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Sample records for candidate markers reflecting

  1. Metabolite profiling identifies candidate markers reflecting the clinical adaptations associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery is associated with weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and a reduction in co-morbidities such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. To generate further insight into the numerous metabolic adaptations associated with RYGB surgery, we profiled serum metabolites before and after gastric bypass surgery and integrated metabolite changes with clinical data. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum metabolites were detected by gas and liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry before, and 3 and 6 months after RYGB in morbidly obese female subjects (n = 14; BMI = 46.2+/-1.7. Subjects showed decreases in weight-related parameters and improvements in insulin sensitivity post surgery. The abundance of 48% (83 of 172 of the measured metabolites changed significantly within the first 3 months post RYGB (p<0.05, including sphingosines, unsaturated fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Dividing subjects into obese (n = 9 and obese/diabetic (n = 5 groups identified 8 metabolites that differed consistently at all time points and whose serum levels changed following RYGB: asparagine, lysophosphatidylcholine (C18:2, nervonic (C24:1 acid, p-Cresol sulfate, lactate, lycopene, glucose, and mannose. Changes in the aforementioned metabolites were integrated with clinical data for body mass index (BMI and estimates for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Of these, nervonic acid was significantly and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.001, R = -0.55. CONCLUSIONS: Global metabolite profiling in morbidly obese subjects after RYGB has provided new information regarding the considerable metabolic alterations associated with this surgical procedure. Integrating clinical measurements with metabolomics data is capable of identifying markers that reflect the metabolic adaptations following RYGB.

  2. Database of cattle candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ogorevc, J; Kunej, T; Razpet, A; Dovc, P

    2009-01-01

    A cattle database of candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis has been developed to provide an integrated research tool incorporating different types of information supporting a genomic approach to study lactation, udder development and health. The database contains 943 genes and genetic markers involved in mammary gland development and function, representing candidates for further functional studies. The candidate loci were drawn on a genetic map to reveal positio...

  3. Fostering Teacher Candidates' Reflective Practice through Video Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Margaret; Gurvitch, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, interest in using video to promote the reflective practice in preservice teacher education has increased. Video recordings of teaching incidents inspire the reflective practice in preservice teachers by allowing them to analyze instruction and view teaching in an objective light. As an extension of video recording, video editing has…

  4. Transferability of microsatellite markers located in candidate genes for wood properties between Eucalyptus species

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    Cintia V. Acuña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study:  To analyze the feasibility of extrapolating conclusions on wood quality genetic control between different Eucalyptus species, particularly from species with better genomic information, to those less characterized. For this purpose, the first step is to analyze the conservation and cross-transferability of microsatellites markers (SSRs located in candidate genes.Area of study: Eucalyptus species implanted in Argentina coming from different Australian origins.Materials and methods: Twelve validated and polymorphic SSRs in candidate genes (SSR-CGs for wood quality in E. globulus were selected for cross species amplification in six species: E. grandis, E. saligna, E. dunnii, E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis.Main results: High cross-species transferability (92% to 100% was found for the 12 polymorphic SSRs detected in E. globulus. These markers revealed allelic diversity in nine important candidate genes: cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3, the transcription factor LIM1, homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT, shikimate kinase (SK, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 2 (XTH2, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD and peroxidase (PER.Research highlights: The markers described are potentially suitable for comparative QTL mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding (MAB and for population genetic studies across different species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus.Keywords: validation; cross-transferability; SSR; functional markers; eucalypts; Symphyomyrtus.

  5. Profile of candidate microsatellite markers in Sebastiscus marmoratus using 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Na; Chen, Muyan; Gao, Tianxiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Sebastiscus marmoratus is an important sedentary ovoviparous fish distributed in near-shore coastal waters from the coast of China to Japan. Candidate S. marmoratus microsatellite markers were developed in the present study using 454 pyrosequencing, and the marker profile was analyzed. A total of 2 000 000 raw sequence reads were assembled to reduce redundancy. Among them, 1 043 dinucleotide, 925 trinucleotide, 692 tetranucleotide, and 315 pentanucleotide repeats were detected. AC repeats were the most frequent motifs among the dinucleotide repeats, and AAT was the most abundant among the trinucleotide repeats. AAAT, ATAG, and ATCC were the three most common tetranucleotide motifs, and AAGAT and AATAT were the most dominant pentanucleotide motifs. The greatest numbers of loci and potentially amplifiable loci were found in dinucleotide repeats, whereas trinucleotide repeats had the fewest. In summary, a wide range of candidate microsatellite markers were identified in the present study using a rapid and efficient 454 pyrosequencing approach.

  6. Do nutritional markers in wound fluid reflect pressure ulcer status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Minematsu, Takeo; Oba, Miho; Nakagami, Gojiro; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Nagase, Takashi; Konya, Chizuko; Sugama, Junko

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of wound fluid characteristics for pressure ulcer (PU) assessment in clinical settings remains subjective, requiring considerable expertise. This cross-sectional study focused on nutritional markers in wound fluid as possible objective tools and investigated whether they reflect the PU status according to the healing phase, infection, and granulation, especially after adjusting for serum values. Twenty-eight patients with 32 full-thickness PUs were studied. The concentration of albumin, total protein, glucose, and zinc in wound fluid were measured. For PU status, the healing phases and infection were evaluated by clinical signs, and the degree of granulation tissue formation was determined as the hydroxyproline concentration. The wound fluid/serum ratio for albumin was significantly lower during the inflammatory phase than during the proliferative phase (p=0.020). Infected wound fluid contained less glucose (0.3-1.0 mmol/L) than noninfected ones did (5.0-7.6 mmol/L) in an intraindividual comparison of three cases. The wound fluid/serum ratio for glucose was negatively correlated with hydroxyproline level in the proliferative phase (rho=-0.73, p=0.007), while zinc level in wound fluid showed a positive correlation (rho=0.61, p=0.028). Our results suggest that these traditional nutritional markers in wound fluid, especially wound fluid/serum ratio may be useful to evaluate local PU status. PMID:20082679

  7. Evaluation of Critical Thinking and Reflective Thinking Skills among Science Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and determine the critical thinking and reflective thinking skills of science teacher candidates. The study was performed with the participation of 30 teacher candidates enrolled in the science teaching department of a university in Turkey. Scales administered during the study included the California Critical…

  8. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

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    A. S. Hora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account.

  9. A Candidate Gene for a Biological Marker of Schizophrenia in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Akiko; Toyota, Tomoko; Owada, Yuji; Hayashi, Takeshi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Matsumata, Miho; Ishitsuka, Yuichi; Nakaya, Akihiro; Maekawa, Motoko; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Arai, Ryoichi; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Yamada, Kazuo; Kondo, Hisatake; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary A startle response to an unexpected, strong startling stimulus can be suppressed by an immediately preceding low-intensity stimulus, thereby eliciting little behavioral response. This phenomenon, called prepulse inhibition (PPI), has been observed in all mammals tested and is thought to reflect sensory-motor gating functions in organisms. PPI is diminished in human schizophrenia, raising the possibility that PPI might serve as a potential biological marker for the disease. Once...

  10. Large-scale transcriptome analyses reveal new genetic marker candidates of head, neck, and thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Eduardo M; Ojopi, Elida P B; Alberto, Fernando L;

    2005-01-01

    A detailed genome mapping analysis of 213,636 expressed sequence tags (EST) derived from nontumor and tumor tissues of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and thyroid was done. Transcripts matching known human genes were identified; potential new splice variants were flagged and subjected to manual...... amplification was selected by identifying transcripts that mapped to genomic regions previously known to be frequently amplified or deleted in head, neck, and thyroid tumors. Three of these markers were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in an independent set of individual samples. Along with...... detailed clinical data about tumor origin, the information reported here is now publicly available on a dedicated Web site as a resource for further biological investigation. This first in silico reconstruction of the head, neck, and thyroid transcriptomes points to a wealth of new candidate markers that...

  11. High Resolution Discovery Proteomics Reveals Candidate Disease Progression Markers of Alzheimer's Disease in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.

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    Ronald C Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Disease modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD constitute a major goal in medicine. Current trends suggest that biomarkers reflective of AD neuropathology and modifiable by treatment would provide supportive evidence for disease modification. Nevertheless, a lack of quantitative tools to assess disease modifying treatment effects remains a major hurdle. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers such as total tau, p-tau and Ab42 are well established markers of AD; however, global quantitative biochemical changes in CSF in AD disease progression remain largely uncharacterized. Here we applied a high resolution open discovery platform, dMS, to profile a cross-sectional cohort of lumbar CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients versus those from non-AD/non-demented (control patients. Multiple markers were identified to be statistically significant in the cohort tested. We selected two markers SME-1 (p<0.0001 and SME-2 (p = 0.0004 for evaluation in a second independent longitudinal cohort of human CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients and age-matched and case-matched control patients. In cohort-2, SME-1, identified as neuronal secretory protein VGF, and SME-2, identified as neuronal pentraxin receptor-1 (NPTXR, in AD were 21% (p = 0.039 and 17% (p = 0.026 lower, at baseline, respectively, than in controls. Linear mixed model analysis in the longitudinal cohort estimate a decrease in the levels of VGF and NPTXR at the rate of 10.9% and 6.9% per year in the AD patients, whereas both markers increased in controls. Because these markers are detected by mass spectrometry without the need for antibody reagents, targeted MS based assays provide a clear translation path for evaluating selected AD disease-progression markers with high analytical precision in the clinic.

  12. Phylogenetic analyses of peanut resistance gene candidates and screening of different genotypes for polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Osman E; Ahmed, Talaat A; Knapp, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich-repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding gene family has attracted much research interest because approximately 75% of the plant disease resistance genes that have been cloned to date are from this gene family. Here, we describe a collection of peanut NBS-LRR resistance gene candidates (RGCs) isolated from peanut (Arachis) species by mining Gene Bank data base. NBS-LRR sequences assembled into TIR-NBS-LRR (75.4%) and non-TIR-NBS-LRR (24.6%) subfamilies. Total of 20 distinct clades were identified and showed a high level of sequence divergence within TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS subfamilies. Thirty-four primer pairs were designed from these RGC sequences and used for screening different genotypes belonging to wild and cultivated peanuts. Therefore, peanut RGC identified in this study will provide useful tools for developing DNA markers and cloning the genes for resistance to different pathogens in peanut. PMID:23961057

  13. A candidate metastasis-associated DNA marker for ductal mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic markers to identify the 13% lymph node-negative mammary carcinomas that are prone to develop metastases would clearly be of considerable value in indicating those cases in need of early aggressive therapy. Representational difference analysis was used in an attempt to identify genetic alterations related to breast cancer metastasis by comparing genomic DNA from microdissected normal cells and from metastatic cells of ductal breast carcinoma patients. Representational difference analysis products yielded 10 unique metastasis-associated DNA sequences (MADS), i.e. products apparently lost in metastatic cell DNA. Of these sequences, MADS-IX was found to be lost in the transition from primary to metastasis in two out of five ductal breast carcinoma cases. This sequence was localized on chromosome 10q21 by radiation hybrid mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The PTEN gene, which is also located on chromosome 10q, was detected to be present by PCR in all five cases. On the contrary, a breast carcinoma cell line, HCC-1937, which has homozygous loss of a region encompassing the PTEN gene, showed the presence of MADS-IX. PCR screening of three additional breast carcinoma cell lines with known losses in specific chromosomal regions also showed the presence of MADS-IX. These data suggest that MADS-IX possibly is part of a novel candidate metastasis-associated gene located close to the PTEN gene on chromosome 10q. The first set of PCR screening in five patient samples indicates that it could be used as a molecular marker for ductal mammary metastasis

  14. Linkage study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate using candidate genes and mapped polymorphic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.D.; Nelson, L.D.; Conner, B.J. [Univ. of Texas, Houston (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) involves fusion or growth failure of facial primordia during development. Complex segregation analysis of clefting populations suggest that an autosomal dominant gene may play a role in this common craniofacial disorder. We have ascertained 16 multigenerational families with CL(P) and tested linkage to 29 candidate genes and 139 mapped short tandem repeat markers. The candidate genes were selected based on their expression in craniofacial development or were identified through murine models. These include: TGF{alpha}, TGF{beta}1, TGF{beta}2, TGF{beta}3, EGF, EGFR, GRAS, cMyc, FGFR, Jun, JunB, PDFG{alpha}, PDGF{beta}, IGF2R, GCR Hox7, Hox8, Hox2B, twirler, 5 collagen and 3 extracellular matrix genes. Linkage was tested assuming an autosomal dominant model with sex-specific decreased penetrance. Linkage to all of the candidate loci was excluded in 11 families. RARA was tested and was not informative. However, haplotype analysis of markers flanking RARA on 17q allowed exclusion of this candidate locus. We have previously excluded linkage to 61 STR markers in 11 families. Seventy-eight mapped short tandem repeat markers have recently been tested in 16 families and 30 have been excluded. The remaining are being analyzed and an exclusion map is being developed based on the entire study results.

