produced under intensive and/or indoor conditions. The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of different hormones on pikeperch ovulation in order to reproduce the species under controlled environmental conditions. Eight clinically healthy adult pikeperch females (3-4 years old were used in our experiments. They were injected with human chorionic gonadotropine - hCG (Pregnyl and carp pituitary extract (CPE, without photo-thermal stimulation. None of the females ovulated at 72 hours after the injection. When water temperature was increased to 17°C, females stimulated with hCG ovulated first, then one of the females stimulated with CPE. None of females from the control group ovulated.

  16. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2010-01-01

    In vitro cultures of zygotes and small embryos carry a lot of potential for studying plant embryogenesis and are also highly relevant for plant biotechnology. Several years ago we established an in vitro ovule culture technique for barley that allows the regeneration of plants from zygotes (Holm et...... culture ability in immature embryo culture i.e. Femina, Salome and Corniche. Barley spikes were emasculated and hand pollinated 3 days after emasculation. In barley, fertilization takes place one hour after pollination and ovules with fertilized egg cells could therefore be isolated one hour after...... pollination. Ovules were grown for 3 weeks on a culture medium where after embryos could be isolated and transferred to regeneration medium. An average of 1.2 green plantlets per ovule could be regenerated from 50 % of the isolated ovules. No genotypic differences were found on embryo induction...

  17. Women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease: predictors of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelghar, Wessam M; Bayoumy, Hassan A; Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Khalil, Marian S

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the role of different clinical, biochemical and sonographic factors as predictors of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease (CCR-PCOD). This prospective study recruited 251 infertile women with CCR-PCOD. Several clinical, biochemical and sonographic criteria were tested as possible predictors of spontaneous ovulation after LOD using multivariate analysis. Women with higher preoperative levels of LH, FSH and/or androstenedione had significantly higher rates of spontaneous ovulation within the first eight weeks after LOD, but only FSH and androstenedione were found to be independent predictors. Other factors including age, BMI, type of infertility, duration of infertility, menstrual pattern, testosterone level, ovarian volume and SHBG were insignificant predictors. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves derived from FSH, LH, androstenedione, and a logistic regression model showed that the best cut-off values were 4.1IU/l, 7.8IU/l, 1.2ng/ml, and 0.4897, respectively, with sensitivity of 91.18%, 100%, 73.53%, and 88.24% and specificity of 69.57%, 69.57%, 65.22%, and 73.91% for FSH, LH, androstenedione, and logistic regression model respectively. An extended follow up (9 months after LOD) was conducted for the anovulatory and the non-pregnant ovulatory women, who were treated individually according to their clinical situation. Of these women, 53.5% (69/129) got pregnant, resulting in a cumulative pregnancy rate of 48% (82/171). Of these pregnancies, 16/82 (19.5%) were spontaneous while 35.4% (29/82) and 45.1% (37/82) occurred after ovulation induction by CC and gonadotropins, respectively. This study supports the use of androstenedione, LH and FSH as a simple reliable tool in triaging patients with CCR-PCOD to select the ideal candidates for LOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. International Practica Experiences as Events of Influence in a Teacher Candidates' Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, Nancy; Allison, John; Julien-Schultz, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Experience may influence beliefs and beliefs may influence practices. Following these premises, we investigated teacher candidates' post experience reflections nine months after an international practicum where they taught for three weeks in rural Kenya. Teacher candidates were placed in non-governmental organization (NGO) sponsored schools on the…

  19. Relationship between time post-ovulation and progesterone on oocyte maturation and pregnancy in canine cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Kang Bae; Choi, Eun Ji; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2017-10-01

    Canine oocytes ovulated at prophase complete meiosis and continue to develop in presence of a high progesterone concentration in the oviduct. Considering that meiotic competence of canine oocyte is accomplished in the oviductal environment, we postulate that hormonal milieu resulting from the circulating progesterone concentration may affect oocyte maturation and early development of embryos. From 237 oocyte donors, 2620 oocytes were collected and their meiotic status and morphology were determined. To determine optimal characteristics of the mature oocytes subjected to nuclear transfer, a proportion of the meiotic status of the oocytes were classified in reference to time post-ovulation as well as progesterone (P4) level. A high proportion of matured oocytes were collected from >126h (55.5%) post-ovulation or 40-50ngmL -1 (46.4%) group compared to the other groups. Of the oocyte donors that provided mature oocytes in vivo, there was no correlation between serum progesterone of donors and time post ovulation, however, time post-ovulation were significantly shorter for cloned embryos were reconstructed and transferred into 77 surrogates. In order to determine the relationship between pregnancy performance and serum progesterone level, embryos were transferred into surrogates showing various P4 serum levels. The highest pregnancy (31.8%) and live birth cloning efficacy (2.2%) rates were observed when the embryos were transferred into surrogates with circulating P4 levels were from 40 to 50ngmL -1 . In conclusion, measurement of circulating progesterone of female dog could be a suitable an indicator of the optimal time to collect quality oocyte and to select surrogates for cloning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CD44-positive cells are candidates for astrocyte precursor cells in developing mouse cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Na; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Okano-Uchida, Takayuki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-03-01

    preparing APC candidates from developing mouse cerebellum, characterized them in vitro, and found that BMPs are survival factors for these cells.

  1. Control of oestrus and ovulation rates in Yankasa ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedipe, E.O.; Pathiraja, N.; Gyang, E.O.; Bawa, E.K.; Eduvie, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in Yankasa sheep to study the efficacy of progesterone for oestrous synchronization and the effect of various gonadotrophin treatments (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)) on ovulation rates and litter size, and to elucidate responses by monitoring progesterone concentration. Preliminary studies showed normal progesterone profiles during the cycle, and a mean ovulation rate and litter size of 1.36 ± 0.34 and 1.23 respectively. Following synchronization with progesterone pessaries, PMSG dosage influenced ovulation rates. When 500 IU PMSG was given to ewes, HCG injection had an additive effect of increasing ovulation rate. Plasma progesterone concentrations showed significant treatment effects, being increased in relation to an increase in ovulation rates. Ovulation in Yankasa ewes occurred between 30-32 hours from onset of oestrus. In a fertility trial, mean ovulation rates and corresponding litter size were 2.1 versus 1.8 and 1.5 versus 1.2 for PMSG treated and untreated ewes respectively. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  2. A dose-finding, cross-over study to evaluate the effect of a Nestorone®/Estradiol transdermal gel delivery on ovulation suppression in normal ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brache, Vivian; Merkatz, Ruth; Kumar, Narender; Jesam, Cristian; Sussman, Heather; Hoskin, Elena; Roberts, Kevin; Alami, Mohcine; Taylor, Deshawn; Jorge, Aidelis; Croxatto, Horacio; Lorange, Ellen; Mishell, Daniel R; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to determine the lowest effective of three Nestorone (NES)/estradiol (E2) transdermal gel doses to ensure ovulation suppression in 90-95% of cycles. This was a randomized, open-label, three-treatment-period cross-over study to evaluate the effects of NES/E2 transdermal gel on ovulation inhibition, suppression of follicular growth and pharmacokinetic parameters. The doses were low (1.5 mg NES/0.5 mg E2), medium (3.0 mg NES/1.0 mg E2) and high (4.5 mg NES/1.5 mg E2). Participants applied gel daily to a fixed area on the abdomen for 21 consecutive days. They were interviewed regarding their experiences using the gel. Eighteen participants were randomized; 16 completed the study. Median NES C(max) values for low, medium and high dose groups at day 21 were 318.6 pmol/L, 783.0 pmol/L and 1063.8 pmol/L, respectively. Median maximum follicular diameter was higher with the lowest dose with 16.2 mm versus 10.0 and 10.4 mm with the medium and high doses, respectively. Among adherent participants, ovulation was inhibited in all dose groups, except for one participant in the medium dose (6.7%) that had luteal activity and an ultrasound image suggestive of a luteinized unruptured follicle. There were few reports of unscheduled bleeding, with more episodes reported for the lower dose. Adverse events were mild, and no skin irritation was reported from gel application. While all three doses blocked ovulation effectively and were evaluated as safe and acceptable, the medium dose was considered the lowest effective dose based on a more adequate suppression of follicular development. Further development of this novel contraceptive delivering NES and E2 is warranted and has potential for improved safety compared to ethinyl-estradiol-based methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  4. Ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation: An integrated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Yoshizaki, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies with teleosts have addressed the regulation and mechanisms of oocyte maturation, but largely at the exclusion of ovulation. A smaller but still considerable number of studies have focused on ovulation, and ignored maturation. Consequently, little is known about the mechanistic linkages between these two events. New information is presented here indicating that luteinizing hormone regulates the acquisition not only of oocyte maturational competence, but also ovulatory competence. The thesis is presented that maturation and ovulation are closely integrated and overlapping events that are best viewed conceptually and experimentally as parts of a functional whole. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  5. The role of metformin in ovulation induction: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Elnashar, Aboubakr Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    To define the exact role of metformin in ovulation induction, it is crucial to distinguish three different indications: naïve PCOS, CC-resistant PCOS and ART. In naïve PCOS: metformin as compared to placebo has been shown to improve ovulation rates, but metformin did not exert significant advantage over CC with respect to cumulative ovulation, pregnancy or live-birth rates. The combined approach of metformin plus CC is not better than CC or metformin monotherapy in naïve PCOS. In CC-resistant...

  6. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Della W.M.; Chan, Pui-kwan; Cheung, Samuel T.C.; Wong, Yee-Lok; Wong, Siu-kay; Mok, Chuen-shing; Wong Yiuchung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A cypermethrin CRM in green tea was developed. ► Using two isotope dilution mass spectrometry techniques for characterization. ► Certified value of 148 μg kg −1 with expanded uncertainty of ±9.2%. ► Support quality assurance of pesticide residue analysis in tea to testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC–HRMS) and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC–HRIDMS and GC–IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg −1 and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14 μg kg −1 . The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation.

  7. Electric vehicle batteries. Development status for the promising candidates; Elbilsbatterier. Utvecklingsstatus foer de fraemsta kandidaterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Johansson, Arne [Catella Generics AB, Jaerfaella (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    One driver for the EV and HEV programme of KFB is to study the effects of a large scale introduction of electric vehicles in the future. Catella Generics was contracted to investigate and report on the development status for EV batteries and the success potential for the different candidates, their development obstacles and alternative usage and on the links between different players. The batteries studied in greater detail have been evaluated according to special criteria like performance, cost, ruggedness, resource efficiency, safety and environmental impact and how that will influence their likely success. Models for the evaluation of EV batteries have been developed by the car manufacturers and authorities. We have based our investigation on the criteria established by USABC and the modifications made by PNGV for the energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Some basic conclusions reported as a result of this investigation are listed below: Lead-acid may have a role as energy storage in HEVs. Ni/Cd batteries are attractive from a technical standpoint, but questioned based on the environmental concern for cadmium. Ni/MH batteries are attracting a great attention in the medium term. Na/NiCl{sub 2} batteries have been successful in the German demonstration programme. Lithium batteries have a great potential in the long term. Metal/air batteries have been operated without problems, however there need for a special infrastructure is a major draw-back. Fuel cells and ultra capacitors are new alternative power sources for propulsion of EVs, however these are not included in this report.

  8. Salt formation improved the properties of a candidate drug during early formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfridsson, Kalle; Ahlqvist, Matti; Lindsjö, Martin; Paulsson, Stefan

    2018-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if AZD5329, a dual neurokinin NK1/2 receptor antagonist, is a suitable candidate for further development as an oral immediate release (IR) solid dosage form as a final product. The neutral form of AZD5329 has only been isolated as amorphous material. In order to search for a solid material with improved physical and chemical stability and more suitable solid-state properties, a salt screen was performed. Crystalline material of a maleic acid salt and a fumaric acid salt of AZD5329 were obtained. X-ray powder diffractiometry, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic vapor sorption were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of the two salts. The fumarate salt of AZD5329 is anhydrous, the crystallization is reproducible and the hygroscopicity is acceptable. Early polymorphism assessment work using slurry technique did not reveal any better crystal modification or crystallinity for the fumarate salt. For the maleate salt, the form isolated originally was found to be a solvate, but an anhydrous form was found in later experiments; by suspension in water or acetone, by drying of the solvate to 100-120 °C or by subjecting the solvate form to conditions of 40 °C/75%RH for 3 months. The dissolution behavior and the chemical stability (in aqueous solutions, formulations and solid-state) of both salts were also studied and found to be satisfactory. The compound displays sensitivity to low pH, and the salt of the maleic acid, which is the stronger acid, shows more degradation during stability studies, in line with this observation. The presented data indicate that the substance fulfils basic requirements for further development of an IR dosage form, based on the characterization on crystalline salts of AZD5329. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Lycii fructus polysaccharides on ovulation failure in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: LFPS exhibits a protective effect on hydroxyurea-induced ovulation failure by regulating the HPO axis hormones ..... hypothalamic amenorrhea and underlying polycystic ... Mohamed M, Mosavat M, Mirsanjari M. Effect of exercise.

  10. Individualised gonadotrophin ovulation induction in women with normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Loft, Anne; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate an individualised gonadotrophin starting dose regimen for women with anovulatory infertility. Study design We included 71 normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertile women in a prospective, observational study. All underwent one ovulation induction cycle...

  11. Investigating the effect of question-driven pedagogy on the development of physics teacher candidates' pedagogical content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Egersdorfer, Davor; Vinayagam, Murugan

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the second year of a multi-year study on the implementation of Peer Instruction and PeerWise-inspired pedagogies in a physics methods course in a teacher education program at a large research university in Western Canada. In the first year of this study, Peer Instruction was implemented consistently in the physics methods course and teacher candidates were asked to submit five conceptual multiple-choice questions as a final assignment. In the second year of the study we incorporated PeerWise online tool to facilitate teacher candidates' design of conceptual questions by allowing them to provide and receive feedback from their peers, and consequently improve their questions. We have found that as a result of this collaboration teacher candidates improved their pedagogical content knowledge as measured by the rubric developed for the study.

  12. Induced sterility in petunia correlation between pollen and ovule fertilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    An estimation of ovular fertility in petunia was carried out in order to show an eventual correlation between pollen and ovule fertilities. Two lines, TL-h 1 and Sf-1a, their F 1 hybrid and some pollen sterile plants isolated in M 1 after mutagenic treatments were vegetatively maintained in greenhouse. Data pollen fertility, number of ovules per ovary and number of seeds per capsule were obtained from each genotype. The ovule fertility was calculated as follows: mean number of seeds per capsule/mean number of ovules per ovary x 100. The analysis of variance detected: a highly significance variance component among genotypes, a highly significant differences between the sexes, and, a highly significant genotypes x sexes interaction. A highly significant positive correlation coefficient was found between pollen and ovule fertilities. Thus, it can be concluded that pollen and ovule fertilities may be affected in the same direction in the different mutant clones studied, but in a different manner from genotype to genotype [fr

  13. Navigating Academia: Developing a Road Map for a Professional Journey for Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Ravizza, Dean M.; Muller, Susan M.; Satern, Miriam N.

    2017-01-01

    Physical education teacher education programs provide teacher candidates with the knowledge, skills and dispositions required to impact student learning. Over the course of a long and successful career, however, quality physical education teachers must continue to adapt to the changing demands of their profession. The professional growth that…

  14. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Estella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically unreduced (2n embryo sacs (ES form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction.

  15. Spontaneous ovulation or male effect in alpacas and llamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumar JB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New discoveries in ovulation induced mammals, researchers considered the question of whether spontaneous and induced ovulations are distinct entities or individual parts of a single continuum of a “malefacilitated oestrus and ovulation”. This rigid classification should be taken with precaution, because is possible that the various mechanisms involved in the spontaneous ovulation can, under specific conditions coexist in some determined species. It is possible that male hormones can provoke the ovulation by masculine pheromones. The “Ram Effect” can be used to synchronize ewes naturally, for artificial insemination. Pheromones are specialized hormones released by the ram and smelled by the ewes; they are found in the wool and wax, in such a way that synchronized the heat and the advancement of the breeding season Also, using artificial vaginal-cervical stimulation (AVS with a glass rod, ovulation has been induced in the mink, shrews and felids. This form of tactile stimulation (AVS has found no ability for induction of ovulation in SAC. Additional stimuli/cues are often necessary to facilitate the ovulatory response. They include olfactory, visual, auditory or posture, more of them very common in SAC. Few research studies in alpacas and llamas showed a variable number of females ovulating by the sole proximity of the male to the female, by adopting the copulatory position (posture (sitting or prone position, female to female mounting (tactile, males mounting females covered with aprons to avoid penis intromission (tactile and auditory, interrupted matings, sitting close to a male copulating to a female (visual, olfactory?, the guttural sound (orgling made by the copulating male (auditory, and probably other non-identified cues. The rate of spontaneous ovulation in alpacas and llamas, increase up to 50% during the breeding season. These spontaneous ovulation has been diagnosed by sexual behavior (female rejection to the male, by

  16. Comparison between two ovulation-inducing drugs in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cardoso de Almeida Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva P.C.A., Oliveira J.P., Sá M.A.F., Paiva S.O., Caram D.F., Junqueira R.G.C. & Jacob J.C.F. [Comparison between two ovulation-inducing drugs in mares.] Comparação entre dois agentes indutores da ovulação em éguas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.2:45-48, 2016. Departamento de Reprodução e Avaliação Animal, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: paulinha_calmeida@hotmail.com Hormonal control of the ovulation is an effective tool to improve reproductive performance and reduce costs in equine breeding programs. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of lower doses of hCG and Deslorelina than doses traditionally used, evaluating the follicular parameters and time between induction and ovulation. Induction of ovulation was performed according to the groups, 1000 IU of hCG (G1, 0.75mg of Deslorelin (G2, and 1.0ml of saline solution (G3. Twenty-four hours after administration, ovaries were evaluated by ultrasound every six hours until detection of ovulation.  The percentage of ovulation within 36 hours was 34.4%, 13.3% and 8.7%, and up to 42 hours was 96.9%, 70% and 17.4% for G1, G2 and G3, respectively, showing a significant increase (p ˂ 0.0001 in G1 compared to other groups. In G2 there was a significant increase (p ˂ 0.0001 of ovulation after 42 hours from the induction, and G3 after 48 hours. Until 48 hours the percentage of induction of ovulation was 96.8% (31/32 90% (27/30 and 30.4% (7/23, respectively, for G1, G2 and G3. Thus, the lower doses of ovulation-inducing drugs were effective in inducing ovulation within 48 hours, however hCG was faster than deslorelin, which might reduce costs and help the reproduction management.

  17. Novel contraceptive targets to inhibit ovulation: the prostaglandin E2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    for use as emergency contraceptives. However, drugs of this class are unlikely to be effective as monthly contraceptives. Inhibitors of additional PGE2 synthesis enzymes or modulation of PGE2 metabolism or transport also hold potential for reducing follicular PGE2 and preventing ovulation. Approaches which target multiple components of the PGE2 synthesis-metabolism-transport pathway may be required to effectively block ovulation and lead to the development of novel contraceptive options for women. Therapies which target PGE2 may also impact disorders of the uterus and could also have benefits for women's health in addition to contraception. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Novel contraceptive targets to inhibit ovulation: the prostaglandin E2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    PTGS2 inhibitors alone may be suitable for use as emergency contraceptives. However, drugs of this class are unlikely to be effective as monthly contraceptives. Inhibitors of additional PGE2 synthesis enzymes or modulation of PGE2 metabolism or transport also hold potential for reducing follicular PGE2 and preventing ovulation. Approaches which target multiple components of the PGE2 synthesis-metabolism-transport pathway may be required to effectively block ovulation and lead to the development of novel contraceptive options for women. Therapies which target PGE2 may also impact disorders of the uterus and could also have benefits for women's health in addition to contraception. PMID:26025453

  19. Does ovulation affect performance in tennis players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Machiko; Chen, Shu-Man; Zhu, Yong; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Fogt, Donovan L; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Scientific data on the performance of collegiate female tennis players during the menstrual phases are scarce. Double-blind, counter-balanced, crossover trials were conducted to examine whether tennis performance was affected during menstruation, with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) supplementation. Ten Division 1 collegiate tennis players (aged 18-22 years) were evenly assigned into placebo-supplemented and DHEA-supplemented (25 mg/day) trials. Treatments were exchanged among the participants after a 28-day washout. Tennis serve performance was assessed on the first day of menstrual bleeding (day 0/28) and on days 7, 14 and 21. Mood state was unaltered during the menstrual cycles in both trials. The lowest tennis serve performance score (speed times accuracy) occurred on day 14 (P=0.06 vs day 0; P=0.01 vs day 21) in both placebo and DHEA trials. Decreased performance on day 14 was explained by decreased accuracy (P=0.03 vs day 0/28; P=0.01 vs day 21), but not velocity itself. Isometric hip strength, but not quadriceps strength, was moderately lower on day 14 (P=0.08). Increasing plasma DHEA-S (by ~65%) during the DHEA-supplemented trial had no effects on mood state, sleep quality or tennis serve performance. We have shown that menses does not affect serve performance of collegiate tennis players. However, the observed decrement in the accuracy of serve speed near ovulation warrants further investigation.

  20. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda [Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. 07360, México (Mexico); Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel [Área Académica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42000, México (Mexico); Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo [Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. 07360, México (Mexico); Piña-Guzmán, Belem [Instituto Politécnico Nacional-UPIBI, México D.F. 07738, México (Mexico); and others

    2015-12-15

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kg bw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12–15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. - Highlights: • Bisphenol A targets the fertilization ability of oocytes. • Bisphenol A does not alter ovulation. • Young adult females may be susceptible to the effects of bisphenol A on fertilization.

  1. Effect of antiprogesterone RU486 on VEGF expression and blood vessel remodeling on ovarian follicles before ovulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Mauro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation is strictly related to the development of an adequate blood vessel network required to sustain the proliferative and endocrine functions of the follicular cells. Even if the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF drives angiogenesis before ovulation, the local role exerted by Progesterone (P₄ remains to be clarified, in particular when its concentration rapidly increases before ovulation. AIM: This in vivo study was designed to clarify the effect promoted by a P₄ receptor antagonist, RU486, on VEGF expression and follicular angiogenesis before ovulation, in particular, during the transition from pre to periovulatory follicles induced by human Chorionic Gonadotropins (hCG administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preovulatory follicle growth and ovulation were pharmacologically induced in prepubertal gilts by combining equine Chorionic Gonadotropins (eCG and hCG used in the presence or absence of RU486. The effects on VEGF expression were analyzed using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies, either on granulosa or on theca layers of follicles isolated few hours before ovulation. This angiogenic factor was also correlated to follicular morphology and to blood vessels architecture. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: VEGF production, blood vessel network and follicle remodeling were impaired by RU486 treatment, even if the cause-effect correlation remains to be clarified. The P₄ antagonist strongly down-regulated theca VEGF expression, thus, preventing most of the angiogenic follicle response induced by hCG. RU486-treated follicles displayed a reduced vascular area, a lower rate of endothelial cell proliferation and a reduced recruitment of perivascular mural cells. These data provide important insights on the biological role of RU486 and, indirectly, on steroid hormones during periovulatory follicular phase. In addition, an in vivo model is proposed to evaluate how periovulatory

  2. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Piña-Guzmán, Belem

    2015-01-01

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kg bw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12–15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. - Highlights: • Bisphenol A targets the fertilization ability of oocytes. • Bisphenol A does not alter ovulation. • Young adult females may be susceptible to the effects of bisphenol A on fertilization.

  3. Effects of Metformin on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Women with Clomiphene Resistant Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the effect of metformin on ovulation and pregnancy rate in clomiphene citrateresistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.Material & Methods: In this clinical trial each patient, regarding her previous resistance to Clomiphene,served as her own control. A total of 35 clomiphene citrate resistant PCOS patients, referring to Royan institutewere studied. Clomiphene citrate resistance was defined as having failure of ovulation during at least threecycles using clomiphene citrate doses up to 200 mg/day on cycle days 3-7 after a withdrawal bleeding withprogesterone. Metformin was used alone or in combination with clomiphene citrate. First, the patients receivedmetformin up to 1500 mg/day for 8 weeks. During the next 2-3 cycle if the patients did not become pregnant,clomiphene was added with increments of 100 mg (up to 150 mg/day. Follicular development and ovulationwere monitored by ultrasound scans and mid-luteal progesterone level. Menstrual pattern, ovulation, andpregnancy rate were evaluated during the two stages of treatment.Results: After 8 weeks of meformin monotherapy, ovulation occurred in 23 cases (65.7% and 7 patients (20%became pregnant. Among other patients (28/35 who were treated with Clomiphene Cirate and metformin for64 cycles, 19 patients (67.8% had proper ovulation and five of them (17.8% became pregnant. Totally,metformin induced ovulation in 31 of 35 patients (88.6% and twelve (34.3% of them achieved pregnancy.Conclusion: Metformin alone or in combination with clomiphene is a very effective treatment in inducingovulation and pregnancy in clomiphene resistant women with PCOS.

  4. The role of metformin in ovulation induction: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Mohamed Elnashar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To define the exact role of metformin in ovulation induction, it is crucial to distinguish three different indications: naïve PCOS, CC-resistant PCOS and ART. In naïve PCOS: metformin as compared to placebo has been shown to improve ovulation rates, but metformin did not exert significant advantage over CC with respect to cumulative ovulation, pregnancy or live-birth rates. The combined approach of metformin plus CC is not better than CC or metformin monotherapy in naïve PCOS. In CC-resistant patients: metformin has no benefit over placebo in ovulation, pregnancy, and live-birth rates as a single agent, but the combination of metformin and CC significantly improved ovulation and pregnancy rates when compared with CC alone. However, combined therapy did not improve the odds of live birth. Metformin pretreatment improves the efficacy of CC in PCOS patients with CC resistance. In PCOS patients scheduled for ART: metformin addition to gonadotropins reduces the duration of gonadotropins administration and the doses of gonadotropins required, and increases the rate of monoovulations, reducing the risk of cancelled cycles. Metformin co-administration to IVF treatment does not improve pregnancy or live-birth rates but reduces the risk of OHSS.

  5. Ovule and seed ontogeny of Sterculia striata (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María González

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterculia striata presents two types of flowers on the same foot, perfect flowers that are functionally pistilate, and staminate flowers. For this reason this species was described as andromonoecious. The ovary is apocarpous, constituted by 4-5 carpels, while the style and the stigma are coherent. Considering their ontogeny and organization, the ovules are constituted by two units: the nucellar one, formed by nucella and inner integument; and the funicular one, that includes chalaza and external integument. The position of exostome near the hilum is in accordance with an anatropous ovule. However, due to the combination of all these characteristics the ovule of S. striata is described as hemianatropous. The ovule displays a very prominent exostome that persists in the seed as a caruncle. It also presents an obturator of placentarian origin. The fertilization is acrogamous. Three phases of the ovule and seed ontogeny were detected: initial, where nucella is curved until 90º; prefertilization, where the external integument continues its growth until the exostome is closed at 180º; and posfecundation, where the nucelar unit retakes the erect position and the embryo is inverted with respect to the hilum. The seed coat is multiplicative, being the layer of macrosclereids of the exotegmen the mechanical layer. The fruit is a follicle, in which each carpel presents abundant lysigenous cavities filled with mucilaginous substances.

  6. Ovulation leads women to perceive sexy cads as good dads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Kristina M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Cantú, Stephanie M; Li, Norman P

    2012-08-01

    Why do some women pursue relationships with men who are attractive, dominant, and charming but who do not want to be in relationships--the prototypical sexy cad? Previous research shows that women have an increased desire for such men when they are ovulating, but it is unclear why ovulating women would think it is wise to pursue men who may be unfaithful and could desert them. Using both college-age and community-based samples, in 3 studies we show that ovulating women perceive charismatic and physically attractive men, but not reliable and nice men, as more committed partners and more devoted future fathers. Ovulating women perceive that sexy cads would be good fathers to their own children but not to the children of other women. This ovulatory-induced perceptual shift is driven by women who experienced early onset of puberty. Taken together, the current research identifies a novel proximate reason why ovulating women pursue relationships with sexy cads, complementing existing research that identifies the ultimate, evolutionary reasons for this behavior.

  7. Effect of postpartum suppression of ovulation on uterine involution in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppelmann, M; Brömmling, A; Weinert, M; Piechotta, M; Wrenzycki, C; Bollwein, H

    2013-09-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of time of first postpartum ovulation after calving on uterine involution in dairy cows with and without uterine puerperal disease. Transvaginal follicular puncture (FP) of follicles >6 mm suppressed ovulation and development of a CL until Day 42 after calving. Fifty-three lactating Holstein Friesian cows (3.4 ± 1.2 years old, parity 2.5 ± 1.0 [median ± mean absolute deviation]) were divided into groups on the basis of the presence (UD+) or absence (UD-) of uterine disease and whether FP was carried out (FP+) or not (FP-). Uterine disease was defined as the occurrence of retained fetal membranes and/or metritis. This resulted in the following groups: UD-FP- (n = 15), UD-FP+ (n = 13), UD+FP- (n = 13), and UD+FP+ (n = 12). A general examination, vaginoscopy, transrectal palpation, and transrectal B-mode sonography of the reproductive organs were conducted on Days 8, 11, 18, and 25 and then every 10 days until Day 65 after calving. After hormonal synchronization of ovulation (cloprostenol between Days 55 and 60 postpartum and GnRH 2 days later), cows were inseminated in the next spontaneous estrus. On average, the cows ovulated on Day 21.0 ± 6.0 (UD-FP-), 50.0 ± 4.0 (UD-FP+), 16.0 ± 3.0 (UD+FP-), and 48.0 ± 2.0 (UD+FP+) postpartum. Calving-to-conception interval and first-service conception rates were not affected by FP (P > 0.05). Healthy cows with FP had smaller (P uterine horn and cervical diameters assessed sonographically than cows without FP. FP reduced the prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge and uterine size assessed transrectally in UD+ cows (P uterine involution in cows with and without uterine disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of hypocaloric dietary intervention on ovulation in obese women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Brittany Y; Lujan, Marla E

    2016-10-31

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory dysfunction impacting women of reproductive age. Obesity and insulin resistance are thought to potentiate disruptions in antral follicle development that result in chronic anovulation, and as such, have become important therapeutic targets of dietary interventions aimed at weight loss. Caloric restriction has been shown to promote sporadic ovulation in obese women with PCOS, but improvements have occurred across a wide range of patients and little has been garnered about the factors that distinguish responders from non-responders. Further, few studies have evaluated the likelihood for modest weight loss to restore normal ovulatory cyclicity in PCOS. Consensus regarding the impact of dietary intervention on ovulation has been limited by variability in the measures used to characterize and report ovulatory status across studies. In response, this review provides an assessment of the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of hypocaloric dietary intervention to normalize ovulatory function in PCOS. The impact of physiological versus methodological factors on the evaluation of ovulatory status is discussed and recommendations to strengthen future studies in this area are provided. Ultimately, further research is needed to understand the optimal dietary or lifestyle approaches that promote ovulation and sustained improvements in reproductive function in PCOS.

  9. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , and compared that to the data for the model cultivar, Golden Promise. Subsequently, we analyzed the transformation efficiencies of the four cultivars using the protocol for Agrobacterium infection of ovules, previously developed for Golden Promise. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL0, carrying the binary...

  10. Differential expression of CART in ewes with differing ovulation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Jennifer L; French, Michelle C; Quirke, Laurel D; Kauff, Alexia; Smith, George W; Johnstone, Peter D

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesised that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript ( CARTPT ) would be differentially expressed in ewes with differing ovulation rates. Expression of mRNA for CARTPT , as well as LHCGR , FSHR , CYP19A1 and CYP17A1 was determined in antral follicles ≥1 mm in diameter collected during the follicular phase in ewes heterozygous for the Booroola and Inverdale genes (I+B+; average ovulation rate 4) and ++ contemporaries (++; average ovulation rate 1.8). In ++ ewes ( n  = 6), CARTPT was expressed in small follicles (1 to ewes. In I+B+ ewes, 5/6 ewes did not have any follicles that expressed CARTPT , and no CART peptide was detected in any follicle examined. Expression pattern of CYP19A1 differed between I+B+ and ++ ewes with an increased percentage of small and medium follicles (3 to ewes. Many of the large follicles from the I+B+ ewes appeared non-functional and expression of LHCGR , FSHR , CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 was less than that observed in ++ ewes. Expression of FSHR and CYP17A1 was not different between groups in small and medium follicles, but LHCGR expression was approximately double in I+B+ ewes compared to that in ++ ewes. Thus, ewes with high ovulation rates had a distinct pattern of expression of CARTPT mRNA and protein compared to ewes with normal ovulation rates, providing evidence for CART being important in the regulation of ovulation rate. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Characteristics of ovulation method acceptors: a cross-cultural assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, H; Labbok, M; Barker, D

    1988-01-01

    Five programs of instruction in the ovulation method (OM) in diverse geographic and cultural settings are described, and characteristics of approximately 200 consecutive OM acceptors in each program are examined. Major findings include: the religious background and family size of acceptors are variable, as is the level of previous contraceptive use. Acceptors are drawn from a wide range of socioeconomic and religious backgrounds; however, family planning intention was similarly distributed in all five countries. In sum, the ovulation method is accepted by persons from a variety of backgrounds within and between cultural setting.

  12. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfacto...

  13. Variation in the autism candidate gene GABRB3 modulates tactile sensitivity in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavassoli Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum conditions have a strong genetic component. Atypical sensory sensitivities are one of the core but neglected features of autism spectrum conditions. GABRB3 is a well-characterised candidate gene for autism spectrum conditions. In mice, heterozygous Gabrb3 deletion is associated with increased tactile sensitivity. However, no study has examined if tactile sensitivity is associated with GABRB3 genetic variation in humans. To test this, we conducted two pilot genetic association studies in the general population, analysing two phenotypic measures of tactile sensitivity (a parent-report and a behavioural measure for association with 43 SNPs in GABRB3. Findings Across both tactile sensitivity measures, three SNPs (rs11636966, rs8023959 and rs2162241 were nominally associated with both phenotypes, providing a measure of internal validation. Parent-report scores were nominally associated with six SNPs (P Conclusions This is the first human study to show an association between GABRB3 variation and tactile sensitivity. This provides support for the evidence from animal models implicating the role of GABRB3 variation in the atypical sensory sensitivity in autism spectrum conditions. Future research is underway to directly test this association in cases of autism spectrum conditions.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Letrozole and Clomiphene Citrate on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Dehbashi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For more than four decades clomiphene citratehas been the first line of the treatment for ovulatory disorders.The aim of this study was to compare the effects of letrozoleand clomiphene citrate on ovulation and pregnancy rate in patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: In this prospective double-blind study, 100 patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome were randomized into twoequal groups. The first group received letrozole, 5mg daily(per oral and the second group received clomiphene, 100mgdaily during the 3rd-7th days of the menstrual cycles. Intramuscularhuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (10,000 IUwas administered to trigger ovulation when at least one maturefollicle (≥ 18mm was developed.Results: Ovulation occurred in 30 patients (60% of the letrozolegroup and in 16 patients (32% of the clomiphene group,which showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.009.The mean number of follicles with diameter >14 mm on theday of administration of hCG was 1.06±0.95 in the letrozolegroup and 1.14±1.17 in the clomiphene group, which showednon-significant difference (P=0.962.No difference was found in the endometrial thicknessbetween the two groups. A non-significant increase inpregnancy rate was observed in the letrozole group (26% v14% P=0.21.Conclusion: Ovulation rate was higher in letrozole group andadministration of letrozole was associated with a nonsignificantincrease in pregnancy rate.

  15. The Impact of Curriculum Developed in Line with Authentic Learning on the Teacher Candidates' Success, Attitude and Self-Directed Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the curriculum developed in line with authentic learning on the teacher candidates' success, attitudes towards courses and self-directed learning skills. The study, that is quantitative in nature, is carried out with 64 teacher candidates studying at Near East University and taking the course…

  16. Comparative ovulation in clariidae using crude HCG from early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used purified crude HCG from early pregnancy urine to assay ovulation in three species of Clariidae. Purification and extraction of crude HCG was carried out by the techniques involving alcohol precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Biological activity of the purified homogenate was tested ...

  17. Effect of Lycii fructus polysaccharides on ovulation failure in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is low and there are many adverse reactions associated with ... orally with hydroxyurea at a dose of 300 mg/kg once a day ... were anesthetized with 10 % chloral hydrate (3. mL/kg) by ..... kidney deficiency and ovulation inhibition in rats. Chin J.

  18. Capturing the Transformation and Dynamic Nature of an Elementary Teacher Candidate's Identity Development as a Teacher of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kara

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the transformation and dynamic nature of one teacher candidate's (Susan) identity as a learner and teacher of science throughout an innovative science methods course. The goal of this paper is to use theoretically derived themes grounded in cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and situated learning theory to determine the ways in which Susan's identity as a learner and teacher of science was influenced by her experiences in the course, and to describe how she made meaning of her transformative process. The following are the three theoretical themes: (1) learning contributes to identity development, (2) identity development is a dialogical process that occurs between individuals, not within individuals, and (3) social practice leads to transformations and transformations lead to the creation of new social practices. Within each theme, specific experiences in the science methods course are identified that influenced Susan's identity development as a teacher of science. Knowing how context and experiences influence identity development can inform design decisions concerning teacher education programs, courses, and experiences for candidates.

  19. Insights from the pollination drop proteome and the ovule transcriptome of Cephalotaxus at the time of pollination drop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone-Davies, Cary; Prior, Natalie; von Aderkas, Patrick; Smith, Derek; Hardie, Darryl; Friedman, William E; Mathews, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Many gymnosperms produce an ovular secretion, the pollination drop, during reproduction. The drops serve as a landing site for pollen, but also contain a suite of ions and organic compounds, including proteins, that suggests diverse roles for the drop during pollination. Proteins in the drops of species of Chamaecyparis, Juniperus, Taxus, Pseudotsuga, Ephedra and Welwitschia are thought to function in the conversion of sugars, defence against pathogens, and pollen growth and development. To better understand gymnosperm pollination biology, the pollination drop proteomes of pollination drops from two species of Cephalotaxus have been characterized and an ovular transcriptome for C. sinensis has been assembled. Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins in the pollination drops of Cephalotaxus sinensis and C. koreana RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was employed to assemble a transcriptome and identify transcripts present in the ovules of C. sinensis at the time of pollination drop production. About 30 proteins were detected in the pollination drops of both species. Many of these have been detected in the drops of other gymnosperms and probably function in defence, polysaccharide metabolism and pollen tube growth. Other proteins appear to be unique to Cephalotaxus, and their putative functions include starch and callose degradation, among others. Together, the proteins appear either to have been secreted into the drop or to occur there due to breakdown of ovular cells during drop production. Ovular transcripts represent a wide range of gene ontology categories, and some may be involved in drop formation, ovule development and pollen-ovule interactions. The proteome of Cephalotaxus pollination drops shares a number of components with those of other conifers and gnetophytes, including proteins for defence such as chitinases and for carbohydrate modification such as β-galactosidase. Proteins likely to be of intracellular origin, however, form a larger component of drops

  20. Return of ovulation and menses in postpartum nonlactating women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily; Glasier, Anna

    2011-03-01

    To estimate, from the literature, when nonlactating postpartum women regain fertility. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for all articles (in all languages) published in peer-reviewed journals from database inception through May 2010 for evidence related to the return of ovulation and menses in nonlactating postpartum women. Search terms included "Fertility" (Mesh) OR "Ovulation" (Mesh) OR "Ovulation Detection" (Mesh) OR "Ovulation Prediction" (Mesh) OR fertility OR ovulat* AND "Postpartum Period" (Mesh) OR postpartum OR puerperium AND Human AND Female. We included articles assessing nonlactating women's first ovulation postpartum. Studies in which women breastfed for any period of time or in whom lactation was suppressed with medications were excluded. We identified 1,623 articles; six articles reported four studies met our inclusion criteria. In three studies utilizing urinary pregnanediol levels to measure ovulation, mean day of first ovulation ranged from 45 to 94 days postpartum; 20%-71% of first menses were preceded by ovulation and 0%-60% of these ovulations were potentially fertile. In one study that used basal body temperature to measure ovulation, mean first ovulation occurred on day 74 postpartum; 33% of first menses were preceded by ovulation and 70% of these were potentially fertile. Most nonlactating women will not ovulate until 6 weeks postpartum. A small number of women will ovulate earlier, potentially putting them at risk for pregnancy sooner, although the fertility of these early ovulations is not well-established. The potential risk of pregnancy soon after delivery underscores the importance of initiating postpartum contraception in a timely fashion.