  15. Robust markers reflecting phylogeny and taxonomy of rhizobia.

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    Yan Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Genomic ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity has been found to be able to replace DNA-DNA hybridization in prokaryote taxonomy. The ANI of each of the core genes that has a phylogeny congruent with the reference species tree of rhizobia was compared to the genomic ANI. This allowed us to identify three housekeeping genes (SMc00019-truA-thrA whose ANI reflected the intraspecies and interspecies genomic ANI among rhizobial strains, revealing an ANI gap (≥2% between the inter- and intra-species comparisons. The intraspecies (96% and interspecies (94% ANI boundaries calculated from three genes (SMc00019-truA-thrA provided a criterion for bacterial species definition and confirmed 621/629 of known interspecies relationships within Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium. Some widely studied strains should be renamed. The SMc00019-truA-thrA ANI also correlates well with the genomic ANI of strains in Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ralstonia, Rhodopseudomonas, Cupriavidus and Burkholderia, suggesting their wide applicability in other bacteria.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA variant at HVI region as a candidate of genetic markers of type 2 diabetes

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    Gumilar, Gun Gun; Purnamasari, Yunita; Setiadi, Rahmat

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maternally inherited. mtDNA mutations which can contribute to the excess of maternal inheritance of type 2 diabetes. Due to the high mutation rate, one of the areas in the mtDNA that is often associated with the disease is the hypervariable region I (HVI). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the genetic variants of human mtDNA HVI that related to the type 2 diabetes in four samples that were taken from four generations in one lineage. Steps being taken include the lyses of hair follicles, amplification of mtDNA HVI fragment using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), detection of PCR products through agarose gel electrophoresis technique, the measurement of the concentration of mtDNA using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, determination of the nucleotide sequence via direct sequencing method and analysis of the sequencing results using SeqMan DNASTAR program. Based on the comparison between nucleotide sequence of samples and revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) obtained six same mutations that these are C16147T, T16189C, C16193del, T16127C, A16235G, and A16293C. After comparing the data obtained to the secondary data from Mitomap and NCBI, it were found that two mutations, T16189C and T16217C, become candidates as genetic markers of type 2 diabetes even the mutations were found also in the generations of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. The results of this study are expected to give contribution to the collection of human mtDNA database of genetic variants that associated to metabolic diseases, so that in the future it can be utilized in various fields, especially in medicine.

  17. Watching Teacher Candidates Watch Themselves: Reflections on a Practicum Program in Turkey

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    Akcan Sumru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings of a study that investigates pre-service English teachers’ reflections on their teaching performance after watching their videotaped lessons in company with their university supervisor. This study, conducted during the spring semester practicum program in the 2007-2008 academic year, examines how the teacher candidates felt about their teaching while watching a video of a real lesson taught in a classroom. The findings of this study suggest that after the teacher candidates watched their own teaching with the supervisor, they made specific comments about teacher talk and about students’ participation and interest in the lesson. The findings also show that the use of video recording in the practicum program provided opportunities for reflection and helped teacher candidates evaluate their performance more critically. Key words: Non-native speaker pre-service English teachers, practicum, reflective teaching, videobased reflection sessions Este artículo presenta los hallazgos de un estudio que investiga las reflexiones de futuros profesores de inglés respecto a su desempeño docente después de haber visto con su asesor de práctica de la universidad las grabaciones de sus propias clases. Este estudio, realizado durante la práctica semestral de primavera en el periodo académico 2007-2008, examina cómo se sintieron los practicantes respecto a su forma de enseñar cuando veían un video de una clase dictada en un salón de clase real. Los hallazgos del estudio sugieren que después de que los practicantes o futuros docentes observaron en compañía de su supervisor su forma de enseñar, hicieron comentarios relacionados especialmente con la forma de hablar de los profesores y con la participación e interés de los estudiantes en la clase. Los hallazgos también muestran que la grabación en video en el programa de práctica docente generó oportunidades para reflexionar y ayudó a los

  18. Candidate prognostic markers in breast cancer: focus on extracellular proteases and their inhibitors

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    Roy DM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available David M Roy,1 Logan A Walsh21Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan-Kettering Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program, New York, NY, USA; 2Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The extracellular matrix (ECM is the complex network of proteins that surrounds cells in multicellular organisms. Due to its diverse nature and composition, the ECM has a multifaceted role in both normal tissue homeostasis and pathophysiology. It provides structural support, segregates tissues from one another, and regulates intercellular communication. Furthermore, the ECM sequesters a wide range of growth factors and cytokines that may be released upon specific and well-coordinated cues. Regulation of the ECM is performed by the extracellular proteases, which are tasked with cleaving and remodeling this intricate and diverse protein matrix. Accordingly, extracellular proteases are differentially expressed in various tissue types and in many diseases such as cancer. In fact, metastatic dissemination of tumor cells requires degradation of extracellular matrices by several families of proteases, including metalloproteinases and serine proteases, among others. Extracellular proteases are emerging as strong candidate cancer biomarkers for aiding and predicting patient outcome. Not surprisingly, inhibition of these protumorigenic enzymes in animal models of metastasis has shown impressive therapeutic effects. As such, many of these proteolytic inhibitors are currently in various phases of clinical investigation. In addition to direct approaches, aberrant expression of extracellular proteases in disease states may also facilitate the selective delivery of other therapeutic or imaging agents. Herein, we outline extracellular proteases that are either bona fide or probable prognostic markers in breast cancer. Furthermore, using existing patient data and multiple robust statistical analyses, we highlight several

  19. Exploring the Inner and Outer Cultural Landscapes of Counseling Candidates towards Diverse Students and Families through Self-Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Adonay A. Montes; Fernando Rodriguez-Valls; Laurie Schroeder

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interpersonal methodology designed to increase the cultural awareness of counselor candidates. This methodology was implemented through a sequence of activities, which was part of a multicultural course in the counseling credential program in a university located in Southern California. The goal was to enrich future counselor practices by promoting self-reflection processes of personal cultural beliefs. The responses of counselor candidates, gathered through two surve...

  20. Candidate markers associated with the probability of future pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis patients.

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    Gabriella Wojewodka

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary exacerbations (PEs cause significant morbidity and can severely impact disease progression in cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease, especially in patients who suffer from recurrent PEs. The assessments able to predict a future PE or a recurrent PE are limited. We hypothesized that combining clinical, molecular and patient reported data could identify patients who are at risk of PE. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of 53 adult CF patients for 24 months. Baseline values for spirometry, clinical status using the Matouk Disease Score, quality of life (QOL, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukins (IL-1β, -6, -8, -10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma were collected for all patients during periods of stable disease, and patients were monitored for PE requiring PO/IV antibiotic treatment. Additionally, we closely followed 13 patients during PEs collecting longitudinal data on changes in markers from baseline values. We assessed whether any markers were predictors of future PE at baseline and after antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: Out of 53 patients, 37 experienced PEs during our study period. At baseline, we found that low lung function, clinical scoring and QOL values were associated with increased risk of PE events. PEs were associated with increased inflammatory markers at Day 1, and these biomarkers improved with treatment. The imbalance in arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels improved with treatment which coincided with reductions in lipid peroxidation. High levels of inflammatory markers CRP and IL-8 were associated with an early re-exacerbation. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that worse clinical and QOL assessments during stable disease are potential markers associated with a higher risk of future PEs, while higher levels of

  1. Testing four candidate barcoding markers in temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ming CAI; Yu-Xiao ZHANG; Li-Na ZHANG; Lian-Ming GAO; De-Zhu LI

    2012-01-01

    Bambusoideae is an important subfamily of the grass family Poaceae that has considerable economic,ecologic and cultural value.In addition,Bambusoideae species are important constituents of the forest vegetation in China.Because of the paucity of flower-bearing specimens and homoplasies of morphological characters,it is difficult to identify species of Bambusoideae using morphology alone,especially in the case of temperate woody bamboos (i.e.Arundinarieae).To this end,DNA barcoding has shown great potential in identifying species.The present study is the first attempt to test the feasibility of four proposed DNA barcoding markers (matK,rbcL,trnH-psbA,and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) in identifying 27 species of the temperate woody bamboos.Three plastid markers showed high levels of universality,whereas the universality of ITS was comparatively low.A single plastid marker provided low levels of discrimination success at both the genus and species levels (< 12%).Among the combinations ofplastid markers,the highest discriminatory power was obtained using the combination of rbcL + matK (14.8%).Using a combination of three markers did not increase species discrimination.The nuclear region ITS alone could identify 66.7% of species,although fewer taxa were included in the ITS analyses than in the plastid analyses.When ITS was integrated with a single or combination of plastid markers,the species discriminatory power was significantly improved.We suggest that a combination ofrbcL + ITS,which exhibited the highest species identification power of all combinations in the present study,could be used as a potential DNA barcode for temperate woody bamboos.

  2. Evaluating the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) as a Candidate Dinoflagellate Barcode Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Rowena F.; Andersen, Robert A.; Jameson, Ian; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Vaulot, Daniel; Le Gall, Florence; Véron, Benoît; Brand, Jerry J.; Skelton, Hayley; Kasai, Fumai; Lilly, Emily L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding offers an efficient way to determine species identification and to measure biodiversity. For dinoflagellates, an ancient alveolate group of about 2000 described extant species, DNA barcoding studies have revealed large amounts of unrecognized species diversity, most of which is not represented in culture collections. To date, two mitochondrial gene markers, Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome b oxidase (COB), have been used to assess DNA barcoding in dinoflagellates, and both failed to amplify all taxa and suffered from low resolution. Nevertheless, both genes yielded many examples of morphospecies showing cryptic speciation and morphologically distinct named species being genetically similar, highlighting the need for a common marker. For example, a large number of cultured Symbiodinium strains have neither taxonomic identification, nor a common measure of diversity that can be used to compare this genus to other dinoflagellates. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Internal Transcribed Spacer units 1 and 2 (ITS) of the rDNA operon, as a high resolution marker for distinguishing species dinoflagellates in culture. In our study, from 78 different species, the ITS barcode clearly differentiated species from genera and could identify 96% of strains to a known species or sub-genus grouping. 8.3% showed evidence of being cryptic species. A quarter of strains identified had no previous species identification. The greatest levels of hidden biodiversity came from Scrippsiella and the Pfiesteriaceae family, whilst Heterocapsa strains showed a high level of mismatch to their given species name. Conclusions/Significance The ITS marker was successful in confirming species, revealing hidden diversity in culture collections. This marker, however, may have limited use for environmental barcoding due to paralogues, the potential for unidentifiable chimaeras and priming across taxa. In these cases ITS would

  3. Evaluating the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS as a candidate dinoflagellate barcode marker.

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    Rowena F Stern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding offers an efficient way to determine species identification and to measure biodiversity. For dinoflagellates, an ancient alveolate group of about 2000 described extant species, DNA barcoding studies have revealed large amounts of unrecognized species diversity, most of which is not represented in culture collections. To date, two mitochondrial gene markers, Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI and Cytochrome b oxidase (COB, have been used to assess DNA barcoding in dinoflagellates, and both failed to amplify all taxa and suffered from low resolution. Nevertheless, both genes yielded many examples of morphospecies showing cryptic speciation and morphologically distinct named species being genetically similar, highlighting the need for a common marker. For example, a large number of cultured Symbiodinium strains have neither taxonomic identification, nor a common measure of diversity that can be used to compare this genus to other dinoflagellates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Internal Transcribed Spacer units 1 and 2 (ITS of the rDNA operon, as a high resolution marker for distinguishing species dinoflagellates in culture. In our study, from 78 different species, the ITS barcode clearly differentiated species from genera and could identify 96% of strains to a known species or sub-genus grouping. 8.3% showed evidence of being cryptic species. A quarter of strains identified had no previous species identification. The greatest levels of hidden biodiversity came from Scrippsiella and the Pfiesteriaceae family, whilst Heterocapsa strains showed a high level of mismatch to their given species name. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ITS marker was successful in confirming species, revealing hidden diversity in culture collections. This marker, however, may have limited use for environmental barcoding due to paralogues, the potential for unidentifiable chimaeras and priming across taxa. In these

  4. Using SSR Markers For Assessment Genetic Diversity And Detection Drought Escape Candidate Genes In Barley Lines (Hordeum Vulgare L.

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    Gougerdchi Vahideh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of genetic diversity using molecular markers is one of the primary and important steps in breeding programs. In this study, genetic diversity of 52 barley lines evaluated using 68 SSR primer pairs and 47 primer pairs produced clear and polymorphic banding pattern. In general, 153 polymorphic alleles detected. The number of observed polymorphic alleles varied from 2 to 9, with an average of 3.26 alleles per locus. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC ranged from 0.07 to 0.81, with an average of 0.45. In this research, SSR markers differentiated the studied lines efficiently. Using cluster analysis, studied barley lines divided into two groups. Genetic diversity was relatively corresponding with geographical origins, because the lines related to a country somewhat diverged from each other. Two-rowed Iranian and Chinese barleys classified in one subgroup. Also, most six-rowed barleys classified in one subgroup. Association mapping analysis was used to identify candidate genes for drought escape in barley lines and 16 informative markers were identified after which confirmation in other tests could be suitable for marker assisted breeding drought escape.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of Dendronephthya putteri (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) and useful candidate for developing DNA barcode markers of Dendronephthya species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyeon Sook; Choi, Eun Hwa; Jang, Kuem Hee; Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kim, Young Shin; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Dendronephthya putteri (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) which is an endangered species was completely sequenced. It is 18,853 bp in length and identical to those of Dendronephthya species in its gene arrangement and genome organization. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the mitochondrial genomes of the two D. putteri individuals obtained from this study and the previously reported one (GenBank accession number JQ290079) showed that they are identical perfectly. We found useful candidate for DNA barcode markers for D. putteri species identification. PMID:24083972

  6. High Resolution Discovery Proteomics Reveals Candidate Disease Progression Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anita Y. H.; Song, Qinghua; Liaw, Andy; Wiener, Matt; Paweletz, Cloud P.; Seeburger, Jeffrey L.; Li, Jenny; Meng, Fanyu; Deyanova, Ekaterina G.; Mazur, Matthew T.; Settlage, Robert E.; Zhao, Xuemei; Southwick, Katie; Du, Yi; Holder, Dan; Sachs, Jeffrey R.; Laterza, Omar F.; Dallob, Aimee; Chappell, Derek L.; Snyder, Karen; Modur, Vijay; King, Elizabeth; Joachim, Catharine; Bondarenko, Andrey Y.; Shearman, Mark; Soper, Keith A.; Smith, A. David; Potter, William Z.; Koblan, Ken S.; Sachs, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Disease modifying treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) constitute a major goal in medicine. Current trends suggest that biomarkers reflective of AD neuropathology and modifiable by treatment would provide supportive evidence for disease modification. Nevertheless, a lack of quantitative tools to assess disease modifying treatment effects remains a major hurdle. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biochemical markers such as total tau, p-tau and Ab42 are well established markers of AD; however, global quantitative biochemical changes in CSF in AD disease progression remain largely uncharacterized. Here we applied a high resolution open discovery platform, dMS, to profile a cross-sectional cohort of lumbar CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients versus those from non-AD/non-demented (control) patients. Multiple markers were identified to be statistically significant in the cohort tested. We selected two markers SME-1 (p<0.0001) and SME-2 (p = 0.0004) for evaluation in a second independent longitudinal cohort of human CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients and age-matched and case-matched control patients. In cohort-2, SME-1, identified as neuronal secretory protein VGF, and SME-2, identified as neuronal pentraxin receptor-1 (NPTXR), in AD were 21% (p = 0.039) and 17% (p = 0.026) lower, at baseline, respectively, than in controls. Linear mixed model analysis in the longitudinal cohort estimate a decrease in the levels of VGF and NPTXR at the rate of 10.9% and 6.9% per year in the AD patients, whereas both markers increased in controls. Because these markers are detected by mass spectrometry without the need for antibody reagents, targeted MS based assays provide a clear translation path for evaluating selected AD disease-progression markers with high analytical precision in the clinic. PMID:26270474

  7. Associations between inflammatory markers, candidate polymorphisms and physical performance in older Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiainen, Kristina; Thinggaard, Mikael; Jylhä, Marja; Bladbjerg, Else; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    than GG homozygotes. However, this gene variation seems to have only a minor role in explaining the associations between the levels of inflammatory markers and physical performance. When using twin pair analysis to test whether genetic factors in general account for this association, results showed...... studied here seem to explain the major part of the genetic proportion of this association....

  8. Candidate Gene Identification with SNP Marker-Based Fine Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene Co-4 in Common Bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Burt

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is an important fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Alleles at the Co-4 locus confer resistance to a number of races of C. lindemuthianum. A population of 94 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between resistant black bean genotype B09197 and susceptible navy bean cultivar Nautica was used to identify markers associated with resistance in bean chromosome 8 (Pv08 where Co-4 is localized. Three SCAR markers with known linkage to Co-4 and a panel of single nucleotide markers were used for genotyping. A refined physical region on Pv08 with significant association with anthracnose resistance identified by markers was used in BLAST searches with the genomic sequence of common bean accession G19833. Thirty two unique annotated candidate genes were identified that spanned a physical region of 936.46 kb. A majority of the annotated genes identified had functional similarity to leucine rich repeats/receptor like kinase domains. Three annotated genes had similarity to 1, 3-β-glucanase domains. There were sequence similarities between some of the annotated genes found in the study and the genes associated with phosphoinositide-specific phosphilipases C associated with Co-x and the COK-4 loci found in previous studies. It is possible that the Co-4 locus is structured as a group of genes with functional domains dominated by protein tyrosine kinase along with leucine rich repeats/nucleotide binding site, phosphilipases C as well as β-glucanases.

  9. Canine candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy: annotation of and polymorphic markers for 14 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oost Bernard A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dilated cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease occurring in humans and domestic animals and is characterized by dilatation of the left ventricle, reduced systolic function and increased sphericity of the left ventricle. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been observed in several, mostly large and giant, dog breeds, such as the Dobermann and the Great Dane. A number of genes have been identified, which are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in the human, mouse and hamster. These genes mainly encode structural proteins of the cardiac myocyte. Results We present the annotation of, and marker development for, 14 of these genes of the dog genome, i.e. α-cardiac actin, caveolin 1, cysteine-rich protein 3, desmin, lamin A/C, LIM-domain binding factor 3, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, phospholamban, sarcoglycan δ, titin cap, α-tropomyosin, troponin I, troponin T and vinculin. A total of 33 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms were identified for these canine genes and 11 polymorphic microsatellite repeats were developed. Conclusion The presented polymorphisms provide a tool to investigate the role of the corresponding genes in canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy by linkage analysis or association studies.

  10. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  11. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  12. Serum markers of the extracellular matrix remodelling reflect antifibrotic therapy in bile-duct ligated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JonelTrebicka

    2013-07-01

    Determination of ECM remodelling turnover markers in serum allowed a distinction between mild and severe fibrosis. With respect to statin therapy, the markers may serve as read-out for efficacy of anti-fibrotic treatment.

  13. Candidate SNP Markers of Chronopathologies Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Petr; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Suslov, Valentin; Sharypova, Ekaterina; Savinkova, Ludmila; Podkolodnaya, Olga; Podkolodny, Nikolay L.; Tverdokhleb, Natalya N.; Chadaeva, Irina; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Variations in human genome (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) may be associated with hereditary diseases, their complications, comorbidities, and drug responses. Using Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator presented in our previous paper, here we analyzed immediate surroundings of known SNP markers of diseases and identified several candidate SNP markers that can significantly change the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters, with circadian consequences. For example, rs572527200 may be related to asthma, where symptoms are circadian (worse at night), and rs367732974 may be associated with heart attacks that are characterized by a circadian preference (early morning). By the same method, we analyzed the 90 bp proximal promoter region of each protein-coding transcript of each human gene of the circadian clock core. This analysis yielded 53 candidate SNP markers, such as rs181985043 (susceptibility to acute Q fever in male patients), rs192518038 (higher risk of a heart attack in patients with diabetes), and rs374778785 (emphysema and lung cancer in smokers). If they are properly validated according to clinical standards, these candidate SNP markers may turn out to be useful for physicians (to select optimal treatment for each patient) and for the general population (to choose a lifestyle preventing possible circadian complications of diseases).

  14. Utility of a Novel Reflective Marker Visualized by Flash Photography for Assessment of Personnel Contamination During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Myreen E; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Mana, Thriveen S C; Jencson, Annette L; Koganti, Sreelatha; Alhmidi, Heba; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    In an experimental study, the frequency of contamination of healthcare personnel during removal of contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE) was similar for bacteriophage MS2 and a novel reflective marker visualized using flash photography. The reflective marker could be a useful tool to visualize and document personnel contamination during PPE removal. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:711-713. PMID:26976219

  15. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  16. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  17. DNA damage markers in dermal fibroblasts in vitro reflect chronological donor age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Croco, Eleonora; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Slagboom, P Eline; Sedivy, John M; Lorenzini, Antonello; Maier, Andrea B

    2016-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by an accumulation of cellular damage, which compromises the viability and function of cells and tissues. We aim to further explore the association between in vitro DNA damage markers and the chronological age of the donor, as well as long-lived family membership...... damage markers and long-lived family membership or cardiovascular disease. Results were comparable when fibroblasts were stressed in vitro with rotenone. In conclusion, we found that DNA damage foci of cultured fibroblasts are significantly associated with the chronological age, but not biological age...

  18. Statistical methods for analysis of coordination of chest wall motion using optical reflectance imaging of multiple markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, C. M.; Ghezzo, R. H.; Cala, S. J.; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, P. T.; Rochester, D. F.

    1994-07-01

    To analyze coordination of chest wall motion we have used principle component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) with respect to spirometry on the displacements of 93 optical reflective markers placed upon the chest wall (CW). Each marker is tracked at 10 Hz with an accuracy of 0.2 mm in each spatial dimension using the ELITE system (IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 11:943-949, 1985). PCA enables the degree of linear coordination between all of the markers to be assessed using the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance of the matrix of marker displacements in each dimension against time. Thus the number of linear degrees of freedom (DOF) which contribute more than a particular amount to the total variance can be determined and analyzed. MRA with respect to spirometrically measured lung volume changes enables identification of the CW points whose movement correlates best with lung volume. We have used this analysis to compare a quiet breathing sequence with one where tidal volume was increased fourfold involuntarily and show that the number of DOF with eigenvalues accounting for >5% of the covariance increased from 2 to 3. Also the point whose movement correlated best with lung volume changed from halfway down the lower costal margin to a more lateral point at the level of the bottom of the sternum. This quantification of CW coordination may be useful in analysis and staging of many respiratory disorders and is applicable to any nonrigid body motion where points can be tracked.

  19. Efficacy of marker vaccine candidate CP7 E2alf in piglets with maternally derived C-strain antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova; Nielsen, Jens; Strandbygaard, Bertel;

    2012-01-01

    Marker vaccines offer the possibility to differentiate classical swine fever (CSF) infected from CSF vaccinated animals based on serology and their implementation will ensure free trade with pigs. Therefore, new generations of promising marker vaccines have been developed, among them the chimeric...... intramuscularly with C-strain vaccine 4 weeks before farrowing. Thus, these piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly with CP7_E2alf at the age of 5 or 8 weeks. Subsequently, the piglets and their mock-vaccinated littermate controls were challenged 2 weeks post vaccination with highly virulent Classical swine fever...

  20. Testing of the OMERACT 8 draft validation criteria for a soluble biomarker reflecting structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature search on 5 candidate biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syversen, Silje W; Landewe, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée;

    2009-01-01

    the importance of each individual criterion; (2) overall strength of evidence in support of each of the 5 candidate biomarkers as reflecting structural damage endpoints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and identification of omissions to the criteria set. RESULTS: The search identified 111 articles. The...

  1. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism reflect osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, N; Glerup, H; Rungby, Jørgen;

    2000-01-01

    histomorphometric findings. MARKERS OF BONE FORMATION: Serum C-terminal propeptide of procollagen I (PICP) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) showed significant correlations with the dynamic parameters of bone formation (r=0.57-0.58), whereas serum osteocalcin and serum total AP did not. CYTOKINES......: Highly significant correlations were observed between marrow IL-6 and rates of bone resorption and activation frequency (r=0.76-0.82) and with serum ICTP (r=0.63). Minor, but also significant correlations were observed between the resorptive indices and IL-6sR and IL-1beta. The data indicate that...

  2. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  3. Identification of stem-like cells and clinical significance of candidate stem cell markers in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Mingzhu; Gan, Lu; Wu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jiejun; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yufan; Li, Jin; Guo, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    The existence of gastric cancer stem cells (CSCs) has not been definitively proven and specific cell surface markers for identifying gastric CSCs have largely not been identified. Our research aimed to isolate potential gastric CSCs and clarify their clinical significance, while defining markers for GCSC identification and verification. Here, we report that spheroid cells possess stem cell-like properties, and overexpress certain stem cell markers. CD133 or CD44-positive cells also exhibit properties of CSCs. The expression of Oct4, Sox2, Gli1, CD44, CD133, p-AKT, and p-ERK was significantly higher in metastatic lesions compared to that in primary lesions. Elevated expression of some of these proteins was correlated with a more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis, including Oct4, Sox2, Gli1, CD44, and p-ERK. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that only CD44 is an independent factor. Knockdown of CD44 down-regulated the stem cell-like properties, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of p-ERK and Oct4. Oct4 overexpression could reverse the decreased CSCs properties induced by CD44 knockdown. Taken together, our research revealed that spheroid cell culture, and CD133 or CD44-labeled FACS methods can be used to isolate gastric CSCs. Some CSC markers have clinical significance in predicting the prognosis. CD44 is an independent prognostic factor and maintains the properties of CSCs in CD44-p-ERK-Oct4 positive feedback loop. PMID:26769843

  4. Identification by a Digital Gene Expression Displayer (DGED) and test by RT-PCR analysis of new mRNA candidate markers for colorectal cancer in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Mattia; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Rosati, Giancarlo; Zanotti, Simone; Montroni, Isacco; Manaresi, Alessio; Zattoni, Davide; Rivetti, Stefano; Mattei, Gabriella; Coppola, Domenico; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Taffurelli, Mario; Solmi, Rossella

    2010-08-01

    Evidence from the literature widely supports the efficacy of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in reducing mortality. A blood-based assay, potentially, represents a more accessible early detection tool for the identification of circulating tumour cells originating from a primary tumour site in the body. The present work aimed at identifying a set of specific mRNAs expressed in colon tissue but not in blood cells. These mRNAs may represent useful markers for early detection of circulating colon cancer cells by a simple, qualitative RT-PCR assay, following RNA extraction from peripheral blood samples. Using a data-mining tool called cDNA digital gene expression displayer (DGED), based on serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) from the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) database, 4-colon and 14-blood cDNA libraries were analyzed. We selected 7 genes expressed in colon tissue but not in blood and were able to test 6 of them by RT-PCR in peripheral blood of CRC patients and healthy controls. We present a relatively easy and highly reproducible technique for the detection of mRNA expression of genes as candidate markers of malignancy in blood samples of patients with colon cancer. SAGE DGED provided a list of the best candidate mRNAs predicted to detect colon cells in the blood, namely those encoding the following proteins: hypothetical protein LOC644844 (LOC644844, whose cDNA was not amplifiable), fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), mucin 13 cell surface associated (MUC13), guanylate cyclase activator 2A (GUCA2A), amiloride binding protein 1 (ABP1), galactoside-binding, solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3). The mRNA expression of these genes was evaluated in 8 samples from subjects diagnosed with CRC and 9 from healthy controls. We observed the expression of 2 of the 6 investigated genes in the blood samples of the vast majority of patients considered, but also in a subset of the

  5. Serum markers of the extracellular matrix remodeling reflect antifibrotic therapy in bile-duct ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierwagen, Robert; Leeming, Diana Julie; Klein, Sabine; Granzow, Michaela; Nielsen, Mette J; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Krag, Aleksander; Karsdal, Morten A; Trebicka, Jonel

    reflect the stage of liver fibrosis and may allow monitoring of anti-fibrotic therapies. Here we analyzed these neo-epitopes as read-out for a liver directed therapy with statins. Methods: Bile duct ligation (BDL) was performed on wild type rats, which received atorvastatin (15 mg/kg(*)d) for 1 week...