  1. Development of geopolymers as candidate materials for low/intermediate level highly alkaline nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, D.S.; Vance, E.R.; Kiyama, S.; Aly, Z.; Yee, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Geopolymers have been studied for many years as a possible improvement on cement in respect of compressive strength, resistance to fire, heat and acidity, and as a medium for the encapsulation of hazardous or low/ intermediate level radioactive waste. They are made by adding aluminosilicates to concentrated alkali solutions and the application of heat at 0 Cfor subsequent polymerisation. In this work we studied them as suitable candidate materials to incorporate NaOH/NaA10 2 containing waste with low levels of Cs, Sr and Nd. Geopolymers were produced by incorporating the highly alkaline solution as part of the composition with added metakaolinite, fumed silica and extra NaOH, such that the overall geopolymer composition was of molar ratios Si/Al = 2 and Na/Al = 1. The simulated waste contained Na2SO 4 , therefore Ba(OH) 2 was also added to precipitate the SO 4 x 2 as BaSO 4 . Three geoplymers of the same composition containing simulated wastes were leach tested in triplicate after heating at 400 0 Cfor 1 h (to remove -98% of free and interstitial water) under the PCT-B test protocol at 90 0 Cfor 7 days and their results are listed in Table 1. The Cs, Sr and Nd normalised leach rates were low. The Na leach rate was ∼ 4 g/L thus passing the PCT-B test protocol value of 13.5 g/L for EA glass. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that BaS04 did precipitate, however all the S did not appear to have precipitated. The ANSI/ANS-16.1-2003 test was carried out on the above geopolymer composition for 5 days. The ANSI Leachability Index D (diffusivity of 10''cm sec'') for the elements released are listed in Table 2. A Portland cement was also tested for comparison and the Leachability index values are 11, 8 and 10 for Al, Na and Ca respectively. Both passed the test protocol insofar as they were > 6. Geopolymers thus passing the tests for high level nuclear waste glass (PCT-B) and for low level nuclear waste (ANSI) show promising potential

  2. Expression analysis of asthma candidate genes during human and murine lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Erik; Kho, Alvin T; Sharma, Sunita; Gaedigk, Roger; Leeder, J Steven; Mariani, Thomas J; Carey, Vincent J; Weiss, Scott T; Tantisira, Kelan G

    2011-06-23

    Little is known about the role of most asthma susceptibility genes during human lung development. Genetic determinants for normal lung development are not only important early in life, but also for later lung function. To investigate the role of expression patterns of well-defined asthma susceptibility genes during human and murine lung development. We hypothesized that genes influencing normal airways development would be over-represented by genes associated with asthma. Asthma genes were first identified via comprehensive search of the current literature. Next, we analyzed their expression patterns in the developing human lung during the pseudoglandular (gestational age, 7-16 weeks) and canalicular (17-26 weeks) stages of development, and in the complete developing lung time series of 3 mouse strains: A/J, SW, C57BL6. In total, 96 genes with association to asthma in at least two human populations were identified in the literature. Overall, there was no significant over-representation of the asthma genes among genes differentially expressed during lung development, although trends were seen in the human (Odds ratio, OR 1.22, confidence interval, CI 0.90-1.62) and C57BL6 mouse (OR 1.41, CI 0.92-2.11) data. However, differential expression of some asthma genes was consistent in both developing human and murine lung, e.g. NOD1, EDN1, CCL5, RORA and HLA-G. Among the asthma genes identified in genome wide association studies, ROBO1, RORA, HLA-DQB1, IL2RB and PDE10A were differentially expressed during human lung development. Our data provide insight about the role of asthma susceptibility genes during lung development and suggest common mechanisms underlying lung morphogenesis and pathogenesis of respiratory diseases.

  3. Histological Analysis of the Arabidopsis Gynoecium and Ovules Using Chloral Hydrate Clearing and Differential Interference Contrast Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    The use of chloral hydrate optical clearing paired with differential interference contrast microscopy allows the analysis of internal structures of developing plant organs without the need for paraffin embedding and sectioning. This approach is appropriate for the analysis of the developing gynoecium or seedpod of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana and many other types of fixed plant material. Early stages of ovule development are observable with this approach.

  4. Adjuvant Growth Hormone for Ovulation Induction with Gonadotropins in the Treatment of a Woman with Hypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the prestimulation use of adjuvant GH for gonadotropin ovulation induction in a woman with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency who previously failed to respond. Design, Patients, and Measurements. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman presented with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency after failing ovulation induction with high dose gonadotropins. A trial of GH was undertaken for 5 months prior to ovulation induction resulting in normalization of IGF-I levels. Results. Women with hypopituitarism are known to have lower pregnancy rates after ovulation induction with need for higher doses of gonadotropins. A small subset of these patients do not ovulate. This patient had successful ovulation induction and pregnancy with prestimulation GH. Conclusions. This case suggests that the use of adjuvant GH in a GH-deficient patient several months before the use of human menopausal gonadotropin results in ovulation and pregnancy.

  5. Geosite identification in Karangbolong High to support the development of Karangsambung-Karangbolong Geopark candidate, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansori, Chusni

    2018-02-01

    Geopark is an area that has an outstanding geological evidence, including archaeological, ecological and cultural values in which local people are invited to participate in protecting and enhancing the function of natural heretage. Its sustainable development concept has proven to increase economic and conservation benefits. Geopark introduces the earth's heritage, protected areas, geo-development, economic development and implementation of various science and technology. Geoparks have unique geological, cultural and biological that can be utilized for conservation and geotourism. Indonesia has 2 global geoparks, 4 national geoparks and 15 geopark candidates. Karangsambung-Karangbolong area is one of the geopark candidates which is a subduction zone that underwent an uplift and now is dominated with conical hills karst. The Kebumen local government is preparing a master plan for Karangsambung Geopark except Karangbolong, and LIPI is supporting the scientific studies. To initiate the development of Karangsambung-Karangbolong Geopark, an integrated geosite identification has to be done. Field observation of geodiversity, bio diversity and culture diversity, followed by rating of geosite based on scoring method using weighting 3 for geodiversity, 2 for biodiversity and 2 for culture diversity. Geosite of Karangbolong High includes geosite of karst-nonkarst morphology of Wanalela Hill and Tugu Village. Cave geosites are Barat, Petruk and Jatijajar caves. Beach geosite include Lampon, Menganti, G. Hud, Logending, Karangbolong and Karangagung beaches. Very good geosites are Petruk cave, Hud hill and Barat cave. Good geosite includes Lampon, Menganti, Karangpamuran, Pelus, Jatijajar, Wanalela, Logending and Karangbolong. Geosite at Karangbolong High provides good support for the development of Karangsambung-Karangbolong Geopark.

  6. Storage products and tissue interaction in the ovule of Pinus silvestris (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Engels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organel-sequence in ovular cells of Pinus silvestris was investigated by light- and electronmicroscopy during the post-pollination and pre-fertilization period. Changes in starch and lipid storage suppose starch to be a pool for lipid synthesis and a reserve for ovule development. The base nucellus plays an important role in the distribution of metabolites all over the ovular tissues. Lipid, starch and callose are of interest for the cells to protect them against low temperatures by means of isolation, antifreeze and plug formation respectively.

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of bovine IVF embryos revealed candidate genes and pathways involved in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandell Brian S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early embryonic loss is a large contributor to infertility in cattle. Although genetic factors are known to affect early embryonic development, the discovery of such factors has been a serious challenge. The objective of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between blastocysts and degenerative embryos at early stages of development. Results Using microarrays, genome-wide RNA expression was profiled and compared for in vitro fertilization (IVF - derived blastocysts and embryos undergoing degenerative development up to the same time point. Surprisingly similar transcriptomic profiles were found in degenerative embryos and blastocysts. Nonetheless, we identified 67 transcripts that significantly differed between these two groups of embryos at a 15% false discovery rate, including 33 transcripts showing at least a two-fold difference. Several signaling and metabolic pathways were found to be associated with the developmental status of embryos, among which were previously known important steroid biosynthesis and cell communication pathways in early embryonic development. Conclusions This study presents the first direct and comprehensive comparison of transcriptomes between IVF blastocysts and degenerative embryos, providing important information for potential genes and pathways associated with early embryonic development.

  8. Isolation of candidate genes for apomictic development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjit; Burson, Byron L; Finlayson, Scott A

    2007-08-01

    Asexual reproduction through seeds, or apomixis, is a process that holds much promise for agricultural advances. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying apomixis are currently poorly understood. To identify genes related to female gametophyte development in apomictic ovaries of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link), Suppression Subtractive Hybridization of ovary cDNA with leaf cDNA was performed. Through macroarray screening of subtracted cDNAs two genes were identified, Pca21 and Pca24, that showed differential expression between apomictic and sexual ovaries. Sequence analysis showed that both Pca21 and Pca24 are novel genes not previously characterized in plants. Pca21 shows homology to two wheat genes that are also expressed during reproductive development. Pca24 has similarity to coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain containing proteins from maize and sugarcane. Northern blot analysis revealed that both of these genes are expressed throughout female gametophyte development in apomictic ovaries. In situ hybridizations localized the transcript of these two genes to the developing embryo sacs in the apomictic ovaries. Based on the expression patterns it was concluded that Pca21 and Pca24 likely play a role during apomictic development in buffelgrass.

  9. Cell Wall Composition and Candidate Biosynthesis Gene Expression During Rice Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra; Peck, Matthew L.; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Williams, Brian; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Saha, Prasenjit; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Conlin, Brian; Zhu, Lan; Hahn, Michael G.; Willats, William G. T.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-08-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had previously been identified as being highly expressed in rice. Most cell wall components vary significantly during development, and correlations among them support current understanding of cell walls. We identified 92 significant correlations between cell wall components and gene expression and establish nine strong hypotheses for genes that synthesize xylans, mixed linkage glucan and pectin components. This work provides an extensive analysis of cell wall composition throughout rice development, identifies genes likely to synthesize grass cell walls, and provides a framework for development of genetically improved grasses for use in lignocellulosic biofuel production and agriculture.

  10. Transcriptome and Proteome Studies Reveal Candidate Attachment Genes during the Development of the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Aqeel, Sarah; Ryu, Tae Woo; Zhang, Huoming; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI, and cyprid) from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41%. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004679.

  11. Transcriptome and proteome studies reveal candidate attachment genes during the development of the barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Al-Aqeel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI and cyprid from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41‰. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1,387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development.

  12. Development of RNAi method for screening candidate genes to control emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thais B; Rieske, Lynne K; J Duan, Jian; Mogilicherla, Kanakachari; Palli, Subba R

    2017-08-07

    The ingestion of double-strand RNAs (dsRNA) targeting essential genes in an insect could cause mortality. Based on this principle, a new generation of insect control methods using RNA interference (RNAi) are being developed. In this work, we developed a bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to an invasive forest and urban tree pest, the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis). EAB feeds and develops beneath the bark, killing trees rapidly. This behavior, coupled with the lack of a reliable artificial diet for rearing larvae and adults, make them difficult to study. We found that dsRNA is transported and processed to siRNAs by EAB larvae within 72 h after ingestion. Also, feeding neonate larvae with IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) or COP (COPI coatomer, β subunit) dsRNA silenced their target genes and caused mortality. Both an increase in the concentration of dsRNA fed and sequential feeding of two different dsRNAs increased mortality. Here we provide evidence for successful RNAi in EAB, and demonstrate the development of a rapid and effective bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to screen additional genes.

  13. Transcriptome and Proteome Studies Reveal Candidate Attachment Genes during the Development of the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Aqeel, Sarah

    2016-09-21

    The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI, and cyprid) from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41%. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004679.

  14. Preparation Model of Student Teacher Candidate in Developing Integrative Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyanto; Widiyatmoko, Arif

    2016-01-01

    According to 2013 Curriculum in Indonesia, science learning process in Junior High School is integrally held between physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science. To successfully implementing the 2013 Curriculum in school, the education institution which generates science teacher should prepare the student, so that they can develop integrative…

  15. Ovulation time and ovulated eggs count of sneakehead Channa striata induced by prostaglandin 2α with different doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits Jamlaay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Snakehead fish Channa striata is one of freshwater commodity which has high economic value. Nowadays, snakehead fish stock mostly comes from wild capture. Artificial spawning with hormonal induction is usually used to improve broodstock efficiency, as well as the quality and quantity of fish seed production. Purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α hormone on ovulation time and count of ovulated eggs. This experiment used 30–40 cm broodstock with 600–900 g body weight. Fishes were acclimated for one week in a container and then injected with different doses of PGF2α, namely: control without PGF2α (P1, 0.5 mL/kg (P2; 0.7mL/kg (P3; and 0.9 mL/kg (P4. Each treatment consisted of three fishes as replication. Ovulation time was observed until 72 hours post injection. The results showed that PGF2α injected broodstoks ovulated faster (9.17–12.24 hours post injection than control P1 (22.67 hours, while among PGF2α injected fishes were the same. Furthermore, count of ovulated eggs from PGF2α induced broodstocks were higher than control P1, and the highest (2,860 eggs was obtained in treatment 0.9 mL/kg. Thus, PGF2α at dose of 0.9 mL/kg can be used to induce eggs ovulation of snakehead fish and to increase count of ovulated eggs. Keywords: PGF2α, ovulation time, ovulated eggs count, Channa striata  ABSTRAK Ikan gabus Channa striata merupakan salah satu komoditas air tawar yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Saat ini, pemenuhan kebutuhan hanya bergantung pada hasil penangkapan di alam. Cara pemijahan buatan dengan induksi hormon biasanya digunakan untuk efisiensi penggunaan induk serta peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas benih ikan yang dihasilkan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji efektivitas hormon prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α terhadap waktu ovulasi dan jumlah telur ikan gabus yang diovulasikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan induk ikan gabus berukuran 30–40 cm dengan bobot

  16. Important Factors in the Cognitive Development of Children with Hearing Impairment: Case Studies of Candidates for Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.

  17. Important factors in the cognitive development of children with hearing impairment: case studies of candidates for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro; Goffi Gomez, Maria Valéria Schimidt; Magalhaes, Ana Tereza; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities) undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.

  18. Candidate sites for future hot-dry-rock development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Decker, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    Generalized geologic and other data are tabulated for 24 potential hot dry rock (HDR) sites in the contiguous United States. The data show that HDR resources occur in many geologic and tectonic settings. Potential reservoir rocks at each prospect are described and each system is cateogrized accoridng to inferred heat sources. The Fenton Hill area in New Mexico is discussed in detail because this region may be considered ideal for HDR development. Three other prospectively valuable localities are described: The Geysers-Clear lake region in California, the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah, and the White Mountains region in New Hampshire. These areas are singled out to illustrate the roles of significantly different geology and geophysics, reservoir rocks, and reservoir heat contents in possible HDR developments.

  19. Prototype of Decision Support System Development in Determining Raskin Recipients Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Desriyanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making support systems for beneficiaries deserving of the poor are a decision support system that can be used as a tool for assessing the feasibility of providing assistance. The established system only knows the rankings of the population proposals, the population data that has not been stored in the population database, the population data that has not been integrated with the data category, the criteria data, and value data so it requires the process of data input. In the process of data collection methods used are Interviews, Observation, Documentation, Literature Review while the software development methodology used is Prototype. The process of making software by using Macromedia Dreamweaver, language programming used is PHP, Javascript, HTML, and Cascading Style Sheet (CSS. This research aims 1 Make the development of decision support system in giving assistance for the poor in Cekok Ponorogo. 2 Conduct the mapping for proposed poor family and received assistance in graphic form. The conclusions of the development of decision support systems are; 1 Population data stored in the form of database that facilitate the process of searching data. 2 The Recorded of the proposed data and who received assistance for each hamlet in Kelurahan Cekok Ponorogo in the form of a graph. 3 Reduce errors in the submission the proposed data of potential beneficiaries

  20. Ovulation inhibition by estetrol in an in vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennink, H.J.T.C.; Skouby, S.; Bouchard, P.

    2008-01-01

    experimental protocol, 2.0 mg/kg of E4 was administered as a single daily dose or as a dose of 1.0 mg/kg twice daily. In both studies, the primary end point was the number of ovulated oocytes in the genital tract. Results: Estetrol at the twice daily dose of 0.3 mg/kg and above inhibited ovulation. This effect......: Regularly cycling female rats were treated orally twice daily for four consecutive days, starting on the day of estrus, with E4 (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), EE (0.0003, 0.001, 0.003, 0.01 or 0.03 mg/kg) or vehicle control (eight animals per group). In a second experiment conducted under the same...

  1. Necdin, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L G; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L

    2009-01-15

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS.

  2. Necdin, a Prader–Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L.G.; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2009-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS. PMID:18930956

  3. Identification of candidate genes for human pituitary development by EST analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huasheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pituitary is a critical neuroendocrine gland that is comprised of five hormone-secreting cell types, which develops in tandem during the embryonic stage. Some essential genes have been identified in the early stage of adenohypophysial development, such as PITX1, FGF8, BMP4 and SF-1. However, it is likely that a large number of signaling molecules and transcription factors essential for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types remain unidentified. High-throughput methods such as microarray analysis may facilitate the measurement of gene transcriptional levels, while Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing, an efficient method for gene discovery and expression level analysis, may no-redundantly help to understand gene expression patterns during development. Results A total of 9,271 ESTs were generated from both fetal and adult pituitaries, and assigned into 961 gene/EST clusters in fetal and 2,747 in adult pituitary by homology analysis. The transcription maps derived from these data indicated that developmentally relevant genes, such as Sox4, ST13 and ZNF185, were dominant in the cDNA library of fetal pituitary, while hormones and hormone-associated genes, such as GH1, GH2, POMC, LHβ, CHGA and CHGB, were dominant in adult pituitary. Furthermore, by using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, Sox4 was found to be one of the main transcription factors expressed in fetal pituitary for the first time. It was expressed at least at E12.5, but decreased after E17.5. In addition, 40 novel ESTs were identified specifically in this tissue. Conclusion The significant changes in gene expression in both tissues suggest a distinct and dynamic switch between embryonic and adult pituitaries. All these data along with Sox4 should be confirmed to further understand the community of multiple signaling pathways that act as a cooperative network that regulates maturation of the pituitary. It was also suggested that EST

  4. Cell wall composition and candidate biosynthesis gene expression during rice development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall...... components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples......, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had...

  5. Development of Barrier Layers for the Protection of Candidate Alloys in the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Carlos G. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, J. Wayne [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pollock, Tresa M. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Was, Gary S. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project was to develop concepts for barrier layers that enable leading candi- date Ni alloys to meet the longer term operating temperature and durability requirements of the VHTR. The concepts were based on alpha alumina as a primary surface barrier, underlay by one or more chemically distinct alloy layers that would promote and sustain the formation of the pro- tective scale. The surface layers must possess stable microstructures that provide resistance to oxidation, de-carburization and/or carburization, as well as durability against relevant forms of thermo-mechanical cycling. The system must also have a self-healing ability to allow endurance for long exposure times at temperatures up to 1000°C.

  6. The Effect of Flutamide on Ovulation Induction in PCOS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Madani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder that affects various bodyorgans and requires comprehensive long term evaluation and management. The aim ofthis study was to evaluate effect of Flutamide on ovulation induction in PCOS patients.Materials and Methods: This prospective study applied triple blind method, a simpleconvenience sampling method, to induce ovulations of the ninety six PCOS patients.Patients were divided into two groups; group A included 53 subjects (received Flutamide+ Clomiphene Citrate and group B included 43 subjects (received placebo + ClomipheneCitrate. Ultrasound was carried to determine the size of follicles and growth rate of themduring follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Also, progesterone levels were measuredon days 19 and 21 of the menstrual cycle.Results: In this study, ninety six PCOS patients, in two treatment and control groups,were evaluated regarding to body mass index (BMI, cycle irregularity, age and numberof dominant follicles, duration of stimulation, endocrine profile and score of hirsutism.The obtained results revealed no significant differences between two groups.Conclusion: Flutamide does not affect ovulation improvement in PCOS patients undergoinginduction (Registration Number: IRCT 201105081141N10.

  7. Do women prefer more complex music around ovulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Filippi, Piera; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of music are much debated. One theory holds that the ability to produce complex musical sounds might reflect qualities that are relevant in mate choice contexts and hence, that music is functionally analogous to the sexually-selected acoustic displays of some animals. If so, women may be expected to show heightened preferences for more complex music when they are most fertile. Here, we used computer-generated musical pieces and ovulation predictor kits to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that women prefer more complex music in general; however, we found no evidence that their preference for more complex music increased around ovulation. Consequently, our findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that a heightened preference/bias in women for more complex music around ovulation could have played a role in the evolution of music. We go on to suggest future studies that could further investigate whether sexual selection played a role in the evolution of this universal aspect of human culture.

  8. Do women prefer more complex music around ovulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origins of music are much debated. One theory holds that the ability to produce complex musical sounds might reflect qualities that are relevant in mate choice contexts and hence, that music is functionally analogous to the sexually-selected acoustic displays of some animals. If so, women may be expected to show heightened preferences for more complex music when they are most fertile. Here, we used computer-generated musical pieces and ovulation predictor kits to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that women prefer more complex music in general; however, we found no evidence that their preference for more complex music increased around ovulation. Consequently, our findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that a heightened preference/bias in women for more complex music around ovulation could have played a role in the evolution of music. We go on to suggest future studies that could further investigate whether sexual selection played a role in the evolution of this universal aspect of human culture.

  9. Heparan Sulfate: A Potential Candidate for the Development of Biomimetic Immunomodulatory Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Corradetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials have demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS could be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Its anti-inflammatory effect makes it suitable for the development of biomimetic innovative strategies aiming at modulating stem cells behavior toward a pro-regenerative phenotype in case of injury or inflammation. Here, we propose collagen type I meshes fabricated by solvent casting and further crosslinked with HS (HS-Col to create a biomimetic environment resembling the extracellular matrix of soft tissue. HS-Col meshes were tested for their capability to provide physical support to stem cells’ growth, maintain their phenotypes and immunosuppressive potential following inflammation. HS-Col effect on stem cells was investigated in standard conditions as well as in an inflammatory environment recapitulated in vitro through a mix of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-gamma; 20 ng/ml. A significant increase in the production of molecules associated with immunosuppression was demonstrated in response to the material and when cells were grown in presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli, compared to bare collagen membranes (Col, leading to a greater inhibitory potential when mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that the presence of HS is able to activate the molecular machinery responsible for the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, potentially leading to a faster resolution of inflammation.

  10. An adenovirus-derived protein: A novel candidate for anti-diabetic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vijay; Na, Ha-Na; Dubuisson, Olga; Burke, Susan J; Collier, J Jason; Burk, David; Mendoza, Tamra; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to human adenovirus Ad36 is causatively and correlatively linked with better glycemic control in animals and humans, respectively. Although the anti-hyperglycemic property of Ad36 may offer some therapeutic potential, it is impractical to use an infectious agent for therapeutic benefit. Cell-based studies identified that Ad36 enhances cellular glucose disposal via its E4orf1 protein. Ability to improve glycemic control in vivo is a critical prerequisite for further investigating the therapeutic potential of E4orf1. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the ability of E4orf1 to improve glycemic control independent of insulin despite high fat diet. 8-9wk old male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (60% kcal) were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector (Control). Glycemic control was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance test. Islet cell size, amount of insulin and glucagon were determined in formalin-fixed pancreas. Rat insulinoma cell line (832/13) was infected with E4orf1 or control to determine changes in glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Protein from flash frozen adipose tissue depots, liver and muscle was used to determine molecular signaling by western blotting. In multiple experiments, retrovirus-mediated E4orf1 expression in C57BL/6J mice significantly and reproducibly improved glucose excursion following a glucose load despite a high fat diet (60% energy). Importantly, E4orf1 improved glucose clearance without increasing insulin sensitivity, production or secretion, underscoring its insulin-independent effect. E4orf1 modulated molecular signaling in mice tissue, which included greater protein abundance of adiponectin, p-AKT and Glucose transporter Glu4. This study provides the proof of concept for translational development of E4orf1 as a potential anti-diabetic agent. High fat intake and impaired insulin signaling are often associated with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. Hence, the

  11. Optimized candidal biofilm microtiter assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, Bastiaan P.; Cohen, Jesse B.; Feser, Gail E. McElhaney; Cihlar, Ronald L.

    Microtiter based candidal biofilm formation is commonly being used. Here we describe the analysis of factors influencing the development of candidal biofilms such as the coating with serum, growth medium and pH. The data reported here show that optimal candidal biofilm formation is obtained when

  12. Children's Literacy Growth, and Candidates' and Teachers' Professional Development Resulting from a PDS-Based Initial Certification Literacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Julie L.; Donnantuono, Marie; Lebron, Mary; Flynn, Christina

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the effects on children, teacher candidates, and classroom teachers of a PDS-based initial certification course in the teaching of literacy. In this course, teacher candidates work with individual struggling readers on a range of literacy tasks, and the classroom teacher and university faculty member serve as course…

  13. Process in ovules from the second-year-old cones of scotch pine after acute irradiation in zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    Embryological processes after acute irradiation in the Chernobyl NPP zone (480-520 rad) were studied from the second-year-old cones of scotch pine. Four levels of anomalies were detected in ovules of all experimental pine trees: undeveloped ovules in layer of strobiles; substitution of female gametophit by tissues original from tapetal or nuclear cells; death of macrogametophytes connected with the interruption of divisions during the cenocitic stage in full-fertile pine trees. These anomalies appear during the normal development of microgametophytes [ru

  14. Ovulation induction by antiestrogens in an Indian tropical vespertillionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrasi, Pranab Lal; Tiwari, Anjana

    2006-11-02

    The ovulation induction property of ICI 182,780 a pure antiestrogen and enclomiphene citrate (ENC) was carried out in Scotophilus heathi, an Indian tropical vespertillionid bat, during December to February i.e., preovulatory period. This bat ovulates two ova naturally and shows ovulatory asynchrony. The study showed that 100 ìg of ENC followed by 10 IU hCG resulted in significantly lower number of ovulation. Whereas, the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 at a dose of 100 ìg followed by 10 IU hCG resulted in ovulation induction (4.2 +/- 0.4), which is significantly different in comparison to other groups. This is possibly the first report of ovulation induction using this pure antiestrogen i.e., ICI 182,780 in any bat as well as in any animal model that exhibits temporary anovulation similar to polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). This antiestrogen may be useful to induce ovulation in PCOD patients.

  15. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Traces of embryogenesis are the same in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: not compatible with double ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boklage, Charles E

    2009-06-01

    Common knowledge of over a century has it that monozygotic and dizygotic twinning events occur by unrelated mechanisms: monozygotic twinning 'splits' embryos, producing anomalously re-arranged embryogenic asymmetries; dizygotic twinning begins with independent ovulations yielding undisturbed parallel embryogeneses with no expectation of departures from singleton outcomes. The anomalies statistically associated with twin births are due to the re-arranged embryos of the monozygotics. Common knowledge further requires that dizygotic pairs are dichorionic; monochorionicity is exclusive to monozygotic pairs. These are fundamental certainties in the literature of twin biology. Multiple observations contradict those common knowledge understandings. The double ovulation hypothesis of dizygotic twinning is untenable. Girl-boy twins differ subtly from all other humans of either sex, absolutely not representative of all dizygotics. Embryogenesis of dizygotic twins differs from singleton development at least as much as monozygotic embryogenesis does, and in the same ways, and the differences between singletons and twins of both zygosities represent a coherent system of re-arranged embryogenic asymmetries. Dizygotic twinning and monozygotic twinning have the same list of consequences of anomalous embryogenesis. Those include an unignorable fraction of dizygotic pairs that are in fact monochorionic, plus many more sharing co-twins' cells in tissues other than a common chorion. The idea that monozygotic and dizygotic twinning events arise from the same embryogenic mechanism is the only plausible hypothesis that might explain all of the observations.

  17. Biochemical evaluation in human saliva with special reference to ovulation detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagendran S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of salivary sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans with reference to salivary hormones during the normal menstrual cycle. Settings and Design: Fifty women volunteers were selected for the present study. Materials and Methods : Saliva was collected from 50 women and ovulation was detected in women with normal menstrual cycles through basal body temperature (BBT, ultrasound and salivary ferning. Samples were divided into five categories, as prepubertal (6-9 years, pre-ovulatory phase (6-12 days, ovulatory phase (13-14 days, postovulatory phase (15-26 days and menopause (above 45 years. Each sample was subjected to evaluation of the sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans along with salivary hormones. Results : The result revealed that the ovulatory phase has increased sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans during the menstrual cycle when compared with that of the other phases. Consequently, an increased level of hormones such as luteinizing hormone and estrogen during the ovulatory period when compared to that of the pre-ovulatory and postovulatory periods appeared to be noteworthy. Statistically, analysis was performed using one way-ANOVA (LSD; post hoc method to determine the significance as P < 0.001, 0.01, 0.05 in between the reproductive phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion : This study concluded that saliva-specific carbohydrates in the ovulatory saliva make the possibility to develop a biomarker for detection of ovulation by non-invasive methods.

  18. Long-term effects of ovulation-stimulating drugs on cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Louise

    2007-07-01

    Although nulliparity has been extensively related to the risk of ovarian, breast and endometrial cancers, with many studies showing the relationship largely attributable to infertility, treatment effects on cancer risk are poorly understood. Two early studies raised substantial concern when ovulation-stimulating drugs were linked with large increases in ovarian cancer, supporting the notion of an important aetiological role of incessant ovulation. Subsequent studies have been mainly reassuring, although some have suggested possible risk increases among nulligravid women, those with extensive follow-up, and those developing borderline tumours. Results regarding effects of fertility drugs on breast cancer risk are conflicting, with some showing no associations and others demonstrating possible risk increases, although for varying subgroups. In contrast, endometrial cancer results are more consistent, with two recent studies showing increased risks related to clomiphene usage. This is of interest given that clomiphene is structurally similar to tamoxifen, a drug extensively linked with this cancer. Given the recent marketing of fertility drugs and the fact that exposed women are only beginning to reach the cancer age range, further follow-up is necessary. This will also be important to fully resolve effects of exposures such as gonadotrophins, used more recently in conjunction with IVF.

  19. Gene expression analysis identifies new candidate genes associated with the development of black skin spots in Corriedale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Zorrilla, Pilar; Naya, Hugo; Robello, Carlos; Urioste, Jorge I

    2012-02-01

    The white coat colour of sheep is an important economic trait. For unknown reasons, some animals are born with, and others develop with time, black skin spots that can also produce pigmented fibres. The presence of pigmented fibres in the white wool significantly decreases the fibre quality. The aim of this work was to study gene expression in black spots (with and without pigmented fibres) and white skin by microarray techniques, in order to identify the possible genes involved in the development of this trait. Five unrelated Corriedale sheep were used and, for each animal, the three possible comparisons (three different hybridisations) between the three samples of interest were performed. Differential gene expression patterns were analysed using different t-test approaches. Most of the major genes with well-known roles in skin pigmentation, e.g. ASIP, MC1R and C-KIT, showed no significant difference in the gene expression between white skin and black spots. On the other hand, many of the differentially expressed genes (raw P-value spots. The gene expression of C-FOS and KLF4, transcription factors involved in the cellular response to external factors such as ultraviolet light, was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This exploratory study provides a list of candidate genes that could be associated with the development of black skin spots that should be studied in more detail. Characterisation of these genes will enable us to discern the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this feature and, hence, increase our understanding of melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. In sheep, understanding this phenomenon is a first step towards developing molecular tools to assist in the selection against the presence of pigmented fibres in white wool.

  20. Nuclear Progestin Receptor (Pgr Knockouts in Zebrafish Demonstrate Role for Pgr in Ovulation But Not in Rapid Nongenomic Steroid Mediated Meiosis Resumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Progestins, progesterone derivatives, are the most critical signaling steroid for initiating final oocyte maturation (FOM and ovulation, in order to advance fully-grown immature oocytes to become fertilizable eggs in basal vertebrates. It is well-established that progestin induces FOM via an elusive membrane receptor and a nongenomic steroid signaling process, which precedes progestin triggered ovulation that is mediated through a nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr and genomic signaling pathway. To determine whether Pgr plays a role in a nongenomic signaling mechanism during FOM, we knocked out Pgr in zebrafish using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and studied the oocyte maturation phenotypes of Pgr knockouts (Pgr-KOs. Three TALENs-induced mutant lines with different frame shift mutations were generated. Homozygous Pgr-KO female fish were all infertile while no fertility effects were evident in homozygous Pgr-KO males. Oocytes developed and underwent FOM normally in vivo in homozygous Pgr-KO female compared to the wildtype controls, but these mature oocytes were trapped within the follicular cells and failed to ovulate from the ovaries. These oocytes also underwent normal germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD and FOM in vitro, but failed to ovulate even after treatment with human chronic gonadotropin (HCG or progestin (17alpha,20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone or DHP, which typically induce FOM and ovulation in wildtype oocytes. The results indicate that anovulation and infertility in homozygous Pgr-KO female fish was, at least in part, due to a lack of functional Pgr-mediated genomic progestin signaling in the follicular cells adjacent to the oocytes. Our study of Pgr-KO supports previous results that demonstrate a role for Pgr in steroid-dependent genomic signaling pathways leading to ovulation, and the first convincing evidence that Pgr is not essential for initiating nongenomic progestin signaling and triggering meiosis resumption.

  1. In vitro gynogenesis in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.: effects of ovule culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Barański

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of factors affecting gynogenic response of red beet ovules is discussed. The ovule response frequencies were the highest in the following conditions: N6 (Chu 1975 mineral salts, 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.2 mg/l BA, 27 or 32oC. The influence of genotype of donor plants was confirmed and it was found that the ovules excised from cultivar plants have a greater gynogenic ability than the ovules of hybrids or inbred lines.

  2. Comparison between two clomiphene citrate protocols for induction of ovulation in clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Sheikh-El-Arab Elsedeek

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The current study reports significantly higher ovulation and pregnancy rates with the longer lower dose protocol probably because of prolonged FSH rise. Study web address: ACTRN12611000639921.

  3. Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Metformin alone compared with placebo increases the ovulation rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but should not be used as first-line therapy for anovulation because oral ovulation induction agents such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole alone are much more effective in increasing ovulation, pregnancy, and live-birth rates in women with PCOS. There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that metformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional characterization of Plasmodium berghei PSOP25 during ookinete development and as a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenqi; Liu, Fei; He, Yiwen; Liu, Qingyang; Humphreys, Gregory B; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Fan, Qi; Luo, Enjie; Cao, Yaming; Cui, Liwang

    2017-01-05

    Plasmodium ookinete surface proteins as post-fertilization target antigens are potential malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidates. Putative secreted ookinete protein 25 (PSOP25) is a highly conserved ookinete surface protein, and has been shown to be a promising novel TBV target. Here, we further investigated the TBV activities of the full-length recombinant PSOP25 (rPSOP25) protein in Plasmodium berghei, and characterized the potential functions of PSOP25 during the P. berghei life-cycle. We expressed the full-length P. berghei PSOP25 protein in a prokaryotic expression system, and developed polyclonal mouse antisera and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the recombinant protein. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot were used to test the specificity of antibodies. The transmission-blocking (TB) activities of antibodies were evaluated by the in vitro ookinete conversion assay and by direct mosquito feeding assay (DFA). Finally, the function of PSOP25 during Plasmodium development was studied by deleting the psop25 gene. Both polyclonal mouse antisera and anti-rPSOP25 mAb recognized the PSOP25 proteins in the parasites, and IFA showed the preferential expression of PSOP25 on the surface of zygotes, retorts and mature ookinetes. In vitro, these antibodies significantly inhibited ookinetes formation in an antibody concentration-dependent manner. In DFA, mice immunized with the rPSOP25 and those receiving passive transfer of the anti-rPSOP25 mAb reduced the prevalence of mosquito infection by 31.2 and 26.1%, and oocyst density by 66.3 and 63.3%, respectively. Genetic knockout of the psop25 gene did not have a detectable impact on the asexual growth of P. berghei, but significantly affected the maturation of ookinetes and the formation of midgut oocysts. The full-length rPSOP25 could elicit strong antibody response in mice. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against PSOP25 could effectively block the formation of ookinetes in vitro

  5. The ovulation pattern during three consecutive menstrual cycles has a significant impact on pregnancy rate and sex of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Tatsumi, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right-left-left, an......Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right...

  6. [Light modes and ovulation function in rats in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, I A; Chernova, I V

    2007-01-01

    Enhancement of illumination was shown to lead to occurrence of early and more obvious age-dependent changes of ovulation cycle in rats as compared with the same changes in animals staying in conditions of light deprivation or standard illumination. The effect of 24-hour illumination during a year induced more obvious and still earlier changes of the estrus cycle that the effect of natural illumination in the North-West of Russia with its peculiar yearly photo-periodicity (short light day in the autumn-winter period and "white nights" in the spring-summer period).

  7. Interrelations between glucose-induced insulin response, metabolic indicators, and time of first ovulation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, P; Leroy, J L M R; De Vliegher, S; Opsomer, G

    2008-09-01

    High-yielding dairy cows are more susceptible to metabolic and reproductive disorders than low-yielding cows. Insulin plays a pivotal role in the development of both problems. In the present study, we aimed to assess the glucose-induced insulin responses of dairy cows at different time points relative to calving and to relate this to the metabolic status and the time of first ovulation. Twenty-three healthy, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield were studied from 14 d prepartum to 42 d postpartum. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed on -14, 14, and 42 d relative to calving to evaluate the plasma insulin and glucose responses to a glucose load, as estimated by the peak concentration, the area under the curve (AUC), and the clearance rates of insulin and glucose. Blood samples were obtained at 3-d intervals and analyzed for glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The time of first ovulation was defined by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma progesterone analysis. Glucose-induced insulin AUC and peak concentration decreased and glucose clearance increased during lactation compared with the dry period. Plasma NEFA concentrations were negatively related to insulin AUC and peak concentrations. Fourteen cows ovulated within 42 d postpartum, and the remaining 9 cows suffered from delayed resumption of ovarian function. Survival analysis demonstrated that cows with lower NEFA concentrations during the dry period tended to have earlier resumption of ovarian activity. In conclusion, our data suggest a decreased plasma insulin response to glucose postpartum in high-yielding dairy cows, possibly contributing to metabolic stress during the early postpartum period. It is hypothesized that NEFA impair glucose-induced insulin secretion in dairy cows. Additionally, our results suggest the importance of lipolysis during the transition period as a risk factor for delayed ovulation.

  8. Exogenous induction of ovarian activity and ovulation and transfer of fresh embryos of domestic cat (Felis catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lopes Santana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the exogenous stimulation of ovarian activity and definition of embryo collection, and transfer protocols, in the domestic cat for potential application in non-domestic endangered species. Sixteen adult queens and two adult male reproducers kept in the experimental cat house at the Morphology sector at the Veterinary Department (DVT, UFV, were used in this study. All the queens received a single application of 150 IU Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG in the post estrus to induce ovarian activity and 80 to 84 hours later, received a single application of 100 UI Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG to induce ovulation. After hCG application, only the donor queens were naturally mated. The receptor queens received extra stimulus for induction of ovulation through manipulation of an intravaginal swab. Five to six days after hCG application, the donor queens were subjected to a laparotomy for embryo collection that was performed by trans-horn uterine washing. On average, six embryos were surgically inovulated. They were classified as type I and III compact morula and blastocysts in four receptor queens. Three animals presented pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound at day 36 and two of these animals gave birth to litters of two and four offsprings, respectively, at 66 and 63 days after induction of ovulation. Except for one still birth, all the offspring developed normally.

  9. Induction of ovulation by a potent, orally active, low molecular weight agonist (Org 43553) of the luteinizing hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Lagemaat, R; Timmers, C M; Kelder, J; van Koppen, C; Mosselman, S; Hanssen, R G J M

    2009-03-01

    In assisted reproductive technology, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is administered subcutaneously for the induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Our efforts to develop orally bioavailable luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor agonists have led to the discovery of Org 43553, a low molecular weight (LMW) LH receptor (LH-R) agonist. Org 43553 was tested in vitro and in vivo in pre-clinical pharmacological models to demonstrate efficacy and oral availability. Org 43553 is a potent stimulator of the human LH-R in vitro (EC(50) 3.7 nM). In primary mouse Leydig cells, Org 43553 stimulated testosterone production. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed high oral bioavailability in rats (79%) and dogs (44%) with a shorter half-life compared with hCG (3.4 versus 5.6 h in the rat). Ovulation induction by Org 43553 was demonstrated in immature mice as well as in cyclic rats after single-dose oral administration (50 mg/kg). The ovulated oocytes were of good quality as demonstrated by successful fertilization and implantation of normal embryos. In male rats, testosterone production was substantially induced after oral administration. Org 43553 is the first LMW LH-R mimetic with demonstrated in vivo efficacy upon oral administration and could therefore replace subcutaneously administered hCG. The elimination half-life of Org 43553 is substantially shorter than hCG, which could potentially represent a clinical benefit in reducing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

  10. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry.

  11. Teacher Candidates' Experiences with Clinical Teaching in Reading Instruction: A Comparison between the Professional Development School Environment and the Non-Professional Development School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates experience a variety of school settings when enrolled in teacher education methods courses. Candidates report varied experiences when in public school classrooms. This dissertation investigated clinical experiences of teacher candidates when placed in two different environments for clinical teaching. The two environments were a…

  12. Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) present in llama seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mauricio E; Smulders, Juan P; Guerra, Monserrat; Valderrama, Ximena P; Letelier, Claudia; Adams, Gregg P; Ratto, Marcelo H

    2011-05-30

    The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group) and a) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment) to Day 16. Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89) between placebo+GnRH (86%) and placebo+OIF groups (100%); however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus.

  13. Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF present in llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letelier Claudia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group and a pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment to Day 16. Results Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89 between placebo+GnRH (86% and placebo+OIF groups (100%; however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P Conclusion Cetrorelix (GnRH antagonist inhibited the preovulatory LH surge induced by OIF in llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus.

  14. Characterization of follicle stimulating hormone profiles in normal ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecochard, René; Guillerm, Agnes; Leiva, René; Bouchard, Thomas; Direito, Ana; Boehringer, Hans

    2014-07-01

    To describe FSH profile variants. Observational study. Multicenter collaborative study. A total of 107 women. Women collected daily first morning urine and underwent serial ovarian ultrasound. The individual FSH cyclic profiles demonstrated a significant departure from the currently accepted model. A decline in FSH levels at the end of the follicular phase was observed in only 42% of cycles. The absence of this decline was significantly associated with a shorter luteal phase and higher pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide, FSH, and LH levels at the time of ovulation. In 34% of the cycles, significant FSH variability was observed throughout the follicular phase; this variability was associated with higher body mass index and lower overall FSH and LH levels throughout the cycle. The FSH peak occurs on average 2 hours before ovulation. The FSH peak duration was shorter than the LH peak. These results suggest that average FSH profiles may not reflect the more complex dynamics of daily hormonal variations in the menstrual cycle. It is possible that discrepancies between the average normal FSH profile and the individual day-to-day variants can be used to detect abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed performance as influenced by ovary and ovule position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, H.C.; Jalink, H.; Bergervoet, J.W.; Klooster, M.; Du, S.L.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in relation to ovary and ovule position was monitored during seed production. Seeds from three (first, seventh and tenth nodes) fruit positions and three (stylar, intermediate and peduncular) ovule positions were harvested serially during

  16. Transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transfo...

  17. Effectiveness of indometacin to prevent ovulation in modified natural-cycle IVF : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken-Zijlstra, T. M.; Haadsma, M. L.; Hammer, C.; Burgerhof, J. G. M.; Pelinck, M. J.; Simons, A. H. M.; van Echten-Arends, J.; Arts, J. G. E. M.; Land, J. A.; Groen, H.; Hoek, A.

    Modified natural-cycle IVF has a lower pregnancy rate per started cycle as compared with IVF with ovarian stimulation due to, for example, premature ovulation. Indometacin administered before ovulation prevents follicle rupture. Therefore, addition of indometacin may improve the effectiveness of

  18. Tumor necrosis factor alpha versus LH and androstendione as a reliable predictor of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling for women with clomiphene citrate resistance polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyam, Emaduldin; Hefzy, Enas

    2018-03-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) is still a controversial decision; due to the long term hazards; so short and long term predictors after the procedure should be taken in consideration. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and other polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) relevant clinical and biochemical factors as a predictor of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease (CCR-PCOD). It was a prospective research work, where 150 infertile women with CCR-PCOD had been recruited. TNF-α serum level, which is an inflammatory biomarker, was investigated in addition to other PCOD relevant clinical and biochemical parameters as possible predictors of successful spontaneous ovulation and subsequent pregnancy after LOD. Recruited women with higher preoperative levels of TNF-α, LH, and androstenedione had significantly higher rates of spontaneous ovulation within the first three months follow up after LOD, in contrast to obese women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, long duration of infertility ≥3 years, marked biochemical hyperandrogenism (testosterone levels ≥4.5 nmol/L, free androgen index ≥15), and high insulin resistance (IR). Ninty five (95 = 63.3%) women in between women regularly menstruated (105 = 70%) had spontaneous ovulation, and of those spontaneously ovulated, 35(36.8%) women got pregnant spontaneously during the first 3 months follow up. Extended follow up for 12 months period revealed that 61 women got pregnant, with cumulative pregnancy rate of 58%. Logistic regression showed that the best cut-off values for spontaneous ovulation after LOD were 65.1 pg/ml, 11.5 IU/l, and 3.1 ng/ml and with a sensitivity of 91%, 88%, 55%, and with a specificity of 85%, 79%, 78%, for TNF-α, LH, androstenedione serum level respectively. TNF-α, LH, and Androstenedione could be considered as reliable

  19. Development of Au-Ge based candidate alloys as an alternative to high-lead content solders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The changes in microstructure and microhardness associated with the addition of low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au......-Ge-In and Au-Ge-Sn combinations was determined to be the classic solid solution strengthening. The Au-Ge-Sb combination was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The aging temperature had a significant influence on the microhardness in the case of the Au-Ge-Sn candidate alloy...

  20. Comparative expression profiling reveals gene functions in female meiosis and gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; He, Jiangman; Cai, Hanyang; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Yanqiang; Liu, Renyi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Qin, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Megasporogenesis is essential for female fertility, and requires the accomplishment of meiosis and the formation of functional megaspores. The inaccessibility and low abundance of female meiocytes make it particularly difficult to elucidate the molecular basis underlying megasporogenesis. We used high-throughput tag-sequencing analysis to identify genes expressed in female meiocytes (FMs) by comparing gene expression profiles from wild-type ovules undergoing megasporogenesis with those from the spl mutant ovules, which lack megasporogenesis. A total of 862 genes were identified as FMs, with levels that are consistently reduced in spl ovules in two biological replicates. Fluorescence-assisted cell sorting followed by RNA-seq analysis of DMC1:GFP-labeled female meiocytes confirmed that 90% of the FMs are indeed detected in the female meiocyte protoplast profiling. We performed reverse genetic analysis of 120 candidate genes and identified four FM genes with a function in female meiosis progression in Arabidopsis. We further revealed that KLU, a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is involved in chromosome pairing during female meiosis, most likely by affecting the normal expression pattern of DMC1 in ovules during female meiosis. Our studies provide valuable information for functional genomic analyses of plant germline development as well as insights into meiosis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fexinidazole--a new oral nitroimidazole drug candidate entering clinical development for the treatment of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Torreele

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, is a fatal parasitic disease caused by trypanosomes. Current treatment options for HAT are scarce, toxic, no longer effective, or very difficult to administer, in particular for the advanced, fatal stage of the disease (stage 2, chronic HAT. New safe, effective and easy-to-use treatments are urgently needed. Here it is shown that fexinidazole, a 2-substituted 5-nitroimidazole rediscovered by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi after extensive compound mining efforts of more than 700 new and existing nitroheterocycles, could be a short-course, safe and effective oral treatment curing both acute and chronic HAT and that could be implemented at the primary health care level. To complete the preclinical development and meet the regulatory requirements before initiating human trials, the anti-parasitic properties and the pharmacokinetic, metabolic and toxicological profile of fexinidazole have been assessed.Standard in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic activity assays were conducted to assess drug efficacy in experimental models for HAT. In parallel, a full range of preclinical pharmacology and safety studies, as required by international regulatory guidelines before initiating human studies, have been conducted. Fexinidazole is moderately active in vitro against African trypanosomes (IC₅₀ against laboratory strains and recent clinical isolates ranged between 0.16 and 0.93 µg/mL and oral administration of fexinidazole at doses of 100 mg/kg/day for 4 days or 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days cured mice with acute and chronic infection respectively, the latter being a model for the advanced and fatal stage of the disease when parasites have disseminated into the brain. In laboratory animals, fexinidazole is well absorbed after oral administration and readily distributes throughout the body, including the brain. The absolute bioavailability of oral fexinidazole was 41% in mice

  2. Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rosa; Hernández, Denisse; Morán, Carolina; Chavira, Roberto; Cárdenas, Mario; Domínguez, Roberto; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia

    2013-07-17

    Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90-92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries.

  3. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of parturition. CA detectability began to decline after September of the year of parturition. Monthly and age-specific proportions of CL-present females revealed that the post-mating season starts in August, and that the age of first ovulation is 4 years. These results indicate that the success rate of ovulation (SRO: the probability that solitary/non-lactating mature females actually succeed in ovulation) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among > or = 4-year-old females without PSs captured from August to November; the early litter loss rate (ELLR: the probability that parenting females lose all of their cubs [0-year-old offspring] before mating season) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among those with PSs and CAs captured in August or later. The estimated values of SRO and ELLR were 0.93 (62/67) and 0.27 (6/22), respectively.

  4. Heterotopic pregnancy following induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Raheleh; Fazel, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious. In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported. This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality.

  5. Heterotopic pregnancy following induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ghandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious.Case: In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported.Conclusion: This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality

  6. Next-generation sequencing to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers for a novel Phytophthora resistance gene, RpsHC18, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Sun, Suli; Li, Yinping; Duan, Canxing; Zhu, Zhendong

    2018-03-01

    A novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene RpsHC18 was identified and finely mapped on soybean chromosome 3. Two NBS-LRR candidate genes were identified and two diagnostic markers of RpsHC18 were developed. Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease of soybean. The most effective disease-control strategy is to deploy resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora-resistant Rps genes. The soybean cultivar Huachun 18 has a broad and distinct resistance spectrum to 12 P. sojae isolates. Quantitative trait loci sequencing (QTL-seq), based on the whole-genome resequencing (WGRS) of two extreme resistant and susceptible phenotype bulks from an F 2:3 population, was performed, and one 767-kb genomic region with ΔSNP-index ≥ 0.9 on chromosome 3 was identified as the RpsHC18 candidate region in Huachun 18. The candidate region was reduced to a 146-kb region by fine mapping. Nonsynonymous SNP and haplotype analyses were carried out in the 146-kb region among ten soybean genotypes using WGRS. Four specific nonsynonymous SNPs were identified in two nucleotide-binding sites-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes, RpsHC18-NBL1 and RpsHC18-NBL2, which were considered to be the candidate genes. Finally, one specific SNP marker in each candidate gene was successfully developed using a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay, and the two markers were verified to be specific for RpsHC18 and to effectively distinguish other known Rps genes. In this study, we applied an integrated genomic-based strategy combining WGRS with traditional genetic mapping to identify RpsHC18 candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers. These results suggest that next-generation sequencing is a precise, rapid and cost-effective way to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers, and it can accelerate Rps gene cloning and marker-assisted selection for breeding of P. sojae-resistant soybean cultivars.

  7. Arabidopsis ICK/KRP cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors function to ensure the formation of one megaspore mother cell and one functional megaspore per ovule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In most plants, the female germline starts with the differentiation of one megaspore mother cell (MMC in each ovule that produces four megaspores through meiosis, one of which survives to become the functional megaspore (FM. The FM further develops into an embryo sac. Little is known regarding the control of MMC formation to one per ovule and the selective survival of the FM. The ICK/KRPs (interactor/inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK/Kip-related proteins are plant CDK inhibitors and cell cycle regulators. Here we report that in the ovules of Arabidopsis mutant with all seven ICK/KRP genes inactivated, supernumerary MMCs, FMs and embryo sacs were formed and the two embryo sacs could be fertilized to form two embryos with separate endosperm compartments. Twin seedlings were observed in about 2% seeds. Further, in the mutant ovules the number and position of surviving megaspores from one MMC were variable, indicating that the positional signal for determining the survival of megaspore was affected. Strikingly, ICK4 fusion protein with yellow fluorescence protein was strongly present in the degenerative megaspores but absent in the FM, suggesting an important role of ICKs in the degeneration of non-functional megaspores. The absence of or much weaker phenotypes in lower orders of mutants and complementation of the septuple mutant by ICK4 or ICK7 indicate that multiple ICK/KRPs function redundantly in restricting the formation of more than one MMC and in the selective survival of FM, which are critical to ensure the development of one embryo sac and one embryo per ovule.

  8. Dog cloning with in vivo matured oocytes obtained using electric chemiluminescence immunoassay-predicted ovulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghoon; Zhao, Minghui; No, Jingu; Nam, Yoonseok; Im, Gi-Sun; Hur, Tai-Young

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive immunoassay (RIA) is a traditional serum hormone assay method, but the application of the method in reproductive studies is limited by the associated radioactivity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the reliability of RIA and to compare its canine serum progesterone concentration determination accuracy to that of the electric chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLI). In vivo matured oocytes were utilized for canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and serum progesterone levels were assessed to accurately determine ovulation and oocyte maturation. Canine serum progesterone concentrations during both proestrus and estrus were analyzed by RIA and ECLI to determine the ovulation day. Although both methods detected similar progesterone levels before ovulation, the mean progesterone concentration determined using ECLI was significantly higher than of RIA three days before ovulation. Following ovulation, oocytes were collected by surgery, and a lower percentage of mature oocytes were observed using ECLI (39%) as compared to RIA (67%) if 4-8ng/ml of progesterone were used for determination of ovulation. A high percentage of mature oocytes was observed using ECLI when 6-15 ng/mL of progesterone was used for ovulation determination. To determine whether ECLI could be used for canine cloning, six canines were selected as oocyte donors, and two puppies were obtained after SCNT and embryo transfer. In conclusion, compared to the traditional RIA method, the ECLI method is a safe and reliable method for canine cloning.

  9. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  10. Transforming beliefs and practices: Elementary teacher candidates' development through shared authentic teaching and reflection experiences within an innovative science methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kara

    Elementary teachers are criticized for failing to incorporate meaningful science instruction in their classrooms or avoiding science instruction altogether. The lack of adequate science instruction in elementary schools is partially attributed to teacher candidates' anxiety, poor content and pedagogical preparation, and low science teaching self-efficacy. The central premise of this study was that many of these issues could be alleviated through course modifications designed to address these issues. The design tested and presented here provided prospective elementary educators' authentic science teaching experiences with elementary students in a low-stakes environment with the collaboration of peers and science teacher educators. The process of comprehensive reflection was developed for and tested in this study. Comprehensive reflection is individual and collective, written and set in dialogic discourse, focused on past and future behavior, and utilizes video recordings from shared teaching experiences. To test the central premise, an innovative science methods course was designed, implemented and evaluated using a one-group mixed-method design. The focus of the analysis was on changes in self-efficacy, identity and teaching practices as a function of authentic science teaching experiences and comprehensive reflection. The quantitative tools for analysis were t-tests and repeated-measures ANOVA on the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) and weekly self-rating on confidence as a learner and a teacher of science, respectively. The tools used to analyze qualitative data included thematic analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. In addition, theoretically grounded tools were developed and used in a case study to determine the ways one prospective educator's science teaching identity was influenced by experiences in the course. The innovative course structure led the development of teacher candidates' science teaching identity

  11. Synchronization of ovulation and fixed time intrauterine insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, C; Valasi, I; Rekkas, C A; Goulas, P; Theodosiadou, E; Lainas, T; Amiridis, G S

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for oestrus-ovulation synchronization in sheep followed by fixed time insemination is presented herewith. Mature dry ewes (n = 28) of Karagouniko breed being at an unknown stage of the oestrous cycle, were used during the middle of breeding season. The treatment protocol consisted of an initial administration of a GnRH analogue followed 5 days later by a prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Thirty-six hours later a second GnRH injection was administered to synchronize ovulation, and laparoscopic intrauterine insemination was performed 12-14 h later. Three days after insemination, fertile rams were introduced into the flock twice daily and oestrus-mating detection was carried out. For progesterone (P(4)) determination, blood samples were collected on alternate days, starting 2 days before the first GnRH injection and continuing for 17 days after insemination. An additional sample was taken on the day of insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Fourteen ewes (50%) conceived at insemination and maintained pregnancy; from the remainder 14 ewes 10 became pregnant at natural service, while four, although they mated at least two to three times, failed to conceive. In response to the first GnRH, P(4) concentration increased at higher levels in ewes that conceived at AI compared with those that failed to conceive (47.54 and 22.44%, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean P(4) concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were detected 1 day before AI (0.17 +/- 0.06 and 0.26 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, respectively) on the day of AI (0.15 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, respectively) as well as 9 and 11 days thereafter (0.48 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12 ng/ml; 0.68 +/- 0.14 and 0.50 +/- 0.18 ng/ml, respectively). These results indicate that using the proposed protocol, an acceptable conception rate can be achieved which could be further improved by modifying the time intervals between

  12. Predicting ongoing pregnancy following ovulation induction with recombinant FSH in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Bayram, Neriman; van der Veen, Fulco; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovulation induction with recombinant FSH (rFSH) is common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) not responding to clomiphene citrate treatment, despite the associated risk of multiple pregnancies. We analysed clinical, ultrasonographic and endocrine parameters during initial

  13. PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MASS AND MISS OF THE TEACHER CANDIDATE STUDENTS OF THE ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PGRI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Musarokah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly aims at describing the expository paragraph development through Major Supporting Sentences (MASS and Minor Supporting Sentences (MISS of the teacher candidate students of the English Education Department of the University of PGRI Semarang in the academic year 2013-2014. This study also aims at finding out whether or not the paragraphs reach completeness through the MASS and MISS. The type of this study is descriptive qualitative research. The object of the study was expository paragraphs written by the third semester students of the English Education Department of the University of PGRI Semarang in the academic year 2013/2014. Documentation was used to collect the data; it was the teacher candidate students‘ writing result. In analyzing the data, there were three steps done, namely data reduction, data display, and drawing conclusion. The result of the study shows that The MASS and the MISS had been used well by the 10 teacher candidate students or 40% in developing expository paragraphs, and the completeness was reachable. There were 6 paragraphs or 24% which were categorized half complete; it means the MASS and the MISS had been less appropriately applied. The last categorization found in the paragraphs was incomplete. There were 9 paragraphs or 36% belong in this categorization. Therefore, the MASS and the MISS of these paragraphs did not reach completeness.

  14. Surgical Ovulation Induction in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Frank

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently clomiphene citrate is the first-linetreatment to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovariansyndrome (PCOS. Surgical therapy with laparoscopicovarian drilling (LOD may avoid or reduce the need for gonadotropins.Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of LODcompared with ovulation induction in subfertile women withclomiphene-resistant PCOS.Search Strategy: A systematic search was performed on Pub-Med (1966 to August 2007, the Ovid database (1966 to August2007, and EMBASE (1974-2007. The search terms included:infertility, menstrual disorder, hirsutism, PCOS, surgical intervention,electrocautery, electrocoagulation, diathermy, drilling,and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, ovulation, pregnancy rate,post operation adhesions and ovarian blood flow.Selection Criteria: Randomized controlled trials of womenwith clomiphene-resistant PCOS who were treated with LODto induce ovulation were included.Data Collection and Analysis: 3141 patients from 35 trialspreformed in different geographic settings were included. Alltrials were assessed for quality criteria. We included those trialswhich followed hormonal changes, ovulation, and pregnancyrates after LOD. The primary outcomes measured werehormonal changes, ovulation, and pregnancy rates as well asovarian artery blood flow, and the secondary outcome was rateof pelvic organ adhesion.Main Results: The overall ovulation rate after LOD was79.2% (74.9%-83.5% 95% CI. Of all women who ovulatedonly 66.6% (60.8%-72.4% 95% CI conceived. The mean periadnexaladhesion rate was 22.7% (21.4%-24% 95% CI.Conclusion: Compared with medical therapy, LOD has manyadvantages including: to be done once, no need for intensivemonitoring, no chance of multiple pregnancy or ovarianhyperstimulation syndrome. LOD effectively decreases ovarianandrogens and improves folliculogenesis and increases chanceof ovulation and pregnancy rate. Finally, in vitro fertilisationshould be considered as the last resort.

  15. Combined serial analysis of gene expression and transcription factor binding site prediction identifies novel-candidate-target genes of Nr2e1 in neocortex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmouth, Jean-François; Arenillas, David; Corso-Díaz, Ximena; Xie, Yuan-Yun; Bohacec, Slavita; Banks, Kathleen G; Bonaguro, Russell J; Wong, Siaw H; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2015-07-24

    Nr2e1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group e, member 1) encodes a transcription factor important in neocortex development. Previous work has shown that nuclear receptors can have hundreds of target genes, and bind more than 300 co-interacting proteins. However, recognition of the critical role of Nr2e1 in neural stem cells and neocortex development is relatively recent, thus the molecular mechanisms involved for this nuclear receptor are only beginning to be understood. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), has given researchers both qualitative and quantitative information pertaining to biological processes. Thus, in this work, six LongSAGE mouse libraries were generated from laser microdissected tissue samples of dorsal VZ/SVZ (ventricular zone and subventricular zone) from the telencephalon of wild-type (Wt) and Nr2e1-null embryos at the critical development ages E13.5, E15.5, and E17.5. We then used a novel approach, implementing multiple computational methods followed by biological validation to further our understanding of Nr2e1 in neocortex development. In this work, we have generated a list of 1279 genes that are differentially expressed in response to altered Nr2e1 expression during in vivo neocortex development. We have refined this list to 64 candidate direct-targets of NR2E1. Our data suggested distinct roles for Nr2e1 during different neocortex developmental stages. Most importantly, our results suggest a possible novel pathway by which Nr2e1 regulates neurogenesis, which includes Lhx2 as one of the candidate direct-target genes, and SOX9 as a co-interactor. In conclusion, we have provided new candidate interacting partners and numerous well-developed testable hypotheses for understanding the pathways by which Nr2e1 functions to regulate neocortex development.

  16. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of...

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  18. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  19. Effects of catecholamines on ovary morphology, blood concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc, triglycerides and rate of ovulation in domestic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeid, T A; Eid, Y Z; El-Abd, E A; El-Habbak, M M

    2008-04-15

    The present study is an attempt to shed more light on the role of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) in regulating ovarian follicular development, folliculogenesis and ovulation in laying hens. Sixty Egyptian local cross females (Mandarah), 50 weeks old, were individually housed and equally divided into three treatments: control (saline, 0.9% NaCl), EP (0.15 mg epinephrine/hen/day) and NE (0.75 mg norepinephrine/hen/day) (n=20). Animals were injected intramuscularly once a day for 15 successive days. At the end of the experimental period, 10 females from each treatment were randomly chosen, weighed and killed by decapitation. Ovaries and oviducts and ovarian follicles were examined. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride were determined. Results indicated that the ovaries of NE- and EP-treated hens were more developed than those of control hens being heavier and containing more yellow yolk-filled follicles. EP or NE significantly increased the ovulation rate and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride compared with control treatment. It could be concluded that catecholamines may have a part in promoting ovarian follicular development and in stimulating ovulation in laying hens at the end of their reproductive lives.

  20. Induksi Ginogenesis melalui Kultur Multi Ovule Slice dan Kultur Ovary Slice Dianthus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suskandari Kartikaningrum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction was studied in five genotypes of Dianthus chinensis using 2.4 D and NAA. Calluses can be obtainedfrom unfertilized ovule culture and ovary culture. The aim of the research was to study gynogenic potential and responseof Dianthus chinensis through ovule slice and ovary slice culture for obtaining haploid plants. Five genotypes of Dianthuschinensis and five media were used in ovule slice culture and two genotypes and three medium were used in ovary culture.Flower buds in the 7th stage were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for one day. Ovules and ovaries wereisolated and cultured in induction medium. Cultures were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for seven days, followed by 25 oC light incubation. The result showed that 2.4D was better than NAA in inducing callus. Percentage of regenerated calluses were produced in V11, V13 and V15 genotypes in M7 medium (MS + 2 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 30 g L-1 sucrose and M10 medium (MS + 1 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 20 g L-1 sucrose. All calluses originated from ovule and ovary cultures flowered prematurely. Double haploid (V11-34 were obtained from ovule slice culture based on PER (peroksidase and EST (esterase isoenzym marker.Keywords: ovule slice culture, ovary slice culture, callus, Dianthus sp., haploid

  1. Ovulation monitoring and fertility knowledge: Their relationship to fertility experience in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righarts, Antoinette; Dickson, Nigel P; Parkin, Lianne; Gillett, Wayne R

    2017-08-01

    Various aspects of fertility knowledge, including the timing of the fertile window, have consistently been found to be poor. Limited evidence also suggests ovulation monitoring to time intercourse could be common. However, there have been no studies that compare these two aspects of fertility and women's fertility/infertility experiences. To examine the frequency of ovulation monitoring and its relationship with fertility knowledge and experience. A cross-sectional study of women aged 25-50 years resident in southern New Zealand was undertaken in 2011. Randomly selected women were asked to complete a fertility questionnaire. Outcome prevalence measures were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and associations investigated using χ 2 tests and Poisson regression. Ovulation monitoring was common, having ever been undertaken by 31.4% (95% CI: 28.5-34.3%) of the 1034 participants. However, knowledge was poor, particularly regarding the fertile window. More women who had ever monitored ovulation correctly identified the fertile window, although the proportion was still very low (18.4 vs 13.1% in those who had not, P = 0.027). Regression modelling showed ovulation monitoring was independently associated with seeking medical help to conceive, education and fertility experience, but not with knowledge. This study confirms ovulation monitoring was commonly undertaken. However, many women, including those who had monitored their ovulation, had poor fertility knowledge and failed to identify the fertile window. Poor fertility knowledge needs to be addressed, especially among women intending to conceive. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Relation of supplementary feeding to resumptions of menstruation and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qiu, Yi

    2007-05-20

    Resumption of menstrual cycles is one of the indicators for restoration of reproductive capability in postpartum women. However, menstruation does not necessarily mean that ovulation has taken place. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of supplementary feeding to return of menstruation and ovulation after delivery. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 101 breastfeeding mothers. The following elements were analyzed: age, education level, breastfeeding practice, time of return of menstruation, contraceptive practice, and starting time of supplementary feeding during the lactation at intervals of 6 weeks to 18 months after delivery. The ovulation was continuously monitored by ultrasonography and basal body temperature (BBT) measurement. By ultrasonography, 53 of the 101 women (52.5%) had the first ovulation (follicle > 1.8 cm in diameter) within 154 days after delivery on average, among whom 11 (10.9%, 11/101) had restoration of ovulation within 4 months and 42 (41.6%, 42/101) had it after 4 months. In women with follicles > 1.8 cm in diameter (n = 53), the menstruation resumed (138 +/- 84) days after delivery, and the supplementary feeding was started at (4.0 +/- 1.1) months, which were significantly earlier than those in the women with follicular diameter menstruation before the end of ultrasonographic monitoring, while only 8 in the women with follicular diameter menstruation (n = 100, r = 0.4764, P < 0.01) and first ovulation after delivery (n = 53, r = 0.5554, P < 0.01). In this series, no woman had pregnancy within 18 months postpartum. Supplementary feeding can affect the restoration of menstrual cycles and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.

  3. Role of ultrasonography in infertility management : ovulation monitoring and assisted conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.U.; Manzur, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Farooq, A.

    2010-01-01

    Infertility causes great stress to many couples. Most of those presenting with childlessness have reduced fertility, rather than absolute sterility, and many are likely to conceive spontaneously. In this 'ultrasonographic monitoring of growing follicles, in ovaries to determine the day of ovulation and its coordination with time of intercourse' has a well established role in the management of 'unexplained infertility'. This study was conducted to find out its efficacy in our setup. 86 female.s patients of unexplained infertility, with different post-marital time period, underwent ultrasonographic ovulation monitoring each with follow up for minimum of four menstrual cycles. Average follicular growth rate was 2 mm a day, which increased to 3 mm a day, two days prior to ovulation. Follicular diameter at the time of ovulation ranged from 22 mm to 27 mm with a mean of 24 mm. We observed ovulation in 79.2% of our patients. In 8.1% patient.s dominant follicle ceased to grow beyond 18 mm size and gradually become atretic. Leutinized un ruptured follicle was documented in 12.7% of our patients in whom follicular size reached to periovulatory range but did not rupture. Uterine endometrial thickness at the time of ovulation varied from 7 mm to 13 mm and multilayered appearance (triple line sign) was observed in 57.3% of patients. Overall conception rate was 16.3% whereas it was much more encouraging to see in 23.5% of patients who were in less than 5 years of their marriage. Keeping in view of easy to workup as out patient basis in large numbers of patient, less time consuming, promising results, cost effectiveness and non invasive nature of technique; ultrasonographic monitoring of ovulation is recommended as a part of management in all patients of unexplained infertility. (author)

  4. Induction of ovarian activity and ovulation in an induced ovulator, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), using GnRH agonist and recombinant LH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy E M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Colgin, Mark; McDonough, Caitlin; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-07-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques, such as ovarian manipulation and artificial insemination, are useful for enhancing genetic management of threatened wildlife maintained ex situ. In this study, we used noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring to investigate (1) the influence of pairing with a male on endocrine responses of female maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to a GnRH agonist (deslorelin) and (2) the efficiency of recombinant LH (reLH) on ovulation induction in females housed alone. Deslorelin (2.1 mg Ovuplant) was given to females that were either paired with a male (n = 4) or housed alone (n = 7); the implant was removed 7 to 11 days postimplantation. Three of seven singleton females were injected with reLH (0.0375 mg) on the day of implant removal, whereas the remaining females (n = 4) did not receive the additional treatment. Fecal samples were collected 5 to 7 days/wk from all females starting 11 days prior to hormone insertion until at least 70 days post implant removal for a total of 11 hormone treatment cycles. Fecal estrogen and progestagen metabolites were extracted and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Evidence of ovulation, demonstrated by a surge of estrogen followed by a significant rise in progestagen, occurred in all paired females. Three of the four singleton females that did not receive reLH treatment exhibited no rise in progestagen after an estrogen surge. All singleton females treated with reLH exhibited a rise in fecal progestagen after injection, indicating ovulation. In conclusion, deslorelin is effective at inducing ovarian activity and ovulation in paired female maned wolves; however, exogenous reLH is needed to induce ovulation in females housed alone. The findings obtained from this study serve as a foundation for future application of artificial insemination to enhance genetic management of this threatened species ex situ. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Development and evaluation of novel recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine candidates for infectious bronchitis virus and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongchao; Long, Yuqing; Li, Meng; Gong, Jianfang; Li, Xiaohui; Lin, Jing; Meng, Jiali; Gao, Keke; Zhao, Ruili; Jin, Tianming

    2018-04-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and mycoplasmosis caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are two major respiratory diseases in chickens that have resulted in severe economic losses in the poultry industry. We constructed a recombinant adenovirus that simultaneously expresses the S1 spike glycoprotein of IBV and the TM-1 protein of MG (pBH-S1-TM-1-EGFP). For comparison, we constructed two recombinant adenoviruses (pBH-S1-EGFP and pBH-TM-1-EGFP) that express either the S1 spike glycoprotein or the TM-1 protein alone. The protective efficacy of these three vaccine constructs against challenge with IBV and/or MG was evaluated in specific pathogen free chickens. Groups of seven-day-old specific pathogen free chicks were immunized twice, two weeks apart, via the oculonasal route with the pBH-S1-TM-1-EGFP, pBH-S1-EGFP, or pBH-TM-1-EGFP vaccine candidates or the commercial attenuated infectious bronchitis vaccine strain H52 and MG vaccine strain F-36 (positive controls), and challenged with virulent IBV or MG two weeks later. Interestingly, by days 7 and 14 after the booster immunization, pBH-S1-TM-1-EGFP-induced antibody titre was significantly higher (P attenuated commercial IBV vaccine; however, there was no significant difference between the pBH-S1-TM-1-EGFP and attenuated commercial MG vaccine groups (P > 0.05). The clinical signs, the gross, and histopathological lesions scores of the adenovirus vaccine constructs were not significantly different from that of the attenuated commercial IBV or MG vaccines (positive controls) (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate the potential of the bivalent pBH-S1-TM-1-EGFP adenovirus construct as a combination vaccine against IB and mycoplasmosis.

  6. Progressive obesity alters the steroidogenic response to ovulatory stimulation and increases the abundance of mRNAs stored in the ovulated oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeier, William E; Xie, Fang; Kurz, Scott G; Lu, Ningxia; Wood, Jennifer R

    2014-08-01

    Obese women who are able to attain pregnancy are at increased risk for early-pregnancy loss due, in part, to reduced oocyte quality. We and others have demonstrated that female Lethal Yellow (LY) mice and female C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet (B6-HFD) exhibit phenotypes consistent with human obesity. These studies also showed that zygotes collected from LY and B6-HFD females have reduced developmental competence. The current hypothesis is that LY and B6-HFD females exhibit an abnormal response to gonadotropin stimulation compared to C57BL/6 controls fed normal rodent chow (B6-ND), resulting in the ovulation of oocytes with an altered molecular phenotype which may contribute to its reduced developmental competence. To test this hypothesis, age-matched B6-ND, B6-HFD, and LY females were stimulated with exogenous gonadotropins, then circulating hormone levels and the phenotypes of ovulated oocytes were analyzed. There was no difference in ovulation rate or in the percentage of morphologically abnormal oocytes collected from the oviduct of any females. Progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratios, however, were increased in B6-HFD and LY compared to B6-ND females 16 hr post-human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. The transcript abundance of several candidate oocyte genes was also increased in B6-HFD- and LY-derived oocytes compared to B6-ND-derived oocytes. These data suggest that increased insulin and leptin levels of obese females elevated circulating progesterone concentrations, altered transcriptional activity during oocyte growth, and/or impaired mechanisms of RNA translation and degradation during oocyte maturation. These changes in mRNA abundance likely contribute to reduced oocyte quality and the subsequent poor embryogenesis associated with obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genome provides insights into fruit quality and ovule developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Fang, Yanming; Zhang, Taikui; Fei, Zhangjun; Han, Fengming; Liu, Cuiyu; Liu, Min; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Mengwei; Ju, Youhui; Xu, Huili; Dai, He; Liu, Yujun; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianqing; Guan, Dian; Yan, Ming; Xia, Yanhua; Huang, Xianbin; Liu, Dongyuan; Wei, Hongmin; Zheng, Hongkun

    2017-12-22

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has an ancient cultivation history and has become an emerging profitable fruit crop due to its attractive features such as the bright red appearance and the high abundance of medicinally valuable ellagitannin-based compounds in its peel and aril. However, the limited genomic resources have restricted further elucidation of genetics and evolution of these interesting traits. Here, we report a 274-Mb high-quality draft pomegranate genome sequence, which covers approximately 81.5% of the estimated 336-Mb genome, consists of 2177 scaffolds with an N50 size of 1.7 Mb and contains 30 903 genes. Phylogenomic analysis supported that pomegranate belongs to the Lythraceae family rather than the monogeneric Punicaceae family, and comparative analyses showed that pomegranate and Eucalyptus grandis share the paleotetraploidy event. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analyses provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of ellagitannin-based compounds, the colour formation in both peels and arils during pomegranate fruit development, and the unique ovule development processes that are characteristic of pomegranate. This genome sequence provides an important resource to expand our understanding of some unique biological processes and to facilitate both comparative biology studies and crop breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relationship Between the Menstrual Cycle and Timing of Ovulation Revealed by New Protocols: Analysis of Data from a Self-Tracking Health App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohda, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenta; Igari, Ichiro

    2017-11-27

    then demonstrated how the present calendar methods could be improved by the better grouping of women. This study suggested that even without integrating various biological metrics, the dataset collected by a self-tracking app can be used to develop formulas that predict the ovulation day when the data are aggregated. Because the method that we developed requires data only on the first day of menstruation, it would be the best option for couples during the early stages of their attempt to have a baby or for those who want to avoid the cost associated with other methods. Moreover, the result will be the baseline for more advanced methods that integrate other biological metrics. ©Satoshi Sohda, Kenta Suzuki, Ichiro Igari. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.11.2017.

  9. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling by diathermy for ovulation induction in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of secondary infertility. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling has widely been used for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients resistant to clomiphene citrate. 80% patients ovulated after treatment and 60% patient conceived either spontaneously or after treatment with medication to which they are previously resistant. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to see the effectiveness of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) with monopolar diathermy on pregnancy outcome in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Intervention: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Main Outcome Measures: Pregnancy, ovulation rate. Material and Methods: This study was carried out in the department of Gynae and Obstetrics in Sharif Medical City Hospital from January, 2007 to January, 2009. The inclusion criteria for laparoscopy ovarian drilling (LOD) were those infertile women between the age group of 25 - 38 years who meet the criteria for PCOS and who are resistant to clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotrophins. A total of 30 women were booked for laparoscopic ovarian drilling after having informed consent for procedure. Response to therapy was assessed in term of pregnancy outcome and ovulation rate for 1 year after therapy. Results: A total of 30 patients were booked for laparoscopic ovarian drilling from January, 2007 to January, 2009. The mean age of study group was 30 years +- SD 4.7791. Cumulative ovulation rate was observed in 22 patients (73%), out of which spontaneous ovulation occurred in 18 patients (80%), and after ovulation induction therapy in 4 patients (18%). Eleven patients (37%) conceived in two year duration. Spontaneous conception without any treatment was observed in 7 patients (63%); however 4 patients (37%) require further assistance with combined therapy of clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotrophins after failure

  10. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  11. Comparison of single serum progesterone and endometrial biopsy for confirmation of ovulation in infertile Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilesanmi, A O; Adeleye, J A; Osotimehin, B O

    1995-03-01

    Infertility remains a medico-social problem in Nigeria and it accounts for a large percentage of outpatient gynecological consultations. The evaluation of the infertile couple remains a continuing challenge to the practising doctor in this part of the world. The need to evaluate the two methods commonly used for determining ovulation in these patients is indicated. Endometrial biopsy specimen and a single sample for serum progesterone estimation were obtained simultaneously in the luteal phase from 50 normally menstruating infertile Nigerian women. Subsequent analysis showed that a serum progesterone value of 6.6 nmol/l (2.2 ng/ml) or above was always associated with a secretory endometrium. Forty-six cycles yielded sufficient information to compare the two methods for confirmation of ovulation. Patients who ovulated with a progesterone value of 6.6 nmol/l (2.2 ng/ml) were 91.3% (42/46) or above, while 89% (41/46) showed secretory endometrium. Forty-six of the cases 86.9% (40/46) were judged to have ovulated by both parameters while 6.5% demonstrated anovulatory cycle using both criteria. From the study, a significant correlation was obtained between endometrial biopsy and progesterone assay methods in confirming ovulation.

  12. Development tendencies in the energy industries of the EU accession candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.

    2000-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European Countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1999 and outline the changes in their economic situation. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country of the Central and Eastern European countries taken separately. (author)

  13. Citizen Candidates Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Eguia, Jon X.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we make two contributions to the growing literature on "citizen-candidate" models of representative democracy. First, we add uncertainty about the total vote count. We show that in a society with a large electorate, where the outcome of the election is uncertain and where winning candidates receive a large reward from holding office, there will be a two-candidate equilibrium and no equilibria with a single candidate. Second, we introduce a new concept of equilibrium, which we te...

  14. HLH-29 regulates ovulation in C. elegans by targeting genes in the inositol triphosphate signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana White

    2012-02-01

    The reproductive cycle in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans depends in part on the ability of the mature oocyte to ovulate into the spermatheca, fuse with the sperm during fertilization, and then exit the spermatheca as a fertilized egg. This cycle requires the integration of signals between the germ cells and the somatic gonad and relies heavily on the precise control of inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3levels. The HLH-29 protein, one of five Hairy/Enhancer of Split (HES homologs in C. elegans, was previously shown to affect development of the somatic gonad. Here we show that HLH-29 expression in the adult spermatheca is strongly localized to the distal spermatheca valve and to the spermatheca-uterine valve, and that loss of hlh-29 activity interferes with oocyte entry into and egg exit from the spermatheca. We show that HLH-29 can regulate the transcriptional activity of the IP3 signaling pathway genes ppk-1, ipp-5, and plc-1 and provide evidence that hlh-29 acts in a genetic pathway with each of these genes. We propose that the HES-like protein HLH-29 acts in the spermatheca of larval and adult animals to effectively increase IP3 levels during the reproductive cycle.