  6. From Evaluation to Collaborative Reflection: Teacher Candidate Perceptions of a Digital Learner-Centered Classroom Observation Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raymond; Krutka, Daniel G.; Mason, Katherine; Bergman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to promote a more learner-centered approach to supervision, faculty members at a Midwestern U.S. university piloted a new digital classroom observation form. Participants included middle/secondary teacher candidates (N = 28) in their final semester of their programs. The overall goal of this study was to gather teacher candidates'…

  7. Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Debriefing Circles to Facilitate Self-Reflection during a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Rebecca A.; Brazo, Carol J.; Dixon, Kristin; Cevallos, Tatiana; Wortman, Shary

    2014-01-01

    This study followed 9 teacher candidates through a 3-week cultural immersion experience in which they volunteered in educational settings where they were not members of the majority culture. This learning experience was designed to help candidates better understand their culturally, ethnically, and linguistically diverse future students. A…

  8. Warm ischemic injury is reflected in the release of injury markers during cold preservation of the human liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bote G Bruinsma

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation plays a pivotal role in the treatment of patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite excellent outcomes, the field is strained by a severe shortage of viable liver grafts. To meet high demands, attempts are made to increase the use of suboptimal livers by both pretransplant recovery and assessment of donor livers. Here we aim to assess hepatic injury in the measurement of routine markers in the post-ischemic flush effluent of discarded human liver with a wide warm ischemic range.Six human livers discarded for transplantation with variable warm and cold ischemia times were flushed at the end of preservation. The liver grafts were flushed with NaCl or Lactated Ringer's, 2 L through the portal vein and 1 L through the hepatic artery. The vena caval effluent was sampled and analyzed for biochemical markers of injury; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine transaminase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Liver tissue biopsies were analyzed for ATP content and histologically (H&E examined.The duration of warm ischemia in the six livers correlated significantly to the concentration of LDH, ALT, and ALP in the effluent from the portal vein flush. No correlation was found with cold ischemia time. Tissue ATP content at the end of preservation correlated very strongly with the concentration of ALP in the arterial effluent (P<0.0007, R2 = 0.96.Biochemical injury markers released during the cold preservation period were reflective of the duration of warm ischemic injury sustained prior to release of the markers, as well as the hepatic energy status. As such, assessment of the flush effluent at the end of cold preservation may be a useful tool in evaluating suboptimal livers prior to transplantation, particularly in situations with undeterminable ischemic durations.

  9. Spectral reflectance of the ocular fundus as a diagnostic marker for cerebral malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Rice, David A.; Khoobehi, Bahram

    2012-03-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying malaria infection continues to impede our efforts to control this disease. Recent studies report highly specific retinal changes in severe malaria patients; these retinal changes may represent a very useful diagnostic indicator for this disease. To further explore the ocular manifestations of malaria, we used hyperspectral imaging to study retinal changes caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA parasitization in a mouse model. We collected the spectral reflectance of the ocular fundus from hyperspectral images of the mouse eye. The blood oxygen sensitive spectral region was normalized for variances in illumination, and used to calculate relative values that correspond to oxygenated hemoglobin levels. Oxygen hemoglobin levels are markedly lower in parasitized mice, indicating that hemoglobin digestion by P. berghei may be detected using spectral reflectance. Furthermore, the ocular reflectance of parasitized mice was abnormally elevated between 660nm and 750nm, suggesting fluorescence in this region. While the source of this fluorescence is not yet clear, its presence correlates strongly with P. Berghei parasitization, and may indicate the presence of hemozoin deposits in the retinal vasculature. The pathology of severe malaria still presents many questions for clinicians and scientists, and our understanding of cerebral malaria has been generally confined to clinical observation and postmortem examination. As the retina represents a portion of the central nervous system that can be easily examined noninvasively, our technique may provide the basis for an automated tool to detect and examine severe malaria via retinal changes.

  10. ADAM12 and PAPP-A: Candidate regulators of trophoblast invasion and first trimester markers of healthy trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christians, Julian K; Beristain, Alexander G

    2016-03-01

    Proper placental development and function is crucial for a healthy pregnancy, and there has been substantial research to identify markers of placental dysfunction for the early detection of pregnancy complications. Low first-trimester levels of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) have been consistently associated with the subsequent development of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. These molecules are both metalloproteinases secreted by the placenta that cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), although ADAM12 also has numerous other substrates. Recent work has identified ADAM12, and particularly its shorter variant, ADAM12S, as a regulator of the migration and invasion of trophoblasts into the lining of the uterus, a critical step in normal placental development. While the mechanisms underlying this regulation are not yet clear, they may involve the liberation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and/or IGFs from IGFBPs. In contrast, there has been relatively little functional work examining PAPP-A or the IGFBP substrates of ADAM12 and PAPP-A. Understanding the functions of these markers and the mechanisms underlying their association with disease could improve screening strategies and enable the development of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:26417939

  11. Proteomic profiling of pretreatment serum from HIV-infected patients identifies candidate markers predictive of lymphoma development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Ludvigsen, Maja; Bendix, Knud;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of developing lymphoma. We sought to identify markers predictive of lymphoma development by comparing protein expression patterns in serum obtained at the time of HIV diagnosis from patients who later developed malignant lymphoma or benig...... protein spots were detected. Using principal components analysis, spots containing immunoglobulin J chain, apolipoprotein A-I, procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer-1 and complement C4-A were associated with lymphoma development (P...... lymphadenopathy, with samples from patients with no subsequent history of neoplasia. Design: All patients were identified retrospectively from the Danish HIV cohort. Methods: Serum samples (N=21), obtained at time of HIV diagnosis, were subjected to high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...

  12. Exploring the Inner and Outer Cultural Landscapes of Counseling Candidates towards Diverse Students and Families through Self-Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Adonay A.; Rodriguez-Valls, Fernando; Schroeder, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interpersonal methodology designed to increase the cultural awareness of counselor candidates. This methodology was implemented through a sequence of activities, which was part of a multicultural course in the counseling credential program in a university located in Southern California. The goal was to enrich future…

  13. aThe dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 is a potential marker of poor survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dyslexia candidate gene, DYX1C1, shown to regulate and interact with estrogen receptors and involved in the regulation of neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker. This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value and therapy-predictive potential of DYX1C1 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer. DYX1C1 mRNA expression was assessed at the mRNA level in three independent population-derived patient cohorts. An association to estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Elston grade, gene expression subtype and lymph node status was analyzed within these cohorts. DYX1C1 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in cancer and normal breast tissue. The statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model. DYX1C1 mRNA is significantly more highly expressed in tumors that have been classified as estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor-positive. The expression of DYX1C1 among the molecular subtypes shows the lowest median expression within the basal type tumors, which are considered to have the worst prognosis. The expression of DYX1C1 is significantly lower in tumors graded as Elston grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2. DYX1C1 protein is expressed in 88% of tumors and in all 10 normal breast tissues examined. Positive protein expression was significantly correlated to overall survival (Hazard ratio 3.44 [CI 1.84-6.42]) of the patients but not to any of the variables linked with mRNA expression. We show that the expression of DYX1C1 in breast cancer is associated with several clinicopathological parameters and that loss of DYX1C1 correlates with a more aggressive disease, in turn indicating that DYX1C1 is a potential prognostic biomarker in breast cancer

  14. Transforming beliefs and practices: Elementary teacher candidates' development through shared authentic teaching and reflection experiences within an innovative science methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kara

    Elementary teachers are criticized for failing to incorporate meaningful science instruction in their classrooms or avoiding science instruction altogether. The lack of adequate science instruction in elementary schools is partially attributed to teacher candidates' anxiety, poor content and pedagogical preparation, and low science teaching self-efficacy. The central premise of this study was that many of these issues could be alleviated through course modifications designed to address these issues. The design tested and presented here provided prospective elementary educators' authentic science teaching experiences with elementary students in a low-stakes environment with the collaboration of peers and science teacher educators. The process of comprehensive reflection was developed for and tested in this study. Comprehensive reflection is individual and collective, written and set in dialogic discourse, focused on past and future behavior, and utilizes video recordings from shared teaching experiences. To test the central premise, an innovative science methods course was designed, implemented and evaluated using a one-group mixed-method design. The focus of the analysis was on changes in self-efficacy, identity and teaching practices as a function of authentic science teaching experiences and comprehensive reflection. The quantitative tools for analysis were t-tests and repeated-measures ANOVA on the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) and weekly self-rating on confidence as a learner and a teacher of science, respectively. The tools used to analyze qualitative data included thematic analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. In addition, theoretically grounded tools were developed and used in a case study to determine the ways one prospective educator's science teaching identity was influenced by experiences in the course. The innovative course structure led the development of teacher candidates' science teaching identity

  15. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection

  16. Octupole degree of freedom for the critical-point candidate nucleus 152Sm in a reflection-asymmetric relativistic mean-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy surfaces of even-even 146-156Sm are investigated in the constrained reflection-asymmetric relativistic mean-field approach with parameter set PK1. It is shown that the critical-point candidate nucleus 152Sm marks the shape/phase transition not only from U(5) to SU(3) symmetry, but also from the octupole-deformed ground state in 150Sm to the quadrupole-deformed ground state in 154Sm. By including the octupole degree of freedom, an energy gap near the Fermi surface for single-particle levels in 152Sm with β2=0.14∼0.26 is found and the important role of the octupole deformation driving pair ν2f7/2 and ν1i13/2 is demonstrated.

  17. The FAGenomicH project: towards a whole candidate gene approach to identify markers associated with fatness and production traits in pigs and investigate the pig as a model for human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatness in pigs is a complex trait for which a large number of genes are expected to be involved. Genetics of human obesity could take advantages from genetic information coming from the pig and vice versa. To these aims, a comprehensive candidate gene approach could be helpful. We catalogued all genes affecting fatness on both species, and identified in silico and by resequencing porcine SNPs on a large number of candidate genes. In addition, we applied a selective genotyping approach to identify markers associated with fat deposition in pigs. This approach was tested genotyping the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A mutation and novel markers in the PCSK1 and TBC1D1 genes. Polymorphisms in these genes resulted associated with back fat thickness in Italian Large White pigs.

  18. Candidate SNP Markers of Gender-Biased Autoimmune Complications of Monogenic Diseases Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail P.; Arkova, Olga; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Ponomarenko, Petr; Savinkova, Ludmila; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Some variations of human genome [for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] are markers of hereditary diseases and drug responses. Analysis of them can help to improve treatment. Computer-based analysis of millions of SNPs in the 1000 Genomes project makes a search for SNP markers more targeted. Here, we combined two computer-based approaches: DNA sequence analysis and keyword search in databases. In the binding sites for TATA-binding protein (TBP) in human gene promoters, we found candidate SNP markers of gender-biased autoimmune diseases, including rs1143627 [cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis (double prevalence among women)]; rs11557611 [demyelinating diseases (thrice more prevalent among young white women than among non-white individuals)]; rs17231520 and rs569033466 [both: atherosclerosis comorbid with related diseases (double prevalence among women)]; rs563763767 [Hughes syndrome-related thrombosis (lethal during pregnancy)]; rs2814778 [autoimmune diseases (excluding multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis) underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women]; rs72661131 and rs562962093 (both: preterm delivery in pregnant diabetic women); and rs35518301, rs34166473, rs34500389, rs33981098, rs33980857, rs397509430, rs34598529, rs33931746, rs281864525, and rs63750953 (all: autoimmune diseases underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women). Validation of these predicted candidate SNP markers using the clinical standards may advance personalized medicine. PMID:27092142

  19. Obesity-related known and candidate SNP markers can significantly change affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Arkova, Olga V; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P.; Rasskazov, Dmitry A; Drachkova, Irina A; Arshinova, Tatjana V; Petr M. Ponomarenko; Ludmila K. Savinkova; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity affects quality of life and life expectancy and is associated with cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, reproductive disorders in women, prostate diseases in men, and congenital anomalies in children. The use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of diseases and drug responses (i.e., significant differences of personal genomes of patients from the reference human genome) can help physicians to improve treatment. Clinical research can validate SNP markers vi...

  20. Recruitment of HIV-1 target cells at topical mucosal sites: a sensitive and early marker for determining the safety of microbicide candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liangzhu; Ben, Yinyin; Yuan, Songhua; Liu, Aiping; Wu, Huanmei; Xu, Jianqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    To explore early biomarkers for establishing more sensitive safety evaluation assays in preclinical settings that determine the potential risks during the application of microbicide candidates, three representative microbicide candidates (cellulose sulphate, nonoxynol-9 and tenofovir), whose safety profiles have been well established in clinical trials, were included to gauge the sensitivities of different assays. Both mouse models and cell lines were employed to determine the sensitivities. ...

  1. Recruitment of HIV-1 target cells at topical mucosal sites: a sensitive and early marker for determining the safety of microbicide candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangzhu; Ben, Yinyin; Yuan, Songhua; Liu, Aiping; Wu, Huanmei; Xu, Jianqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2013-07-01

    To explore early biomarkers for establishing more sensitive safety evaluation assays in preclinical settings that determine the potential risks during the application of microbicide candidates, three representative microbicide candidates (cellulose sulphate, nonoxynol-9 and tenofovir), whose safety profiles have been well established in clinical trials, were included to gauge the sensitivities of different assays. Both mouse models and cell lines were employed to determine the sensitivities. The recruitment of immune cells at topical mucosal sites and the upregulation of HIV receptor/coreceptors in vitro were identified as highly sensitive biomarkers of the impact of microbicide candidates. Our data suggest that different evaluations/assays have their inherent sensitivities, and at least one assay from each sensitivity level should be included in the safety evaluation algorithm. PMID:26038476

  2. Mapping of STS markers developed from drought tolerance candidate genes and preliminary analysis of their association with yield-related traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is a severe abiotic stress that affects wheat production worldwide. In order to identify candidate genes for tolerance to water stress in wheat, sequences of 11 genes that have function of drought tolerance in other plant species were used to identify the wheat ortholog genes via homology se...

  3. Expression of cancer stem cell surface markers after chemotherapeutic drug treatment to reflect breast cancer cell regrowth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu; Wings Tjing Yung Loo; Louis Wing Cheong Chow; Kelly Wei Yu Rui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the cell viability and the expressions of stem cell surface markers after chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Methods We observed the cytotoxic effects of three chemotherapeutic agents [ epirubicin ( Epi ) , fluorouracil ( 5-FU ) and cyclophosphamide ( Cyc ) ] in three cell lines, and the cell viabilities after removed these chemotherapeutic agents. Expressions of stem cell surface markers CD44, CD24, CD90, CD14 and aldehyde dehydrogenase1(ALDH1) in breast cancer cells were analyzed by real-time PCR. The post hoc analysis (Tukey’s tests) in conjunction with one-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results The initial cytotoxic efficacy was most notable. After the treatment of the same therapeutic agents, cell viability was decreased by 64. 8% 35. 14%, 32. 25% in BT-483 cells, 66. 4%, 22. 94% and 45. 88% in MDA-MB-231 cells, 97. 1%, 99. 5% and 76. 4% in MCF cells. The difference was significant compared with that before treatment ( P=0. 000 ) . However, the inhibitory effects were diminished after chemotherapeutic agent withdrawal. Cell viabilities were increased to 167. 9%, 212. 04% and 188. 66% in MDA-MB-231 cells at 48 h after withdrawal. At 72 h after withdrawal, cell viability was increased with a significant difference in three cell lines (all P values=0. 000). Expressions of CD44 and ALDH1 were most prevalent for MDA-MB-231, BT-483 and MCF-7 cells. ALDH1 mRNA level was significant higher in BT-483 ( HER-2 overexpression cell line) than MDA-MB-231 ( triple negative cell line ) ( P = 0. 012 ) . CD14 mRNA level in MCF-7 cells were significantly lower than that in MDA-MB-231 and BT-483 (P=0. 003, 0. 001). BT-483 showed significantly higher level of CD44 than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell line (P= 0.013, 0.020), and no significant difference was detected between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells ( P=0. 955 ) . CD90 mRNA expressions were detected in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells, but not in BT-483 cells. Conclusion Some malignant

  4. Glenohumeral joint kinematics measured by intracortical pins, reflective markers, and computed tomography: A novel technique to assess acromiohumeral distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, Fabien; Blache, Yoann; Raison, Maxime; Lundberg, Arne; Begon, Mickaël

    2016-08-01

    Combination of biplane fluoroscopy and CT-scan provides accurate 3D measurement of the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) during dynamic tasks. However, participants performed only two and six trials in previous experiments to respect the recommended radiation exposure per year. Our objective was to propose a technique to assess the AHD in 3D during dynamic tasks without this limitation. The AHD was computed from glenohumeral kinematics obtained using markers fitted to pins drilled into the scapula and the humerus combined with 3D bone geometry obtained using CT-scan. Four participants performed range-of-motion, daily-living, and sports activities. Sixty-six out of 158trials performed by each participant were analyzed. Two participants were not considered due to experimental issues. AHD decreased with arm elevation. Overall, the smallest AHD occurred in abduction (1.1mm (P1) and 1.2mm (P2)). The smallest AHD were 2.4mm (P1) and 3.1mm (P2) during ADL. It was 2.8mm (P1) and 1.1mm (P2) during sports activities. The humeral head greater and lesser tuberosities came the nearest to the acromion. The proposed technique increases the number of trials acquired during one experiment compared to previous. The identification of movements maximizing AHD is possible, which may provide benefits for shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:26263837

  5. QTL analysis using SNP markers developed by next-generation sequencing for identification of candidate genes controlling 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate contents in roots of radish, Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Zou

    Full Text Available SNP markers for QTL analysis of 4-MTB-GSL contents in radish roots were developed by determining nucleotide sequences of bulked PCR products using a next-generation sequencer. DNA fragments were amplified from two radish lines by multiplex PCR with six primer pairs, and those amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were mixed and sequenced. By assembling sequence data, 1,953 SNPs in 750 DNA fragments, 437 of which have been previously mapped in a linkage map, were identified. A linkage map of nine linkage groups was constructed with 188 markers, and five QTLs were detected in two F(2 populations, three of them accounting for more than 50% of the total phenotypic variance being repeatedly detected. In the identified QTL regions, nine SNP markers were newly produced. By synteny analysis of the QTLs regions with Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa genome sequences, three candidate genes were selected, i.e., RsMAM3 for production of aliphatic glucosinolates linked to GSL-QTL-4, RsIPMDH1 for leucine biosynthesis showing strong co-expression with glucosinolate biosynthesis genes linked to GSL-QTL-2, and RsBCAT4 for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase linked to GSL-QTL-1. Nucleotide sequences and expression of these genes suggested their possible function in 4MTB-GSL biosynthesis in radish roots.

  6. KILOPARSEC-SCALE SPATIAL OFFSETS IN DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. MARKERS FOR SELECTION OF COMPELLING DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merger-remnant galaxies with kiloparsec (kpc) scale separation dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) should be widespread as a consequence of galaxy mergers and triggered gas accretion onto supermassive black holes, yet very few dual AGNs have been observed. Galaxies with double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are plausible dual AGN candidates, but their double-peaked profiles could also be the result of gas kinematics or AGN-driven outflows and jets on small or large scales. To help distinguish between these scenarios, we have obtained spatial profiles of the AGN emission via follow-up long-slit spectroscopy of 81 double-peaked narrow-line AGNs in SDSS at 0.03 ≤ z ≤ 0.36 using Lick, Palomar, and MMT Observatories. We find that all 81 systems exhibit double AGN emission components with ∼kpc projected spatial separations on the sky (0.2 h–170 kpc –170 kpc; median Δx = 1.1 h–170 kpc), which suggests that they are produced by kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs or kiloparsec-scale outflows, jets, or rotating gaseous disks. Further, the objects split into two subpopulations based on the spatial extent of the double emission components and the correlation between projected spatial separations and line-of-sight velocity separations. These results suggest that the subsample (58+5–6%) of the objects with spatially compact emission components may be preferentially produced by dual AGNs, while the subsample (42+6–5%) with spatially extended emission components may be preferentially produced by AGN outflows. We also find that for 32+8–6% of the sample the two AGN emission components are preferentially aligned with the host galaxy major axis, as expected for dual AGNs orbiting in the host galaxy potential. Our results both narrow the list of possible physical mechanisms producing the double AGN components, and suggest several observational criteria for selecting the most promising dual AGN candidates from the full sample of double

  7. ZDHHC8 as a candidate gene for schizophrenia: Analysis of a putative functional intronic marker in case-control and family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabs Burkhard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosome 22q11 region is proposed as a major candidate locus for susceptibility genes to schizophrenia. Recently, the gene ZDHHC8 encoding a putative palmitoyltransferase at 22q11 was proposed to increase liability to schizophrenia based on both animal models and human association studies by significant over-transmission of allele rs175174A in female, but not male subjects with schizophrenia. Methods Given the genetic complexity of schizophrenia and the potential genetic heterogeneity in different populations, we examined rs175174 in 204 German proband-parent triads and in an independent case-control study (schizophrenic cases: n = 433; controls: n = 186. Results In the triads heterozygous parents transmitted allele G preferentially to females, and allele A to males (heterogeneity χ2 = 4.43; p = 0.035. The case-control sample provided no further evidence for overall or gender-specific effects regarding allele and genotype frequency distributions. Conclusion The findings on rs175174 at ZDHHC8 are still far from being conclusive, but evidence for sexual dimorphism is moderate, and our data do not support a significant genetic contribution of rs175174 to the aetiopathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  8. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Seldüz Hakan; Seldüz Emine

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting proces...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF CANDIDATE GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN AN IMMUNE RESPONSE AS MARKERS FOR THE RISK OF DEVELOPING RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND PRODUCING AUTOANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Guseva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the distribution of the genotypes and alleles of the PTPN22, TNFAIP3, CTLA4, TNFA, IL6, IL6R, IL10, MCP1, and ICAM1 genes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and in the control group of healthy individuals, to estimate their significance as molecular genetic markers for predisposition to RA; and to analyze the correlation between the gene polymorphisms included in the study and the production of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCPA and IgM rheumatoid factor (RF.Subjects and methods. The investigation was conducted within the framework of the «Early arthritis: Diagnosis, outcome, criteria, active treatment program». The prospective follow-up study included 122 patients with RA fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria; with disease duration of ≤ 2 years. 73 (59.8% patients were included during the first 6 months after the onset of the disease. 74 (60.7% and 81 (66.5% patients were found to be positive for ACCPA and IgM RF, respectively. 314 healthy blood donors served as a control group. A real-time polymerase chain reaction was used in the patients and control individuals to study the distribution of the polymorphic variants of PTPN22 (+1858 C >T, rs2476601, TNFAIP3 (rs675520, rs6920220, rs10499194, CTLA4 (+49A>G, rs231775 , TNFА (-308A>G, rs1800629, IL6 (-174G>C, rs1800795, IL6R (+358A>C, rs8192284, IL10 (-592A>C, rs1800872, -1082 A>G, rs1800896, MCP1/CCL2 (+2518A>G, rs1024611, and ICAM1 (721G>A, rs1799969 genes. Results and discussion. This analysis revealed an association of PTPN22 (+1858 C >T, rs2476601 and TNFAIP3 (rs675520, rs10499194 polymorphisms with the risk of RA (odds ratio (OR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.0–2.3; p = 0.05; OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0; p = 0.02; OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4–0.8; p = 0.01, respectively. Further, there was a tendency towards a positive association of TNFAIP3 (rs6920220 and IL6R (rs8192284 polymorphisms with a predisposition

  10. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seldüz Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting process. A survey is conducted over students of the related vocational school in Aksaray University. The results indicate no significant difference on students’ perceptions in terms of their school year, high school type, job or internship experience and intention to perform the profession after graduation. These results can be traced to inadequacy of present curriculums and internship programs which can’t create a difference. Based on the results, the content of internship applications is rearranged and an optional subject named as “Accounting and Reporting Standards” is established.

  11. The Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, John C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The Candidate is an attempt to marry elements of journalism and gaming into a format that both entertains and educates the player. The Google-AP Scholarship, a new scholarship award that is given to several journalists a year to work on projects at the threshold of technology and journalism, funded the project. The objective in this prototype version of the game is to put the player in the shoes of a congressional candidate during an off-year election, specificall...

  12. Candidíase oral e leucoplasia pilosa como marcadores de progressão da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes brasileiros Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia as progression markers of HIV infection in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Candidíase oral (CO e leucoplasia pilosa (LP são importantes indicadores da progressão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV para o quadro de AIDS, principalmente em locais onde exames específicos são inacessíveis. OBJETO: Relacionar CO e LP ao número de células CD4+ e à carga viral (CV em pacientes brasileiros HIV-positivos, confirmando-as como marcadores clínicos confiáveis de progressão da doença. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente 124 pacientes HIV-positivos, isentos de terapia antiretroviral. Todos foram submetidos a exame ORL, dosagem de células CD4+ e CV, sendo divididos em dois grupos: P e A, de acordo com a presença ou ausência de CO e LP. Depois de seis meses, os pacientes do grupo A foram subdivididos nos subgrupos P6 (presença de lesões e A6. Dosamos novamente CD4+ e carga viral. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: No grupo P (43 pacientes, 28 CO e 15 LP a contagem de células CD4+ foi menor e a carga viral maior em relação ao grupo A (pOral candidiasis (OC and hairy leukoplakia (HL are important markers of HIV (Human Imunodeficiency syndrome infection progression for AIDS, mainly in locals where specific tests are inacessible. AIM: to intertwine OC and HL to CD4+ counting and to viral charge (VC on HIV positive brazilian patients, confirming them as trustworthy clinical markers of the disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we have prospectively evaluated 124 HIV+ patients not in use of antiretroviral therapy. All of them have undertaken otorrhinolaringologic examination and CD4+ and VC counting, being divided in two groups: P and A, accordingly to presence or absence of OC and HL. After six months, patients belonging to the A group were re-divided on groups P6 (presence of lesions and A6 (absence of lesions. Again, CD4+ and VC were counted. The results were statistically

  13. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). Markers - Reflections on Inter-generational Warnings in the Form of Japanese Tsunami Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As states with nuclear power programmes are, or intend to become, engaged in planning the disposal of their high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in deep geological repositories, means to ensure that future generations will be aware of these repositories and not disturb them are being studied. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations, launched in March 2010, is the relevant initiative under the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee in this area. Its several years of work and findings are documented online at www.oecdnea. org/rwm/rkm. A strategy of communicating important information to future generations must be based on several complementary means and approaches. Markers placed in the vicinity of closed repositories represent one potential component of this strategy. The RK and M initiative's glossary defines a marker as 'a long-lasting object that indicates an area of influence, power or danger. It is placed strategically at or near the site for immediate recognition or for discovery at a later time'. Markers are meant to reach future generations in the medium (a few hundred years) to long term (hundred thousand of years) and are conceived to be immobile (that is, in permanent association with a site), robust (in order to maximize survivability on its own) and provide messages that are likely to be understandable across generations. A marking system can range from a simple stone to a contrived and monumental multi-component system. The present report seeks to develop the understanding of the potential effectiveness of makers drawing from the study of the role that stone markers played in Japan during the Tohoku tsunami event of 2011. There are hundreds such markers placed at various epochs on Japan's north-eastern coast to warn future generations about the dangers of tsunamis. The existence of markers for recurrent, destructive events may help save lives, as in the case of the villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi

  14. The Paramountcy of EU Law Over National Law The Extent to which Lyon’s Statements Reflect on the Relationship between EU and Domestic Law within the UK and Candidate States such as Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbi Ago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As we live in a world that is becoming ever more globalized, it is unavoidable to consider the effect supranational entities and globalization itself have on the national sovereignty of the state. The EU is probably the most well-known example of a supranational entity and as such it cannot help but bring about a number of sides regarding its power over its members. There are many that would claim the EU has undermined national sovereignty, especially when it comes to the legal sphere. The issue at hand has been addressed by scholars such as Dr. Anne Lyon and this paper is a direct analysis of her statement regarding paramountcy. In summation, Lyon has stated that EU law has undermined national law. This has happened due to a number of reasons, one of which is the passing of a parliamentary Act intending to prioritize EU law. At this point, shall they need to provide otherwise, it is quite an argument to claim whether they could give effect to national law instead. Therefore, it has become necessary to consider the extent to which these statements reflect the relationship between EU law and ‘domestic’ laws within the UK and try and apply to the legal future of candidate states, such as Albania. This paper analyzes the two parts of Lyon’s argument, namely the paramountcy and parliamentary aspects of the issue, while also aiming to provide a framework on which future candidate states such as Albania can work on in order to achieve a more efficient assimilation into the EU legal system together with the forewarnings necessary shall they wish the opposite.