  15. Effect of the Camelid's Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  16. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus. PMID:28713816

  17. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid El Allali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids, ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF. In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF. β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  18. Long-lasting ovulation inhibition with a new injectable progestagen ORG-2154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, E M; De Souza, J C; Barbosa, I C; Dourado Silva, V

    1982-06-01

    A new long-acting injectable progestagen was tested in 15 women who volunteered for the study. The occurrence of ovulation was assumed by the elevation of progesterone levels above 2ng/ml following a pre-ovulatory estradiol peak. Following a 200mg injection, ovulation was inhibited in all 15 women for five to ten months. In four subjects the interval between the injection and the first progesterone peak was five months. For eight, the interval was six to eight months. In the other three women, ovulation occurred more than eight months following injection. Bleeding episodes, similar to menstruation, occurred in most patients. Bleeding intervals lasting longer than 45 days occurred in nine subjects but more prolonged amenorrhea lasting longer than 60 days was reported by only five subjects. Blood chemistry which included blood cell counts, cholesterol, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea nitrogen and creatinine remained within normal limits throughout the treatment.

  19. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear.

  20. Differential effects of unilateral lesions in the medial amygdala on spontaneous and induced ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M A; Dominguez, R

    1995-01-01

    The possible existence of asymmetry in the control of ovulation by the medial amygdala was explored. Unilateral lesions of the medial amygdala were performed on each day of the estrous cycle. The estral index diminished in almost all animals with a lesion in the right side of medial amygdala. Lesions of the right medial amygdala, when performed on diestrus-1, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of rats ovulating compared to controls (4/8 vs. 8/8, p rats with lesions of the right medial amygdala. However, sequential injections of PMSG-hCG did result in ovulation by all members of a group of lesioned animals. In this last condition a significant decrease in the number of ova shed by the right ovary was found compared to animals in the lesion-only condition (1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.0 +/- 1.5, p cycle.

  1. The differences of orthodontic tooth movement on menstrual and ovulation cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Grecila Susilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estrogens are sex hormon that play an important role in bone metabolism, including in bone remodeling during orthodontic treatment. Women has a monthly cycle which is affected by fluctuations of estrogen that is menstruation and ovulation. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the differences of orthodontic tooth movement during menstrual an ovulation cycle. Methods: Five women were given ± 100 g orthodontic force using fixed orthodontic appliance with straight wire technique at the time of menstruation and ovulation with an interval of 1.5 months. Orthodontic tooth movement and levels of estrogen were measured during menstruation and ovulation. Results: Statistical results showed a significant differences between estrogen levels and orthodontic tooth movement (p < 0.05. When estrogen levels decline as in menstruation, tooth movement as results of orthodontic force would increase, whereas when estrogen levels increase as the time of ovulation, tooth movement would decrease. Conclusion: The estrogen level in menstruation and ovulation cycle may affect the tooth movement on ortodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Estrogen merupakan hormon seks yang mempunyai peran penting dalam metabolisme tulang termasuk dalam remodeling tulang selama perawatan ortodonti. Wanita memiliki siklus bulanan yang dipengaruhi oleh fluktuasi estrogen yaitu menstruasi dan ovulasi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pergerakan gigi akibat gaya ortodonti pada siklus menstruasi dan ovulasi. Metode: Lima orang wanita diberikan gaya ortodonti ±100 gr menggunakan alat orthodontik cekat dengan teknik straight wire pada saat menstruasi dan ovulasi dengan selang waktu 1,5 bulan. Selain itu subyek juga diukur kadar estrogennya saat menstruasi dan ovulasi. Hasil: Hasil statistik menunjukan kadar estrogen berbanding terbalik dengan pergerakan gigi ortodonti (p < 0,05. Saat kadar estrogen menurun seperti pada menstruasi, maka pergerakan gigi

  2. Should ovulation be induced in women recovering from an eating disorder or who are compulsive exercisers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Mira, M; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1990-03-01

    The eating and exercise history of women with secondary amenorrhea and failure of ovulation using CC was studied in 14 consecutive women on a GnRH-a program. All had a history of an eating or exercise disorder. At the time of the interview, 7 women continued to have an eating or exercise disorder. There were 15 pregnancies (12 women) with 12 live births, of which 4 weighed less than 2,500 g. Infertility specialists should inquire routinely about a woman's body weight and eating and exercise behaviors, and consider treatment for these before prescribing drugs to induce ovulation.

  3. Identification of a novel Leucine-rich repeat protein and candidate PP1 regulatory subunit expressed in developing spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperry Ann O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is comprised of a series of highly regulated developmental changes that transform the precursor germ cell into a highly specialized spermatozoon. The last phase of spermatogenesis, termed spermiogenesis, involves dramatic morphological change including formation of the acrosome, elongation and condensation of the nucleus, formation of the flagella, and disposal of unnecessary cytoplasm. A prominent cytoskeletal component of the developing spermatid is the manchette, a unique microtubular structure that surrounds the nucleus of the developing spermatid and is thought to assist in both the reshaping of the nucleus and redistribution of spermatid cytoplasm. Although the molecular motor KIFC1 has been shown to associate with the manchette, its precise role in function of the manchette and the identity of its testis specific protein partners are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins in the testis that interact with KIFC1 using a yeast 2 hybrid screen of a testis cDNA library. Results Thirty percent of the interacting clones identified in our screen contain an identical cDNA encoding a 40 kD protein. This interacting protein has 4 leucine-rich repeats in its amino terminal half and is expressed primarily in the testis; therefore we have named this protein testis leucine-rich repeat protein or TLRR. TLRR was also found to associate tightly with the KIFC1 targeting domain using affinity chromatography. In addition to the leucine-rich repeats, TLRR contains a consensus-binding site for protein phosphatase-1 (PP1. Immunocytochemistry using a TLRR specific antibody demonstrates that this protein is found near the manchette of developing spermatids. Conclusion We have identified a previously uncharacterized leucine-rich repeat protein that is expressed abundantly in the testis and associates with the manchette of developing spermatids, possibly through its interaction with the KIFC1 molecular motor

  4. Relationships between the luteinizing hormone surge and other characteristics of the menstrual cycle in normally ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Ana; Bailly, Sébastien; Mariani, Aude; Ecochard, René

    2013-01-01

    To describe the LH surge variants in ovulating women and analyze their relationship with the day of ovulation and other hormone levels. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort observational study. Eight natural family planning clinics. Normally fertile women (n = 107) over 283 cycles. Women collected daily first morning urine, charted basal body temperature and cervical mucus discharge, and underwent serial ovarian ultrasound. Urinary LH, FSH, estrone-3-glucuronide (E3G), pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide (PDG), and day of ovulation by ultrasound (US-DO). Individual LH surges were extremely variable in configuration, amplitude, and duration. The study also showed that LH surges marked by several peaks were associated with statistically significant smaller follicle sizes before rupture and lower LH level on the day of ovulation. LH surges lasting >3 days after ovulation were associated with a lower E3G before ovulation, a smaller corpus luteum 2 days after ovulation, and a lower PDG value during the first 4 days after ovulation. In clinical practice, LH profiles should be compared with the range of profiles observed in normally fertile cycles, not with the mean profile. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordewijk, Esmee M.; Nahuis, Marleen; Costello, Michael F.; van der Veen, Fulco; Tso, Leopoldo O.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van Wely, Madelon

    2017-01-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC.

  6. Development of a Series of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Inhibitors Leading to a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann L; Ancellin, Nicolas; Beaufils, Benjamin; Bergeal, Marylise; Binnie, Margaret; Bouillot, Anne; Clapham, David; Denis, Alexis; Haslam, Carl P; Holmes, Duncan S; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Liddle, John; McBride, Andrew; Mirguet, Olivier; Mowat, Christopher G; Rowland, Paul; Tiberghien, Nathalie; Trottet, Lionel; Uings, Iain; Webster, Scott P; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Mole, Damian J

    2017-04-27

    Recently, we reported a novel role for KMO in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). A number of inhibitors of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) have previously been described as potential treatments for neurodegenerative conditions and particularly for Huntington's disease. However, the inhibitors reported to date have insufficient aqueous solubility relative to their cellular potency to be compatible with the intravenous (iv) dosing route required in AP. We have identified and optimized a novel series of high affinity KMO inhibitors with favorable physicochemical properties. The leading example is exquisitely selective, has low clearance in two species, prevents lung and kidney damage in a rat model of acute pancreatitis, and is progressing into preclinical development.

  7. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  8. Proteomic profiling of pretreatment serum from HIV-infected patients identifies candidate markers predictive of lymphoma development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Ludvigsen, Maja; Bendix, Knud

    2016-01-01

    . Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A tissue microarray, containing diagnostic HIV-lymphoma tissue samples (N = 40), was used to investigate immunohistochemical expression of markers in tumoural lesions. RESULTS: Fourteen differentially expressed...... protein spots were detected. Using principal components analysis, spots containing immunoglobulin J chain, apolipoprotein A-I, procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer-1 and complement C4-A were associated with lymphoma development (P ... with subsequent lymphoma compared with patients without subsequent lymphoma. In the tissue microarray, amyloid A was widely expressed, and high expression showed a tendency towards inferior outcome (log-rank 0.073). CONCLUSION: We identified several differentially expressed protein spots present already...

  9. Development of a equipment to measure gas transport properties: Application to study candidate buffer mixtures for low-medium level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P. L.; Barcala, J. M.; Oller, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the design, the construction and a testing of a system set-up for the measurement of gas transport, created at CIEMAT, and its application to study mixtures of candidate buffer materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repertories. The measure of the gas flows is carried on by mass flow meters of several ranges, white the pressure of the applied within the sample is controlled. Two National l Instrument's acquisition system that permits the control and recording of the parameters. A specific application developed for this test, with National Instruments LabWIEW DSC, permits to mange the system. A client interface lets to follow the experiment course from a remote location through Internet. (Author) 21 refs

  10. Development of a Equipment to Measure Gas Transport Properties: Application to Study Mixtures of Candidates Buffer Materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.L.; Barcala, J.M.; Oller, J.C.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the design, the construction and a testing of a system set-up for the measurement of gas transport, created at CIEMAT, and its application to study mixtures of candidate buffer materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repertories. The measure of the gas flows is carried on by mass flow meters of several ranges, white the pressure of the applied within the sample is controlled. Two National l Instrument's acquisition system that permits the control and recording of the parameters. A specific application developed for this test, with National Instruments LabWIEW DSC, permits to mange the system. A client interface lets to follow the experiment course from a remote location through Internet. (Author) 21 refs.

  11. Hormonal priming, induction of ovulation and in-vitro fertilization of the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seratt Jessica

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri is the subject of an extensive captive breeding and reintroduction program. Wyoming toads in captivity rarely ovulate spontaneously and hormonal induction is used to ovulate females or to stimulate spermiation in males. With hormonal induction, ovulation is unreliable and egg numbers are low. The sequential administration of anovulatory doses of hormones (priming has increased egg numbers and quality in both anurans and fish. Consequently, we tested the efficacy of a combination of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG and Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone analogue (LHRHa administered as one dose, or two or three sequential doses to Bufo baxteri on egg numbers, fertilization and early embryo development. Spawning toads deposited eggs into Simplified Amphibian Ringers (SAR solution to enable controlled in-vitro fertilization (IVF with sperm from hormonally induced male toads. Unprimed females receiving a single mixed normally ovulatory dose of 500 IU hCG plus 4 micrograms of LHRHa produced no eggs. Whereas females primed with this dose and an anovulatory dose (100 IU hCG and 0.8 micrograms of LHRHa of the same hormones, or primed only with an anovulatory dose, spawned after then receiving an ovulatory dose. Higher total egg numbers were produced with two primings than with one priming. Moreover, two primings produced significantly more eggs from each individual female than one priming. The cleavage rate of eggs was not found to differ between one or two primings. Nevertheless, embryo development with eggs from two primings gave a significantly greater percentage neurulation and swim-up than those from one priming. Of the male toads receiving a single dose of 300 IU hCG, 80% produced spermic urine with the greatest sperm concentration 7 hours post-administration (PA. However, peak sperm motility (95% was achieved at 5 hours PA and remained relatively constant until declining 20 hours PA. In

  12. Assessment of salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, H.; Shahbaz, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate cultivars of wheat using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Ten wheat cultivars including five newly developed (S-24, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and Inqlab-91) and five candidate (P .B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10 and G.A-20) were grown in sand culture. Salt stress (150 mM NaCl in Hoagland's nutrient solution) was applied at the seedling stage. A significant reduction in plant biomass production was recorded in all wheat cultivars. Cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 showed less reduction in biomass production as compared with the other cultivars. Different gas exchange attributes such as leaf net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate ( E), and stomatal conductance (gs) were also adversely affected due to salt stress and were positively associated with the plant biomass production of the genotypes under saline stress. More negative effects in relation to these gas exchange attributes were recorded in cvs. Lasani, G.A-20 and ARRI-10 than those in the other cultivars. Leaf maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm), maximum fluorescence at steady state (Fms ), and photochemical fluorescence quenching (Qp) increased while maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (Qp), electron transport rate ( ETR ) and non-photochemical quenching (Qn) decreased due to imposition of salt stress. The adverse effects of salt stress on these chlorophyll fluorescence attributes were minimum in cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008. A significant positive correlation was recorded between biomass production, different gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Overall, cvs. S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 were ranked as salt tolerant on the basis of their performance in biomass production, gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. (author)

  13. ASSESSMENT OF A MULTINATIONAL ONLINE FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON ONLINE TEACHING: REFLECTIONS OF CANDIDATE E-TUTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge ADNAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching online requires different skills, roles and competencies for online instructors compared to teaching in traditional learning environments. Universities should offer ongoing support in various forms to help academic staff through their online journey. This paper provides insights into a multinational faculty development program for teaching online, elaborating on results of expectancy and satisfaction surveys. From a local program to a subproject within the Swiss National Science Foundation Project Scopes, e-Tutor aimed at expanding competencies in online lecturing and providing OER material for training colleagues. Designed in the form of a descriptive case study, this research was conducted with 34 attendees of e-Tutor. Data was collected using an e-learning readiness and expectancy questionnaire, and open-ended questions after the program to measure satisfaction. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey data and content analysis for open-ended data. Participants considered e-Tutor a well-planned and targeted program with good theoretical and practical balance. Duration of such courses, opportunities for adaptation to real-life situations, and localization of the content are areas to be explored further. For future studies, it would also be interesting to see whether participants can apply their newly acquired knowledge and skills to create efficient online learning environments.

  14. A study on plasma estradiol and progesterone profile at days 11, 12 and 13 post ovulation undergone embryo transfer at day 7-post ovulation in local Egyptian mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mohammed Karam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 28 recipient local mares after synchronizing and recovery of embryos of Arabian mares (donor mares and transferring them to recipients on day 7 post ovulation, all mares were raised in the studs of police academy –Cairo Egypt under same circumstances in the breeding season from February till may of 2013. Seventeen recipient mares were pregnant and 9 mares were non pregnant when ultrasound pregnancy check was done on day 21 post ovulation, blood samples were taken on days 11,12 and 13 to detect the steroidal hormonal profile (estrogen and progesterone via Elisa technique of the recipient mares plasma steroid level and its role in early pregnancy and maternal recognition. The results were significantly higher (P≤0.05 between pregnant (n=17 and non-pregnant (n=9 recipient mares in the plasma progesterone concentrations which were 10.99±0.16 vs 9.59±0.11, 12.69±0.16 vs 11.79±0.22 and 14.4±0.15 vs 13.78±0.23 ng/ml on days 11,12 and 13 post ovulation respectively, significant difference(P≤0.05 was observed when comparison between pregnant mare’s plasma progesterone concentrations on days 11,12 and 13 post ovulation. Plasma estrogen concentration were significantly higher (P≤0.05 in non-pregnant and pregnant mares which were15.17±0.18 vs 14.84±0.14, 14.74±0.27 vs13.94±0.12 and 14.14±0.3 vs13.12±0.16 pg/ ml on days 11,12 and respectively, on the other hand when comparison between days11,12 and 13 plasma estrogen levels were significantly different (P≤0.05 in pregnant mares while no significant difference was found in the same days between non pregnant mares, thus might be the main reason for early embryonic death when detected in early pregnancy check via ultrasonography in 21 days post ovulation.

  15. Intravaginal metronidazole gel versus metronidazole plus nystatin ovules for bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto; Garcia, Patricia J; Thomas, Katherine K; Catlin, Mary; Holmes, King K

    2004-12-01

    We compared metronidazole 0.75% gel (containing 37.5 mg metronidazole per dose) with ovules containing metronidazole 500 mg and nystatin 100,000 U, for intravaginal treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). In a single-blinded trial, symptomatic women with BV by both Amsel and Nugent criteria were randomly assigned to gel or ovules, once nightly for 5 nights, and asked to return 3 times after treatment. Analyses were intent-to-treat. Of 151 women with BV by both criteria at enrollment, 138 (91%) returned at least once. Product limit estimates for persistence or recurrence of BV at 14, 42, and 104 days were 20% (95% CI 10%-29%), 38% (95% CI 25%-48%), and 52% (95% CI 37%-63%) after gel treatment, and 4% (95% CI 0%-9%), 17% (95% CI 7%-26%), and 33% (95% CI 21%-46%) after ovule treatment ( P = .01). Among women without BV at first follow-up, subsequent intercourse without condoms independently predicted subsequent recurrence ( P Metronidazole/nystatin ovules were significantly more effective than metronidazole gel. Unprotected sex predicted recurrence after initial improvement.

  16. Rates and pattern of ovule abortion vis-à-vis in situ pollen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... annual life cycle of about 3½month in the subtropical climates of ... A number of theoretical implications have been extended to ... the family Fabaceae have thus studied in relation to ovule ... system operating in different species (Dhar et al. ... were collected at different times before and after anthesis to.

  17. Oral agents for ovulation induction:Old drugs revisited and new drugs re-evaluated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badawy, A.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to address a number of questions regarding oral agents used for ovulation induction. We were motivated to run the presented trials because of many reasons. Firstly, although oral agents, namely CC, have been in the market for decades, many basic aspects regarding the

  18. Porcine Luteal Function in Relation to IGF-1 Levels Following Ovulation During Lactation or After Weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Brand, van den H.; Gerritsen, R.; Quesnel, H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents relationships between peripheral progesterone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations during the early luteal phase in sows. Data were derived from three experiments, one with primiparous weaned sows (n = 21) and two with multiparous sows that either ovulated

  19. Improved ovulation rate and implantation in rats treated with royal jelly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ovaries and uteris of 12 mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus) were examined to determine the effect of commercial royal jelly on ovulation, ovarian weight and implantation rates. Rats were split in two groups of 6 each. Group one served as the treatment and group two the control. A daily dose of 25mg of royal jelly ...

  20. Influence of nutrition on ovulation rate and testicular growth of Merino sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of nutrition on reproductive performance was studied in a series of experiments using two models. Increased supply of nutrients was based on feeding lupin grain as a supplement and measurements of testicular growth or ovulation rates were used to measure reproductive characteristics. Purified sources of protein and energy were provided to determine the macronutrient(s), supplied with lupin feeding, responsible for initiating increases in testicular growth and ovulation rate. Increases in both of these parameters were closely related to the supply of additional energy but not protein. The production of acetate and glucose resulting from supplementary feeding with 750 g lupins/d was measured using infusions of 14 C tracers. Subsequently, infusions of glucose and acetate (individually and in combination) were found to produce similar increases in ovulation rate to those measured in ewes receiving lupins. It was concluded that effects of nutrition on ovulation rate are associated with increased energy intake and may be mediated through pathways linked with the synthesis and/or utilization of glucose. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  1. The effectiveness of foot reflexology in inducing ovulation: a sham-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jane; Lord, Jonathan; Acharya, Umesh; White, Adrian; O'Neill, Nyree; Shaw, Steve; Barton, Andy

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether foot reflexology, a complementary therapy, has an effect greater than sham reflexology on induction of ovulation. Sham-controlled randomized trial with patients and statistician blinded. Infertility clinic in Plymouth, United Kingdom. Forty-eight women attending the clinic with anovulation. Women were randomized to receive eight sessions of either genuine foot reflexology or sham reflexology with gentle massage over 10 weeks. The primary outcome was ovulation detected by serum progesterone level of >30 nmol/L during the study period. Twenty-six patients were randomized to genuine reflexology and 22 to sham (one randomized patient was withdrawn). Patients remained blinded throughout the trial. The rate of ovulation during true reflexology was 11 out of 26 (42%), and during sham reflexology it was 10 out of 22 (46%). Pregnancy rates were 4 out of 26 in the true group and 2 out of 22 in the control group. Because of recruitment difficulties, the required sample size of 104 women was not achieved. Patient blinding of reflexology studies is feasible. Although this study was too small to reach a definitive conclusion on the specific effect of foot reflexology, the results suggest that any effect on ovulation would not be clinically relevant. Sham reflexology may have a beneficial general effect, which this study was not designed to detect.

  2. The conductivity of cervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conductivity of cervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef cows synchronised with cloprostenol. C.T. McCabe, G.W. Sprowson, D.H. Holness. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Development of standardized laboratory methods and quality processes for a phase III study of the RTS, S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Terrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pivotal phase III study of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine is ongoing in several research centres across Africa. The development and establishment of quality systems was a requirement for trial conduct to meet international regulatory standards, as well as providing an important capacity strengthening opportunity for study centres. Methods Standardized laboratory methods and quality assurance processes were implemented at each of the study centres, facilitated by funding partners. Results A robust protocol for determination of parasite density based on actual blood cell counts was set up in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Automated equipment including haematology and biochemistry analyzers were put in place with standard methods for bedside testing of glycaemia, base excess and lactacidaemia. Facilities for X-rays and basic microbiology testing were also provided or upgraded alongside health care infrastructure in some centres. External quality assurance assessment of all major laboratory methods was established and method qualification by each laboratory demonstrated. The resulting capacity strengthening has ensured laboratory evaluations are conducted locally to the high standards required in clinical trials. Conclusion Major efforts by study centres, together with support from collaborating parties, have allowed standardized methods and robust quality assurance processes to be put in place for the phase III evaluation of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine. Extensive training programmes, coupled with continuous commitment from research centre staff, have been the key elements behind the successful implementation of quality processes. It is expected these activities will culminate in healthcare benefits for the subjects and communities participating in these trials. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  4. Intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88) is crucial for craniofacial development in mice and is a candidate gene for human cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Feng, Jifan; Li, Jingyuan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Brindopke, Frederick; Figueiredo, Jane C; Magee, William; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Chai, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Ciliopathies are pleiotropic human diseases resulting from defects of the primary cilium, and these patients often have cleft lip and palate. IFT88 is required for the assembly and function of the primary cilia, which mediate the activity of key developmental signaling pathways. Through whole exome sequencing of a family of three affected siblings with isolated cleft lip and palate, we discovered that they share a novel missense mutation in IFT88 (c.915G > C, p.E305D), suggesting this gene should be considered a candidate for isolated orofacial clefting. In order to evaluate the function of IFT88 in regulating craniofacial development, we generated Wnt1-Cre;Ift88fl/fl mice to eliminate Ift88 specifically in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. Wnt1-Cre;Ift88fl/flpups died at birth due to severe craniofacial defects including bilateral cleft lip and palate and tongue agenesis, following the loss of the primary cilia in the CNC-derived palatal mesenchyme. Loss of Ift88 also resulted in a decrease in neural crest cell proliferation during early stages of palatogenesis as well as a downregulation of the Shh signaling pathway in the palatal mesenchyme. Importantly, Osr2KI-Cre;Ift88fl/flmice, in which Ift88 is lost specifically in the palatal mesenchyme, exhibit isolated cleft palate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IFT88 has a highly conserved function within the primary cilia of the CNC-derived mesenchyme in the lip and palate region in mice and is a strong candidate as an orofacial clefting gene in humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Ovulation rate and early embryonic survival rate in female rabbits of a synthetic line and a local Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Belabbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A higher litter size at birth has been reported in female rabbits from a Synthetic line than in those of the Local Algerian population. The aim of this work was to analyse whether this difference in litter size was due to a higher ovulation rate and/or embryonic survival rate in Synthetic line than in Local Algerian population. In total, 24 multiparous female rabbits from Synthetic line and 23 from Local population were used in this experiment. Litter size at birth was recorded up to the first 3 parities. Litter size was 20% higher in Synthetic line than Local population. At their 4th gestation, the females were euthanized at 72 h post coitum. Synthetic line females had 50% more ova and embryos than those of Local population (+4.42 ova and +3.92 embryos, respectively. Synthetic line displayed a lower percentage of normal embryos and a larger number of unfertilized oocytes than Local population (–2.81% and +0.64 oocytes, respectively, but differences were not relevant. Synthetic line showed a lesser embryonic stage of development at 72 h post coitum, showing a higher percentage of early morulae (31.50 vs. 8.50% and a lower percentage of compact morulae (51.45 vs. 78.65% than Local population. No relevant difference was found for early embryonic survival rate between Synthetic line and Local population. In conclusion, the difference in litter size was mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in the Synthetic line, allowing more embryos to develop in this line.

  6. Assessment of chimeric mice with humanized livers in new drug development: generation of pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity data for selecting the final candidate compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Hidetaka; Ito, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Chimeric mice with humanized livers are expected to be a novel tool for new drug development. This review discusses four applications where these animals can be used efficiently to collect supportive data for selecting the best compound in the final stage of drug discovery. 2. The first application is selection of the final compound based on estimated pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. Since chimeric mouse livers are highly repopulated with human hepatocytes, hepatic clearance values in vivo could be used preferentially to estimate pharmacokinetic profiles for humans. 3. The second is prediction of human-specific or disproportionate metabolites. Chimeric mice reproduce human-specific metabolites of drugs under development to conform to ICH guidance M3(R2), except for compounds that were extensively eliminated by co-existing mouse hepatocytes. 4. The third is identifying metabolites with distinct pharmacokinetic profiles in humans. Slow metabolite elimination specifically in humans increases its exposure level, but if its elimination is faster in laboratory animals, the animal exposure level might not satisfy ICH guidance M3(R2). 5. Finally, two examples of reproducing acute liver toxicity in chimeric mice are introduced. Integrated pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity information are expected to assist pharmaceutical scientists in selecting the best candidate compound in new drug development.

  7. Effects of GnRH administration on ovulation and fertility in ewes subjected to estrous synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of GnRH on ovulation and pregnancy of ewes subjected to a short-term synchronization of estrus. Santa Inês and crossbred Santa Inês/Dorper ewes received 60 mg MAP sponges during 6 days plus 300 IU eCG and 30 µg d-cloprostenol 24 h prior to sponge withdrawal (SW. Ewes were assigned to receive 0.9% NaCl solution (Tcontrol; n = 32 or 25 µg GnRH (licerelin, T GnRH; n = 34 24 hours after SW. Each group was assigned to intrauterine insemination by laparoscopy (n = 25 or to natural mating (n = 41. Artificial insemination was performed with a single dose of fresh semen. For controlled mating, females were exposed to males 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after SW. Ten females per treatment were subjected to transrectal ultrasound examination at 12-hour intervals (SW to 60 hours after. Estrous response (100.0% vs 95.2%, interval from SW to estrus (32.9±7.4 vs 29.8±6.9 hours, estrous length (37.4±9.0 vs 31.5±10.4 hours, pregnancy rates (57.0% vs 41.0%, ovulation rate (100.0% vs 90.0%, number of ovulations/ewe (1.1±0.3 vs 1.2±0.4, maximum follicular diameter (6.4±0.7 vs 6.1±0.6 mm, interval from SW to ovulation (59.1±3.5 vs 58.4±3.5 hours did not differ between Tcontrol and T GnRH, respectively. Administration of GnRH 24 hours after SW does not improve ovulation or pregnancy rate in estrous synchronization in ewes.

  8. Contraceptive efficacy of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel given before or after ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Gabriela; Croxatto, Horacio B; Salvatierra, Ana María; Reyes, Verónica; Villarroel, Claudio; Muñoz, Carla; Morales, Gabriela; Retamales, Anita

    2011-11-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of emergency contraceptive pills containing levonorgestrel (LNG-EC) has been estimated in most previous studies by judging the day of ovulation from presumptive menstrual cycle data, thus providing poorly reliable estimates. In the present study, the efficacy of LNG-EC was determined in 393 cycles by dating ovulation on the basis of reliable hormonal and ovarian parameters validated by a database constructed in a separate study. In addition, the efficacy was determined separately for cycles in which LNG-EC was given before or after ovulation. For the 148 women who had sexual intercourse during the fertile days, the overall accumulated probability of pregnancy was 24.7, while altogether 8 pregnancies were observed. Thus, the overall contraceptive efficacy of LNG-EC was 68%. Among the 103 women who took LNG-EC before ovulation (days -5 to -1), 16 pregnancies were expected and no pregnancy occurred (p<.0001). Among the 45 women who took LNG-EC on the day of ovulation (day 0) or thereafter, 8 pregnancies occurred and 8.7 were expected (p=1.00). These findings are incompatible with the inhibition of implantation by LNG-EC in women. The same cases were also analyzed using the presumptive menstrual cycle data, and important discrepancies were detected between the two methods. The efficacy of LNG-EC has been overestimated in studies using presumptive menstrual cycle data. Our results confirm previous similar studies and demonstrate that LNG-EC does not prevent embryo implantation and therefore cannot be labeled as abortifacient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated

  10. The octopamine receptor Octβ2R regulates ovulation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwa Lim

    Full Text Available Oviposition is induced upon mating in most insects. Ovulation is a primary step in oviposition, representing an important target to control insect pests and vectors, but limited information is available on the underlying mechanism. Here we report that the beta adrenergic-like octopamine receptor Octβ2R serves as a key signaling molecule for ovulation and recruits protein kinase A and Ca(2+/calmodulin-sensitive kinase II as downstream effectors for this activity. We found that the octβ2r homozygous mutant females are sterile. They displayed normal courtship, copulation, sperm storage and post-mating rejection behavior but were unable to lay eggs. We have previously shown that octopamine neurons in the abdominal ganglion innervate the oviduct epithelium. Consistently, restored expression of Octβ2R in oviduct epithelial cells was sufficient to reinstate ovulation and full fecundity in the octβ2r mutant females, demonstrating that the oviduct epithelium is a major site of Octβ2R's function in oviposition. We also found that overexpression of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit or Ca(2+/calmodulin-sensitive protein kinase II led to partial rescue of octβ2r's sterility. This suggests that Octβ2R activates cAMP as well as additional effectors including Ca(2+/calmodulin-sensitive protein kinase II for oviposition. All three known beta adrenergic-like octopamine receptors stimulate cAMP production in vitro. Octβ1R, when ectopically expressed in the octβ2r's oviduct epithelium, fully reinstated ovulation and fecundity. Ectopically expressed Octβ3R, on the other hand, partly restored ovulation and fecundity while OAMB-K3 and OAMB-AS that increase Ca(2+ levels yielded partial rescue of ovulation but not fecundity deficit. These observations suggest that Octβ2R have distinct signaling capacities in vivo and activate multiple signaling pathways to induce egg laying. The findings reported here narrow the knowledge gap and offer insight into novel

  11. A lack of association between polymorphisms of three positional candidate genes (CLASP2 , UBP1, and FBXL2) and canine disorder of sexual development (78,XX; SRY -negative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Sylwia; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Dzimira, Stanisław; Nizanski, Wojciech; Ochota, Malgorzata; Switonski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    A disorder of sexual development (DSD) of dogs with a female karyotype, missing SRY gene, and presence of testicles or ovotestes is quite commonly diagnosed. It is suggested that this disorder is caused by an autosomal recessive mutation; however, other models of inheritance have not been definitely ruled out. In an earlier study it was hypothesized that the mutation may reside in a pericentromeric region of canine chromosome 23 (CFA23). Three positional candidate genes (CLASP2, UBP1, and FBXL2) were selected in silico in the search for polymorphisms in 7 testicular or ovotesticular XX DSD dogs, 8 XX DSD dogs of unknown cause (SRY-negative, with enlarged clitoris and unknown histology of gonads), and 29 normal female dogs as a control group. Among the 15 molecularly studied dogs with enlarged clitoris there were 3 new cases of testicular or ovotesticular XX DSD and 4 new cases of XX DSD with unknown cause (histology of the gonads unknown). Altogether, 11 (including 10 novel) polymorphisms in 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the studied genes were found. The distribution analysis of these polymorphisms showed no association with the DSD phenotypes. Thus, it was concluded that the presence of the causative mutation for testicular or ovotesticular XX DSD in the pericentromeric region of CFA23 is unlikely. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The assessment of ovulation by a combination of ultrasound and detailed serial hormone profiles in 35 women with long-standing unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsos, P; Chandler, C; Oak, M; Ratcliffe, W A; Wood, R; Anderson, D C

    1985-06-01

    We have examined for the presence of subtle hormonal abnormalities in women with long-standing unexplained infertility. For a full cycle serum LH, FSH, progesterone and oestradiol levels were measured about three times a week, and serial ultrasound scans of the ovaries made until the time of apparent ovulation. The results on 45 cycles in 35 women with unexplained infertility and in three normal volunteers are presented. Normal ovulatory cycles were defined by a length of 26-32 d, and progressive follicular maturation followed by disappearance or abrupt reduction in size of a follicle within 48 h of the recorded LH peak, followed by progressive and sustained rise in serum progesterone levels to more than 25 nmol/l and a luteal phase length of greater than or equal to 13 d. Thirty spontaneous cycles (28 women) were clearly normal while 15 spontaneous cycles (12 women) were abnormal. Abnormalities included luteinization of an unruptured follicle (eight cycles), absence of follicular development (two cycles), poor follicular development (two cycles), persistence of a large ovarian cyst from the preceeding cycle (two cycles) and one aluteal cycle. Six of the abnormal cycles were characterized hormonally by inappropriate elevation of serum LH levels throughout. If this study had been based only on serial ultrasound scans, all results on abnormal cycles might have been misinterpreted. If it had been conducted only with (multiple) progesterone determinations and the level of greater than 25 nmol/l had been taken as indicative of ovulation nine clearly abnormal cycles would have been considered as normal. We conclude that the combination of the hormonal and ultrasound assessment of ovulation increases our confidence for confirmation of normality and reveals various ovulatory disorders which are possibly due to an endocrinological defect or defects.

  13. Patient predictors for outcome of gonadotrophin ovulation induction in women with normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.E. Laven (Joop); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.G. Hughes; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); A.G.M.G.J. Mulders (Annemarie)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA systematic review was conducted to determine whether initial screening characteristics of women with normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility predict clinically significant outcomes of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins, and to obtain pooled estimates of their

  14. Using an electrocautery strategy or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; Kaaijk, Eugenie M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of an electrocautery strategy with ovulation induction using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in patients with clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the

  15. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  16. The relationship between external auditory canal temperature and onset of estrus and ovulation in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Federico; McDonald, Michael; Duffy, Pat; Kelly, Alan K; Lonergan, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body temperature fluctuations, as measured by external auditory canal temperature, to the onset of estrus and ovulation. Beef heifers (n = 44, mean age 23.5 ± 0.4 months, mean weight 603.3 ± 5.7 kg) were fitted with a Boviminder ® ear tag 2 weeks before the start of the estrous synchronization protocol to allow acclimatization. The device recorded the temperature, accurate to 0.01° Fahrenheit, every 10 min and transmitted the data via a base station over the internet where it could be accessed remotely. The estrous cycles of all heifers were synchronized using an 8-day progesterone-based synchronization program; on day 0 a PRID was inserted in conjunction with an injection of GnRH, and PGF2α was administered the day before PRID removal. Heifers were checked for signs of estrus at 4-h intervals (i.e., 6 times per day) commencing 24 h after PRID withdrawal. Beginning 12 h after the onset of estrus, the ovaries were ultrasound scanned at 4-h intervals to determine the time of ovulation. Body temperature was recorded every 10 min and averaged to hourly means for the following 4 periods relative to the detected oestrus onset (=Time 0): Period I: -48 h to -7 h, Period II: -6 h to +6 h, Period III +7 h to ovulation, and Period IV: ovulation to 48 h post ovulation. Data were analysed using a Mixed Model ANOVA in SAS in a completely randomized design to observe effects of induced estrus on external auditory canal temperature. The mean (±SD) interval from removal of the PRID to onset of estrus activity was 46.6 ± 14.7 h. The mean duration of estrus was 16.0 ± 5.67 h and the mean interval from estrus onset to ovulation was 27.9 ± 7.68 h. Highest temperatures (100.95 ± 0.03 °F) were observed in Period II around estrus onset, whereas lowest temperatures were observed in the 48 h preceding estrus onset (100.28 ± 0.03 °F; Period I) and around ovulation (100.30

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Julia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view. PMID:24073009

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Johansson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO. PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view.

  19. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  20. Pollen-ovule relation in Adesmia tristis and reflections on the seed–ovule ratio by interaction with pollinators in two vertical strata

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    NADILSON R. FERREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of pollinators is an important component in the foraging pattern of plants strata, and it influences the reproductive system (pollen/ovule ratio and seed/ovule ratio. Niches in two different strata from Adesmia tristis Vogel were evaluated in these aspects. This plant is an endemic shrub from the Campos de Cima da Serra in Southern Brazil. The studies were carried out from January 2010, to January 2011, at Pró-Mata/PUCRS (Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (29°27′-29°35′S and 50°08′-50°15′W, São Francisco de Paula, sate of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Breeding system of A. tristis is mandatory allogamy. The vertical profile in A. tristis has differentiated foraging niches among the most common pollinators. Bees of Megachile genus forage in the upper stratum, and representative bees of the Andrenidae family explore the lower stratum. The upper stratum of the vertical profile had more contribution to seed production. Adesmia tristis showed evidence of pollination deficit.

  1. Leukocyte changes across menstruation, ovulation, and mid-luteal phase and association with sex hormone variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2016-09-10

    Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Do women's voices provide cues of the likelihood of ovulation? The importance of sampling regime.

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    Julia Fischer

    Full Text Available The human voice provides a rich source of information about individual attributes such as body size, developmental stability and emotional state. Moreover, there is evidence that female voice characteristics change across the menstrual cycle. A previous study reported that women speak with higher fundamental frequency (F0 in the high-fertility compared to the low-fertility phase. To gain further insights into the mechanisms underlying this variation in perceived attractiveness and the relationship between vocal quality and the timing of ovulation, we combined hormone measurements and acoustic analyses, to characterize voice changes on a day-to-day basis throughout the menstrual cycle. Voice characteristics were measured from free speech as well as sustained vowels. In addition, we asked men to rate vocal attractiveness from selected samples. The free speech samples revealed marginally significant variation in F0 with an increase prior to and a distinct drop during ovulation. Overall variation throughout the cycle, however, precluded unequivocal identification of the period with the highest conception risk. The analysis of vowel samples revealed a significant increase in degree of unvoiceness and noise-to-harmonic ratio during menstruation, possibly related to an increase in tissue water content. Neither estrogen nor progestogen levels predicted the observed changes in acoustic characteristics. The perceptual experiments revealed a preference by males for voice samples recorded during the pre-ovulatory period compared to other periods in the cycle. While overall we confirm earlier findings in that women speak with a higher and more variable fundamental frequency just prior to ovulation, the present study highlights the importance of taking the full range of variation into account before drawing conclusions about the value of these cues for the detection of ovulation.

  3. Myocardial infarction in pregnancy associated with clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, J Roberto; Raja, Mohammed L

    2007-11-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is commonly prescribed for ovulation induction. It is considered safe, with minimal side effects. Thromboembolism is a rare but life-threatening complication that has been reported after ovulation induction with CC. Spontaneous coronary thrombosis or thromboembolism with subsequent clot lysis has been suggested as one of the most common causes of myocardial infarction (MI) during pregnancy, with a subsequently normal coronary angiogram. A 33-year-old woman with a 5-week gestation had recently received CC for ovulation induction and presented with chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed a lateral and anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac enzymes showed a peak rise in troponin I to 9.10 ng/mL. An initial exercise stress test was normal. At the time of admission, the patient was at high risk of radiation injury to the fetus, so a coronary angiogram was postponed until the second trimester. It showed normal coronary vessels. This appears to be the first reported case documenting a possible association between CC and myocardial infarction. Thrombosis might be a rare but hazardous complication of CC. Given this life-threatening complication, appropriate prophylactic measures should be used in high-risk woman undergoing ovarian stimulation.

  4. OS090. Performance of candidate clinical and biochemical markers in screening early in pregnancy to detect women at high risk to develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, J-C; Massé, J; Bujold, E; Rousseau, F; Charland, M; Thériault, S; Lafond, J; Giguère, Y

    2012-07-01

    The advent of early preventive measures, such as low-dose aspirin targeting women at high risk of preeclampsia (PE), emphasizes the need for better detection. Despite the emergence of promising biochemical markers linked to the pathophysiological processes, systematic reviews have shown that, until now, no single tests fulfill the criteria set by WHO for biomarkers to screen for a disease. However, recent literature reveals that by combining various clinical, biophysical and biochemical markers into multivariate algorithms, one can envisage to estimate the risk of PE with a performance that would reach clinical utility and cost-effectiveness, but this remains to be demonstrated in various environments and health care settings. To investigate, in a prospective study, the clinical utility of candidate biomarkers and clinical data to detect, early in pregnancy, women at risk to develop PE and to propose a multivariate prediction algorithm combining clinical parameters to biochemical markers. 7929 pregnant women prospectively recruited at the first prenatal visit, provided blood samples, clinical and sociodemographic information. 214 pregnant women developed hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) of which 88 had PE (1.2%), including 44 with severe PE (0.6%). A nested case-control study was performed including for each case of HDP two normal pregnancies matched for maternal age, gestational age at recruitment, ethnicity, parity, and smoking status. Based on the literature we selected the most promising markers in a multivariate logistic regression model: mean arterial pressure (MAP), BMI, placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble Flt-1, inhibin A and PAPP-A. Biomarker results measured between 10-18 weeks gestation were expressed as multiples of the median. Medians were determined for each gestational week. When combined with MAP at the time of blood sampling and BMI at the beginning of pregnancy, the four biochemical markers discriminate normal pregnancies from those

  5. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  6. Ovarian dynamics in response to two modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocols designed for use in Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Atkinson, P C; Satake, N; Boe-Hansen, G; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the ovarian response of Brahman heifers to two modified ovulation synchronisation protocols developed to increase the proportion of normal synchronous ovulations. Experiment 1 characterised the growth of the ovulatory follicle in heifers (n=19) treated with an intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) and oestradiol benzoate (ODB), to determine the optimal time to induce ovulation. Using the findings from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 investigated the effect of reducing the duration of IPRD insertion and increasing the interval from IPRD removal to ODB treatment (modified protocol 1 - OPO-6; n=20), and omitting ODB treatment at the time of IPRD insertion (modified protocol 2 - PO-6; n=20). An IPRD (0.78 g progesterone) was inserted at Day 0 (OPO-8) or Day 2 (OPO-6 and PO-6) and all heifers also received 1 mg ODB i.m. Day 8: IPRD removed + 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24 h (OPO-8) and 36 h (OPO-6 and PO-6) post IPRD removal: 1 mg ODB i.m. Fixed-time AI (FTAI) occurred at 54 h for OPO-8 and 72 h for OPO-6 and PO-6, post IPRD removal. After IPRD treatment all OPO-6 and OPO-8 heifers initiated a new follicular wave whereas 25% of PO-6 heifers failed. Diameter of the dominant follicle was larger at FTAI in the PO-6 (11.34 ± 0.50 mm) compared to the OPO-8 protocol (9.74 ± 0.51 mm; P<0.05), but similar to the OPO-6 protocol (10.52 ± 0.51 mm). Proportion of ovulations occurring 12 h prior and 24 h post FTAI was similar for the PO-6 (80%) and OPO-6 (75%) protocols but numerically lower in the OPO-8 heifers (60%). The apparent improvement in ovarian response in heifers treated with the modified protocols needs to be confirmed in larger field studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of Color Development in Seeds of Brown- and Yellow-Seeded Heading Chinese Cabbage and Molecular Analysis of Brsc, the Candidate Gene Controlling Seed Coat Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanjing; He, Qiong; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-01-01

    The proanthocyanidin (PA) is the main flavonoids which affect the seed coat color in Brassica species. In this paper, characteristics of color development and accumulation of flavonoids were analyzed in the seeds of brown-seeded (B147) and yellow-seeded (B80) heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis ). It is found that the content of phenolic compounds in B147 were significantly more than that of B80 by using dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) staining and toluidine blue O (TBO) staining. In previous studies, the locus associated with seed coat color has been mapped. The results of whole genome re-sequencing showed that there are large fragment deletions variation in the mapping region between the brown-seeded parent '92S105' and the yellow-seeded parent '91-125.' Based on the B. rapa genome annotation information, the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ( TTG1 ), is likely to be the candidate gene controlling seed coat color. A 94-base deletion was found in the 96th base downstream of the initiation codon in the TTG1 of yellow seed, thus, the termination codon TGA was occurred in the 297th base which makes the full length of TTG1 of yellow seed is 300 bp. Based on the differential sequences of TTG1 of brown and yellow seed, a functional marker, Brsc-yettg1, was developed to detect the variation of TTG1 . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of BrTTG1 in different tissues showed that expression levels of BrTTG1 was not tissue-specific. During the whole seed development period, the expression of BrTTG1 in B147 was higher than that of B80. The expression levels of four structural genes, BrDFR, BrANS, BrANR1 , and BrANR2 in B147 were also higher than those in B80. The co-segregation molecular markers obtained in this report and TTG1 related information provide a basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of seed coat color in heading Chinese cabbage.

  8. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pewes was higher than on day-17. Loss of embryos by day 30 was high (calm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pewes had higher insulin (32.0 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; P=0.013) and lower leptin (1.18 μg/l±0.04 SEM; P=0.002) concentrations than calm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect

  9. Capturing the Transformation and Dynamic Nature of an Elementary Teacher Candidate's Identity Development as a Teacher of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kara

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the transformation and dynamic nature of one teacher candidate's (Susan) identity as a learner and teacher of science throughout an innovative science methods course. The goal of this paper is to use theoretically derived themes grounded in cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and situated learning theory to determine the…

  10. Recombinant versus highly-purified, urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH vs. HP-uFSH) in ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized study with cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Alberto; Poso, Francesca; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Moffa, Federica; Grassi, Giuseppina; Massobrio, Marco

    2006-07-18

    Both recombinant FSH (r-FSH) and highly-purified, urinary FSH (HP-uFSH) are frequently used in ovulation induction associated with timed sexual intercourse. Their effectiveness is reported to be similar, and therefore the costs of treatment represent a major issue to be considered. Although several studies about costs in IVF have been published, data obtained in low-technology infertility treatments are still scarce. Two hundred and sixty infertile women (184 with unexplained infertility, 76 with CC-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome) at their first treatment cycle were randomized and included in the study. Ovulation induction was accomplished by daily administration of rFSH or HP-uFSH according to a low-dose, step-up regimen aimed to obtain a monofollicular ovulation. A bi- or tri-follicular ovulation was anyway accepted, whereas hCG was withdrawn and the cycle cancelled when more than three follicles greater than or equal to 18 mm diameter were seen at ultrasound. The primary outcome measure was the cost of therapy per delivered baby, estimated according to a cost-minimization analysis. Secondary outcomes were the following: monofollicular ovulation rate, total FSH dose, cycle cancellation rate, length of the follicular phase, number of developing follicles (>12 mm diameter), endometrial thickness at hCG, incidence of twinning and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, delivery rate. The overall FSH dose needed to achieve ovulation was significantly lower with r-FSH, whereas all the other studied variables did not significantly differ with either treatments. However, a trend toward a higher delivery rate with r-FSH was observed in the whole group and also when results were considered subgrouping patients according to the indication to treatment. Considering the significantly lower number of vials/patient and the slight (although non-significant) increase in the delivery rate with r-FSH, the cost-minimization analysis showed a 9.4% reduction in the overall therapy

  11. Recombinant versus highly-purified, urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH vs. HP-uFSH in ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized study with cost-minimization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi Giuseppina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both recombinant FSH (r-FSH and highly-purified, urinary FSH (HP-uFSH are frequently used in ovulation induction associated with timed sexual intercourse. Their effectiveness is reported to be similar, and therefore the costs of treatment represent a major issue to be considered. Although several studies about costs in IVF have been published, data obtained in low-technology infertility treatments are still scarce. Methods Two hundred and sixty infertile women (184 with unexplained infertility, 76 with CC-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome at their first treatment cycle were randomized and included in the study. Ovulation induction was accomplished by daily administration of rFSH or HP-uFSH according to a low-dose, step-up regimen aimed to obtain a monofollicular ovulation. A bi- or tri-follicular ovulation was anyway accepted, whereas hCG was withdrawn and the cycle cancelled when more than three follicles greater than or equal to 18 mm diameter were seen at ultrasound. The primary outcome measure was the cost of therapy per delivered baby, estimated according to a cost-minimization analysis. Secondary outcomes were the following: monofollicular ovulation rate, total FSH dose, cycle cancellation rate, length of the follicular phase, number of developing follicles (>12 mm diameter, endometrial thickness at hCG, incidence of twinning and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, delivery rate. Results The overall FSH dose needed to achieve ovulation was significantly lower with r-FSH, whereas all the other studied variables did not significantly differ with either treatments. However, a trend toward a higher delivery rate with r-FSH was observed in the whole group and also when results were considered subgrouping patients according to the indication to treatment. Conclusion Considering the significantly lower number of vials/patient and the slight (although non-significant increase in the delivery rate with r-FSH, the cost

  12. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  13. Ovulation Statuses of Surrogate Gilts Are Associated with the Efficiency of Excellent Pig Cloning.

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    Yanjun Huan

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is an assisted reproductive technique that can produce multiple copies of excellent livestock. However, low cloning efficiency limits the application of SCNT. In this study, we systematically investigated the major influencing factors related to the overall cloning efficiency in pigs. Here, 13620 cloned embryos derived from excellent pigs were transferred into 79 surrogate gilts, and 119 live cloned piglets were eventually generated. During cloning, group of cloned embryos derived from excellent Landrace or Large white pigs presented no significant differences of cleavage and blastocyst rates, blastocyst cell numbers, surrogate pregnancy and delivery rates, average numbers of piglets born and alive and cloning efficiencies, and group of 101-150, 151-200 or 201-250 cloned embryos transferred per surrogate also displayed a similar developmental efficiency. When estrus stage of surrogate gilts was compared, group of embryo transfer on Day 2 of estrus showed significantly higher pregnancy rate, delivery rate, average number of piglets born, average alive piglet number or cloning efficiency than group on Day 1, Day 3, Day 4 or Day 5, respectively (P<0.05. And, in comparison with the preovulation and postovulation groups, group of surrogate gilts during periovulation displayed a significantly higher overall cloning efficiency (P<0.05. Further investigation of surrogate estrus stage and ovulation status displayed that ovulation status was the real factor underlying estrus stage to determine the overall cloning efficiency. And more, follicle puncture for preovulation, not transfer position shallowed for preovulation or deepened for postovulation, significantly improved the average number of piglets alive and cloning efficiency (P<0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ovulation status of surrogate gilts was the fundamental factor determining the overall cloning efficiency of excellent pigs, and follicle

  14. Knockdown of Progesterone Receptor (PGR) in Macaque Granulosa Cells Disrupts Ovulation and Progesterone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cecily V; Hennebold, Jon D; Kahl, Christoph A; Stouffer, Richard L

    2016-05-01

    Adenoviral vectors (vectors) expressing short-hairpin RNAs complementary to macaque nuclear progesterone (P) receptor PGR mRNA (shPGR) or a nontargeting scrambled control (shScram) were used to determine the role PGR plays in ovulation/luteinization in rhesus monkeys. Nonluteinized granulosa cells collected from monkeys (n = 4) undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols were exposed to either shPGR, shScram, or no virus for 24 h; human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was then added to half of the wells to induce luteinization (luteinized granulosa cells [LGCs]; n = 4-6 wells/treatment/monkey). Cells/media were collected 48, 72, and 120 h postvector for evaluation of PGR mRNA and P levels. Addition of hCG increased (P < 0.05) PGR mRNA and medium P levels in controls. However, a time-dependent decline (P < 0.05) in PGR mRNA and P occurred in shPGR vector groups. Injection of shPGR, but not shScram, vector into the preovulatory follicle 20 h before hCG administration during controlled ovulation protocols prevented follicle rupture in five of six monkeys as determined by laparoscopic evaluation, with a trapped oocyte confirmed in three of four follicles of excised ovaries. Injection of shPGR also prevented the rise in serum P levels following the hCG bolus compared to shScram (P < 0.05). Nuclear PGR immunostaining was undetectable in granulosa cells from shPGR-injected follicles, compared to intense staining in shScram controls. Thus, the nuclear PGR appears to mediate P action in the dominant follicle promoting ovulation in primates. In vitro and in vivo effects of PGR knockdown in LGCs also support the hypothesis that P enhances its own synthesis in the primate corpus luteum by promoting luteinization. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Daily treatment with α-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of α-naphthoflavone (αNF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with αNF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg αNF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of αNF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of αNF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  16. Greater Reduction of Balance as a Result of Increased Plantar Fascia Elasticity at Ovulation during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul

    2015-11-01

    One of the sexual hormones, estrogen, increases elasticity of human connective tissue such as the anterior cruciate ligament during the menstrual cycle in women. In the present investigation, the plantar fascia was investigated to see if there is a difference in elasticity with the menstrual cycle. Fifteen young healthy females in the age range of 18-35 years old with a regular menstrual cycle were tested twice throughout one full menstrual cycle; once during the early follicular phases and once at ovulation. Foot length, while standing on both feet and one foot were used to assess plantar fascia elasticity, ultrasound measured plantar fascia thickness while lying and standing, and posture sway and tremor using a balance platform during 8 different balance tests were assessed to see the impact of elasticity changes. Foot length increased significantly at ovulation compared to menstruation when standing on two feet (p = 0.03) and standing on one foot (p plantar fascia in thinning per kilogram weight applied to the foot at ovulation compared to menstruation (p = 0.014). Associated with this increase in elasticity at ovulation, there was a reduction in balance in the most difficult balance tasks and an increase in tremor during ovulation (p Plantar fascia elasticity change during the menstrual cycle might have effects on posture sway and tremor, which could have a potential risk of falling. Therefore, healthy professionals working with young female adults should recognize these physiological effects.

  17. Increased litter size and super-ovulation rate in congenic C57BL mice carrying a polymorphic fragment of NFR/N origin at the Fecq4 locus of chromosome 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljander, Maria; Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2009-01-01

    . In addition, embryos containing the Fecq4 fragment were easy to cultivate in vitro, resulting in a higher yield of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage. We propose that B10.Q.NFR/N-Fecq4 congenic mice may be used to improve breeding or super-ovulation rate in different types of genetically modified mice (on...... describe how the Fecq4 fragment originating form the NFR/N mouse strain will affect B10.Q mice by means of breeding capacity, super-ovulation rate and embryonic development in vitro. Our results show that both the breeding capacity (number of pups produced/breeding cage during a 5 months period......) and the mean litter size are significantly increased in B10.Q.NFR/N-Fecq4 congenic mice. Furthermore. B10.Q.NFR/N-Fecq4 congenic mice (both homozygous and heterozygous) did respond much better to super-ovulation than wild-type mice, resulting in a dramatically increased yield of fertilized 1-cell embryos...

  18. Changing Perceptions of Teacher Candidates in High-Needs Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.

    2016-01-01

    Candidates enter teacher education programs with established beliefs about diversity and urban education. These belief systems impact decisions that teacher candidates make both now and in the future. Providing opportunities for candidates to spend quality time in an urban Professional Development School (PDS) setting with the support and guidance…

  19. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus human chorionic gonadotropin in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hassaan Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare GnRH agonist to hCG for triggering ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate. Study design: Prospective randomized study. Materials & methods: Eighty five infertile women with PCOS participated in a randomized allocation concealed prospective trial and had induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate. GnRH agonist 0.2 mg subcutaneously (group 1 or hCG 10,000 IU intramuscularly (group 2 was given to trigger ovulation. Primary outcome was mid-luteal serum progesterone, while secondary outcomes were ovulation rates and clinical pregnancy rates along 3 cycles. Results: No difference was found between group 1 and group 2 regarding mean serum progesterone and clinical pregnancy rates in each cycle. Cumulative pregnancy rates were similar (17.14% versus 20% respectively; P = 0.332. Ovulation rates were 80% versus 68.6% (P = 0.413; 94.3% versus 90.9% (P = 0.669; 97.1% versus 93.7% (P = 0.603 in the two groups respectively. However, a significant rise in number of patients with mid-luteal serum progesterone >10 ng/mL was noted in the 3rd cycle between both groups, (P < 0.0001 for group 1 while P = 0.007 for group 2. Conclusion: Triggering ovulation with GnRH-a after treatment with clomiphene citrate in PCOS, in view of its known protective effect against OHSS, may be an effective physiological alternative to conventional hCG without compromising luteal function and pregnancy rates after repeated cycles of treatment.

  20. Twenty years of ovulation induction with metformin for PCOS; what is the best available evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    The potential reproductive benefits of metformin, a drug endowed with the capacity to ameliorate insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), has garnered much interest over the past 2 decades. In this review, randomized-controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of RCT comparing metformin are critically appraised and summarized. PubMed and CENTRAL databases were consulted. Evidence is insufficient to favour the use of metformin or metformin plus clomiphene citrate instead of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with newly diagnosed PCOS. Evidence is also insufficient to recommend metformin as a primary treatment for non-obese women with PCOS. Metformin plus clomiphene citrate should be considered as an effective option in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS. In women with PCOS undergoing gonadotrophin ovulation induction, metformin significantly increased pregnancy and live birth rates (P treatment in increasing clinical pregnancy rates and reducing the risk of OHSS in PCOS patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques has been shown. No evidence was found of reduced risk of spontaneous abortion or increased risk of major anomalies in women with PCOS taking metformin during the first trimester. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. Aims: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy between 1 st January 2001 and 31 st December 2008 was performed. Those patients who had no detectable pathology based on history, physical examination, and ultrasound and had treatment for three or more cycles in the form of ovulation induction and IUI were included in the study. Moderate and severe male factor infertility and history of any previous surgery were exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: Of the 127 women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, 87.4% ( n= 111 of patients had positive findings. Significant pelvic pathology (moderate endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubal pathology was seen in 26.8% of cases. Conclusion: One in four women had significant pelvic pathology where treatment could possibly improve future fertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a role in infertile women with no obvious abnormality before they proceed to more aggressive treatments.

  2. Recent advances on synchronization of ovulation in goats, out of season, for a more sustainable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Simões

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Goats show marked progressive seasonal reproduction at latitude > 25° and reproductive management should be adapted to market demands. The present review aimed to discuss the synchronization of ovulation for timed artificial insemination concerning new insights regarding a clean, green and ethical meat and milk production. Today, the induction of ovulation during breeding season or transitions periods is mainly based on progestagens/ progesterone (P4 devices intravaginally inserted on females, at least during 11 days, plus equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and prostaglandin F2 alfa administration. In last years a reduction to 20 mg of fluorogestone acetate was made and the successful reutilization of devices containing 0.3 g of P4 indicates a possible reduction of their levels. Shortening the period of exogenous progestagens/P4 priming (5 to 7 days is critical for a rational use of hormones. Moreover, the eCG exchange by socio-sexual cues (male effect seems to see a great advance, even if a previous photoperiod treatment, or equivalent method, being necessary in high latitudes. Research trends on these subjects are expected in future using different goats breeds in distinct regions of world.

  3. Malignant Transformation of Endometrioma in a Woman with a History of Ovulation Induction and In Vitro Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri L. Woodard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to document a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary found in an endometriotic cyst that was suspected on pelvic ultrasound in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome, normal Ca125, and a recent history of ovulation induction for IVF. She underwent an exploratory laparotomy with left salpingo-oophorectomy and omental biopsies followed by reexploration, complete staging, and modified radical abdominal hysterectomy and right salpingo-oophorectomy. An endometrioma described as suspicious for malignancy by an experienced ultrasound examiner should prompt immediate referral to a gynecological oncologist irrespective of Ca125 levels especially in women with a history of ovulation induction and endometriosis.

  4. [Comparison of the frequency of chromosomal disorders in populations of in vitro-matured and ovulating rat oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaev, E M; Pimenova, M N

    1980-12-01

    The rat oocytes extracted from the rat ovaries and cultivated for 42-46 hours were compared with ovulated oocytes by the chromosomal aberration rate. The chromosomal aberration rate in the population of "follicular" oocytes was 8.2% on the average whereas in ovulated oocytes, it did not exceed 1.8%. Analysis of the chromosomal aberrations depending on the phase of the estral cycle suggests that the main portion of chromosomal aberrations in cultivated oocytes occurs during the physiological process of follicular atresia.

  5. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawroth F

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Frank Nawroth,1 Andreas Tandler-Schneider,2 Wilma Bilger3 1Centre for Reproductive and Prenatal Medicine, Endocrinology and Osteology, Hamburg, Germany; 2Center for Reproductive Medicine, Fertility Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Medical Affairs, Fertility, Endocrinology and General Medicine, Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany Abstract: This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles 15 mm. Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population. The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%, 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%, and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1% on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%, 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%, and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1% on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. Keywords: ovulation

  6. Effects of breed, age, season, and multiple ovulations on cyclic, PGF2α-induced, and postpartum estrus characteristics in Spanish jennies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marin, C C; Galisteo, I; Perez-Rico, A; Galisteo, J

    2016-04-01

    This retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed data for a total of 104 jennies reared in southern Spain over the period 1995 to 2014. Intervals to ovulation and incidence of multiple ovulation and pregnancy were charted for spontaneous, PGF2α-induced, and postpartum estrous cycles. In spontaneous estrous cycles, the interovulatory interval varied as a function of breed (P estrus signs was longer in older jennies (0.04). Spontaneous cycles were also associated with higher ovulation rates from September to January (P estrus, not only did estrus signs last longer in old (P cycle revealed that postpartum jennies exhibited significantly lower ovulation rates (1.32 ± 0.07) and a lower incidence of multiple ovulation (30.4%) than spontaneous (1.62 ± 0.04, 55.0%) and PGF2α-induced (1.74 ± 0.08, 65.5%) groups. No differences were observed in the incidence of ovulation or pregnancy depending on the location of ovulation in polyovular cycles, and ovulation occurred at similar rates in the right and left ovaries. These findings shed further light on reproductive physiology in jennies and may be of value in improving animal management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An economic comparison of a laparoscopic electrocautery strategy and ovulation induction with recombinant FSH in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, M.; Bayram, N.; van der Veen, F.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant FSH (rFSH) is the current standard treatment for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that do not respond to clomiphene citrate. Ovulation induction with rFSH is known to be costly due to the necessity of daily injections and intensive

  8. Long-term follow-up of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries versus ovulation induction with recombinant FSH in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, M. J.; Oude Lohuis, E.; Kose, N.; Bayram, N.; Hompes, P.; Oosterhuis, G. J. E.; Kaaijk, E. M.; Cohlen, B. J.; Bossuyt, P. P. M.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W.; van Wely, M.

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries and ovulation induction with gonadotrophins are both second line treatments for women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Long-term follow-up after electrocautery versus ovulation induction with gonadotrophins has

  9. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and biological characterization of a series of azetidine-derived tertiary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Lamsal, Atin; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Jeffrey Conn, P; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-12-01

    Herein we describe the continued optimization of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) within the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series of compounds. In this letter, we disclose our studies on tertiary amides derived from substituted azetidines. This series provided excellent CNS penetration, which had been challenging to consistently achieve in other amide series. Efforts to mitigate high clearance, aided by metabolic softspot analysis, were unsuccessful and precluded this series from further consideration as a preclinical candidate. In the course of this study, we found that potassium tetrafluoroborate salts could be engaged in a tosyl hydrazone reductive cross coupling reaction, a previously unreported transformation, which expands the synthetic utility of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A study on the reproductive endocrine mechanisms of ovulation induced by [D-Leu6,Pro9]-GnRH N-ethylamide in laying Taihe hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gongjin; Li Zhengkui; Yan Jianmin

    1994-01-01

    Ovulation induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist [GnRH-A, (D-Leu 6 , Pro 9 ]-GnRH N-ethylamide] was used as a model for studying the endocrine mechanisms of ovulation in laying Taihe hens. The results showed that: (1) GnRH-A had a great stimulating effect on development of reproductive organs of hens, and caused weight increasing of ovary, oviduct and liver in hens, whereas there was no significant weight difference between GnRH-A and control group. Admininstration of GnRH-A seven days before the end of laying could keep normal egg production of the hens. (2) Twenty days after GnRH-A administration the two releasing peaks of plasma LH were induced in GnRH-A group, and plasma LH concentrations were higher in GnRH-A group than that in control group, whereas plasma FSH did not changed significantly compared with control group. (3) After administration of GnRH-A, plasma progesterone increased, and it was higher in GnRH-A group than that in control group out of laying cycle. On contrary, plasma estriol declined obviously 8 days after GnRH-A administration, though it elevated slightly later, it was less than that in control group. It is concluded that GnRH-A induced oviduct and ovalution development is associated with changes in plasma LH, progesterone and estriol concentration and that GnRH-A may be an useful agent for inducing development of ovalution and oviduct and improving egg production

  11. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Frank; Tandler-Schneider, Andreas; Bilger, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI) alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles ≥15 mm). Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population). The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%), 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%), and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1%) on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%), 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%), and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1%) on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU) of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. PMID:25926755

  12. The RNA-binding protein, ZFP36L2, influences ovulation and oocyte maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Ball

    Full Text Available ZFP36L2 protein destabilizes AU-rich element-containing transcripts and has been implicated in female fertility. In the C57BL/6NTac mouse, a mutation in Zfp36l2 that results in the decreased expression of a form of ZFP36L2 in which the 29 N-terminal amino acid residues have been deleted, ΔN-ZFP36L2, leads to fertilized eggs that arrest at the two-cell stage. Interestingly, homozygous ΔN-Zfp36l2 females in the C57BL/6NTac strain release 40% fewer eggs than the WT littermates (Ramos et al., 2004, suggesting an additional defect in ovulation and/or oocyte maturation. Curiously, the same ΔN-Zfp36l2 mutation into the SV129 strain resulted in anovulation, prompting us to investigate a potential problem in ovulation and oocyte maturation. Remarkably, only 20% of ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes in the 129S6/SvEvTac strain matured ex vivo, suggesting a defect on the oocyte meiotic maturation process. Treatment of ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes with a PKA inhibitor partially rescued the meiotic arrested oocytes. Furthermore, cAMP levels were increased in ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes, linking the cAMP/PKA pathway and ΔN-Zfp36l2 with meiotic arrest. Since ovulation and oocyte maturation are both triggered by LHR signaling, the downstream pathway was investigated. Adenylyl cyclase activity was increased in ΔN-Zfp36l2 ovaries only upon LH stimulation. Moreover, we discovered that ZFP36L2 interacts with the 3'UTR of LHR mRNA and that decreased expression levels of Zfp36l2 correlates with higher levels of LHR mRNA in synchronized ovaries. Furthermore, overexpression of ZFP36L2 decreases the endogenous expression of LHR mRNA in a cell line. Therefore, we propose that lack of the physiological down regulation of LHR mRNA levels by ZFP36L2 in the ovaries is associated with anovulation and oocyte meiotic arrest.

  13. OVULATION INDUCTION IN PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE - A PLACEBO-CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED TRIAL COMBINING PITUITARY SUPPRESSION WITH GONADOTROPIN STIMULATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKASTEREN, YM; HOEK, A; SCHOEMAKER, J

    Objectives: To determine the effect of pituitary suppression with a GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) on the success of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF). Design: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. The data were analyzed with a

  14. Willingness to pay for ovulation induction treatment in case of WHO II anovulation: a study using the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie; Simard, Catherine; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    To measure the willingness to pay (WTP) of women aged 18-45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction (ie, the social value of normal cycles of ovulation for a woman of childbearing age) in order to feed the debate about the funding of fertility cares. An anonymous questionnaire was used over the general population of Quebec. A total of 136 subjects were recruited in three medical clinics, and 191 subjects through an online questionnaire. THE QUESTIONNAIRE CONSISTED OF THREE PARTS: introduction to the problematic, socioeconomic data collection to determine factors influencing the formation of WTP, and a WTP question using the simple bid price dichotomous choice elicitation technique. The econometric estimation method is based on the "random utility theory." Each subject responding to our questionnaire could express her uncertainty about the answer to our WTP question by choosing the answer "I do not know." The WTP in Canadian dollars of women aged 18-45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction. Results are positive and indicate an average WTP exceeding 4,800 CAD, which is much more than the drug treatment cost. There is no evidence of sample frame bias or avidity bias across the two survey modes that cannot be controlled in econometric estimates. Medical treatment for ovulation induction is highly socially desirable in Quebec.

  15. Regulated expression of ADAMTS family members in follicles and cumulus oocyte complexes : evidence for specific and redundant patterns during ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, JoAnne S; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Immaculada; Gonzalez-Robayna, Ignacio; Teuling, Eva; Lo, Yuet; Boerboom, Derek; Falender, Allison E; Doyle, Kari H; LeBaron, Richard G; Thompson, Vivian; Sandy, John D

    Protease cascades are essential for many biological events, including the LH-induced process of ovulation. ADAMTS1 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like repeats-1) is expressed and hormonally regulated in the ovary by LH and the progesterone receptor. To determine whether

  16. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  17. In vivo activity of native GnRHs and their analogues on ovulation in the American catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, T.; Radics, F.; Barth, Tomislav; Horváth, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2007), s. 140-146 ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3028; GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : GnRH * ovulation * African catfish Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2007

  18. Using an electrocautery strategy or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; van der Veen, Fulco

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of an electrocautery strategy with ovulation induction using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 168 patients with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: 83 were allocated electrocautery and 85 were allocated recombinant follicle stimulating hormone. Intervention Laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries followed by clomiphene citrate and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone if anovulation persisted, or induction of ovulation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone. Main outcome measure Ongoing pregnancy within 12 months. Results. The cumulative rate of ongoing pregnancy after recombinant follicle stimulating hormone was 67%. With only electrocautery it was 34%, which increased to 49% after clomiphene citrate was given. Subsequent recombinant follicle stimulating hormone increased the rate to 67% at 12 months (rate ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.24). No complications occurred from electrocautery with or without clomiphene citrate. Patients allocated to electrocautery had a significantly lower risk of multiple pregnancy (0.11, 0.01 to 0.86). Conclusion The ongoing pregnancy rate from ovulation induction with laparoscopic electrocautery followed by clomiphene citrate and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone if anovulation persisted, or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, seems equivalent to ovulation induction with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, but the former procedure carries a lower risk of multiple pregnancy. PMID:14739186

  19. Treatment preferences and trade-offs for ovulation induction in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate patient preferences and trade-offs for laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries relative to ovulation induction with recombinant FSH (rFSH) in patients with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Assessment of preferences and

  20. A New Way to Confirm Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    What was the big deal behind the Kepler news conference yesterday? Its not just that the number of confirmed planets found by Kepler has more than doubled (though thats certainly exciting news!). Whats especially interesting is the way in which these new planets were confirmed.Number of planet discoveries by year since 1995, including previous non-Kepler discoveries (blue), previous Kepler discoveries (light blue) and the newly validated Kepler planets (orange). [NASA Ames/W. Stenzel; Princeton University/T. Morton]No Need for Follow-UpBefore Kepler, the way we confirmed planet candidates was with follow-up observations. The candidate could be validated either by directly imaging (which is rare) or obtaining a large number radial-velocity measurements of the wobble of the planets host star due to the planets orbit. But once Kepler started producing planet candidates, these approaches to validation became less feasible. A lot of Kepler candidates are small and orbit faint stars, making follow-up observations difficult or impossible.This problem is what inspired the development of whats known as probabilistic validation, an analysis technique that involves assessing the likelihood that the candidates signal is caused by various false-positive scenarios. Using this technique allows astronomers to estimate the likelihood of a candidate signal being a true planet detection; if that likelihood is high enough, the planet candidate can be confirmed without the need for follow-up observations.A breakdown of the catalog of Kepler Objects of Interest. Just over half had previously been identified as false positives or confirmed as candidates. 1284 are newly validated, and another 455 have FPP of1090%. [Morton et al. 2016]Probabilistic validation has been used in the past to confirm individual planet candidates in Kepler data, but now Timothy Morton (Princeton University) and collaborators have taken this to a new level: they developed the first code thats designed to do fully

  1. Développement folliculaire ovarien et ovulation chez les mammifères

    OpenAIRE

    Monniaux , Danielle; Caraty , Alain; Clement , Frederique; Dalbiès-Tran , Rozenn; Dupont , J.; Fabre , Stéphane; Gérard , N.; Mermillod , Pascal; Monget , Philippe; Uzbekova , Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Cette revue présente l’état des connaissances sur la folliculogenèse et l’ovulation chez les mammifères. La folliculogenèse basale est une phase de croissance folliculaire lente, au cours de laquelle l’ovocyte acquiert la compétence méiotique. La folliculogenèse terminale est une phase de développement rapide, au cours de laquelle le follicule ovulatoire est sélectionné et termine sa maturation, tandis que l’ovocyte acquiert la compétence au développement. La revue décrit les différents chang...

  2. Genetic influences on ovulation of primary oocytes in LT/Sv strain mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Clare A; Auchincloss, Catherine A; Kaufman, Matthew H; Abbott, Catherine M; West, John D

    2004-11-01

    A high proportion of LT/Sv strain oocytes arrest in meiotic metaphase I (MI) and are ovulated as diploid primary oocytes rather than haploid secondary oocytes. (Mus musculus castaneus x LT/SvKau)F1 x LT/SvKau backcross females were analysed for the proportion of oocytes that arrested in MI and typed by PCR for a panel of microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) that differed between strain LT/SvKau and M. m. castaneus. This provided a whole genome scan of 86 genetic markers distributed over all 19 autosomes and the X chromosome, and revealed genetic linkage of the MI arrest phenotype to markers on chromosomes 1 and 9. Identification of these two chromosomal regions should facilitate the identification of genes involved in mammalian oocyte maturation and the control of meiosis.

  3. Development of a neuromedin U-human serum albumin conjugate as a long-acting candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Comparison with the PEGylated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Philippe; Peier, Andrea M; Talamo, Fabio; Ingallinella, Paolo; Lahm, Armin; Barbato, Gaetano; Di Marco, Annalise; Desai, Kunal; Zytko, Karolina; Qian, Ying; Du, Xiaobing; Ricci, Davide; Monteagudo, Edith; Laufer, Ralph; Pocai, Alessandro; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Marsh, Donald J; Pessi, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is an endogenous peptide implicated in the regulation of feeding, energy homeostasis, and glycemic control, which is being considered for the therapy of obesity and diabetes. A key liability of NMU as a therapeutic is its very short half-life in vivo. We show here that conjugation of NMU to human serum albumin (HSA) yields a compound with long circulatory half-life, which maintains full potency at both the peripheral and central NMU receptors. Initial attempts to conjugate NMU via the prevalent strategy of reacting a maleimide derivative of the peptide with the free thiol of Cys34 of HSA met with limited success, because the resulting conjugate was unstable in vivo. Use of a haloacetyl derivative of the peptide led instead to the formation of a metabolically stable conjugate. HSA-NMU displayed long-lasting, potent anorectic, and glucose-normalizing activity. When compared side by side with a previously described PEG conjugate, HSA-NMU proved superior on a molar basis. Collectively, our results reinforce the notion that NMU-based therapeutics are promising candidates for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Correlations among three measures of puberty in mice and relationships with estradiol concentration and ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, T J; Lamberson, W R; Keisler, D H

    1993-03-01

    Correlations among ages and weights at vaginal opening (AVO, WVO), positive vaginal smear (AVE, WVE), and copulatory plug (AVP, WVP) were determined using 623 mice. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine association of each with serum concentrations of estradiol and incidence of ovulation. Female mice were weaned at 21 days and 24 days of age were assigned randomly to mate with males. Mice were checked daily to determine AVO, AVE, and AVP. Mice were weighted weekly and WVO, WVE, and WVP were obtained by interpolation. Genetic correlations among ages and weights were small and mainly negative. Phenotypic correlations were small to moderate and mainly positive. Genetic correlations among the three measures of age and among the three measures of weight were moderate to high and positive; respective phenotypic correlations were somewhat smaller. In experiment 2, mice were checked daily for the three reproductive measures and bled at vaginal opening (n = 23), positive smear (n = 18), or copulatory plug (n = 19). Serum was assayed for estradiol via radioimmunoassay. No differences were found among the three indicators (p = 0.34). In experiment 3, mice were randomly assigned to be killed after detection of vaginal opening, positive smear, or copulatory plug. Oviducts were removed and flushed with saline to determine presence of ova. A greater (p < 0.05) proportion of mice had ovulated when killed after detection of copulatory plug (20/22) than after positive smear (4/27), and the proportion was greater after positive smear than after vaginal opening (0/14).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The administration of exogenous prostaglandin may improve ovulation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo-Urbinati, E; Kuradomi, R Y; Urbinati, E C; Batlouni, S R

    2012-12-01

    Based on the reports of unsuccessful ovulation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) by fish farmers and researchers undertaking artificial reproduction programs, we evaluated the use of prostaglandin F (PGF) to improve pacu ovulation. This study was conducted during two spawning seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) with two samplings in the first season and one sampling in the second season. A total of 45 females was sampled in this study. The control group was injected with carp pituitary extract (crude extract, 6 mg/kg), and the treatment group received PGF (2 mL per fish in the 2009/2010 season and 5 mL per fish in the 2010/2011 season) in addition to the crude extract. In both seasons, 100% (N = 4, 2009/2010 first sampling; N = 5, 2009/2010 second sampling; and N = 3, 2010/2011) of the PGF-treated fish spawned. In contrast, 53.0% (N = 9) and 83.3% (N = 10) of the control fish spawned in the first and second samplings of the 2009/2010 season, respectively, and only 25.0% (N = 1) spawned in the 2010/2011 season. Fecundity, fertility, and hatching rates did not differ (P > 0.05) between the treated and control fish. Based on oocyte volume frequency analysis, ovaries of the control fish had more (P fish. In conclusion, administration of exogenous prostaglandin may improve the outcome of hormonally induced spawning in tropical migratory fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The human operational sex ratio: effects of marriage, concealed ovulation, and menopause on mate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2012-12-01

    Among mammals, male-male competition for sexual access to females frequently involves fighting. Larger body size gives males an advantage in fighting, which explains why males tend to be larger than females in many species, including anthropoid primates. Mitani et al. derived a formula to measure the operational sex ratio (OSR) to reflect the degree of male-male competition using the number of reproductively available males to females who are cycling and capable of conceiving. The OSR should predict the degree of sexual dimorphism in body mass-at least if male-male competition involves much fighting or threatening. Here, we use hunter-gatherer demographic data and the Mitani et al. formula to calculate the human OSR. We show that humans have a much lower degree of body mass sexual dimorphism than is predicted by our OSR. We suggest this is because human competition rarely involves fighting. In human hunter-gatherer societies, differences in the ages of marriage have an impact on competition in that the age of males at first marriage is younger when there is a lower percentage of married men with two or more wives, and older when there is a higher percentage of married men with two or more wives. We discuss the implications of this for females, along with the effects of two key life history traits that influence the OSR, concealed ovulation and menopause. While menopause decreases the number of reproductively available females to males and thus increases male-male competition, concealed ovulation decreases male-male competition. Finally, we discuss the importance of mostly monogamous mate bonds in human evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Super Ovulation Outcome for Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Ganji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of smoking cigarettes is followed by diverse effects on ovaries anddeveloping follicles but the effect of passive smoking on ovarian function is unknown. On the otherhand, the ovarian response to induction is a very important step in assisted reproduction. The aimof this study is to compare ovarian response in passive smokers and non-passive smokers in anassisted reproductive program.Materials and Methods: In a cohort study at the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, there were 72women in the passive smoker group and 72 women in the non-passive smoker group who underwentan assisted reproductive technology (ART program. The follicle number at administration of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG, number of gonadotropin ampoules and duration of super ovulationinduction were compared.Results: Statistical analyses indicated that the number of mature follicles in the passive smoker groupwas not different from the control group; but the number of unresponsive cycles to super ovulation inthe passive smoker group (33.3% was significantly higher than the control group (12.5%. Durationof induction and number of gonadotropin ampoules were not different between the two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show that exposure to second-hand smoke increases the chanceof unresponsiveness to ovulation induction. This condition may be due to the result of decline inovarian reserve in second-hand smokers. The duration of induction and number of gonadotropinampules is similar in the two groups. Furthermore, the results show that exposure to cigarette smokedoes not clinically impact women with good ovarian reserve.

  8. Comparative study of oestrous cycles and ovulation characteristics of cattle kept at different altitudes in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, H.; Vivanco, W.; Alvarado, E.; Padilla, A.; Flores, A.