  15. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  16. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines on a variety of topics, including tumor markers for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and others. The ... of recurrence 70-Gene signature (Mammaprint®) Cancer type: Breast ... Can tumor markers be used in cancer screening? Because tumor markers ...

  17. mgm 1, the earliest sex-specific germline marker in Drosophila, reflects expression of the gene esg in male stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adrian; Bernasconi, Luca; Sergeev, Pavel; Cruz, Alex; Steinmann-Zwicky, Monica

    2002-01-01

    The pathway that controls sex in Drosophila has been well characterized. The elements of this genetic hierarchy act cell-autonomously in somatic cells. We have previously shown that the sex of germ cells is determined by a different mechanism and that somatic and autonomously acting elements interact to control the choice between spermatogenesis and oogenesis. A target for both types of signals is the enhancer-trap mgm1, which monitors male-specific gene expression in germ cells. Here we report that mgm1 reflects the expression of escargot (esg), a member of the snail gene family, which are transcription factors with zink finger motifs. Genes of this family partially redundantly control a number of processes involving cell fate choices. The regulation of gene expression in germ cells by sex-specific esg enhancers is already seen in embryos. Therefore, autonomous and non-autonomous sex-specific factors that participate in germline sex determination are already present at this early stage. esg is expressed in the male gonad, both in somatic cells and in germline stem cells. We show that esg expression in the male germline is not required for proper sex determination and spermatogenesis, as functional sperm is differentiated by mutant germ cells in wild type hosts. However, somatic esg expression is required for the maintenance of male germline stem cells. PMID:11902678

  18. Circulating thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 17 is a strong candidate diagnostic marker for interstitial lung disease in patients with malignant tumors: a result from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane H; Ochi N; Yamagishi T; Honda Y; Takeyama M; Takigawa N

    2015-01-01

    Hiromichi Yamane, Nobuaki Ochi, Tomoko Yamagishi, Yoshihiro Honda, Masami Takeyama, Nagio TakigawaDepartment of General Internal Medicine 4, Kawasaki Medical School, Kita-ku, Okayama, JapanIntroduction: Serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) level is an established diagnostic marker of interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, it is also elevated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The significance of circulating thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CC chemokine liga...

  19. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  20. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...... previously associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier...... views of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that...

  1. Identification of an Interaction between VWF rs7965413 and Platelet Count as a Novel Risk Marker for Metabolic Syndrome: An Extensive Search of Candidate Polymorphisms in a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yasunori; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kawai, Shun; Kato, Ryuji; Nakashima, Toru; Iwata, Masamitsu; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Ando, Masahiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Takaaki; Oda, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Mutsuharu; Kato, Sawako; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Maruyama, Shoichi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), there was only a slight improvement in the ability to predict future MetS by the simply addition of SNPs to clinical risk markers. To improve the ability to predict future MetS, combinational effects, such as SNP—SNP interaction, SNP—environment interaction, and SNP—clinical parameter (SNP × CP) interaction should be also considered. We performed a case-control study to explore novel SNP × CP interactions as risk markers for MetS based on health check-up data of Japanese male employees. We selected 99 SNPs that were previously reported to be associated with MetS and components of MetS; subsequently, we genotyped these SNPs from 360 cases and 1983 control subjects. First, we performed logistic regression analyses to assess the association of each SNP with MetS. Of these SNPs, five SNPs were significantly associated with MetS (P < 0.05): LRP2 rs2544390, rs1800592 between UCP1 and TBC1D9, APOA5 rs662799, VWF rs7965413, and rs1411766 between MYO16 and IRS2. Furthermore, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses, including an SNP term, a CP term, and an SNP × CP interaction term for each CP and SNP that was significantly associated with MetS. We identified a novel SNP × CP interaction between rs7965413 and platelet count that was significantly associated with MetS [SNP term: odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, P = 0.004; SNP × CP interaction term: OR = 1.33, P = 0.001]. This association of the SNP × CP interaction with MetS remained nominally significant in multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for either the number of MetS components or MetS components excluding obesity. Our results reveal new insight into platelet count as a risk marker for MetS. PMID:25646961

  2. Reflecting on Cherenkov reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, D.; Gaug, M.; Oliva, P.

    2007-01-01

    Magic Telescope may observe and reveal at horizons lights from air-shower Cherenkov reflections. The ground, the sea, the cloudy sky (below the mountain) may reflect PeVs-EeV UHECR Cherenkov lights observable by MAGIC telescopes. Even rarest UHE neutrino skimming the atmosphere or skimming the Earth may induce upward-horizontal airshowers: a new Neutrino Astronomy. These fluorescence signals or the Cherenkov reflections in upper cloudy sky may flash in correlated BL-Lac or GRB shining at oppo...

  3. Circulating thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 17 is a strong candidate diagnostic marker for interstitial lung disease in patients with malignant tumors: a result from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamane H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiromichi Yamane, Nobuaki Ochi, Tomoko Yamagishi, Yoshihiro Honda, Masami Takeyama, Nagio TakigawaDepartment of General Internal Medicine 4, Kawasaki Medical School, Kita-ku, Okayama, JapanIntroduction: Serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6 level is an established diagnostic marker of interstitial lung disease (ILD. However, it is also elevated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The significance of circulating thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17 in malignant diseases remains unknown.Methods: We measured circulating TARC/CCL17 and KL-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, in 26 patients with malignant disease and six patients with benign lung disease (BLD. The cutoff levels were 500 U/mL for KL-6 and 450 pg/mL for TARC/CCL17. The significance of the markers was evaluated in relationship to the presence of ILD (n=10. The statistical significance was set at P<0.05.Results: The KL-6 positive ratio was significantly higher in the patients with NSCLC (n=17 than in those with BLD. There was a significant difference in the KL-6 positive ratio between the patients with NSCLC without ILD and those with BLD without ILD. However, there were no significant differences in the TARC/CCL17 positive ratio between the patients with NSCLC and BLD or between those with NSCLC without ILD and those with BLD without ILD. The TARC/CCL17 positive ratio was significantly higher in the patients with malignancy and ILD than in those without ILD. There was also a significant difference in the TARC/CCL17 positive ratio between the patients with NSCLC without ILD and those with ILD.Conclusion: TARC/CCL17 may be useful for the diagnosis of ILD in patients with malignancies. Confirmation of the results is warranted through a large-scale study.Keywords: thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 17, Krebs von den Lungen-6, interstitial lung

  4. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  5. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  6. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  7. Reflective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  8. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  9. A comparison of a short half-life marker (low-dose isoniazid), a long half-life pharmacological indicator (low-dose phenobarbitone) and measurements of a controlled release 'therapeutic drug' (metoprolol, Metoros) in reflecting incomplete compliance by volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, E.; Kumar, S; Peaker, S; Feely, M; Pullar, T

    1990-01-01

    1. Although, long half-life compounds appear to be more appropriate pharmacological indicators of compliance with treatment, short half-life markers or measurements of short half-life therapeutic drugs are frequently used. 2. We have compared the usefulness of low-dose phenobarbitone (a long half-life indicator), low dose isoniazid (a short half-life marker) and controlled release metoprolol (Metros) (a controlled release formulation of a short half-life 'therapeutic' drug) in seven volunteer...

  10. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  11. Reflection, Reflective Practice and Embodied Reflective Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Jennifer S; Bailey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Although widely employed in professional practice of all kinds, ‘reflection’ and ‘reflective practice’ can be considered ‘success words’. That is, they elicit positive and supportive responses and yet the concepts are vague, ill-defined, contradictory and reflective skills can be hard to teach. Using examples from education and somatic movement therapy, we argue that a purely analytical approach to reflective practice that involves reflecting on thoughts alone is likely to lead into a negativ...

  12. Reflection Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  13. Novel expression of CST1 as candidate senescence marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Daniel; Zhang, Jun; Bihani, Teeru; Lin, Athena W

    2011-07-01

    Senescent cells exhibit altered expression of numerous genes. Identifying the significance of the changes in gene expression may help advance our understanding of the senescence biology. Here, we report on the consistent and strong upregulation of CST1 expression during cellular senescence, independent of the initial trigger. CST1 expression at both the messenger RNA and protein levels was barely detected in control cells, which included early passage proliferating, quiescent, or immortal human fibroblasts and various human tumor cell lines. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence cytochemical studies further suggest that CST1 accumulates intracellularly, within vesicular structures. We discuss these results in light of the known function of CST1 as a potent inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases. PMID:21636832

  14. Identifying Evidence of Reflective Ability in Preservice Teacher Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzen, James

    2011-01-01

    Results of this study identified "evidence markers" that characterize reflection in preservice teacher electronic portfolios. Examples of such markers include openness to self-learning, willingness to self-critique, analytical detail of reflections, and taking responsibility for pupil learning challenges. To identify the markers, school of…

  15. Watching Teacher Candidates Watch Themselves: Reflections on a Practicum Program in Turkey Observación de candidatos a profesores que se observan a sí mismos: reflexiones sobre un programa de práctica docente en Turquía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumru Akcan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings of a study that investigates pre-service English teachers' reflections on their teaching performance after watching their videotaped lessons in company with their university supervisor. This study, conducted during the spring semester practicum program in the 2007-2008 academic year, examines how the teacher candidates felt about their teaching while watching a video of a real lesson taught in a classroom. The findings of this study suggest that after the teacher candidates watched their own teaching with the supervisor, they made specific comments about teacher talk and about students' participation and interest in the lesson. The findings also show that the use of video recording in the practicum program provided opportunities for reflection and helped teacher candidates evaluate their performance more critically.Este artículo presenta los hallazgos de un estudio que investiga las reflexiones de futuros profesores de inglés respecto a su desempeño docente después de haber visto con su asesor de practica de la universidad las grabaciones de sus propias clases. Este estudio, realizado durante la práctica semestral de primavera en el periodo académico 2007-2008, examina como se sintieron los practicantes respecto a su forma de ensenar cuando veían un video de una clase dictada en un salón de clase real. Los hallazgos del estudio sugieren que después de que los practicantes o futuros docentes observaron en compañía de su supervisor su forma de ensenar, hicieron comentarios relacionados especialmente con la forma de hablar de los profesores y con la participación e interés de los estudiantes en la clase. Los hallazgos también muestran que la grabación en video en el programa de practica docente generó oportunidades para reflexionar y ayudo a los practicantes a evaluar su desempeño de una forma mas critica.

  16. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  17. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  18. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark. It...... contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning...

  19. Particle Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    I give a short overview on some of the favorite particle Cold Dark Matter candidates today, focusing on those having detectable interactions: the axion, the KK-photon in Universal Extra Dimensions, the heavy photon in Little Higgs and the neutralino in Supersymmetry. The neutralino is still the most popular, and today is available in different flavours: SUGRA, nuSUGRA, sub-GUT, Mirage mediation, NMSSM, effective MSSM, scenarios with CP violation. Some of these scenarios are already at the level of present sensitivities for direct DM searches.

  20. Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

  1. A Generally Applicable Translational Strategy Identifies S100A4 as a Candidate Gene in Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Sören; Fang, Yu; Barrenäs, Fredrik;

    2014-01-01

    The identification of diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidate genes in common diseases is complicated by the involvement of thousands of genes. We hypothesized that genes co-regulated with a key gene in allergy, IL13, would form a module that could help to identify candidate genes. We identi...

  2. Physiological and molecular characterization of drought responses and identification of candidate tolerance genes in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Turyagyenda, Laban F.; Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Ferguson, Morag; Baguma, Yona; Agaba, Morris; Jagger J W Harvey; Osiru, David S. O.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important root crop to resource-poor farmers in marginal areas, where its production faces drought stress constraints. Given the difficulties associated with cassava breeding, a molecular understanding of drought tolerance in cassava will help in the identification of markers for use in marker-assisted selection and genes for transgenic improvement of drought tolerance. This study was carried out to identify candidate drought-tolerance genes and expression-based markers of droug...

  3. Analysis of dyslexia candidate genes in the Raine cohort representing the general Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Paracchini, S; Ang, Q W; Stanley, F J; Monaco, A. P.; Pennell, C E; Whitehouse, A J O

    2011-01-01

    Several genes have been suggested as dyslexia candidates. Some of these candidate genes have been recently shown to be associated with literacy measures in sample cohorts derived from the general population. Here, we have conducted an association study in a novel sample derived from the Australian population (the Raine cohort) to further investigate the role of dyslexia candidate genes. We analysed markers, previously reported to be associated with dyslexia, located within the MRPL19/C2ORF3, ...

  4. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  5. Bone markers and osteoporosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are involved in determining bone quality including bone density, bone turnover, the extent of trabecular bone connectivity, cortical porosity and geometry. Metabolically active and in a continuous process of remodeling, approximately 20% of bone tissue is renewed annually. Bone turn over markers (BTM are frequently used in clinical trials and to provide valid information about the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment, reflecting the state of bone metabolism and its response to treatment, although they are not useful alone to estimate bone loss. In this review the behavior of BTM from different clinical trials or different osteoporotic drugs will be addressed.

  6. Tumor track seeding: A new complication of fiducial marker insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Zeal Patel, MD; Michele Retrouvey, MD; Harlan Vingan, MD; Scott Williams, MD

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Candidates for tumor ablation using CyberKnife® require fiducial placement in or near the target tumor to achieve precision. Placing these reference points may lead to complications including pneumothorax and/or hemorrhage. We report a new complication: the appearance of metastatic foci along the track of the fiducial marker. Since the marker was inserted by traversing the original primary tumor, we hypothesize th...