    1990-01-01

    Progesterone (P 4 ) profiles were used to characterize certain aspects of the oestrous cycle in dairy Holstein (H) heifers bred under a typical intensive management system in the central coast area of Peru (12 deg. 05' S, 76 deg. 57' W) and in Brown Swiss (BS) and Simmental (SIM) dual purpose heifers reared under extensive management conditions in the central highlands (14 deg. 07' S, 70 deg. 43' W, 4250 m elevation). In the coastal experiment a group of eight H heifers were evaluated during their normal oestrous cycles, and a similar group after synchronization with norgestomet and oestradiol valerate. Serum concentrations of P 4 were measured throughout the oestrous cycles by RIA in daily samples obtained from the jugular vein. The occurrence of ovulation at 30 h after the onset of standing oestrus was determined by laparoscopy or by rectal palpation. Oestrus detection was performed by visual observation of anatomical changes and homosexual behaviour. In the trial carried out in the highlands, eight naturally cycling BS and seven SIM, as well as eight PGF 2α synchronized BS and four SIM, were studied. Parameters similar to those mentioned for the coastal experiment were evaluated in this trial. The evaluations of the PGF 2α synchronized heifers were performed from the commencement of treatment to the end of the first oestrous cycle. The profiles of serum P 4 during natural oestrous cycles of H heifers on the coast and BS and SIM in the highlands were similar to those already defined for cattle in other environments. The PGF 2α treated BS and SIM heifers showed more rapid luteolysis than control heifers; as a consequence, the overall P 4 profiles in synchronized and natural oestruses were different. However, ovulations occurred about 30 h after the onset of standing oestrus in both naturally cycling and synchronized heifers in both environments. (author). 37 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  9. [Obesity studies in candidate genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, María del Carmen; Martí, Amelia; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2004-04-17

    There are more than 430 chromosomic regions with gene variants involved in body weight regulation and obesity development. Polymorphisms in genes related to energy expenditure--uncoupling proteins (UCPs), related to adipogenesis and insulin resistance--hormone-sensitive lipase (HLS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), beta adrenergic receptors (ADRB2,3), and alfa tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), and related to food intake--ghrelin (GHRL)--appear to be associated with obesity phenotypes. Obesity risk depends on two factors: a) genetic variants in candidate genes, and b) biographical exposure to environmental risk factors. It is necessary to perform new studies, with appropriate control groups and designs, in order to reach relevant conclusions with regard to gene/environmental (diet, lifestyle) interactions.

  10. Syndromic Craniosynostosis Can Define New Candidate Genes for Suture Development or Result from the Non-specifc Effects of Pleiotropic Genes: Rasopathies and Chromatinopathies as Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Zollino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniosynostosis is a heterogeneous condition caused by the premature fusion of cranial sutures, occurring mostly as an isolated anomaly. Pathogenesis of non-syndromic forms of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. In about 15–30% of cases craniosynostosis occurs in association with other physical anomalies and it is referred to as syndromic craniosynostosis. Syndromic forms of craniosynostosis arise from mutations in genes belonging to the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR family and the interconnected molecular pathways in most cases. However it can occur in association with other gene variants and with a variety of chromosome abnormalities as well, usually in association with intellectual disability (ID and additional physical anomalies. Evaluating the molecular properties of the genes undergoing intragenic mutations or copy number variations (CNVs along with prevalence of craniosynostosis in different conditions and animal models if available, we made an attempt to define two distinct groups of unusual syndromic craniosynostosis, which can reflect direct effects of emerging new candidate genes with roles in suture homeostasis or a non-specific phenotypic manifestation of pleiotropic genes, respectively. RASopathies and 9p23p22.3 deletions are reviewed as examples of conditions in the first group. In particular, we found that craniosynostosis is a relatively common component manifestation of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC syndrome. Chromatinopathies and neurocristopathies are presented as examples of conditions in the second group. We observed that craniosynostosis is uncommon on average in these conditions. It was randomly associated with Kabuki, Koolen-de Vries/KANSL1 haploinsufficiency and Mowat–Wilson syndromes and in KAT6B-related disorders. As an exception, trigonocephaly in Bohring-Opitz syndrome reflects specific molecular properties of the chromatin modifier ASXL1 gene. Surveillance for craniosynostosis in syndromic forms of

  11. Development of a multiplex methylation-specific PCR as candidate triage test for women with an HPV-positive cervical scrape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellenberg, Suzanne; Strooper, Lise MA De; Hesselink, Albertus T; Meijer, Chris JLM; Snijders, Peter JF; Heideman, Daniëlle AM; Steenbergen, Renske DM

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) analysis for determining the methylation status of (candidate) tumor suppressor genes has potential as objective and valuable test to triage high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) positive women in cervical screening. Particularly combined methylation analysis of a panel of genes shows most promising clinical performance, with sensitivity levels that equal or exceed that of cytology. However, the wide application of such methylation marker panels is hampered by the lack of effective multiplex assays allowing simultaneous methylation detection of various targets in a single reaction. Here, we designed and analyzed a multiplex qMSP assay for three genes whose methylation was previously found to be informative for cervical (pre)cancer (i.e. CADM1, MAL and hsa-miR-124-2) as well as a reference gene β-actin. Based on our experience, we discuss the optimization of the parameters that provide a practical approach towards multiplex qMSP design. Primers and PCR reagents were optimized for multiplex qMSP purposes and the resulting assay was analytically validated on serial dilutions of methylated DNA in unmethylated DNA, and compared with singleplex counterparts on hrHPV-positive cervical scrapings. Upon optimization, including primer redesign and primer limiting assays, the multiplex qMSP showed the same analytical performance as the singleplex qMSPs. A strong correlation between the obtained normalized ratios of the singleplex and multiplex qMSPs on cervical scrapes was found for all three markers: CADM1 (R 2 =0.985), MAL (R 2 =0.986) and hsa-miR-124-2 (R 2 =0.944). Multiplex qMSP offers a promising approach for high-throughput diagnostic analysis of the methylation status of multiple genes, which after proper design and validation can be equally specific, sensitive and reproducible as its singleplex versions

  12. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation.

  13. Fuzzy Treatment of Candidate Outliers in Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo E. D'Errico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robustness against the possible occurrence of outlying observations is critical to the performance of a measurement process. Open questions relevant to statistical testing for candidate outliers are reviewed. A novel fuzzy logic approach is developed and exemplified in a metrology context. A simulation procedure is presented and discussed by comparing fuzzy versus probabilistic models.

  14. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-01-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the…

  15. Effect of different ovule isolation times on the embryo development of Campanula hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röper, Anna Catharina; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2012-01-01

    Conventional breeding within natural cross border frames is not always sufficient to increase genetic variability and produce new characteristics such as leaf and flower shape or cold tolerance. Interspecific hybridisation is an approach to obtain new plants with desired features. However...

  16. Ultrastructural dynamics of human reproduction, from ovulation to fertilization and early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Nottola, Stefania A; Sathananthan, A Henry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the updated, fine structure of human gametes, the human fertilization process, and human embryos, mainly derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART). As clearly shown, the ultrastructure of human reproduction is a peculiar multistep process, which differs in part from that of other mammalian models, having some unique features. Particular attention has been devoted to the (1) sperm ultrastructure, likely "Tygerberg (Kruger) strict morphology criteria"; (2) mature oocyte, in which the MII spindle is barrel shaped, anastral, and lacking centrioles; (3) three-dimensional microarchitecture of the zona pellucida with its unique supramolecular filamentous organization; (4) sperm-egg interactions with the peculiarity of the sperm centrosome that activates the egg and organizes the sperm aster and mitotic spindles of the embryo; and (5) presence of viable cumulus cells whose metabolic activity is closely related to egg and embryo behavior in in vitro as well as in vivo conditions, in a sort of extraovarian "microfollicular unit." Even if the ultrastructural morphodynamic features of human fertilization are well understood, our knowledge about in vivo fertilization is still very limited and the complex sequence of in vivo biological steps involved in human reproduction is only partially reproduced in current ART procedures.

  17. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  18. [Therapeutic effects on ovulation and reproduction promotion with acupuncture and clomiphene in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liqing; Cao, Lianying; Xie, Jing; Shi, Yin

    2018-03-12

    To compare the difference in the therapeutic effects on ovulation disorder in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) between the combined therapy of electroacupuncture and clomiphene and the single medication of clomiphene and to explore the effect mechanism. A total of 80 patients of PCOS were randomized into an acupuncture plus medication group (40 cases) and a medication group (40 cases). In the medication group, since the 5th day of menstruation or medicine-withdrawal bleeding, clomiphene was prescribed for oral administration, continuously for 5 days. In the acupuncture plus medication group, the medication was the same as the medication group. Additionally, 30 min electroacupuncture (continuous wave, 2 Hz) was applied to Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zigong (EX-CA 1), Dahe (KI 12), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zhongji (CV 3), Diji (SP 8), Shenshu (BL 23), Sanjiaoshu (BL 22) and Ciliao (BL 32), etc. The treatment started on the 5th day of menstruation or medicine-withdrawal bleeding, once every two days, 3 times a week. One cycle of menstruation or 1 month was taken as one course. The treatment cycles were 3 months in the two groups. The level of estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P) in the serum, the endometrial thickness and morphology, ovulation rate and clinical pregnancy rate, as well as the clinical therapeutic effects were compared after treatment in the two groups. Two cases were dropped out because the herbal medicine was taken simultaneously in the acupuncture plus medication group. In the medication group, the medication was discontinued in 3 cases due to gastrointestinal adverse reactions. The total effective rate was 86.8% (33/38) in the acupuncture plus medication group, better than 64.9% (24/37) in the medication group ( P medication group was higher than that in the medication group [(86.8%, 33/38) vs (64.9% 24/37), P medication group was higher than the medication group in tendency, without significant difference [21.1% (8/38) vs 16.2% (6/37), P >0

  19. Free androgen index and leptin are the most prominent endocrine predictors of ovarian response during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); F.H. de Jong (Frank); N.N. Payne (Nadia); P. Bouchard (Philippe); L.C. Giudice (Linda); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe have previously demonstrated that obese hyperandrogenic amenorrheic women are less likely to ovulate after clomiphene citrate (CC) medication. The present study was designed to identify whether additional endocrine screening characteristics, all potentially involved in ovarian

  20. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Does unilateral laparoscopic diathermy adjusted to ovarian volume increase the chances of ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunj, M; Canic, T; Baldani, D P; Tandara, M; Jeroncic, A; Palada, I

    2013-09-01

    Does unilateral volume-adjusted laparoscopic diathermy increase the chances of ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Although unilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling (ULOD) using adjusted thermal doses was more efficient than bilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling (BLOD) using fixed doses, the chances of ovulation were improved in patients irrespective of the technique used. The adjustment of the thermal dose to ovarian volume in BLOD increases ovulation and pregnancy rates compared with fixed-dose treatment, but BLOD causes the formation of adhesions, particularly on the left ovary, and increases the risk of damage to ovarian tissue. In contrast, ULOD with a fixed thermal dose minimizes the risk of ovarian tissue damage, and can increase the activity in both right and left ovaries, although this varies in humans and in other species. This prospective, longitudinal, study, between September 2009 and January 2013, included 96 infertile women with PCOS who were unresponsive to clomiphene citrate treatment and had underwent either ULOD or BLOD. After surgery, the groups were followed up for 6 months to assess ovulatory response. Patients were assigned to two groups; one group underwent laparoscopic ovarian drilling of the right ovary alone, while both ovaries were treated in the second group. The ULOD group (n = 49) received thermal doses adjusted to the volume of the right ovary (60 J/cm³). The BLOD group (n = 47) received fixed doses of 600 J per ovary, regardless of its volume. The two treatment groups were matched by the number of participants, age and baseline parameters. The ovulation rate during the first menstrual cycle after LOD was significantly higher in the ULOD group than in the BLOD group [73 versus 49%; absolute risk reduction (ARR), -0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.44 to -0.03; P = 0.014]. Treatment with ULOD on the right ovary significantly increased the chances of ovulation in patients with a larger right ovary compared

  2. Genomic Imbalances in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines Affect Expression of Genes Frequently Altered in Primary Tumors: An Approach to Identify Candidate Genes Involved in Tumor Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missiaglia, Edoardo; Selfe, Joanna; Hamdi, Mohamed; Williamson, Daniel; Schaaf, Gerben; Fang, Cheng; Koster, Jan; Summersgill, Brenda; Messahel, Boo; Versteeg, Rogier; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Kool, Marcel; Shipley, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcomas. They resemble developing skeletal muscle and are histologically divided into two main subtypes; alveolar and embryonal RMS. Characteristic genomic aberrations, including the PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1 fusion genes in alveolar

  3. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected.

  4. Low-dose gonadotropin induction of ovulation in anovulatory women - still needed in the age of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Davinia; Hardy, Kate; Lovelock, Suzannah; Franks, Stephen

    2018-02-19

    Low-dose, step-up gonadotropin is the treatment of choice for women with PCOS who have not conceived after anti-estrogen treatment, and as an effective alternative to pulsatile GnRH in women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). There has been, however, no large-scale, comparative study between the two groups using low-dose gonadotropins. Here we performed a retrospective, comparative analysis, in a single clinic database, of efficacy and safety of induction of ovulation using low-dose gonadotropins in 364 Women with PCOS and 80 women with HH. The rate of ovulation was high in both PCOS (83%) and HH (84%) but mono-follicular, ovulatory cycles were more prevalent in PCOS than in HH (77% vs 53%, p<0.0001) and the proportion of cycles that were abandoned was higher in HH than in PCOS (25% vs 15%, p<0.0001). The median threshold dose of gonadotropin required to induce ovulation was 75iu/day in PCOS and 113iu/day in HH (p<0.001) and the range of doses was greater in HH women. Forty-nine percent of women with PCOS and 65% of those with HH conceived (more than 90% within 6 cycles of treatment) and had a least one pregnancy. Multiple pregnancies (all twins) occurred in only 4% of women with PCOS and 5% of those with HH. These findings emphasise the efficacy and safety of low-dose gonadotropin treatment for both clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS and those with HH. These results highlight the importance of choosing the more physiological approach of gonadotropin induction of ovulation in both groups as the most appropriate treatment, in preference to IVF.

  5. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  6. Drill Sergeant Candidate Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    leadership styles of NCOs entering Drill Sergeant School (DSS). ARI also developed and administered a prototype DS Assessment Battery to assess...preferred leadership styles . DSS training increases both the degree to which the DSC feels obligated to and identifies with the Army. DSS training...4 TABLE 3. PREFERRED LEADERSHIP STYLES DEFINITIONS .............................................6 TABLE 4. DSC CHANGE IN

  7. Identification of selective inhibitors of RET and comparison with current clinical candidates through development and validation of a robust screening cascade [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RET (REarranged during Transfection is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which plays pivotal roles in regulating cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, migration and chemotaxis. Activation of RET is a mechanism of oncogenesis in medullary thyroid carcinomas where both germline and sporadic activating somatic mutations are prevalent.   At present, there are no known specific RET inhibitors in clinical development, although many potent inhibitors of RET have been opportunistically identified through selectivity profiling of compounds initially designed to target other tyrosine kinases. Vandetanib and cabozantinib, both multi-kinase inhibitors with RET activity, are approved for use in medullary thyroid carcinoma, but additional pharmacological activities, most notably inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGFR2 (KDR, lead to dose-limiting toxicity. The recent identification of RET fusions present in ~1% of lung adenocarcinoma patients has renewed interest in the identification and development of more selective RET inhibitors lacking the toxicities associated with the current treatments.   In an earlier publication [Newton et al, 2016; 1] we reported the discovery of a series of 2-substituted phenol quinazolines as potent and selective RET kinase inhibitors. Here we describe the development of the robust screening cascade which allowed the identification and advancement of this chemical series.  Furthermore we have profiled a panel of RET-active clinical compounds both to validate the cascade and to confirm that none display a RET-selective target profile.

  8. Ewes carrying the Booroola and Vacaria prolificacy alleles respond differently to ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, J C F; Souza, C J H

    2017-09-21

    The magnitude of ovulation rate (OR) after hormonal induction in sheep should be considered when prolific genotypes are used. We investigated for the first time the effect of the Vacaria allele and its combined effect with the Booroola prolificacy mutation on OR after hormonal treatment during breeding and anoestrous season. A hundred forty-nine Ile de France crossbred ewes, raised in natural pastures in South Brazil, were used to evaluate the OR after treatment with progestagen (MAP) followed or not by equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) treatment (MAP + eCG). During the breeding season, 96% MAP-treated ewes ovulated in comparison to 97% of MAP + eCG-treated females. The double heterozygous carriers (BNVN) presented the higher OR, followed by the single Vacaria (NNVN) and Booroola (BNNN) heterozygous females and least the wild-type (NNNN) ewes. During anoestrus, 96% eCG-treated ewes ovulated, in contrast to 6% treated with MAP alone. The OR of the gonadotrophin-treated females was higher in BNVN and BNNN than NNVN and NNNN ewes. An additive effect in the OR of the two mutations was observed since OR in double heterozygous ewes was similar to the sum of the effects of the alleles of the single heterozygous carrier ewes.

  9. Evaluation of a nutritional strategy to increase ovulation rate in merino ewes mated in late spring-early summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottle, M B; Kleemann, D O; Grosser, T I; Seamark, R F

    1997-07-01

    A nutritional strategy for increasing ovulation rate in Merino ewes mated in late spring-early summer was evaluated on two commercial farms. The strategy used the 'ram effect' to induce oestrus in seasonally anoestrus ewes and supplementary feeding of lupin grain six days prior to oestrus to increase ovulation rate. Ewes that had been isolated from rams for 6 weeks were exposed to vasectomised rams for 2 weeks and then mated to fertile rams for 6 weeks. Feeding 500 g lupins/head/day for 14 days commencing 12 days after the introduction of vasectomised rams, increased the number of ovulations from 126 to 146 per 100 ewes exposed to rams (P < 0.05). This increase was reflected in an improvement in fecundity (lambs born per ewe lambing; P < 0.05) but not fertility (ewes lambing per ewe mated to rams). Net reproductive performance (the product of fertility, fecundity and lamb survival) was increased by 11 lambs weaned per 100 ewes exposed to rams due to lupin supplementation at mating.

  10. Nitric oxide donors improve the ovulation and pregnancy rates in anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate: A RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mahran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC is the first line agent used for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. However, there is marked discrepancy between the ovulation and pregnancy rates achieved, which may be attributed to the undesirable effect of CC on cervical mucus and endometrium. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Isosorbid monoitrate (ISMN as nitric oxide (NO donors on the ovulation and pregnancy rates in an ovulatory women with PCOS treated with CC. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients with PCOS were randomly allocated into three groups. Patients in group A were treated with 100 mg CC for five days starting from the fifth day of the cycle. Patients in group B and C received 10 mg and 20 mg of ISMN respectively in addition to CC, applied vaginally till the diagnosis of ovulation. Results: There was a significant increase in the ovulation and pregnancy rates in the patients treated with CC+ISMN as compared with patients treated with CC alone (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Concomitant use of NO with CC seems to improve the ovulation and pregnancy rates in the patients with PCOS with no significant increase in side effects as compared with CC alone.

  11. Risk evaluation for federally listed (roseate tern, piping plover) or candidate (red knot) bird species in offshore waters: A first step for managing the potential impacts of wind facility development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Conserve Wildlife, 516 Farnsworth Avenue, Bordentown, NJ 08505 (United States); Gordon, Caleb; Newman, James; Forcey, Greg [Pandion Systems, Inc. 102 NE 10th Ave, Gainesville, FL 32601 (United States); Lawrence, J. [Conserve Wildlife, 516 Farnsworth Avenue, Bordentown, NJ 08505 (United States); Vlietstra, Lucy [Department of Science, US Coast Guard Academy, 27 Mohegan Drive, New London, CT 06320 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    With a worldwide increase in attention toward developing a reliance on renewable energy, there is a need to evaluate the effects of these facilities (solar, wind, hydropower) on ecosystems. We conduct a hazard and risk evaluation for three species of birds that are listed, or candidates for listing, as federally threatened or endangered in the US, and that might occur offshore on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) where wind power facilities could be developed. Our objectives were to: 1) provide conceptual models for exposure for each species, and 2) examine potential exposure and hazards of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus, both federally endangered in the US) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, candidate species) in the AOCS. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate information from a review of technical literature. We developed conceptual models to examine the relative vulnerability of each species as a function of life stage and cycle (breeding, staging, migratory, wintering). These methods are useful for conducting environmental assessments when empirical data are insufficient for a full risk assessment. We determined that 1) Roseate terns are likely to be exposed to risk during the migratory and breeding season when they occur in the AOCS, as well as while staging. 2) Piping plovers are not likely to be at risk during the breeding season, but may be at risk during spring or fall migrations. Risk to this species is likely to be low from turbines located far from land as this species migrates mainly along the coast. 3) Red knots are potentially exposed to some risk during migration, especially long-distance migrants whose migratory routes take them over the AOCS. More information is required on exact spatio-temporal migration routes, flight altitudes (especially during ascent and descent), and behavioral avoidance of turbines by birds to ascertain their risk. (author)

  12. Cervico-vaginal immunoglobulin G levels increase post-ovulation independently of neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrein Schaefer

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is often higher in females than in males. Although the reproductive cycle profoundly modulates local immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT system, significant gaps in our knowledge of the immunobiology of the FRT still exist. An intriguing and frequently observed characteristic of the FRT is the predominant presence of immunoglobulin (Ig G in cervico-vaginal secretions. We show here that in the mouse, IgG accumulation was enhanced approximately 5-fold post-ovulation, and was accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the FRT. To determine whether these two events were causally related, we performed short-term neutrophil depletion experiments at individual stages throughout the estrous cycle. Our results demonstrate that neutrophils were not necessary for cycle-dependent tissue remodeling and cycle progression and that cycle-dependent IgG accumulation occurred independent of neutrophils. We thus conclude that neutrophil influx and IgG accumulation are independent events that occur in the FRT during the reproductive cycle.

  13. Evaluation of the acceptability of intravaginal prasterone ovule administration using an applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, Marlene; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Zerhouni, Jaâfar; Côté, Isabelle; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Moyneur, Erick; Balser, John

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the acceptability of the intravaginal administration of ovules/suppositories of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone) for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in women with moderate to severe dyspareunia who were administered daily for 12 weeks intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA or placebo. There were a total of 373 women in the per-protocol population who responded to the questionnaire for both treatment groups. While it was planned that the applicator would be evaluated as suitable if at least 80% of participants have a global score  ≤ 2 units, 99% and 100% of participants had a score  ≤ 2 units in the placebo and DHEA groups, respectively, for the global score (mean of 5 questions). When asked about like and dislike the technique of drug administration, 284 comments were positive, while 114 women gave no comment. About 92-94% of women indicated that they were very confident to be able use the applicator successfully in the future. The survey shows a high degree of satisfaction and of confidence to use the applicator successfully in the future.

  14. [Factors influencing conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, B A

    2005-04-01

    This review describes factors that affect conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination. Intervals of 7 days between GnRH and PGF2alpha, 48 hours to the second GnRH treatment and a further 16 to 20 hours to the timed insemination have been proven to be most effective. Conception rates (CR) increase as lactation progresses up to 100 days in milk. Primiparous cows have higher CR than older cows. Anovular cows at the start of the synchronization protocols have poor CR. These are highest for cows started in early dioestrus. While poor body condition and some post partum and post insemination health disorders have negative effects on the CR, a significant effect of postpartum chronic endometritis could not be demonstrated. High milk yield was also not shown to have a negative effect on CR in almost all studies, while the negative effect of heat stress on fertility is also found in Ovsynch cows. However, the negative effects of high milk yields and heat stress on AI submission rates are overcome by the timed insemination protocol.

  15. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  16. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  17. "PERLE bedside-examination-course for candidates in state examination" - Developing a training program for the third part of medical state examination (oral examination with practical skills).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthaus, Anne; Schmidt, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the state examination, many students have open questions and a need for advice. Tutors of the Skills Lab PERLE-"Praxis ERfahren und Lernen" (experiencing and learning practical skills) have developed a new course concept to provide support and practical assistance for the examinees. The course aims to familiarize the students with the exam situation in order to gain more confidence. This enables the students to experience a confrontation with the specific situation of the exam in a protected environment. Furthermore, soft skills are utilized and trained. Concept of the course: The course was inspired by the OSCE-model (Objective Structured Clinical Examination), an example for case-based learning and controlling. Acquired knowledge can be revised and extended through the case studies. Experienced tutors provide assistance in discipline-specific competencies, and help in organizational issues such as dress code and behaviour. Evaluation of the course: An evaluation was conducted by the attending participants after every course. Based on this assessment, the course is constantly being developed. In March, April and October 2015 six courses, with a total of 84 participants, took place. Overall 76 completed questionnaires (91%) were analysed. Strengths of the course are a good tutor-participants-ratio with 1:4 (1 Tutor provides guidance for 4 participants), the interactivity of the course, and the high flexibility in responding to the group's needs. Weaknesses are the tight schedule, and the currently not yet performed evaluation before and after the course. In terms of "best practise", this article shows an example of how to offer low-cost and low-threshold preparation for the state examination.

  18. Ultrasonographic and endocrine evaluation of three regimes for oestrus and ovulation synchronization for sheep in the subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Hayder, M; Saifelnaser, E O H

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate three regimes for oestrus and ovulation synchronization in Farafra ewes in the subtropics. During autumn, 43 ewes were assigned to (i) controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR)-eCG group, treated with CIDR for 12 days and eCG at insert withdrawal, n=13; (ii) PGF2alpha-PGF2alpha group, treated with two PGF2alpha injections at 11 days interval, n=14; and (iii) GnRH-PGF2alpha-GnRH group, treated with GnRH, followed 5 days later with PGF2alpha and 24 h later with a second GnRH, n=16. Oestrus-mating detection was carried out at 4 h intervals starting on day 0 [the day of CIDR withdrawal (CIDR-eCG group), the day of second PGF2alpha treatment (PGF2alpha-PGF2alpha group) and the day of PGF2alpha treatment (GnRH-PGF2alpha-GnRH group)]. Ovarian dynamics was monitored by ultrasound every 12 h beginning on day 0 and continued for 4 days. Blood samples were obtained daily for progesterone (P4) and oestradiol 17beta (E2) estimation starting on day 0 and continued for 4 days. The obtained results showed that, oestrus expression, ovulation and conception were greater (p2.0 ng/ml), compared to 42.9% in GnRH-PGF2alpha-GnRH group (p=0.01). The peak of oestrus occurred 32-52, 48-60 and 28-96 h after the end of treatment in CIDR-eCG, PGF2alpha-PGF2alpha and GnRH-PGF2alpha-GnRH groups, respectively. Ovulation started 48 h after treatment in all groups and extended for 24, 36 and 48 h for CIDR-eCG, PGF2alpha-PGF2alpha and GnRH-PGF2alpha-GnRH groups, respectively. Results demonstrated that oestrus and ovulation synchronization could be efficiently achieved in Farafra ewes using either CIDR-eCG or PGF2alpha-PGF2alpha regimes; however, the GnRH-PGF2alpha-GnRH treatment induced a more spread oestrus and ovulation that may make the protocol inadequate for timed artificial insemination.

  19. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  20. MAT@USC Candidates and Latino English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…

  1. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewijk, Esmée M; Nahuis, Marleen; Costello, Michael F; Van der Veen, Fulco; Tso, Leopoldo O; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Wely, Madelon

    2017-01-24

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC. Metformin may increase the effectiveness of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins and may promote safety by preventing multiple pregnancy. To determine the effectiveness and safety of metformin co-treatment during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins with respect to rates of live birth and multiple pregnancy in women with PCOS. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAH) on 8 June 2016, and the reference lists of included and other relevant studies. We searched ongoing trials registries in the World Health Organization (WHO) portal and on clinicaltrials.gov on 4 September 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on comparison of clinical outcomes in women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction with gonadotrophins plus metformin versus gonadotrophins alone or gonadotrophins plus placebo. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Primary review outcomes were live birth rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were ovulation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rate, miscarriage rate, cycle cancellation rate and adverse effects. We included five RCTs (with 264 women) comparing gonadotrophins plus metformin versus gonadotrophins. The gonadotrophin used was recombinant FSH in four studies and highly purified FSH in one study. Evidence was of low quality: The main limitations were serious risk of bias due to poor reporting of study methods and blinding of participants and

  2. Sorghums: viable biomass candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, T A; Arthur, M F; Kresovich, S; Scantland, D A

    1980-01-01

    Agronomic studies conducted at Battelle's Columbus Division to evaluate biomass and sugar yields of sweet sorghum are described and the major findings are summarized. Development opportunities for using sorghum cultivars as a large-scale energy crop are discussed. With presently available cultivars, sweet sorghum should produce 3500 to 4000 liters ethanol per hectare from the fermentable sugars alone. Conversion of the stalk fibers into alcohol could increase production by another 1600 to 1900 liters per hectare with existing cultivars. These yields are approximately 30 to 40% greater per hectare than would be obtained from above average yields of grain and stalk fiber with corn. There is reason to believe, that with hybrid sweet sorghum, these yields could be further increased by as much as 30%. Diminishing land availability for agricultural crops necessitates that maximum yields be obtained. Over the next decade, imaginative technological innovations in sorghum harvesting, processing, and crop preservation, coupled with plant breeding research should help this crop realize its full potential as a renewable resource for energy production.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF CANDIDATE GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN AN IMMUNE RESPONSE AS MARKERS FOR THE RISK OF DEVELOPING RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND PRODUCING AUTOANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Guseva

    2016-01-01

    to RA (p = 0.056. IL6 (rs1800795, IL10 (rs1800872, rs1800896, MCP1/CCL2 (rs1024611, and ICAM1 (rs1799969 polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of RA. An analysis of the findings after patient stratification by ACCPA and IgM RF (a binary variable showed that none of the polymorphisms in question was associated with RF state. At the same time, PTPN22 (rs2476601, TNFAIP3 (rs675520, TNFAIP3 (rs10499194, and TNFА (rs1800629 polymorphisms were found to be significantly related to ACCPA state (a binary variable. The level of ACCPA as a quantitative variable was statistically significantly associated with CTLA4 (rs231775 and TNFА (rs1800629 polymorphisms in a dose-dependent fashion (р = 0.025 and р = 0.015, respectively. There was a marked tendency towards an association of ACCPA levels and IL6R gene polymorphism (p = 0.07. IL6 (rs1800795, IL10 (rs1800872, rs1800896, MCP1/CCL2 (rs1024611, and ICAM1 (rs1799969 polymorphisms were not correlated with ACCPA state (binary and quantitative variables.Conclusion. The findings suggest that a number of genes are implicated in the pathogenesis of RA and that they are involved in the development of ACCPA-positive and ACCPA-negative RA subtypes. No relationship was found between the production of IgM RF and the polymorphisms of the genes under study. The findings suggest that there appears to be different mechanisms for the formation of autoantibodies (ACCPA and IgM RF in RA.

  4. Influence of grape genotype, ripening season, seed trace size, and culture date on in ovule embryo development and plant formation Influência do genótipo, época de maturação, tamanho da semente-traço e época da cultura sobre o desenvolvimento do embrião no óvulo e a formação da planta de videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso V. Pommer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen seedless grape genotypes differing in ripening season (early, mid and late and in seed trace size (small, medium and large were harvested at 6, 10, 14, 18 and 22 weeks past bloom (wpb. Using embryo rescue techniques it was studied if embryo do abort as the fruit matures and what percent embryos remain viable at later stages. The size of seed trace was also investigated to determine its influence on embryo viability during maturation. It was found that genotype have great influence on embryo culture traits. Late maturing genotypes showed fewer rescued embryos, germinated embryos and transplantable plants than early and mid season ones. The best culture time for grape embryo rescue is 6 and 10 wpb. At these dates, the largest number of embryos, germinated embryos and transplantable plants were obtained. Genotypes with the largest ratio for seed trace weight/seed trace length (i.e., largest density showed the greatest tendency to have the largest number of ovules with embryos, more germinated embryos and more transplantable plants. The study also showed that it is possible to recover plants from mature fruit harvested late, although at a much reduced rate.Dezoito genótipos de uvas (Vitis vinifera L. apirenas, sem sementes diferindo na época de maturação (precoce, média e tardia c no tamanho da semente-traço (pequena, média e grande, foram colhidos a 6, 10, 14, 18 e 22 semanas após o florescimento. Usando técnicas de resgate de embrião, foi estudado se o embrião aborta à medida que o fruto amadurece e quais percentagens de embriões permanecem viáveis em estádios mais avançados. O tamanho da semente-traço também foi investigado para determinar sua influência na viabilidade do embrião durante a maturação. Verificou-se que o genótipo tem grande influência nas características relacionadas com a cultura de embrião. Genótipos de maturação tardia mostraram menos embriões resgatados e germinados e menos pl

  5. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  6. Biology and endocrinology of ovulation, pregnancy and parturition in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W; McCann, J P; Temple, M

    1989-01-01

    There is considerable variation among bitches in commonly encountered intervals between cycles (5-12 months), durations of anoestrus (1-8 months), durations of follicular phase pro-oestrus (3-21 days) and periovulatory oestrous behavior (3-21 days), intervals from preovulatory LH surge to oestrus onset (-2 to 5 days), and intervals from fertile mating to parturition (57-68 days). The extent of variation within bitches ranges from slight to great. However, there appears to be very little variation in the intervals from LH surge to ovulation (2 days), to post-ovulatory oocyte maturation (approximately 4 days), to implantation (approximately 18 days), to selected developmental stages of pregnancy, or to parturition (64-66 days). There are no tests diagnostic of early pregnancy. The onset times of persistent pregnancy-specific changes have been estimated, including radio-opaque fetal details (Day 46), elevated blood prolactin values (Day 35), elevated blood relaxin values (Day 25), echogenic heart beats (Day 24) and embryonic vesicles (Day 19), and potentially palpable uterine enlargements (Day 21). As in humans, there is an anaemia of pregnancy involving a 30% reduction in haematocrit and an increased incidence of insulin resistance during the second half of gestation. Ovarian progesterone is required throughout pregnancy. LH and prolactin are luteotrophic in the pregnant bitch as well as during the 2-month luteal phase of the non-pregnant bitch. Parturition follows a luteolysis which occurs during an increase in prostaglandin F-2 alpha that begins 36 h pre partum. Factors regulating the duration of anoestrus are not known but termination of anoestrus is associated with increased pulsatile secretion of LH.

  7. The effects of calcitriol on improvement of insulin resistance, ovulation and comparison with metformin therapy in PCOS patients: a randomized placebo- controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh; Mazloom Khorasani, Zahra; Davachi, Behrooz; Mazloom Khorasani, Javad

    2012-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females of reproductive age. Insulin resistance is a frequent metabolic disturbance in PCOS. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem. Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D has a role on insulin sensitivity so may contribute to reduction of hyperandrogenemia. The aim was to determine the effects of vitamin D treatment in metabolic components and ovulation evidence in PCOS. Fifty one untreated PCOS patients were randomly divided into three groups and treated with calcitriol, metformin, or placebo. Before and 3 months after treatment, ovulation evidence was assessed by ovarian trans abdominal sonography. Plasma fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone and androgen levels were measured before and after treatment. A 75gr glucose test was performed before and after treatment and two set of results was compared. Three patients did not continue this study. Only 11 patient (22.9%) had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). Metformin caused a significant decrease in weight (p=0.027), insulin level (p=0.043), and insulin resistance (p=0.048). Systolic blood pressure and PTH significantly improved after calcitriol (p=0.029, p=0.009 respectively). An improvement in ovulation was detected after calcitriol and seven patients, without evidence of ovulation before treatment, illustrated ovulation after 3 months. Difference with calcitriol in ovulation was significant versus other two methods (p=0.02). Calcitriol treatment in PCOS may be prior to metformin in ovulation induction.

  8. Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) extract induces ovulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a possible monotherapy and a combination therapy after failure with first-line clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Tominaga, Kunihiko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Anzai, Hideo; Matsuoka, Ryo

    2010-12-01

    Insulin resistance is a prominent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and insulin-sensitizing drugs are used to induce ovulation. Recently, it was reported that an extract from Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) improves insulin resistance. The objective was to explore the effects of Maitake extract (SX-fraction: MSX) to induce ovulation in patients with PCOS in comparison with and in combination with clomiphene citrate (CC). We conducted an open trial with 80 patients with PCOS at three clinics in Japan. Seventy-two (72) new patients were randomly assigned to receive MSX or CC monotherapy for up to 12 weeks. Eighteen (18) patients who did not respond to MSX or CC were subjected to combination therapy of MSX and CC for up to 16 weeks. Eight (8) patients with documented history of failure to CC received combination therapy from the beginning. Ovulation was assessed by ultrasonography. Twenty-six (26) patients in the MSX group and 31 in the CC group were evaluated for ovulation. The ovulation rates for MSX and CC were as follows: 76.9% (20/26) and 93.5% (29/31), respectively by the patients (NS), and 41.7% (30/72) and 69.9% (58/83), respectively, by the cycles (p = 0.0006). In the combination therapy, 7 of 7 patients who failed in MSX monotherapy and 6 of 8 patients who failed in CC monotherapy showed ovulation. The present study suggests that MSX alone may induce ovulation in PCOS patients and may be useful as an adjunct therapy for patients who failed first-line CC treatment.

  9. Teacher Candidate Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Lynn; And Others

    Summaries are presented of three papers presented at a summer workshop on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education conducted by the Association of Teacher Educators. The general topic covered by these presentations was teacher candidate selection and evaluation. Papers focused upon the following questions: (1) What entry level criteria should be…

  10. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....

  11. Comparison of the effect of clomiphene citrate and the letrozole for ovulation induction in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rahmani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anovulation is one of the most common causes of infertility. Different drugs in variousroutes are prescribed for its treatment. Clomiphene citrate (Clomiphene and Letrozole are categorized as ovulation induction drugs. In the present study, the effect of Clomiphene and Letrozole, using step up method, is compared with each other in the treatment of infertility. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 200 infertile patients with anovulation referred to infertility clinic of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences during 2008-2010 were studied in two equal groups. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. For patients in each group, Letrozole or Clomiphene was prescribed from the third day of menstruation for five days in an increasing protocol of one, two and three tablets. Ovulation and endometrial thickness were evaluated by ultrasonography in 13th-14th days and pregnancy was confirmed by ßHCG. Results: There were nosignificant differences regarding baseline demographic and fertility variables between two groups (p value> 0.05. Follicle formation (P value = 0.9, pregnancy rate (clomiphene 14.54% and letrozole 12.26%, P value=0.19, abortion rate and drug side effects were similar between two groups (p value> 0.05. In letrozole group, endometrial thickness was significantly lesser than clomiphene group. Estradiol level per follicle was higher in letrozole group (108.3+17.44 in comparison with clomiphene group (172.4+20.33 (P value< 0.0001. Conclusion: It seems that clomiphene and letrozole effectiveness in treating infertility due to anovulation are the same. Moreover, they are similar in ovulation induction and pregnancy rate. Considering patient compliance, cost and drug side effects one.

  12. Ovulation order mediates a trade-off between pre-hatching and post-hatching viability in an altricial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W Sockman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously dependent siblings often compete for parentally provided resources. This competition may lead to mortality, the probability of which may be a function, in part, of the individual offspring's production order. In birds, serial ovulation followed by hatching asynchrony of simultaneous dependents leads to differences in post-hatching survival that largely depend on ovulation (laying order. This has led to the widespread assumption that early-laid eggs are of greater value and therefore should possess different maternally manipulated characteristics than later-laid eggs. However, this perspective ignores the potential effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability, an effect which some studies suggest should offset the effect of laying order on post-hatching viability. I examined the relationship between laying order and hatching and fledging probability in wild, free-living Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii. In broods with complete hatching success, first-laid and therefore first-hatched offspring had the highest probability of fledging, and fledging probability declined with increasing laying order. However, first-laid eggs were less likely than later-laid eggs to hatch. This effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability seemed to offset that on post-hatching viability, and, consistently, maternal investment in egg size varied little if at all with respect to laying order. These results suggest that ovulation order mediates a trade-off between pre-hatching and post-hatching viability and should encourage a re-evaluation of the solitary role post-embryonic survival often plays when researchers make assumptions about the value of propagules based on the order in which they are produced.