  7. Translating epithelial mesenchymal transition markers into the clinic: Novel insights from proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Daniele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT may represent a potential source of clinical markers. Despite EMT drivers have not yet emerged as candidate markers in the clinical setting, their association with established clinical markers may improve their specificity and sensitivity. Mass spectrometry-based platforms allow analyzing multiple samples for the expression of EMT candidate markers, and may help to diagnose diseases or monitor treatment efficiently. This review highlights proteomic approaches applied to elucidate the differences between epithelial and mesenchymal tumors and describes how these can be used for target discovery and validation.

  8. Strawberry cultivar identification based on hypervariable SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Masanori; Nunome, Tsukasa; Kataoka, Sono; Yano, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yui, Susumu; Morishita, Masami

    2011-12-01

    We genotyped strawberry cultivars by two newly selected and two previously reported SSR markers. All four markers produced interpretable electropherograms from 75 accessions consisting of 72 Fragaria × ananassa cultivars or lines and three octoploid Fragaria species accessions. These SSR markers were highly polymorphic; in particular, one of the newly developed markers, FxaHGA02P13, was capable of distinguishing all of the accessions except for a mutant strain that was derived from another accession in the set. When two markers were combined, all 48 full-sib individuals could be distinguished. Fingerprinting patterns were reproducible between multiple samples, including the leaves, sepals, and fruit flesh of the same accession. Principal-coordinate analysis of the 75 accessions detected several groups, which reflect taxon and breeding site. Together with other available markers, these SSR markers will contribute to the management of strawberry genetic resources and the protection of breeders' rights. PMID:23136480

  9. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  10. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Ma; Liang Li; Wenxiu Zhao; Xiang Ji; Fangfang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other type...

  11. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  12. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report

  13. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  14. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication......A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... contributions have been put together. There are a number of ways to continue Chris Freeman's legacy on innovation research. The first is to build in a critical tradition in the economics of innovation research by introducing fearlessly emancipatory epistemology. Second the economic system that dominates social...

  15. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  16. Functional molecular markers for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Udaykumar; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Karre, Shailesh; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2016-10-01

    A tremendous decline in cultivable land and resources and a huge increase in food demand calls for immediate attention to crop improvement. Though molecular plant breeding serves as a viable solution and is considered as "foundation for twenty-first century crop improvement", a major stumbling block for crop improvement is the availability of a limited functional gene pool for cereal crops. Advancement in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies integrated with tools like metabolomics, proteomics and association mapping studies have facilitated the identification of candidate genes, their allelic variants and opened new avenues to accelerate crop improvement through development and use of functional molecular markers (FMMs). The FMMs are developed from the sequence polymorphisms present within functional gene(s) which are associated with phenotypic trait variations. Since FMMs obviate the problems associated with random DNA markers, these are considered as "the holy grail" of plant breeders who employ targeted marker assisted selections (MAS) for crop improvement. This review article attempts to consider the current resources and novel methods such as metabolomics, proteomics and association studies for the identification of candidate genes and their validation through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) for the development of FMMs. A number of examples where the FMMs have been developed and used for the improvement of cereal crops for agronomic, food quality, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance traits have been considered. PMID:26171816

  17. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  18. Prognostic DNA methylation markers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Siri H; Orntoft, Torben F; Sorensen, Karina D

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. PMID:25238417

  19. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  20. New softwares for automated microsatellite marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Wellington; de Sousa, Daniel; Proite, Karina; Guimarães, Patrícia; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Bertioli, David

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellites are repeated small sequence motifs that are highly polymorphic and abundant in the genomes of eukaryotes. Often they are the molecular markers of choice. To aid the development of microsatellite markers we have developed a module that integrates a program for the detection of microsatellites (TROLL), with the sequence assembly and analysis software, the Staden Package. The module has easily adjustable parameters for microsatellite lengths and base pair quality control. Starting with large datasets of unassembled sequence data in the form of chromatograms and/or text data, it enables the creation of a compact database consisting of the processed and assembled microsatellite containing sequences. For the final phase of primer design, we developed a program that accepts the multi-sequence 'experiment file' format as input and produces a list of primer pairs for amplification of microsatellite markers. The program can take into account the quality values of consensus bases, improving success rate of primer pairs in PCR. The software is freely available and simple to install in both Windows and Unix-based operating systems. Here we demonstrate the software by developing primer pairs for 427 new candidate markers for peanut. PMID:16493138

  1. Estimating linkage disequilibrium between a polymorphic marker locus and a trait locus in natural populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Z. W.; Suhai, S.

    1999-01-01

    Positional cloning of gene(s) underlying a complex trait requires a high-resolution linkage map between the trait locus and genetic marker loci. Recent research has shown that this may be achieved through appropriately modeling and screening linkage disequilibrium between the candidate marker locus and the major trait locus. A quantitative genetics model was developed in the present study to estimate the coefficient of linkage disequilibrium between a polymorphic genetic marker locus and a lo...

  2. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  3. Correlation between EGFR gene mutation, cytologic tumor markers, 18F-FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Moon, Yong Wha; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Kim, Yun Jung; Im, Dong Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Shim, Hyo Sup; Lee, Jae Seok; Kim, Joo-Hang; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background EGFR mutation-induced cell proliferation causes changes in tumor biology and tumor metabolism, which may reflect tumor marker concentration and 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT. Direct aspirates of primary lung tumors contain different concentrations of tumor markers than serum tumor markers, and may correlate better with EGFR mutation than serum tumor markers. The purpose of this study is to investigate an association between cytologic tumor markers and FDG uptake with EGFR mutation statu...

  4. Amyloid-β-Secondary Structure Distribution in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Measured by an Immuno-Infrared-Sensor: A Biomarker Candidate for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabers, Andreas; Ollesch, Julian; Schartner, Jonas; Kötting, Carsten; Genius, Just; Hafermann, Henning; Klafki, Hans; Gerwert, Klaus; Wiltfang, Jens

    2016-03-01

    The misfolding of the Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide into β-sheet enriched conformations was proposed as an early event in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Here, the Aβ peptide secondary structure distribution in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma of 141 patients was measured with an immuno-infrared-sensor. The sensor detected the amide I band, which reflects the overall secondary structure distribution of all Aβ peptides extracted from the body fluid. We observed a significant downshift of the amide I band frequency of Aβ peptides in Dementia Alzheimer type (DAT) patients, which indicated an overall shift to β-sheet. The secondary structure distribution of all Aβ peptides provides a better marker for DAT detection than a single Aβ misfold or the concentration of a specific oligomer. The discrimination between DAT and disease control patients according to the amide I frequency was in excellent agreement with the clinical diagnosis (accuracy 90% for CSF and 84% for blood). The amide I band maximum above or below the decisive marker frequency appears as a novel spectral biomarker candidate of AD. Additionally, a preliminary proof-of-concept study indicated an amide I band shift below the marker band already in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. The presented immuno-IR-sensor method represents a promising, simple, robust, and label-free diagnostic tool for CSF and blood analysis. PMID:26828829

  5. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.)

  6. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  7. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  8. Dynamic QTL analysis and candidate gene mapping for waterlogging tolerance at maize seedling stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A Osman

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging is one of the major abiotic stresses adversely affecting maize growth and yield. To identify dynamic expression of genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL, QTL associated with plant height, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total dry weight were identified via conditional analysis in a mixed linear model and inclusive composite interval mapping method at three respective periods under waterlogging and control conditions. A total of 13, 19 and 23 QTL were detected at stages 3D|0D (the period during 0-3 d of waterlogging, 6D|3D and 9D|6D, respectively. The effects of each QTL were moderate and distributed over nine chromosomes, singly explaining 4.14-18.88% of the phenotypic variation. Six QTL (ph6-1, rl1-2, sdw4-1, sdw7-1, tdw4-1 and tdw7-1 were identified at two consistent stages of seedling development, which could reflect a continuous expression of genes; the remaining QTL were detected at only one stage. Thus, expression of most QTL was influenced by the developmental status. In order to provide additional evidence regarding the role of corresponding genes in waterlogging tolerance, mapping of Expressed Sequence Tags markers and microRNAs were conducted. Seven candidate genes were observed to co-localize with the identified QTL on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7 and 9, and may be important candidate genes for waterlogging tolerance. These results are a good starting point for understanding the genetic basis for selectively expressing of QTL in different stress periods and the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits.

  9. Intersections between immigration, language, identity, and emotions: a science teacher candidate's journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2008-04-01

    This study reports a subset of findings from a larger, ongoing study aimed at exploring interactions between teacher identity, learning, and classroom practices in a social justice teacher education program at a selective liberal arts college in New York. This case-study explores the journey of Elena, as an immigrant, a student, and a pre-service teacher candidate towards becoming a social justice educator. Elena reflects upon her school language experiences as an immigrant youth, her learning in a social justice teacher education program, and her field experiences in an international high school. The analysis spans macro-, meso-, and microlevels to explore the ways globalization, particularly immigration, as well as schooling policies for English language learners interact with aspects of Elena's core identity, particularly in school settings. The findings show some of the ways language and literacy verified and/or denied aspects of Elena's core identity; specific instances where second language proficiency was cast as power and privilege versus disadvantage according to ethnic, language, and class categorizations; and the struggles Elena, and other immigrant youth may face given the focus on English language acquisition and high stakes accountability in schools, at the expense of students' primary language proficiency and affirmation of core identity markers.

  10. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) Molecular Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toal, Ted W; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Howell, Tyson; Ron, Mily; Kuppu, Sundaram; Britt, Anne; Chetelat, Roger; Brady, Siobhan M

    2016-09-01

    Genetic markers are essential when developing or working with genetically variable populations. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) markers are primer pairs that amplify single-locus sequences that differ in size for two or more alleles. They are attractive for their ease of use for rapid genotyping and their codominant nature. Here, we describe a heuristic algorithm that uses a k-mer-based approach to search two or more genome sequences to locate polymorphic regions suitable for designing candidate IGG marker primers. As input to the IGG pipeline software, the user provides genome sequences and the desired amplicon sizes and size differences. Primer sequences flanking polymorphic insertions/deletions are produced as output. IGG marker files for three sets of genomes, Solanum lycopersicum/Solanum pennellii, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0/Landsberg erecta-0 accessions, and S. lycopersicum/S. pennellii/Solanum tuberosum (three-way polymorphic) are included. PMID:27436831

  11. Serum Tumor Markers in Pancreatic Cancer—Recent Discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low prevalence of pancreatic cancer remains an obstacle to the development of effective screening tools in an asymptomatic population. However, development of effective serologic markers still offers the potential for improvement of diagnostic capabilities, especially for subpopulations of patients with high risk for pancreatic cancer. The accurate identification of patients with pancreatic cancer and the exclusion of disease in those with benign disorders remain important goals. While clinical experience largely dismissed many candidate markers as useful markers of pancreatic cancer, CA19-9 continues to show promise. The present review highlights the development and the properties of different tumor markers in pancreatic cancer and their impact on the diagnostic and treatment of this aggressive disease

  12. A candidate multimodal functional genetic network for thermal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina C. Wollenberg Valero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate ectotherms such as reptiles provide ideal organisms for the study of adaptation to environmental thermal change. Comparative genomic and exomic studies can recover markers that diverge between warm and cold adapted lineages, but the genes that are functionally related to thermal adaptation may be difficult to identify. We here used a bioinformatics genome-mining approach to predict and identify functions for suitable candidate markers for thermal adaptation in the chicken. We first established a framework of candidate functions for such markers, and then compiled the literature on genes known to adapt to the thermal environment in different lineages of vertebrates. We then identified them in the genomes of human, chicken, and the lizard Anolis carolinensis, and established a functional genetic interaction network in the chicken. Surprisingly, markers initially identified from diverse lineages of vertebrates such as human and fish were all in close functional relationship with each other and more associated than expected by chance. This indicates that the general genetic functional network for thermoregulation and/or thermal adaptation to the environment might be regulated via similar evolutionarily conserved pathways in different vertebrate lineages. We were able to identify seven functions that were statistically overrepresented in this network, corresponding to four of our originally predicted functions plus three unpredicted functions. We describe this network as multimodal: central regulator genes with the function of relaying thermal signal (1, affect genes with different cellular functions, namely (2 lipoprotein metabolism, (3 membrane channels, (4 stress response, (5 response to oxidative stress, (6 muscle contraction and relaxation, and (7 vasodilation, vasoconstriction and regulation of blood pressure. This network constitutes a novel resource for the study of thermal adaptation in the closely related nonavian reptiles and

  13. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  14. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  15. VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    YAPICI, Asım; KUTLU, M.Oğuz; BİLİCAN, F.Işıl

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined the change in values in time among teacher candidates. The Schwartz Values Inventory was administered to 708 freshmen and senior students studying at Cukurova University, Education Faculty. The results have shown that the students at the department of Science Education valued power, achievement, stimulation; the department of English Teaching Education valued hedonism; and the department of Education of Religious Culture valued un...

  16. Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers as a tool for ant phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia R. Ströher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers as a tool for ant phylogeography. Due to their local abundance, diversity of adaptations and worldwide distribution, ants are a classic example of adaptive radiation. Despite this evolutionary and ecological importance, phylogeographical studies on ants have relied largely on mitochondrial markers. In this study we design and test exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers, which can be widely used to uncover ant intraspecific variation. Candidate markers were obtained through screening the available ant genomes for unlinked conserved exonic regions interspersed with introns. A subset of 15 markers was tested in vitro and showed successful amplification in several phylogenetically distant ant species. These markers represent an important step forward in ant phylogeography and population genetics, allowing for more extensive characterization of variation in ant nuclear DNA without the need to develop species-specific markers.