  13. Ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate using stair – Step regimen versus traditional regimen in polycystic ovary syndrome women – A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of the stair-step protocol (SSP using clomiphene citrate (CC in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and compare it with traditional regimen. Design: This was randomized control trial. Setting: Infertility Clinic. Patient(s: Sixty infertile PCOS women. Intervention(s: Patients were randomized into the study (SSP – 30 patients and control group (traditional protocol – 30 patients. In the SSP, patients were treated with CC 50 mg/day for 5 days and in nonresponsive patients, the dosage was increased to 100 mg/day for 5 days in the same cycle. Maximum dose of 150 mg was given until the dominant follicle was generated. In control group, the dose increment in nonovulatory cases was done in subsequent cycle. Ultrasonography follow-up was done to detect ovulation. Main Outcome Measure(s: Ovulation rate and duration of treatment. Results: Ovulation (66.7% vs. 50% respectively and pregnancy rates (26.7% vs. 15.7% were similar between the stair step and the control group. The duration of treatment was significantly shorter in stair step compared to traditional protocol (17.23 vs. 53 days. CC 100 mg was the most effective dose for ovulation in either group. There were no significant differences in the systemic side effect. Conclusions: By using SSP, effective treatment is provided in significantly shorter time period without any detrimental effect on the ovulation and pregnancy rates.

  14. Successful ovulation induction, conception, and normal delivery after chronic therapy with etanercept: a recombinant fusion anti-cytokine treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E S; Perloe, M; Tucker, M J; Kaplan, C R; Palermo, G D

    2001-11-01

    Etanercept (Enbrel; Wyeth-Ayerst/Immunex Inc, Seattle, WA, USA) is a subcutaneously administered novel fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the 75 kD receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNFalpha) and the Fc portion of human IgG1. The agent is synthesized by plasmid transfection of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, utilizing recombinant DNA technology. Etanercept was approved by the US FDA for treatment of multi-drug resistant rheumatoid arthritis in 1998, but no human data exist regarding the impact of anti-TNFalpha therapy on human reproductive function or its use before ovulation induction. As TNFalpha potentiates collagenolysis via matrix metalloproteinase gene expression (thereby facilitating ovulation), there exists a theoretical risk that TNFalpha-inhibition could exert an undesirable effect on ovulation and pregnancy. In this report, we describe the first case of ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, normal pregnancy and singleton delivery of a healthy infant following chronic ( > 1 year) pre-ovulatory TNFalpha-inhibitor therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrician-gynecologists should be familiar with etanercept therapy in the context of severe rheumatic disease, and offer appropriate reassurance regarding its safe use for infertility patients planning ovulation induction.

  15. Clomiphene citrate, metformin or a combination of both as the first line ovulation induction drug for Asian Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare clomiphene citrate (CC, metformin or the combination of CC and metformin as the first line ovulation induction drug in Asian Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: One hundred and five newly diagnosed, treatment naive PCOS women were recruited. They were randomized into any of the three groups: Group I (CC 50-150 mg/day, Group II (metformin 1700 mg/day, and Group III (CC + metformin in similar dosage to Groups I and II. Patients underwent follicular monitoring and advice on timed intercourse. The study period was 6 months, or till pregnant, or till CC resistant. Primary outcome studied was live birth rate (LBR. Secondary outcomes were ovulation rate, pregnancy rate, and early pregnancy loss rate. Results: There was no significant difference among the groups in baseline characteristics and biochemical parameters. LBR was 41.6%, 37.5%, and 28.1%, respectively in Groups III, II, and I. Group III (CC + metformin had the highest ovulation (83.3%, pregnancy (50%, and LBRs (41.6%. Group II (metformin was as good as Group I (CC in all the outcomes. CC + metformin (Group III had statistically significantly higher ovulation rate as compared to CC alone (Group I (P = 0.03; odds ratio: 95% confidence interval: 3.888 [1.08-13.997]. Conclusion: Thus, our study shows that metformin was as good as CC in terms of "LBR" and the combination of CC and metformin gave the highest ovulation and LBR.

  16. French presidential election: nuclear energy in candidates' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2017-01-01

    Generally right candidates consider nuclear energy as a chance for France because it is an industrial asset for the country, it releases no greenhouse gases and has given France its large energy independence. They are ready to reconsider the limitation imposed on the share of nuclear energy in the future energy mix and they want to reinforce research for next generations of reactors. The far-right candidate wishes to use nuclear energy massively to produce hydrogen in order to reduce by half the consumption of fossil energies in 20 years. Generally left candidates back the law on the energy transition that was passed during last legislature and that limits the nuclear power share to 50% while developing green energies. The far-left candidates wish a progressive and complete abandon of nuclear energy. All candidates wish a greater share of renewable energies in the future energy mix. (A.C.)

  17. from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2004-10-15

    Oct 15, 2004 ... to candidate genes – A research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a model organism and climatic ... Recent developments in molecular genetics ..... scientists in agriculture, medicine and psychology for test-.

  18. [Flying needling therapy combined with clomiphene for ovulation failure in polycystic ovary syndrome:a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Quan, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiuhua; Dong, Ying

    2016-11-12

    To compare the efficacy among the combined treatment of flying needling therapy and clomiphene, the simple application of flying needling therapy and simple clomiphene in the treatment of ovulation failure in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ninety patients of PCOS were randomized into a flying needling therapy group, a medication group and a combined treatment group, 30 cases in each one. In the flying needling therapy group, the flying needling therapy was simply applied to Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23), Zhongwan (CV 12), Shuifen (CV 9), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongji (CV 3). The unilateral back- shu points were used alternatively in each treatment. The needles were inserted rapidly with rotation technique and even-needling manipulation. The needles were retained for 30 min. The treatment was given once every two days, 3 times a week. In the medication group, clomiphene was taken orally on the 5th day of menstruation, continuously for 5 days. In the combined treatment group, the flying needling therapy and clomiphene were used in combination. All of the patients were treated for 3 months and followed up for 1 month. The ovulation rates were compared among the three groups. The levels of androgen testosterone were compared before and after treatment. In the combined treatment group, the ovulation rate was 86.2% (100/116), better than 66.7% (80/120) in the flying needling therapy group and 69.6% (78/112) in the medication group (both P medication group ( P >0.05). After treatment, the level of testosterone was reduced in the three groups (all P medication group (both P medication group ( P >0.05). The adverse reactions in the combined treatment group and the flying needling therapy group were lower than those in the medication group (both P <0.05). The flying needling therapy effectively improves in the ovulation failure of PCOS and its effect is similar to clomiphene. The allied treatment of them apparently improves the clinical efficacy and alleviates the adverse

  19. Effect of fast neutrons and gamma radiation on germination, pollen and ovule sterility and leaf variations in mung bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash Chandra; Tewari, S.N.

    1978-01-01

    The seeds of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) varieties S-8 and Pusa Baisakhi were irradiated with 15, 30, 45 and 60 k rads of gamma-rays and 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 rads of fast neutrons. The results showed that there is a gradual reduction in amount of germination of seeds, pollen and ovule fertility with increasing doses of both mutagens. These mutagens also cause leaf abnormalities such as unifoliate, bifoliate, trifoliate, tetrafoliate and pentafoliate. Both tetra and pentafoliate leaves observed on the same plant of S-8 variety under fast neutron irradiation appear to have been associated with enhanced luxuriance of the plant resulting in satisfactory pod formation. (author)

  20. [Cervugid ovules in cervico-vaginal infections and cervix uteri precancerous conditions treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoschi, Ch; Anton, C; Anton, E; Costăchescu, Gh; Teleman, S; Costăchescu, G; Ciupilan, I; Cărăuleanu, M; Cărăuleanu, A; Leica, V; Pânzaru, C; Grigore, M; Merticaru, I; Huianu, O; Huianu, L; Chifan, M

    2004-01-01

    This medicine was authorized by the National Drug Agency (ANM, Bucureşti) in 2001. To evaluate the effectiveness and the tolerance to Cervugid-ovules, a preparation that combines the polyvalent local antiinflammatory action of chloramphenicol, metronidazole and nystatin with the effect of hydrocortisone acetate, an unspecific anti-inflammatory agent; they all are embedded in a Lipex-403, semisynthetic fat. The evaluation of 500 patients ages between 15 and 85 years with genital infections, registered in the files of "Cl. II Obst. and Gynecology" of the Cuza-Vodă Hospital from Iaşi has been studied. We studied the subjective manifestations (local discomfort and pelvic pains, local burning and dryness,vulvovaginal itching and dyspareunia) and objective manifestations (vaginal and cervical secretion, the cytotest performed and colored though the Papanicolaou method and reported in the Bethesda system). Healing of the subjective symptoms in 98%, healing of the leukorrhea--as a main objective symptom--in 95%; The Bethesda system cytotest was one of the inflammatory type in the most of the cases and there wew found in 85 cases: 6 ASCUS, 41 LSIL, and 37 HSIL. The use of Cervugid had a healing response in most of the cases when used in acute and chronic cervico-vaginal inflammatory processes. Cervugid may be considered as an important agent in the treatment of the precancerous affections af the cervix uteri on the following reasons: zhe cure of the infections caused by chlamydia, involved in the etiology of cervical neoplasms, the cure of the HPV infection under episome form, classified in the Bethesda system within the ASCUS, AGUS or LSIL classes. When the cytotest was in the HSIL class, a conization in the LLETZ method was performed. Cervugid is conceived for those three main categories of pathogenic factors related to the etiology of cervico-vaginitis: microbia germs, protozoa and mycosis. In addition, it is active on chlamydia and mycoplasms, always sensitive to

  1. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2,579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0% and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling.

  2. Mutation in the protease cleavage site of GDF9 increases ovulation rate and litter size in heterozygous ewes and causes infertility in homozygous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, C J H; McNeilly, A S; Benavides, M V; Melo, E O; Moraes, J C F

    2014-10-01

    Litter size (LS) in sheep is determined mainly by ovulation rate (OR). Several polymorphisms have been identified in the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene that result in an increase in OR and prolificacy of sheep. Screening the databank of the Brazilian Sheep Breeders Association for triplet delivery, we identified flocks of prolific Ile de France ewes. After resequencing of GDF9, a point mutation (c.943C>T) was identified, resulting in a non-conservative amino acid change (p.Arg315Cys) in the cleavage site of the propeptide. This new allele was called Vacaria (FecG(v) ). A flock of half-sib ewes was evaluated for OR in the first three breeding seasons, and Vacaria heterozygotes had higher OR (P develop up to small antral stages, although with abnormal oocyte morphology and altered arrangement of granulosa cells. After the collapse of the oocyte in most follicles, the remaining cells formed clusters that persisted in the ovary. This SNP is useful to improve selection for dam prolificacy and also as a model to investigate GDF9 post-translation processing and the fate of the follicular cells that remain after the oocyte demise. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. 护理专升本学生心理特点及学习动机培养%Psychological Characteristics and Learning Motive Development of Master Degree Candidates Majoring in Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 钱桂生

    2003-01-01

    The author of this article has explored how to train and stimulate the learning motives of the master degee candidates majoring in nuring by the analysis of the investigation of the psychological characteristics combined with psychological throries, cognition, application of course target, variety of teaching methods, feedebck of teaching effects, enrichment of extracurricular activities, and so on. By investigation, master degree candidates majoring in nursing are found to be in urgent need of training and stimulation of learning motives.

  4. Development of an achiral supercritical fluid chromatography method with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection for impurity profiling of drug candidates. Part II. Selection of an orthogonal set of stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Elise; Bertin, Sophie; Hennig, Philippe; Boiteux, Hélène; Lesellier, Eric; West, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    Impurity profiling of organic products that are synthesized as possible drug candidates requires complementary analytical methods to ensure that all impurities are identified. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a very useful tool to achieve this objective, as an adequate selection of stationary phases can provide orthogonal separations so as to maximize the chances to see all impurities. In this series of papers, we have developed a method for achiral SFC-MS profiling of drug candidates, based on a selection of 160 analytes issued from Servier Research Laboratories. In the first part of this study, focusing on mobile phase selection, a gradient elution with carbon dioxide and methanol comprising 2% water and 20mM ammonium acetate proved to be the best in terms of chromatographic performance, while also providing good MS response [1]. The objective of this second part was the selection of an orthogonal set of ultra-high performance stationary phases, that was carried out in two steps. Firstly, a reduced set of analytes (20) was used to screen 23 columns. The columns selected were all 1.7-2.5μm fully porous or 2.6-2.7μm superficially porous particles, with a variety of stationary phase chemistries. Derringer desirability functions were used to rank the columns according to retention window, column efficiency evaluated with peak width of selected analytes, and the proportion of analytes successfully eluted with good peak shapes. The columns providing the worst performances were thus eliminated and a shorter selection of columns (11) was obtained. Secondly, based on 160 tested analytes, the 11 columns were ranked again. The retention data obtained on these columns were then compared to define a reduced set of the best columns providing the greatest orthogonality, to maximize the chances to see all impurities within a limited number of runs. Two high-performance columns were thus selected: ACQUITY UPC(2) HSS C18 SB and Nucleoshell HILIC. Copyright © 2015

  5. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    by four placebo tablets. A previous study showed that this new drospirenone-only pill effectively inhibited ovulation. Clinical efficacy, however, can be affected by compliance, and delayed or forgotten pill intake often occurs in daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate if inhibition.......8%; only one subject in Group A fulfilled the ovulation criteria in Cycle 2. Follicular diameters in the regular-intake and the delayed-intake cycles were similar. CONCLUSION: Despite the 4-day hormone-free period and multiple intentional 24-h delays in tablet intake, ovulation inhibition was maintained...... inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive reliability will be low....

  6. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Bredkjær, Helle Ejdrup; Westergaard, Lars Grabow

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...... IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients after a GnRH antagonist protocol. INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation induction was performed with either 10,000 IU hCG or 0.5 mg GnRHa (buserelin) supplemented with 1,500 IU hCG on the day of oocyte retrieval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reproductive outcome...... bolus of hCG in the GnRHa group secured the luteal phase, resulting in a comparable reproductive outcome in the two groups. However, a nonsignificant difference of 7% in delivery rates justifies further studies to refine the use of GnRHa for ovulation induction....

  7. Candidate genes in panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, A. S.; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Bani-Fatemi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of molecular genetics approaches in examination of panic disorder (PD) has implicated several variants as potential susceptibility factors for panicogenesis. However, the identification of robust PD susceptibility genes has been complicated by phenotypic diversity, underpowered...... association studies and ancestry-specific effects. In the present study, we performed a succinct review of case-control association studies published prior to April 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for candidate gene variants examined in at least three studies using the Cochrane Mantel-Haenszel fixed......-effect model. Secondary analyses were also performed to assess the influences of sex, agoraphobia co-morbidity and ancestry-specific effects on panicogenesis. Meta-analyses were performed on 23 variants in 20 PD candidate genes. Significant associations after correction for multiple testing were observed...

  8. Overcoming hybridization barriers by the secretion of the maize pollen tube attractant ZmEA1 from Arabidopsis ovules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Mihaela L; Fastner, Astrid; Uebler, Susanne; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2012-07-10

    A major goal of plant reproduction research is to understand and overcome hybridization barriers so that the gene pool of crop plants can be increased and improved upon. After successful pollen germination on a receptive stigma, the nonmotile sperm cells of flowering plants are transported via the pollen tube (PT) to the egg apparatus for the achievement of double fertilization. The PT path is controlled by various hybridization mechanisms probably involving a larger number of species-specific molecular interactions. The egg-apparatus-secreted polymorphic peptides ZmEA1 in maize and LURE1 and LURE2 in Torenia fournieri as well as TcCRP1 in T. concolor were shown to be required for micropylar PT guidance, the last step of the PT journey. We report here that ZmEA1 attracts maize PTs in vitro and arrests their growth at higher concentrations. Furthermore, it binds to the subapical region of maize PT tips in a species-preferential manner. To overcome hybridization barriers at the level of gametophytic PT guidance, we expressed ZmEA1 in Arabidopsis synergid cells. Secreted ZmEA1 enabled Arabidopsis ovules to guide maize PT in vitro in a species-preferential manner to the micropylar opening of the ovule. These results demonstrate that the egg-apparatus-controlled reproductive-isolation barrier of PT guidance can be overcome even between unrelated plant families. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Association between Endometriomas and Ovarian Cancer: Preventive Effect of Inhibiting Ovulation and Menstruation during Reproductive Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Giovanni; Toss, Angela; Cortesi, Laura; Botticelli, Laura; Volpe, Annibale; Cagnacci, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Although endometriosis frequently involves multiple sites in the pelvis, malignancies associated with this disease are mostly confined to the ovaries, evolving from an endometrioma. Endometriomas present a 2-3-fold increased risk of transformation in clear-cell, endometrioid, and possibly low-grade serous ovarian cancers, but not in mucinous ovarian cancers. These last cancers are, in some aspects, different from the other epithelial ovarian cancers, as they do not appear to be decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and menstruation. The step by step process of transformation from typical endometrioma, through atypical endometrioma, finally to ovarian cancer seems mainly related to oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperestrogenism, and specific molecular alterations. Particularly, activation of oncogenic KRAS and PI3K pathways and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and ARID1A are suggested as major pathogenic mechanisms for endometriosis associated clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Both the risk for endometriomas and their associated ovarian cancers seems to be highly and similarly decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and retrograde menstruation, suggesting a common pathogenetic mechanism and common possible preventive strategies during reproductive life.

  10. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  11. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, X; Diaz, FJ

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3–5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 tr...

  12. Evaluating an australian emergency nurse practitioner candidate training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Sharyn J; Wright, Mary; Hocking, Julia

    2017-11-01

    Nurse Practitioners (NPs) receive core clinical training at master's level, with their employer providing the opportunity to upskill in clinical and procedural competencies. It is increasingly recognised that this generic education requires supplementary training for operating effectively within a specific clinical environment. In this paper we describe a pilot program designed to train Australian NP Candidates to work effectively within the Emergency Department Fast Track model of care. The training program consisted of a 12-month period: four hours in-house training per week over two semesters, running concurrently with the NP candidate's University semesters, and 3 months' clinical practice to consolidate. The training team defined milestones for Semesters one and two, and developed a case review form to assess application of the candidate's knowledge in new clinical situations, as well as check for gaps in understanding. A clinical skills guide was developed for the candidate to work toward, and a comprehensive assessment was carried out at two time points in the training program. Feedback was obtained from the mentors and the candidate at the end point of the training program, and has been used to refine the program for 2017. This in-house training program provided specialised, evidence-based training for the emergency department environment, resulting in development of the nurse practitioner candidate as a high functioning team member. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10 9 GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  14. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-15

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10{sup 9} GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  15. Chronology of early embryonic development and embryo uterine migration in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picha, Y; Tibary, A; Memon, M; Kasimanickam, R; Sumar, J

    2013-03-01

    The objectives were to: (1) describe the chronology of early embryonic development from ovulation to entry into the uterus; and (2) to determine the timing of embryo migration to the left uterine horn when ovulation occurred from the right ovary. The experiment was conducted in Peru. Females (n = 132) were randomly assigned to 15 experimental groups. All females were mated to an intact male, given 50 μg GnRH im (Cystorelin) and ovulation time determined by transrectal ultrasonography, conducted every 6 hours, starting 24 hours postmating. Animals were slaughtered at a specific intervals postovulation and reproductive tracts were recovered and subjected to oviductal and uterine flushing for females slaughtered between 1 and 6 days postovulation (dpo; Day 0 = ovulation) and uterine flushing for females slaughtered from 7 to 15 dpo for recovery of oocytes/embryos. Season of mating did not influence the interval from mating to ovulation (winter: 29 ± 6 hours vs. summer: 30 ± 6 hours; P = 0.49). Ovulation rates for females mated during winter and summer were 92% versus 100%, respectively (P = 0.05). Fertilization rates for winter and summer mated females were 72% and 82% (P = 0.29). Unfertilized ova were not retained in the uterine tube. All embryos collected were in the uterine tube ipsilateral to the side of ovulation between 1 and 5 dpo. Embryos reached the uterus on 6 dpo. Embryos began to elongate on 9 dpo; at this time, 83% of embryos derived from right-ovary ovulations were collected from the left uterine horn. Embryos occupied the entire uterine cavity by 10 dpo. In conclusion, we characterized early embryo development and location of embryo during its early developmental stages in alpaca. This was apparently the first report regarding chronology of embryo development and migration to the left horn in alpaca which merits further investigation regarding its role in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Obtención y evaluación preliminar de un virus canarypox recombinante como candidato a vacuna antirrábica Development and preliminary assessment of a recombinant canarypox virus as an antirabic vaccine candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Zanetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Argentina, la rabia está circunscripta a algunas provincias del norte. La disponibilidad de nuevas vacunas que eliminen la manipulación del virus rábico y que permitan el control de la enfermedad es de importancia estratégica nacional y regional. Las vacunas basadas en poxvirus recombinantes se han utilizado con éxito como vacunas antirrábicas a nivel mundial. SI bien estos sistemas no están disponibles comercialmente, la plataforma de obtención de virus canarypox (CNPV recombinantes ya ha sido implementada en nuestro laboratorio. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener y evaluar un candidato a vacuna antirrábica basado en CNPV recombinantes que expresan la glicoproteína G (RG del virus rábico (RV. Se construyó un virus recombinante que expresa la secuencia codificante de RG (CNPV-RG. La inoculación de ratones con este virus indujo altos títulos de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes de RV (3,58 y 9,76 Ul/ml después de una o dos inmunizaciones, respectivamente y protegió al 78 % de los animales desafiados intracerebralmente con RV. Además, se determinó que el CNPV-RG posee una potencia relativa de 3,5 Ul/ml. Los resultados obtenidos constituyen la primera etapa en la evaluación del CNPV-RG como candidato a vacuna antirrábica. Se requerirán nuevos ensayos para confirmar su utilidad en especies de interés veterinario.In Argentina, rabies is limited to some northern provinces. Availability of new vaccines abolishing the handling of the rabies virus and allowing disease control has regional and national strategic importance. Vaccines based on recombinant poxviruses have been successfully used as antirabic vaccines worldwide. Although these systems are not commercially available, the platform to obtain recombinant canarypox viruses (CNPV has been previously set up in our laboratory. The aim of this work was the development and evaluation of an antirabic vaccine candidate based on recombinant CNPV expressing the rabies virus (RV

  17. Reduced ovulation rate, failure to be mated and fertilization failure/embryo loss are the underlying causes of poor reproductive performance in juvenile ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sara J; Smaill, Bronwyn; O'Connell, Anne R; Johnstone, Peter D; Stevens, David R; Quirke, Laurel D; Farquhar, Philip A; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    A ewe that is mated as a juvenile (producing a lamb at 1 year of age) will produce an average of only 0.6 lambs to weaning, compared to an average of 1.2 lambs in adult ewes. Understanding the underlying causes of this low reproductive efficiency and designing methods to improve or mitigate these effects could potentially increase adoption of mating juvenile ewes. In Experiment 1, 2 Cohorts of ewes, born a year apart, were mated in order to lamb at 1 and 2 years of age and the performance of the ewes at each age was compared. Onset of puberty, mating by the fertile ram, ovulation rate, early pregnancy (day 30-35) litter size, number of lambs born and number of lambs weaned were measured. In juvenile ewes, by day 35 of pregnancy, 43% of ova had failed to become a viable embryo and this early loss was the largest contributor to the poor reproductive performance observed. Compared with young adult ewes, ovulation rate was lower (pewes with a greater ovulation rate (pewes, failure to mate with the ram, lower ovulation rate and increased fertilisation failure/embryo loss underlie their poor reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ovulation induction with myo-inositol alone and in combination with clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Zdravko; Kolarov, Georgi; Gateva, Antoaneta; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Genazzani, Alessandro D

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the methods for correcting insulin resistance is using myo-inositol. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of myo-inositol alone or in combination with clomiphene citrate for (1) induction of ovulation and (2) pregnancy rate in anovulatory women with PCOS and proven insulin resistance. This study included 50 anovulatory PCOS patients with insulin resistance. All of them received myo-inositolduring three spontaneous cycles. If patients remained anovulatory and/or no pregnancy was achieved, combination of myo-inositol and clomiphene citrate was used in the next three cycles. Ovulation and pregnancy rate, changes in body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index and the rate of adverse events were assessed. After myo-inositol treatment, ovulation was present in 29 women (61.7%) and 18 (38.3%) were resistant. Of the ovulatory women, 11 became pregnant (37.9%). Of the 18 myo-inositol resistant patients after clomiphene treatment, 13 (72.2%) ovulated. Of the 13 ovulatory women, 6 (42.6%) became pregnant. During follow-up, a reduction of body mass index and HOMA index was also observed. Myo-inositol treatment ameliorates insulin resistance and body weight, and improves ovarian activity in PCOS patients.

  19. Evaluation of Closed Adult Nucleus Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer and Conventional Progeny Testing Breeding Schemes for Milk Production from Crossbred Cattle in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The potential benefits of closed adult nucleus multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and conventional progeny testing (CNS) schemes, and the logistics of their integration into large-scale continuous production of crossbred cattle were studied by deterministic simulation. The latter was

  20. Recombinant FSH in alternative doses or versus urinary gonadotrophins for ovulation induction in subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review based on a Cochrane review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, M.; Bayram, N.; van der Veen, F.

    2003-01-01

    This systematic review was performed to study the efficacy and safety of recombinant FSH (rFSH) versus urinary FSH (uFSH) and to compare different dose regimens of rFSH for ovulation induction in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Six randomized controlled trials were

  1. Comparison between pulsatile GnRH therapy and gonadotropins for ovulation induction in women with both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Agathe; Dewailly, Didier; Plouvier, Pauline; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Robin, Geoffroy

    2016-12-01

    Ovulation induction in patients having both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) has been less studied in the literature. As results remain contradictory, no recommendations have yet been established. To compare pulsatile GnRH therapy versus gonadotropins for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients and to determine if one treatment strikes as superior to the other. A 12-year retrospective study, comparing 55 "FHA-PCOM" patients, treated either with GnRH therapy (38 patients, 93 cycles) or with gonadotropins (17 patients, 53 cycles). Both groups were similar, defined by low serum LH and E2 levels, low BMI, excessive follicle number per ovary and/or high serum AMH level. Ovulation rates were significantly lower with gonadotropins (56.6% versus 78.6%, p = 0.005), with more cancellation and ovarian hyper-responses (14% versus 34% per initiated cycle, p < 0.005). Pregnancy rates were significantly higher with GnRH therapy, whether per initiated cycle (26.9% versus 7.6%, p = 0.005) or per patient (65.8% versus 23.5%, p = 0.007). In our study, GnRH therapy was more successful and safer than gonadotropins, for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients. If results were confirmed by prospective studies, it could become a first-line treatment for this population, just as it is for FHA women without PCOM.

  2. The adjuvant effect of metformin and N-acetylcysteine to clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Elsawah, Heba; Abdelhafez, Aly; Bakry, Ahmed; Mostafa, Walaa Ai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the adjuvant effect of metformin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to clomiphene citrate (CC) in induction of ovulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients. 120 women with PCOS were randomly divided into three equal groups: group I received CC only, group II received CC plus NAC and group III received CC plus metformin. There was a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding average number of ovulatory follicles >18 mm (2.25 versus 1.75 and 1.89, respectively), but no significant difference between the three study groups regarding number of intermediate follicles 14-18 mm (4, 10 and 4, respectively). There was no significant difference between the three study groups regarding occurrence and laterality of ovulation, pregnancy rate per cycle but a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding pregnancy rate per patient (20% versus 10% and 10%, respectively, p value 0.05). There was a highly statistically significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding peak endometrial thickness (7.3 ± 1.1 versus 5.4 ± 0.6 and 5.3 ± 0.6, respectively). NAC as an adjuvant to CC for induction of ovulation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with beneficial impacts on endometrial thickness.

  3. Effect of clomiphene citrate on endometrial thickness, ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in anovulatory women: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadalla, M. A.; Huang, S.; Wang, R.; Norman, R. J.; Abdullah, S. A.; El Saman, A. M.; Ismail, A. M.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the impact of clomiphene citrate (CC) vs other drug regimens on mid-cycle endometrial thickness (EMT), ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in women with World Health Organization (WHO) group II ovulatory disorders. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane

  4. Estrous cycle regulatory mechanisms of the uterus are altered in cows that do not demonstrate behavioral estrus during an ovulation induction protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrus is the start of an estrous cycle in cows, and triggers several precisely timed events including receptivity to the bull, ovulation, conception, formation of the corpus luteum, and recognition of pregnancy. In the absence of a pregnancy signal, the corpus luteum (CL) must regress in response ...

  5. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section 100.154 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in...

  6. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section 100.92 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates...

  7. [Ovulation induction by pulsatile GnRH therapy in 2014: literature review and synthesis of current practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronier, H; Peigné, M; Catteau-Jonard, S; Dewailly, D; Robin, G

    2014-10-01

    The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is an easily treatable form of female infertility. The most common cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. The GnRH pump is a simple and effective treatment to restore fertility of patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea: cumulative pregnancy rate is estimated between 70 and 100% after 6 cycles, compared to a low rate of complications and multiple pregnancies. While only 2.8 cycles are on average required to achieve a pregnancy with a pump, this induction of ovulation stays underused in France. The objective of this paper is to propose a practical manual of pulsatile GnRH, in order to improve the accessibility of pulsatile GnRH for patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy of Letrozole and Clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Kumar Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC in patients of anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS with infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 204 patients of PCOS. 98 patients (294 cycles received 2.5-5 mg of letrozole; 106 patients (318 cycles received 50-100 mg of CC (both orally from Days 3-7 of menstrual cycle. The treatment continued for three cycles in both the groups. Main outcome measures: ovulation rate, endometrial thickness, and pregnancy rate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13 software. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean number of dominant follicles in letrozole groups and CC groups was 1.86±0.26 and 1.92±0.17, respectively (P=0.126. Number of ovulatory cycle in letrozole group was 196 (66.6% versus 216 (67.9% in CC group (P=0.712. The mean mid-cycle endometrial thickness was 9.1±0.3 mm in letrozole group and 6.3±1.1 in CC group, which was statistically significant (P=0.014. The mean Estradiol [E2] level in clomiphene citrate group was significantly higher in CC group (364.2±71.4 pg/mL than letrozole group (248.2± 42.2 pg/mL. 43 patients from the letrozole group (43.8% and 28 patients from the CC group (26.4% became pregnant. Conclusion: Letrozole and CC have comparable ovulation rate. The effect of letrozole showed a better endometrial response and pregnancy rate compared with CC.

  9. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of berberine on the menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Berberine 0.4 g three times per day was given for four months to 102 anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared before and after the berberine treatment. Ovulation was confirmed by serum progesterone level ≥10 ng/ml.A total of 98 of 102 subjects (96.1% completed the four month treatment, including 69 (70.4%, 69/98 normal weight and 29 (29.6%, 29/98 overweight/obese. Fourteen women (14.3%, 14/98 had regained regular menses after berberine treatment and there was no significant difference between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. The ovulation rate was 25.0% over four months in the whole group, 22.5% in the normal weight group and 31.0% in the overweight/obese group. Sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after berberine treatment in the normal weight group only.Our study found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine can also decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women.Chictr.org ChiCTR-OO-13003943.

  10. Successful induction of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in adult ewes and ewe lambs out of the breeding season using a GnRH+progesterone oestrus synchronisation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M F; McLeod, B; Tattersfield, G; Smaill, B; Quirke, L D; Juengel, J L

    2015-04-01

    A series of experiments was designed to assess the effect of a treatment protocol (U-synch) for inducing oestrus and ovulation out of the breeding season in adult ewes and ewe lambs. The protocol consisted of a 7-day treatment with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD), administration of GnRH at IPRD insertion on Day 0, and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and prostaglandin F2α at IPRD removal on Day 7. In Experiment 1, 50 or 100 μg GnRH were sufficient to induce ovulation at the beginning of the protocol in 3/9 and 4/9 ewes, respectively; while the resulting proportion of sheep ovulating after the treatment protocol was 88.9% and 77.8% in ewes initially treated with 50 or 100 μg GnRH, respectively. In Experiment 2, the proportion of Romney-cross ewe lambs ovulating was greater (P<0.0001) in the U-synch group (95.4%) than in the untreated Control group (3.2%). In Experiment 3, pregnancy rates of Dorset-cross sheep in the U-synch (60.7%) and Standard (12-day IPRD and eCG treatment; 56.5%) groups were greater (P=0.01) than in the untreated Control group (43.4%). The incidence of twin pregnancies was greater (P=0.005) in the U-synch group than in the Control group. A 7-day IPRD treatment including GnRH treatment at device insertion and eCG treatment at device removal induced oestrus and ovulation during the non-breeding season in a high proportion of mature ewes and ewe lambs. High pregnancy rates to natural mating, with a low rate of triplet pregnancies, were also observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MXene: a potential candidate for yarn supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Seyedin, Shayan; Gu, Zhoujie; Yang, Wenrong; Wang, Xungai; Razal, Joselito M

    2017-12-07

    The increasing developments in wearable electronics demand compatible power sources such as yarn supercapacitors (YSCs) that can effectively perform in a limited footprint. MXene nanosheets, which have been recently shown in the literature to possess ultra-high volumetric capacitance, were used in this study for the fabrication of YSCs in order to identify their potential merit and performance in YSCs. With the aid of a conductive binder (PEDOT-PSS), YSCs with high mass loading of MXene are demonstrated. These MXene-based YSCs exhibit excellent device performance and stability even under bending and twisting. This study demonstrates that MXene is a promising candidate for YSCs and its further development can lead to flexible power sources with sufficient performance for powering miniaturized and/or wearable electronics.

  12. Ensemble candidate classification for the LOTAAS pulsar survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. M.; Lyon, R. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Cooper, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Michilli, D.; Sanidas, S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges arising from modern large-scale pulsar surveys is the number of candidates generated. Here, we implemented several improvements to the machine learning (ML) classifier previously used by the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS) to look for new pulsars via filtering the candidates obtained during periodicity searches. To assist the ML algorithm, we have introduced new features which capture the frequency and time evolution of the signal and improved the signal-to-noise calculation accounting for broad profiles. We enhanced the ML classifier by including a third class characterizing RFI instances, allowing candidates arising from RFI to be isolated, reducing the false positive return rate. We also introduced a new training data set used by the ML algorithm that includes a large sample of pulsars misclassified by the previous classifier. Lastly, we developed an ensemble classifier comprised of five different Decision Trees. Taken together these updates improve the pulsar recall rate by 2.5 per cent, while also improving the ability to identify pulsars with wide pulse profiles, often misclassified by the previous classifier. The new ensemble classifier is also able to reduce the percentage of false positive candidates identified from each LOTAAS pointing from 2.5 per cent (˜500 candidates) to 1.1 per cent (˜220 candidates).

  13. BEEF CATTLE MUSCULARITY CANDIDATE GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irida Novianti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10

  14. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  15. Mining biological databases for candidate disease genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Terry A.; Scheetz, Todd; Webster, Gregg L.; Casavant, Thomas L.

    2001-07-01

    The publicly-funded effort to sequence the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome, the Human Genome Project (HGP), has currently produced more than 93% of the 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome into a preliminary `draft' format. In addition, several valuable sources of information have been developed as direct and indirect results of the HGP. These include the sequencing of model organisms (rat, mouse, fly, and others), gene discovery projects (ESTs and full-length), and new technologies such as expression analysis and resources (micro-arrays or gene chips). These resources are invaluable for the researchers identifying the functional genes of the genome that transcribe and translate into the transcriptome and proteome, both of which potentially contain orders of magnitude more complexity than the genome itself. Preliminary analyses of this data identified approximately 30,000 - 40,000 human `genes.' However, the bulk of the effort still remains -- to identify the functional and structural elements contained within the transcriptome and proteome, and to associate function in the transcriptome and proteome to genes. A fortuitous consequence of the HGP is the existence of hundreds of databases containing biological information that may contain relevant data pertaining to the identification of disease-causing genes. The task of mining these databases for information on candidate genes is a commercial application of enormous potential. We are developing a system to acquire and mine data from specific databases to aid our efforts to identify disease genes. A high speed cluster of Linux of workstations is used to analyze sequence and perform distributed sequence alignments as part of our data mining and processing. This system has been used to mine GeneMap99 sequences within specific genomic intervals to identify potential candidate disease genes associated with Bardet-Biedle Syndrome (BBS).

  16. Candidate Quality Measures for Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Quality measures are tools used by physicians, health care systems, and payers to evaluate performance, monitor the outcomes of interventions, and inform quality improvement efforts. A paucity of quality measures exist that address hand surgery care. We completed a RAND/UCLA (University of California Los Angeles) Delphi Appropriateness process with the goal of developing and evaluating candidate hand surgery quality measures to be used for national quality measure development efforts. A consortium of 9 academic upper limb surgeons completed a RAND/UCLA Delphi Appropriateness process to evaluate the importance, scientific acceptability, usability, and feasibility of 44 candidate quality measures. These addressed hand problems the panelists felt were most appropriate for quality measure development. Panelists rated the measures on an ordinal scale between 1 (definitely not valid) and 9 (definitely valid) in 2 rounds (preliminary round and final round) with an intervening face-to-face discussion. Ratings from 1 to 3 were considered not valid, 4 to 6 as equivocal or uncertain, and 7 to 9 as valid. If no more than 2 of the 9 ratings were outside the 3-point range that included the median (1-3, 4-6, or 7-9), the panelists were considered to be in agreement. If 3 or more of the panelists' ratings of a measure were within the 1 to 3 range and 3 or more ratings were in the 7 to 9 range, the panelists were considered to be in disagreement. There was agreement on 43% (19) of the measures as important, 27% (12) as scientifically sound, 48% (21) as usable, and 59% (26) as feasible to complete. Ten measures met all 4 of these criteria and were, therefore, considered valid measurements of quality. Quality measures that were developed address outcomes (patient-reported outcomes for assessment and improvement of function) and processes of care (utilization rates of imaging, antibiotics, occupational therapy, ultrasound, and operative treatment). The consortium developed 10

  17. Pregnancy complications and metabolic disease in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant anovulation randomized to receive laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries or ovulation induction with gonadotropins: a 10-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, Marleen J.; Oude Lohuis, Eefje J.; Bayram, Neriman; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Oosterhuis, G. Jurjen E.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van Wely, Madelon

    2014-01-01

    To assess long-term effects of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries compared with ovulation induction with gonadotropins in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the incidence of pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes, hypertensive

  18. Induction précoce de l'ovulation chez le saumon Atlantique Salmo salar élevé entièrement en eau douce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JALABERT B.

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available Des essais réalisés sur une population de Saumon Atlantique de l'Allier, élevée entièrement en eau douce, ont démontré la possibilité d'induire artificiellement l'ovulation avec une avance d'au moins 15 jours sur la date d'ovulation naturelle. Le traitement le plus avantageux (dose minimale de gonadotropine de Saumon partiellement purifiée. G.S.P.P. de 0,1 mg/kg fournissant une réponse rapide est constitué par deux injections successives de G.S.P.P. (0,05 mg/kg suivies d'une injection de 17 x hydroxy-20 β dihydroprogestérone (2 mg/kg.

  19. The circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome differs significantly from normally ovulating women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif Johan; Franssohn, Florencia; Bungum, Mona Berger Håkonsen

    2013-01-01

    To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women....... By comparing the pattern of co-variation between AMH and Luteinizing Hormone, two compounds closely linked to hyperandrogenism and anovulation in PCOS, the involvement of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian axis in PCOS pathology could be elucidated....

  20. Oriented regions grouping based candidate proposal for infrared pedestrian detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Jingai; Li, Huaijiang

    2018-04-01

    Effectively and accurately locating the positions of pedestrian candidates in image is a key task for the infrared pedestrian detection system. In this work, a novel similarity measuring metric is designed. Based on the selective search scheme, the developed similarity measuring metric is utilized to yield the possible locations for pedestrian candidate. Besides this, corresponding diversification strategies are also provided according to the characteristics of the infrared thermal imaging system. Experimental results indicate that the presented scheme can achieve more efficient outputs than the traditional selective search methodology for the infrared pedestrian detection task.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    evidence that oral vaccines fail in populations with disturbed microbiota, poor nutrition , and high intestinal inflammation [102-104]. Additionally...countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public- health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate...members of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae) cause two diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO): Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be

  2. Documenting Teacher Candidates' Professional Growth through Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Suh, Jennifer; Parsons, Seth A.; Parker, Audra K.; Ramirez, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, colleges of education are responding to demands for increased accountability. The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's implementation of a performance evaluation tool during final internship that measures teacher candidates' development across four domains: Planning and Preparation,…

  3. A Candidate Army Energy and Water Management Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Donald F; Westervelt, Eileen T

    2004-01-01

    .... This work augments on-going energy and water management initiatives within the Army by developing a new candidate Army level strategy that responds to anticipated legislation; reflects current DOD and DA requirements, vision, and values in light of the current world situation; incorporates sound science and management principles; and organizes and focuses efforts into an integrated program.

  4. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... debates include at least two candidates; and (2) The staging organization(s) does not structure the... PROHIBITIONS § 110.13 Candidate debates. (a) Staging organizations. (1) Nonprofit organizations described in 26..., subparts D and E. (b) Debate structure. The structure of debates staged in accordance with this section and...

  5. A possible candidate for cold dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This additional scalar can be a viable candidate of cold dark matter (CDM) since the stability of is achieved by the application of Z 2 symmetry on . Considering as a possible candidate of CDM, Boltzmann's equation is solved to find the freeze-out temperature and relic density of for Higgs mass 120 GeV in the scalar ...

  6. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... financial information in decision-making. The Board meets in Washington, DC, for two days every other month... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting... candidates. Any applicant who provided the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board...

  7. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  8. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds under 11 CFR 9003.2(c)(3) shall not count against such candidate's $50,000 expenditure limitation... expenditures. (8) Expenditures made using a credit card for which the candidate is jointly or solely liable will count against the limits of this section to the extent that the full amount due, including any...

  9. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Gravitino, dark matter candidate and implications for big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, S.

    2008-11-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics was developed in the seventies. Despite many experimental successes, it presents many problems that can only be solved with models beyond the Standard Model. Supersymmetry is an interesting candidate, postulating a new symmetry between fermions and bosons. This model can also have interesting applications in cosmology. It offers potentially good candidates for dark matter, what represents 25% of the energy density of the Universe, and its nature is unknown. Another cosmological problem is the lithium problems in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis describing the production of light elements in the first seconds of the Universe. The lithium abundance predicted by the theory is inconsistent with observations. I study a scenario in which a supersymmetric particle, the gravitino, is the candidate for dark matter and the production of this particle through the decay of other supersymmetric particles may solve the lithium problems. (author)

  11. Effects of letrozole in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin on ovulation and pregnancy of 156 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Mengzhen; Qiao, Yuhuan; Yang, Junjuan

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effects of letrozole (LE) in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on the ovulation induction and pregnancy of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 156 patients with PCOS infertility were randomly divided into an LE group, a clomiphene citrate (CC) group and an LE + HMG group (n= 52). LE and CC were orally taken according to the prescribed dosage on the 3rd-5th days of menstruation respectively, and 75 IU HMG was given through intramuscular injection. The ovulation induction parameters and pregnancy outcomes were observed. The number of ovulation cycle of LE + HMG group was significantly higher than that of LE group (χ 2 =8.451, Pmedication cycle of clinically pregnant patients was (2.9 ± 0.3) weeks, which was significantly shorter than those of CC and LE groups (F=17.241, Pmedication cycle and high clinical pregnancy rate, which is promising for treating patients with PCOS infertility.

  12. [A clinical study on the inhibitory effect of ovulation caused by interrupted administration of intranasal spray with China-made LRH-A in normal fertile women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R K

    1988-08-01

    28 health female volunteers, ages 26-42, with regular menstrual cycles entered into the trial with a new superactive stimulatory analog of the LRH-A (D-Ala6-EA10)-LRH for contraception by means of inhibition of ovulation. The LRH-A was interruptively administered intranasally by a spray device beginning on days 1-3 of the menstrual cycle. 1 treatment course included administration for 21 days and 7-10 days without the medication. In group 1, 10 women (LRH-A 0.5 mg daily) and group 2, 18 women (LRH-A 1.0 mg daily) received 1-4 courses of treatment, respectively. The treatment inhibited ovulation in all women during the 1-4 months of therapy with reduction of plasma estradiol, progesterone, and serum luteinizing hormone levels. No pregnancy occurred during 50 treatment months. No severe side effects were observed during treatment and apparently normal cycles occurred immediately after treatment withdrawal. The above data indicate that an interruption of treatment with LRH-A could provide a fairly good contraceptive benefit by inhibiting ovulation in women on days 1-3 of the menstrual cycle. (author's modified)

  13. Fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) in plant germ cells and the fertilized ovule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    First evidence on gene function and regulation is provided by the cellular expression pattern in complex tissues. However, to understand the activity of a specific gene, it is essential to analyze the regulatory network, which controls the spatio-temporal translation pattern during the entire life span of the transcribed mRNA. To explore mechanisms which control mRNA abundance and localization in space and time, it is necessary to visualize mRNAs quantitatively with a subcellular resolution, without sectioning the tissues. We have adapted and optimized a protocol for colorimetric whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (WISH) using egg cell-specific digoxigenin (DIG) labeled probes (Hejátko et al., 2006) [1] on ovules and early seeds of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we established a fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) protocol, which allows mRNA visualization on a subcellular level. The polar localized mRNA of SBT4.13, encoding a subtilase, was identified using this protocol. Both methods are described and discussed in detail. Additionally a (F)-WISH flow-chart is provided along with a troubleshooting table. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Itraconazole and secnidazole capsules vs. vaginal ovules of fluocinolone acetonide, nystatin and metronidazole in the symptomatic treatment of vaginitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado García, A; Gaviño Ambriz, S

    1998-04-01

    Evaluation of oral treatment in vaginitis and vaginosis using Itraconazol and sechidazol, in comparison to topic treatment using vaginal ovules of acetonido of fluocinolona 0.50 mg, nistatina 100,000 U and metronidazol 500 mg. Longitudinal, prospective and open comparative study. Servicio de Reproducción Humana(Human Reproduction Department), Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre". Forty female patients, without any relevant differences in their general characteristics, chose diagnosis was vaginitis and vaginosis, who were medically treated through external consultation, divided in two groups of twenty each one. Group 1 oral treatment with itraconazol and secnidazol. Group 2 had topic treatment with fluocinolona, nistatina and metronidazol. All of the patients were controlled in seven and fourteen days time, in order to evaluate the intensity of their clinical symptomatology, as well as the efficacy in both ways of treatment. Leukorrhea was the most important symptom in all the cases, going from minor to serious white discharge. After the treatment, we found a relevant difference statistically significative in patients treated with intraconazol and secnidazol. We did not find any differences in relation to ardor, pruritus, dispareunia and disuria at post-treatment evaluation. However, group 1 betterment was statistically significative between the first and the seventh days of treatment. Treating vaginitis or vaginosis (or both) with itraconazol and secnidazol takes less time for betterment in addition to comfort and easiness of oral administration; therefore, we consider them proper medicines in these specific cases.

  15. The significance of anthropometric and endocrine parameters in ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Funda; Dilbaz, Berna; Cırık, Derya A; Yilmaz, Saynur; Kiykac, Sadiman; Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2016-11-01

    To investigate factors associated with the response to ovarian stimulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: The records of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility who underwent ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate were reviwed between January 2011 and December 2014 in Etlik Zübeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey. The anthropometric and endocrine factors of patients who were resistant to treatment at a dose of 150 mg/day (n=84) were compared with those who responded with growth of at least one graaffian follicle at a dose of 50 mg/day (n=342). Results: Of the parameters examined, body mass index, luteinizing hormone level, and luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio were significantly higher in the clomiphene citrate-resistant group compared with the responsive group. Conclusion: Reproductive treatment in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome show different outcomes. Significantly higher body mass index, luteinizing hormone level, and luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio observed in clomiphene citrate resistant group can be a possible explanation for this impedance.

  16. Revising Teacher Candidates' Views of Science and Self: Can Accounts from the History of Science Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Murray, John; Hechter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Our inquiry uses accounts from the history of science to develop teacher-candidate (student teacher) understanding of the nature of science (NOS) in a science teacher education methods course. This understanding of the NOS is then used as a foundation for developing teacher candidate appreciation of the attributes of authentic science lessons.…

  17. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  18. Development of Cladium mariscus (L. Pohl. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Marek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ovule and ovary development was investigated with the aim to establish from what is the scleroid cover of the Cladium mariscus fruit derived. It was proved, that like in other members of the Cyperaceae family, it derives from the ovary.

  19. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, G; Aguilar, J C; Dueñas, S; Hermida, L; Iglesias, E; Penton, E; Lobaina, Y; Lopez, M; Mussachio, A; Falcon, V; Alvarez, L; Martinez, G; Gil, L; Valdes, I; Izquierdo, A; Lazo, L; Marcos, E; Guzman, G; Muzio, V; Herrera, L

    2013-01-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. (paper)

  20. Reliability of Scores Obtained from Self-, Peer-, and Teacher-Assessments on Teaching Materials Prepared by Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu Yilmaz, Funda

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the reliability of scores obtained from self-, peer-, and teacher-assessments in terms of teaching materials prepared by teacher candidates. The study group of this research constitutes 56 teacher candidates. In the scope of research, teacher candidates were asked to develop teaching material related to their study.…

  1. Multiomics Data Triangulation for Asthma Candidate Biomarkers and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecak, Matija; Korošec, Peter; Kunej, Tanja

    2018-06-01

    Asthma is a common complex disorder and has been subject to intensive omics research for disease susceptibility and therapeutic innovation. Candidate biomarkers of asthma and its precision treatment demand that they stand the test of multiomics data triangulation before they can be prioritized for clinical applications. We classified the biomarkers of asthma after a search of the literature and based on whether or not a given biomarker candidate is reported in multiple omics platforms and methodologies, using PubMed and Web of Science, we identified omics studies of asthma conducted on diverse platforms using keywords, such as asthma, genomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics. We extracted data about asthma candidate biomarkers from 73 articles and developed a catalog of 190 potential asthma biomarkers (167 human, 23 animal data), comprising DNA loci, transcripts, proteins, metabolites, epimutations, and noncoding RNAs. The data were sorted according to 13 omics types: genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, metabolomics, ncRNAomics, glycomics, lipidomics, environmental omics, pharmacogenomics, phenomics, and integrative omics. Importantly, we found that 10 candidate biomarkers were apparent in at least two or more omics levels, thus promising potential for further biomarker research and development and precision medicine applications. This multiomics catalog reported herein for the first time contributes to future decision-making on prioritization of biomarkers and validation efforts for precision medicine in asthma. The findings may also facilitate meta-analyses and integrative omics studies in the future.

  2. Inheritance of the ovule fuzzless trait for Gossypium arboreum germplasm line PI 529708

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cotton is the most important fiber crop and understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling fiber production on cotton seeds can aid in the development of improved varieties with higher lint yields and improved fiber quality. Lint and fuzz are the two types of fiber produced on the cott...

  3. Genetics of the ovule fuzzless trait in Gossypium arboreum germplasm line PI 615737

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diploid cotton species Gossypium arboreum possesses many favorable agronomic traits such as drought tolerance and disease resistance, which can be utilized in the development of improved upland cotton cultivars. The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1,600 G. arboreum acces...

  4. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... designated to establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are selected from the general financial community, the accounting and... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting...

  5. Updated candidate list for engineered barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes candidate materials to be evaluated over the next several years during advanced design phases for the waste package to be used for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes at the Yucca Mountain facility

  6. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  7. Automated corresponding point candidate selection for image registration using wavelet transformation neurla network with rotation invariant inputs and context information about neighboring candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroshi; Suezaki, Masashi; Sueyasu, Hideki; Arai, Kohei

    2003-03-01

    An automated method that can select corresponding point candidates is developed. This method has the following three features: 1) employment of the RIN-net for corresponding point candidate selection; 2) employment of multi resolution analysis with Haar wavelet transformation for improvement of selection accuracy and noise tolerance; 3) employment of context information about corresponding point candidates for screening of selected candidates. Here, the 'RIN-net' means the back-propagation trained feed-forward 3-layer artificial neural network that feeds rotation invariants as input data. In our system, pseudo Zernike moments are employed as the rotation invariants. The RIN-net has N x N pixels field of view (FOV). Some experiments are conducted to evaluate corresponding point candidate selection capability of the proposed method by using various kinds of remotely sensed images. The experimental results show the proposed method achieves fewer training patterns, less training time, and higher selection accuracy than conventional method.

  8. The Effectiveness of Clomiphene Citrate and Letrozole for Ovulation Induction Related to Endometrial Thickness and Number of Dominant Follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wiweko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for ovulationrelated to endometrial thickness and number of dominant follicle. Study design was cross sectional basedon medical records of women who underwent ovulation induction from January 2011-May 2015. A numberof 143 anovulation women were divided into clomiphene citrate 50mg, clomiphene citrate 100 mg, letrozole2.5mg and letrozole 5mg. Each group received the agent daily on 3rd-7th day of menstrual cycle. On 12thday of menstrual cycle, the transvaginal ultrasound was performed to measure endometrial thickness anddominant follicle number. From all subjects, 45 subjects (31.5% were in 50mg clomiphene citrate groups, 29subjects (20.3% in 100mg clomiphene citrate group, 23 subjects (16.1% in 2,5mg letrozole group, and 46subjects (32.2% in 5mg letrozole group. Subjects who received letrozole had thicker endometrium comparedto clomiphene citrate (p<0.05. Different doses were not associated with endometrial thickness betweensubjects who received either letrozole or clomiphene citrate. In addition, subjects receiving letrozole hadhigher proportion of having trilaminar endometrium morphology. We did not observe the difference in totalnumber of dominant follicle between groups. It is concluded that letrozole is more effective than clomiphenecitrate in terms of endometrial thickness but not for number of dominant follicles. Keywords: clomiphene citrate, letrozole, ovulation induction, endometrial thickness, dominant follicle   Efektivitas Induksi Ovulasi Klomifen Sitrat dan Letrozol dalam Hal KetebalanEndometrium dan Jumlah Folikel Dominan Abstrak Studi ini bertujuan untuk menilai efektivitas induksi ovulasi klomifen sitrat dan letrozol dalam halketebalan endometrium dan jumlah folikel dominan pada perempuan yang tidak berovulasi. Desain studiadalah potong lintang menggunakan rekam medik pasien yang menjalani induksi ovulasi pada bulan Januari2011-Mei 2015

  9. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis created by oral estrogen and in vitro fertilization ovulation induction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jee; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2008-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is one of the known causes of pancreatitis. Estrogen treatment can aggravate hypertriglyceridemia by increasing very low density lipoprotein secretion and reducing hepatic triglyceride lipase. In this paper, we present 3 patients who developed severe hypertriglyceridemia with conditions that increased estrogen. Two patients were found to have genetic lipoprotein lipase deficiency and were treated with birth control pills. The third was a patient with polycystic ovary dise...

  10. Indico CONFERENCE: Candidate participant's registration/application

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to apply as a candidate participant (if the event requires approval from the event manager) or to register (if participation to the event doesn't require approval from an event manager) to the conference using the registration form for the event. You are also going to learn how to approve a candidate participant's application as an event manager.

  11. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates....... We therefore suggest that the political implications of social media are generally better understood in terms of facilitating indirect communication and institutional change than in terms of direct communication....

  12. Long-term melatonin treatment reduces ovarian mass and enhances tissue antioxidant defenses during ovulation in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.A. Chuffa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin regulates the reproductive cycle, energy metabolism and may also act as a potential antioxidant indoleamine. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether long-term melatonin treatment can induce reproductive alterations and if it can protect ovarian tissue against lipid peroxidation during ovulation. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats, 60 days old (± 250-260 g, were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group received 0.3 mL 0.9% NaCl + 0.04 mL 95% ethanol as vehicle, and the melatonin-treated group received vehicle + melatonin (100 µg·100 g body weight-1·day-1 both intraperitoneally daily for 60 days. All animals were killed by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4:00 am. Body weight gain and body mass index were reduced by melatonin after 10 days of treatment (P < 0.05. Also, a marked loss of appetite was observed with a fall in food intake, energy intake (melatonin 51.41 ± 1.28 vs control 57.35 ± 1.34 kcal/day and glucose levels (melatonin 80.3 ± 4.49 vs control 103.5 ± 5.47 mg/dL towards the end of treatment. Melatonin itself and changes in energy balance promoted reductions in ovarian mass (20.2% and estrous cycle remained extensive (26.7%, arresting at diestrus. Regarding the oxidative profile, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased after melatonin treatment (6.9% and total antioxidant substances were enhanced within the ovaries (23.9%. Additionally, melatonin increased superoxide dismutase (21.3%, catalase (23.6% and glutathione-reductase (14.8% activities and the reducing power (10.2% GSH/GSSG ratio. We suggest that melatonin alters ovarian mass and estrous cyclicity and protects the ovaries by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-reductase activities.

  13. Face time: educating face transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.

  14. Candidate worldviews for design theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2008-01-01

    Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... to the metaphysical (pre-empirical) and  conceptual foundations of design theory....

  15. The luteal phase after GnRH-agonist triggering of ovulation: present and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D

    2012-01-01

    In stimulated IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, the luteal phase is disrupted, necessitating luteal-phase supplementation. The most plausible reason behind this is the ovarian multifollicular development obtained after ovarian stimulation, resulting in supraphysiological steroid...... with a GnRH agonist instead of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The first studies applying this concept, however, showed a very poor pregnancy rate, despite standard luteal-phase support with progesterone. This review discusses the reason for the poor results and the newest studies, using GnRH agonist...

  16. An inventory of continental U.S. terrestrial candidate ecological restoration areas based on landscape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Kurt Riitters; Peter Vogt; Jennifer Costanza; Anne Neale

    2017-01-01

    Landscape context is an important factor in restoration ecology, but the use of landscape context for site prioritization has not been as fully developed.We used morphological image processing to identify candidate ecological restoration areas based on their proximity to existing natural vegetation. We identified 1,102,720 candidate ecological restoration areas across...

  17. The E.N.A.C.T. Model: Enhancing Teacher Candidates' Ability to Manage Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Deborah S.; Mosca, Frank J.

    2003-01-01

    This program description presents a model of critical reflection that has helped teacher candidates appropriately apply behavior management theory to resolve behavioral problems. The authors developed the ENACT (Examine, Name, Analyze, Critically evaluate, and Treat) model to help teacher candidates analyze the cause of inappropriate behaviors to…

  18. Turkish Primary Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul; Yalcin, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Turkish primary science teacher candidates' understanding of global warming and ozone layer depletion. In the study, as the research approach the survey method was used. The sample consisted of one hundred eighty nine third grade science teacher candidates. Data was collected using the tool developed by the…

  19. Corrections Officer Candidate Information Booklet and User's Manual. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    This package consists of an information booklet for job candidates preparing to take California's Corrections Officer Examination and a user's manual intended for those who will administer the examination. The candidate information booklet provides background information about the development of the Corrections Officer Examination, describes its…

  20. Probation Officer Candidate Information Booklet and User's Manual. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    This package consists of an information booklet for job candidates preparing to take California's Probation Officer Examination and a user's manual intended for those who will administer the examination. The candidate information booklet provides background information about the development and validation of the Probation Officer Examination,…

  1. Evaluation of project based learning sufficiency of teacher candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfi Tugun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of that research, it is the project based learning process suffuciency of teacher candidates who developedmultimedia by working in online and blended groups. Importance of research Being able to guide to studies that is going tobe done about assessment of multimedia projection for project based educational application to teachers and teachercandidates and It has been thought as an advisor source about being arranged new educational environment for the futureto teacher and teacher candidates for project based educational application and multimedia projection. Research is anexperimental study and has been shaped according to pre-test and last-test research model with the two groups. This groupsare online group and blended group. Discussion of research In the result of the study, in the process of project basedlearning, it is determined that the success level in multimedia development of teacher candidates who work in blendedlearning model is higher than the success level of teacher candidates who work in online learning model.

  2. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  3. Ovulation, pregnancy, placentation and husbandry in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W.R

    2006-01-01

    The African elephant reproduces so efficiently in the wild that overpopulation is now a serious problem in some game parks in Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa. The female reaches puberty between 10 and 12 years of age in the wild and, when in captivity, shows oestrous cycles of 14–15 weeks duration. She readily conceives a singleton in the wild yet her uterus has the capacity for twins. She shows a gestation length of 22 months and, in the wild, shows a population density and feed dependent intercalving interval of 4–8 years. The trophoblast erodes the lumenal epithelium of the endometrium and stimulates upgrowths of blood vessel-containing stromal villi, which develop eventually into the broad, tightly folded lamellae of the zonary, endotheliochorial placenta. Significant quantities of leaked maternal erythrocytes and ferric iron are phagocytosed by specialized trophoblast cells in the haemophagous zones at the lateral edges of the placental band. Although the placenta itself is endocrinologically inert, the foetal gonads, which enlarge greatly during the second half of pregnancy can synthesize 5α-dihydryoprogesterone and other 5α pregnane derivatives from cholesterol and pregnenolone. These products may synergize with progestagens secreted by the 2–8 large corpora lutea which are always present in the maternal ovaries throughout gestation to maintain the pregnancy state. PMID:16627297

  4. Pilot study on the use of data mining to identify cochlear implant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisel, Jedidiah J; Schafer, Erin; Lam, Anne; Griffin, Terry

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to determine the clinical utility of data-mining software that screens for cochlear implant (CI) candidacy. The Auditory Implant Initiative developed a software module that screens for CI candidates via integration with a software system (Noah 4) that serves as a depository for hearing test data. To identify candidates, patient audiograms from one practice were exported into the screening module. Candidates were tracked to determine if any eventually underwent implantation. After loading 4836 audiograms from the Noah 4 system, the screening module identified 558 potential CI candidates. After reviewing the data for the potential candidates, 117 were targeted and invited to an educational event. Following the event, a total of six candidates were evaluated, and two were implanted. This objective approach to identifying candidates has the potential to address the gross underutilization of CIs by removing any bias or lack of knowledge regarding the management of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss with CIs. The screening module was an effective tool for identifying potential CI candidates at one ENT practice. On a larger scale, the screening module has the potential to impact thousands of CI candidates worldwide.

  5. Evolution de la gonadotropine plasmatique t-GtH après synchronization des ovulations par injection de 17α hydroxy-20β dihydroprogesterone chez la truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri R.) : Evolution of plasmatic gonadotropin t-gth after synchronization of ovulations by injection of 17-α hydroxy-20β dihydroprogesterone in rainbow-trout (Salmo gairdneri R.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jalabert, Bernard; Breton, Bernard; Bry, C.

    1980-01-01

    L'injection de 17α hydroxy-20 β dihydroprogestérone (3 mg/kg) à des femelles dont les ovocytes sont au stade de « vésicule germinative semi-périphérique » entraîne une chute du niveau de t-GtH, très hautement significative 24 h. après injection, qui résulte vraisemblablement d'une rétroaction négative sur la sécrétion hypophysaire. Par la suite, après ovulation, la t-GtH plasmatique s'élève davantage chez les femelles subissant la rétention des ovules (50 µg/ml environ) que chez les femelles ...

  6. A novel live-attenuated vaccine candidate for mayaro Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Weise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes a dengue-like illness in many regions of South America, and which has the potential to urbanize. Because no specific treatment or vaccine is available for MAYV infection, we capitalized on an IRES-based approach to develop a live-attenuated MAYV vaccine candidate. Testing in infant, immunocompetent as well as interferon receptor-deficient mice demonstrated a high degree of attenuation, strong induction of neutralizing antibodies, and efficacy against lethal challenge. This vaccine strain was also unable to infect mosquito cells, a major safety feature for a live vaccine derived from a mosquito-borne virus. Further preclinical development of this vaccine candidate is warranted to protect against this important emerging disease.

  7. The efficacy of metformin and clomiphene citrate combination compared with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction in infertile patients with PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Dasari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Low ovulatory and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate (CC in anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Aim: To find out the ovulatory and pregnancy rates in infertile PCOS subjects who receive CC alone and a combination of metformin and CC. Setting and Design: A prospective controlled clinical trial conducted in the outpatient department from August 2003 to August 2005. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four infertile PCOS women received CC alone at incremental doses of 50 mg up to 150 mg for three cycles and then at a dose of 150 mg for another three cycles (control group. The study group (16 PCOS received the same dose of CC along with 1500mg of metformin. Ovulation was monitored by transvaginal sonography up to six cycles or till pregnancy occurred. Statistical Analysis: This was carried out using software SSPS, version 10. Fisher′s exact test was used to calculate the ovulatory rates. Nine subjects of the control group who failed to conceive with CC had opted for CC and metformin and their ovulatory rate was calculated using statistical software, namely SPSS 15.0, Stata 8.0, MedCalc 9.0.1 and Systat 11.0 using Fischer′s exact test. Results: The metformin and clomiphene combination resulted in a significantly higher rate of ovulation ( P = 0.0016. The pregnancy rate was 8% with CC and 24% with metformin and CC. The CC failure group also ovulated at a similar rate as that of the study group. Conclusions: The ovulatory rate and the pregnancy rate with the metformin-CC combination was found to be higher when compared with CC alone. Metformin increased the ovulatory rate in CC failures, also implying increased sensitivity to CC.

  8. Scalar tetraquark candidates on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of scalar tetraquark candidates from lattice QCD. It is motivated by a previous study originating in the twisted mass collaboration. The initial tetraquark candidate of choice is the a 0 (980), an isovector in the nonet of light scalars (J P =0 + ). This channel is still poorly understood. It displays an inverted mass hierarchy to what is expected from the conventional quark model and the a 0 (980) and f 0 (980) feature a surprising mass degeneracy. For this reasons the a 0 (980) is a long assumed tetraquark candidate in the literature. We follow a methodological approach by studying the sensitivity of the scalar spectrum with fully dynamical quarks to a large basis of two-quark and four-quark creation operators. Ultimately, the candidate has to be identified in the direct vicinity of two two-particles states, which is understandably inevitable for a tetraquark candidate. To succeed in this difficult task two-meson creation operators are essential to employ in this channel. By localized four-quark operators we intend to probe the Hamiltonian on eigenstates with a closely bound four-quark structure.

  9. Scalar tetraquark candidates on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of scalar tetraquark candidates from lattice QCD. It is motivated by a previous study originating in the twisted mass collaboration. The initial tetraquark candidate of choice is the a{sub 0}(980), an isovector in the nonet of light scalars (J{sup P}=0{sup +}). This channel is still poorly understood. It displays an inverted mass hierarchy to what is expected from the conventional quark model and the a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980) feature a surprising mass degeneracy. For this reasons the a{sub 0}(980) is a long assumed tetraquark candidate in the literature. We follow a methodological approach by studying the sensitivity of the scalar spectrum with fully dynamical quarks to a large basis of two-quark and four-quark creation operators. Ultimately, the candidate has to be identified in the direct vicinity of two two-particles states, which is understandably inevitable for a tetraquark candidate. To succeed in this difficult task two-meson creation operators are essential to employ in this channel. By localized four-quark operators we intend to probe the Hamiltonian on eigenstates with a closely bound four-quark structure.

  10. Categorization of endometritis and its association with ovarian follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake, and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Colazo, M G

    2016-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of different categories of endometritis on follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield (MY) in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 126) were examined for endometritis on 25 ± 1 day postpartum (DPP) using vaginoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, and endometrial cytology to determine the presence and type of vaginal discharge, uterine fluid, and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, respectively. Cows that had mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or presence of uterine fluid, no mucopurulent vaginal discharge or uterine fluid but 8% or more PMN, and mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or uterine fluid and 8% or more of PMN were defined as having clinical (CLIN; n = 45), cytological (CYTO; n = 15), and clinical and cytological (CLINCYTO; n = 30) endometritis, respectively. Cows that had none of the above pathological conditions were classified as unaffected (UNAF; n = 36). The diameter of the largest follicle at first examination, intervals from calving to first dominant (diameter = 10 mm) follicle, preovulatory size (diameter = 16 mm) follicle, ovulation, presence of follicular cyst, and proportion of ovular cows at 35 and 65 DPP were recorded as the measures of follicular growth and ovulation. None of the ovarian follicular parameters analyzed was affected by categories of endometritis. The first service conception rate tended (P = 0.06) to differ among categories of endometritis; cows that had CLIN and CLINCYTO endometritis were four times less likely to conceive to the first insemination compared to UNAF cows. Cows that had CLIN (hazard ratio: 0.52) and CLINCYTO (hazard ratio: 0.40) endometritis had decreased likelihood of pregnancy at 150 DPP compared to UNAF cows. Similarly, cows diagnosed as having CLINCYTO endometritis had decreased likelihood (hazard ratio: 0.48) of pregnancy at 250 DPP compared to UNAF cows. The DMI and MY up to 5

  11. Transcriptomic characterization of a synergistic genetic interaction during carpel margin meristem development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April N Wynn

    Full Text Available In flowering plants the gynoecium is the female reproductive structure. In Arabidopsis thaliana ovules initiate within the developing gynoecium from meristematic tissue located along the margins of the floral carpels. When fertilized the ovules will develop into seeds. SEUSS (SEU and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for the proper formation of ovules from the carpel margin meristem (CMM. The synergistic loss of ovule initiation observed in the seu ant double mutant suggests that SEU and ANT share overlapping functions during CMM development. However the molecular mechanism underlying this synergistic interaction is unknown. Using the ATH1 transcriptomics platform we identified transcripts that were differentially expressed in seu ant double mutant relative to wild type and single mutant gynoecia. In particular we sought to identify transcripts whose expression was dependent on the coordinated activities of the SEU and ANT gene products. Our analysis identifies a diverse set of transcripts that display altered expression in the seu ant double mutant tissues. The analysis of overrepresented Gene Ontology classifications suggests a preponderance of transcriptional regulators including multiple members of the REPRODUCTIVE MERISTEMS (REM and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF families are mis-regulated in the seu ant gynoecia. Our in situ hybridization analyses indicate that many of these genes are preferentially expressed within the developing CMM. This study is the first step toward a detailed description of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that control the development of the CMM and ovule initiation. Understanding the regulatory hierarchy controlled by SEU and ANT will clarify the molecular mechanism of the functional redundancy of these two genes and illuminate the developmental and molecular events required for CMM development and ovule initiation.

  12. Issue-Advocacy versus Candidate Advertising: Effects on Candidate Preferences and Democratic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Holbert, R. Lance; Szabo, Erin Alison; Kaminski, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of soft-money-sponsored issue-advocacy advertising in U.S. House and Senate campaigns, comparing its effects against candidate-sponsored positive advertising and contrast advertising on viewers' candidate preferences and on their attitude that reflect democratic values. Reveals no main effects for advertising approach on…

  13. Multiplexed mass spectrometry monitoring of biomarker candidates for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Puente, Patricia; Calamia, Valentina; González-Rodríguez, Lucía; Lourido, Lucía; Camacho-Encina, María; Oreiro, Natividad; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; Blanco, Francisco J

    2017-01-30

    The methods currently available for the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoarthritis (OA) are very limited and lack sensitivity. Being the most prevalent rheumatic disease, one of the most disabling pathologies worldwide and currently untreatable, there is a considerable interest pointed in the verification of specific biological markers for improving its diagnosis and disease progression studies. Considering the remarkable development of targeted proteomics methodologies in the frame of the Human Proteome Project, the aim of this work was to develop and apply a MRM-based method for the multiplexed analysis of a panel of 6 biomarker candidates for OA encoded by the Chromosome 16, and another 8 proteins identified in previous shotgun studies as related with this pathology, in specimens derived from the human joint and serum. The method, targeting 35 different peptides, was applied to samples from human articular chondrocytes, healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage, synovial fluid and serum. Subsequently, a verification analysis of the biomarker value of these proteins was performed by single point measurements on a set of 116 serum samples, leading to the identification of increased amounts of Haptoglobin and von Willebrand Factor in OA patients. Altogether, the present work provides a tool for the multiplexed monitoring of 14 biomarker candidates for OA, and verifies for the first time the increased amount of two of these circulating markers in patients diagnosed with this disease. We have developed an MRM method for the identification and relative quantification of a panel of 14 protein biomarker candidates for osteoarthritis. This method has been applied to analyze human articular chondrocytes, articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and finally a collection of 116 serum samples from healthy controls and patients suffering different degrees of osteoarthritis, in order to verify the biomarker usefulness of the candidates. HPT and VWF were validated as increased in OA

  14. Review of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    antigens, heat shock antigens and hypothetical antigens. Strategies for evaluation of novel antigen candidates are discussed critically. Relatively few of the described antigens were evaluated for their use in CMI based diagnostic assays and so far, no obvious candidate has been identified...... to development of antibodies and shedding of detectable amounts of MAP. At present, available diagnostic assays are limited by the lack of MAP specific antigens included in these assays resulting in poor specificity. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of diagnostic MAP antigen...... faeces; however, these diagnostic tools are often not applicable until years after infection. Detection of MAP specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses can serve as an alternative and be implemented in a diagnostic tool. CMI responses can be measured at an early stage of infection, prior...

  15. New trends in combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists with gonadotropins or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Danforth, D R; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D

    1992-10-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists as adjunctive therapy with gonadotropins for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies has become common clinical practice. With the recent advent of potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists free from the marked histamine-release effects that stymied earlier compounds, an attractive alternative method may be available. We have established the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced inhibition of endogenous gonadotropins with exogenous gonadotropin therapy for ovulation induction in a nonhuman primate model. Here, the principal benefits to be gained from using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist rather than the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist are the immediate inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion without the "flare effect," which brings greater safety and convenience for patients and the medical team and saves time and money. We have also recently demonstrated the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for the controlled restoration of gonadotropin secretion and gonadal steroidogenesis culminating in apparently normal (singleton) ovulatory cycles. This is feasible only with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists because, unlike gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, they achieve control of the pituitary-ovarian axis without down regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor system. This capacity to override gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced suppression of pituitary-ovarian function may allow new treatment modalities to be employed for women who suffer from chronic hyperandrogenemia with polycystic ovarian disease.

  16. Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nahuis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

  17. Ovulation induction with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or gonadotropins in a case of hypothalamic amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Pappas, A P; Protonatariou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Sykiotis, G P; Dimopoulos, P A; Tzingounis, V A

    2001-12-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea is a treatable cause of infertility. Our patient was presented with secondary amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus. Cortisol and prolactin responded normally to a combined insulin tolerance test (ITT) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenge, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to TRH was diminished, and no response of growth hormone to ITT was detected. Both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. No response of LH to clomiphene citrate challenge was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated a midline mass occupying the inferior hypothalamus, with posterior lobe not visible and thickened pituitary stalk. Ovulation induction was carried out first with combined human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG/LH/FSH) (150 IU/day) and afterwards with pulsatile GnRH (150 ng/kg/pulse). Ovulation was achieved with both pulsatile GnRH and combine gonadotropin therapy. Slightly better results were achieved with the pulsatile GnRH treatment.

  18. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  19. 47 CFR 73.1942 - Candidate rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1942 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of stations... periods. Any station practices offered to commercial advertisers that enhance the value of advertising...

  20. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, M.L.; Sommeijer, J.-P.; Levelt, C.N.; Heimel, J.A.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Pennartz, C.M.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  1. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  2. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  3. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  4. Waiting narratives of lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Maria T; Stevens, Patricia E; Lanuza, Dorothy M

    2013-01-01

    Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.

  5. Waiting Narratives of Lung Transplant Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Yelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman’s concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients’ stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.

  6. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  7. Psychological aptitude evaluation of the special forces candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Luca; Jelmini, F; Lang, M; Muggli, F

    2017-02-01

    Changes in recruitment procedures reduced early dismissal rates from Swiss military basic recruitment schools; however, such improvements were not reflected in premature discharge rates from the special forces (SF) (Grenadier) recruitment school. A six-item questionnaire designed to identify recruits likely to be subject to premature dismissal on psychological or psychiatric grounds was developed and prospectively validated. The questionnaire was based on an analysis of medical and psychiatric/psychological records of 26 recruits dismissed from a SF recruitment school. Six items were identified that appeared to have prognostic value for early discharge. These six questions were submitted to the remaining applicants in the recruitment school by a suitably qualified psychologist or psychiatrist and effectively identified candidates who would be discharged early. Based on these results a 0-6 scale was developed and applied prospectively to subsequent Grenadier recruitment courses. Statistical analysis showed that 75% of candidates with the lowest scores would eventually complete the course and that no candidates with highest scores would subsequently complete the recruitment course. Prospective studies in subsequent recruitment courses candidates with high scores were classified as not qualified to enter the course, and those with intermediate scores were subject to additional in-depth interviews with a psychologist or psychiatrist to determine their suitability. In the following courses a correlation was established between the questionnaire score and week of discharge for those discharged. Application of this method during subsequent recruitment courses has reduced early dismissal from Swiss SF recruitment schools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  9. Systematic evaluation of candidate blood markers for detecting ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer is a significant cause of mortality both in the United States and worldwide, due largely to the high proportion of cases that present at a late stage, when survival is extremely poor. Early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer, and of the serous subtype in particular, is a promising strategy for saving lives. The low prevalence of ovarian cancer makes the development of an adequately sensitive and specific test based on blood markers very challenging. We evaluated the performance of a set of candidate blood markers and combinations of these markers in detecting serous ovarian cancer.We selected 14 candidate blood markers of serous ovarian cancer for which assays were available to measure their levels in serum or plasma, based on our analysis of global gene expression data and on literature searches. We evaluated the performance of these candidate markers individually and in combination by measuring them in overlapping sets of serum (or plasma samples from women with clinically detectable ovarian cancer and women without ovarian cancer. Based on sensitivity at high specificity, we determined that 4 of the 14 candidate markers--MUC16, WFDC2, MSLN and MMP7--warrant further evaluation in precious serum specimens collected months to years prior to clinical diagnosis to assess their utility in early detection. We also reported differences in the performance of these candidate blood markers across histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer.By systematically analyzing the performance of candidate blood markers of ovarian cancer in distinguishing women with clinically apparent ovarian cancer from women without ovarian cancer, we identified a set of serum markers with adequate performance to warrant testing for their ability to identify ovarian cancer months to years prior to clinical diagnosis. We argued for the importance of sensitivity at high specificity and of magnitude of difference in marker levels between cases and

  10. Electoral Competition when Candidates are Better Informed than Voters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    candidates are both completely office-motivated but differ in state-dependent quality. Voters have some information about the state but candidates are better informed. If voters' information is unknown to the candidates when they take positions and sufficiently accurate then candidates will, in refined...

  11. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations.

  12. Novel approaches to identify protective malaria vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ni eChia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines against malaria have been the focus of substantial research activities for decades. Several categories of candidate vaccines are currently being developed for protection against malaria, based on antigens corresponding to the pre-erythrocytic, blood-stage or sexual stages of the parasite. Long lasting sterile protection from Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge has been observed in human following vaccination with whole parasite formulations, clearly demonstrating that a protective immune response targeting predominantly the pre-erythrocytic stages can develop against malaria. However, most of vaccine candidates currently being investigated, which are mostly subunits vaccines, have not been able to induce substantial (>50% protection thus far. This is due to the fact that the antigens responsible for protection against the different parasite stages are still yet to be known and relevant correlates of protection have remained elusive. For a vaccine to be developed in a timely manner, novel approaches are required. In this article, we review the novel approaches that have been developed to identify the antigens for the development of an effective malaria vaccine.

  13. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1 significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features.

  14. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  15. Discriminating dark matter candidates using direct detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, G.; Nezri, E.; Pukhov, A.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the predictions for both the spin-dependent and spin-independent direct detection rates in a variety of new particle physics models with dark matter candidates. We show that a determination of both spin-independent and spin-dependent amplitudes on protons and neutrons can in principle discriminate different candidates of dark matter up to a few ambiguities. We emphasize the importance of making measurements with different spin-dependent sensitive detector materials and the need for significant improvement of the detector sensitivities. Scenarios where exchange of new colored particles contributes significantly to the elastic scattering cross sections are often the most difficult to identify, the LHC should give an indication whether such scenarios are relevant for direct detection.

  16. Warm Debris Disk Candidates from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Liu, Wilson; Leisawitz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and 150 A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates.

  17. Candidates for non-baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao

    2002-01-01

    This report is a brief review of the efforts to explain the nature of non-baryonic dark matter and of the studies devoted to the search for relic particles. Among the different dark matter candidates, special attention is devoted to relic neutralinos, by giving an overview of the recent calculations of its relic abundance and detection rates in a wide variety of supersymmetric schemes

  18. Candidates for non-baryonic dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Fornengo, Nicolao

    2002-01-01

    This report is a brief review of the efforts to explain the nature of non-baryonic dark matter and of the studies devoted to the search for relic particles. Among the different dark matter candidates, special attention is devoted to relic neutralinos, by giving an overview of the recent calculations of its relic abundance and detection rates in a wide variety of supersymmetric schemes.

  19. Educational intervention for liver transplantation candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Karina Dal Sasso; Silva Junior,Orlando de Castro e; Ziviani,Luciana da Costa; Rossin,Fabiana Murad; Zago,Márcia Maria Fontão; Galvão,Cristina Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. METHOD: A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. RESULTS: The result...

  20. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.