  17. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  18. A transcription map of the 6p22.3 reading disability locus identifying candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruen Jeffrey R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reading disability (RD is a common syndrome with a large genetic component. Chromosome 6 has been identified in several linkage studies as playing a significant role. A more recent study identified a peak of transmission disequilibrium to marker JA04 (G72384 on chromosome 6p22.3, suggesting that a gene is located near this marker. Results In silico cloning was used to identify possible candidate genes located near the JA04 marker. The 2 million base pairs of sequence surrounding JA04 was downloaded and searched against the dbEST database to identify ESTs. In total, 623 ESTs from 80 different tissues were identified and assembled into 153 putative coding regions from 19 genes and 2 pseudogenes encoded near JA04. The identified genes were tested for their tissue specific expression by RT-PCR. Conclusions In total, five possible candidate genes for RD and other diseases mapping to this region were identified.

  19. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  20. Validation of candidate gene markers for marker-assisted selection of potato cultivars with improved tuber quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhardt; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Draffehn, Astrid M.; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Tuber yield, starch content, starch yield and chip color are complex traits that are important for industrial uses and food processing of potato. Chip color depends on the quantity of reducing sugars glucose and fructose in the tubers, which are generated by starch degradation. Reducing sugars accumulate when tubers are stored at low temperatures. Early and efficient selection of cultivars with superior yield, starch yield and chip color is hampered by the fact that reliable phenotypic select...

  1. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  2. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubicciotti, Roger S.; Karu, Alexander E.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  3. The Important Candidate Genes in Goats - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China SUPAKORN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 271 candidate genes have been detected in goats. However, comprehensive investigations have been carried out on the polymorphism of some genes, involved in the control of economic traits. Candidate genes have an effect on the physiological pathway, metabolism and expression of phenotypes. For growth traits, growth hormone (GH, growth hormone receptor (GHR, insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I, leptin (LEP, caprine pituitary specific transcription factor-1 (POU1F1, caprine myostatin (MSTN and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP genes are necessary for bone formation, birth weight, weaning weight, body condition and muscle growth. For reproduction, forkhead box L 2 (FOXL2, melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A, sex determination region of Y chromosome (SRY and amelogenin (AMEL genes influence sex determination and proliferation. The major candidate genes for milk yield and milk composition traits are the casein gene and their family. Keratin associated protein (KAP and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R genes are candidate genes for wool traits. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene is considered important for the immune system and disease resistance traits. The functions of these genes on economically important traits are different. Some genes have synergistic or antagonistic effects in nature for expression of phenotypic traits. On the other hand, some genes could control more than one trait. Also, the producers should be concerned with these effects because selection of a single trait by using only a gene could affect other traits. Therefore, the identification of candidate genes and their mutations which cause variations of gene expression and phenotype of economic traits will help breeders to search some genetic markers for these economic traits. It may be used as an aid in the selection of parent stock at an early age in the future.

  4. Reflectivity, reflexivity and situated reflective practice

    OpenAIRE

    Malthouse, R; Roffey-Barentsen, J; Watts, DM

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as ‘Situated Reflective Practice’ (SRP). The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens’s (1984) theory of structuration, this sees social life as interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported here centres on the nature of such situated reflection, considers related literature and presents the data collected in a recent small-scale st...

  5. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  6. Promising new cryogenic seal candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the five seal candidates considered for the main propellant system of the Space Shuttle, only one candidate, the fluoroplastic Halar, satisfied all tests including the critical LO2 impact test and the cryogenic compression sealability test. Radiation-cross-linked Halar is a tough, strong thermoplastic that not only endured one hundred 2200 N compression cycles at 83 K while mounted in a standard military O-ring gland without cracking or deforming, but improved in sealability as a result of this cycling. Although these Halar O-rings require much higher sealing forces (approximately 500 N) at room temperature than rubber O-rings, on cooling to cryogenic temperatures the required sealing force only doubles, whereas the sealing force for rubber O-rings increases eightfold. Although these Halar O-rings were inadequately cross-linked, they still exhibited promise as LO2-compatible cryogenic seals. It is expected that their high-temperature properties can be greatly improved by higher degrees of cross-linking (e.g., by 20 mrad of radiation) without compromising their already excellent low-temperature properties. A direct comparison should then be obtained between the best of the cross-linked Halar compounds and the current commercial cryogenic seal materials, filled Teflon and Kel-F

  7. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Vinod; Naveen Sharma; K Manjunatha; Adnan Kanbar; N B Prakash; H E Shashidhar

    2006-03-01

    Candidate genes are sequenced genes of known biological action involved in the development or physiology of a trait. Twenty-one putative candidate genes were designed after an exhaustive search in the public databases along with an elaborate literature survey for candidate gene products and/or regulatory sequences associated with enhanced drought resistance. The downloaded sequences were then used to design primers considering the flanking sequences as well. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on 10 diverse cultivars that involved Japonica, Indica and local accessions, revealed 12 polymorphic candidate genes. Seven polymorphic candidate genes were then utilized to genotype 148 individuals of CT9993 × IR62266 doubled haploid (DH) mapping population. The segregation data were tested for deviation from the expected Mendelian ratio (1:1) using a Chi-square test (<1%). Based on this, four candidate genes were assessed to be significant and the remaining three, as non-significant. All the significant candidate genes were biased towards CT9993, the female parent in the DH mapping population. Single-marker analysis strongly associated ( < 1%) them to different traits under both well-watered and low-moisture stress conditions. Two candidate genes, EXP15 and EXP13, were found to be associated with root number and silicon content in the stem respectively, under both well-watered and low-moisture stress conditions.

  8. Modes of collaborative reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Degeling, Martin; Prilla, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe different modes of collaborative reflection as processes of learning at the workplace. We explain why reflection is a decisive means of learning and - based on the modes we describe - how groups of people can be supported in reflection together. For this, we describe how scheduled, concurrent and spontaneous collaborative reflection can be supported by articulation, guidance and synergizing.

  9. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

  10. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  11. Identification of candidate genes for dyslexia susceptibility on chromosome 18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Scerri

    Full Text Available Six independent studies have identified linkage to chromosome 18 for developmental dyslexia or general reading ability. Until now, no candidate genes have been identified to explain this linkage. Here, we set out to identify the gene(s conferring susceptibility by a two stage strategy of linkage and association analysis.Linkage analysis: 264 UK families and 155 US families each containing at least one child diagnosed with dyslexia were genotyped with a dense set of microsatellite markers on chromosome 18. Association analysis: Using a discovery sample of 187 UK families, nearly 3000 SNPs were genotyped across the chromosome 18 dyslexia susceptibility candidate region. Following association analysis, the top ranking SNPs were then genotyped in the remaining samples. The linkage analysis revealed a broad signal that spans approximately 40 Mb from 18p11.2 to 18q12.2. Following the association analysis and subsequent replication attempts, we observed consistent association with the same SNPs in three genes; melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, dymeclin (DYM and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like (NEDD4L.Along with already published biological evidence, MC5R, DYM and NEDD4L make attractive candidates for dyslexia susceptibility genes. However, further replication and functional studies are still required.

  12. Neuronal classification and marker gene identification via single-cell expression profiling of brainstem vestibular neurons subserving cerebellar learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Takashi; Guerrero, Shiloh; Shin, Minyoung; Moghadam, Seti; Faulstich, Michael; du Lac, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Identification of marker genes expressed in specific cell types is essential for the genetic dissection of neural circuits. Here we report a new strategy for classifying heterogeneous populations of neurons into functionally distinct types and for identifying associated marker genes. Quantitative single-cell expression profiling of genes related to neurotransmitters and ion channels enables functional classification of neurons; transcript profiles for marker gene candidates identify molecular...

  13. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan J Newton; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H; Morrison, Hilary G; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixt...

  14. Genetic linkage analysis excludes HLA and several other potential candidates as being responsible for familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, J.B.; Bachinski, L.L.; Beiling, L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial dilated cardiomyopthy (FDCM), manifested by ventricular dilation and decreased systolic function, is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. We identified a family segregating DCM with 11 affected living individuals in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiography (EF <50%, left ventricular volume >80 ml/m{sup 2}). DNA was extracted and analyzed with highly polymorphmic microsatellite markers (STRs). In view of the high frequency of antibodies to specific HLA proteins in FDCM, this region was selected as a possible candidate locus. Genes whose products are sarcomeric proteins were also selected as candidates. Genetic linkage of FDCM to these candidate genes was excluded on the basis of a LOD score of <= -2. Subsequent to the candidate gene approach we pursued random mapping and completed analysis of a total of 93 chromosomal markers excluding 1000 cM.

  15. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles are a defining stratigraphic marker for the Anthropocene

    OpenAIRE

    Swindles, GT; Watson, E.; Turner, TE; Galloway, JM; Hadlari, T; Wheeler, J; Bacon, KL

    2015-01-01

    There has been recent debate over stratigraphic markers used to demarcate the Anthropocene from the Holocene Epoch. However, many of the proposed markers are found only in limited areas of the world or do not reflect human impacts on the environment. Here we show that spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), a distinct form of black carbon produced from burning fossil fuels in energy production and heavy industry, provide unambiguous stratigraphic markers of the human activities that have ra...

  16. Tumor Marker Levels Before and After Curative Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma as Predictors of Patient Survival.

    OpenAIRE

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Taura, Naota; Abo, Takafumi; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: α-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is influenced by hepatitis. Protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) is a sensitive diagnostic marker. Changes in these markers after treatment may reflect curability and predict outcome. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of prognosis in 470 HCC patients who received curative treatments, and examined the relationship between changes in AFP and PIVKA-II levels after 1 month of tre...

  17. Understanding reflective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Jacqueline Sian; Dosser, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives use feedback as an opportunity for reflection and learning, to improve practice. The NMC revalidation process stipulates that practitioners provide examples of how they have achieved this. To reflect in a meaningful way, it is important to understand what is meant by reflection, the skills required, and how reflection can be undertaken successfully. Traditionally, reflection occurs after an event encountered in practice. The authors challenge this perception, suggesting that reflection should be undertaken before, during and after an event. This article provides practical guidance to help practitioners use reflective models to write reflective accounts. It also outlines how the reflective process can be used as a valuable learning tool in preparation for revalidation. PMID:27154119

  18. Biological markers of Alzheimer?s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD have created a need for biomarkers that reflect the core pathology of the disease. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of total Tau (T-tau, phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau and beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ42 reflect, respectively, neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid pathologies and are considered as surrogate markers of AD pathophysiology. The combination of low Aβ42 and high levels of T-tau and P-Tau can accurately identify patients with AD at early stages, even before the development of dementia. The combined analysis of the CSF biomarkers is also helpful for the differential diagnosis between AD and other degenerative dementias. The development of these CSF biomarkers has evolved to a novel diagnostic definition of the disease. The identification of a specific clinical phenotype combined with the in vivo evidence of pathophysiological markers offers the possibility to make a diagnosis of AD before the dementia stage with high specificity.

  19. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  20. POPULAR MOLECULAR MARKERS IN BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Weilong, Liu; Lv, Li; MD. ASADUZZAMAN KHAN AND FEIZHOU ZHU

    2012-01-01

    Molecular markers are defined as the fragments of DNA sequence associated with a genome, which are used to identify a particular DNA sequence. Nowadays, with the explosive growth of genetic research and bacterial classification, molecular marker is an important tool to identify bacterial species. Taking account to its significant roles in clinic, medicine and food industry, in this review article, we summarize the traditional research and new development about molecular markers (also called g...

  1. Square and Delta reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanella, Laura; Hayut, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Starting from infinitely many supercompact cardinals, we force a model of ZFC where $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ satisfies simultaneously a strong principle of reflection, called $\\Delta$-reflection, and a version of the square principle, denoted $\\square(\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}).$ Thus we show that $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ can satisfy simultaneously a strong reflection principle and an anti-reflection principle.

  2. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  3. Avaliação da pré-triagem sorológica para o marcador do vírus da hepatite B (anti-HBc total em candidatos à doação de sangue no Estado do Acre, 2002 Evaluation of the sorologic pre-selection for the hepatitis B virus marker (total anti-HBc in candidates to blood donation in the state of Acre, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita do Socorro Uchôa da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a pré-triagem sorológica para hepatite B (anti-HBc total em candidatos à doação de sangue, verificando a associação entre as variáveis sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade e naturalidade. Estudo transversal com dados retrospectivos, tendo como população-alvo candidatos à doação de sangue naturais dos municípios do interior do Acre, que procuraram o Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Acre, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002. Dos 673 candidatos incluídos foi constatado reatividade ao anti-HBc total em 54,8%. Sendo observado maior reatividade ao anti-HBc total entre os candidatos do sexo masculino, faixa etária mais avançada e menor grau de escolaridade (pThe aim of this research was to evaluate previous serum screening for hepatitis B (total anti-HBc among blood donation candidates, verifying the link between the variables: gender, age, degree of education and native-born. A transverse study with retrospective data carried out on a target population, blood donation candidates from districts of the interior of Acre State, who came to the Acre Hematology and Hemoterapy Center during the period January to December, 2002. The research indicated reactivity in 54.8% of the total anti-HBc among the 673 candidates included. Greater reactivity of total anti-HBc was observed among males, older candidates and those with lower education levels (p<0.005. Previous serum screening for hepatitis B among blood donation candidates is a viable alternative, since it reduces cost and increases transfusional safety. Attracting female donors, youths and those who have higher education levels, would signify potential blood donors for HEMOACRE.

  4. An Efficient Approach for Candidate Set Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nawar Malhis; Arden Ruttan; Hazem H. Refai

    2005-01-01

    When Apriori was first introduced as an algorithm for discovering association rules in a database of market basket data, the problem of generating the candidate set of the large set was a bottleneck in Apriori's performance, both in space and computational requirements. At first, many unsuccessful attempts were made to improve the generation of a candidate set. Later, other algorithms that out performed Apriori were developed that generate association rules without using a candidate set. They...

  5. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  6. Candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Arsenic Responsiveness of Protein Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Evans, Barbara E.; Udensi, Udensi K.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan; Anyanwu, Matthew N; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that causes skin cancer and binds to cysteine residues—a property that could be used to infer arsenic responsiveness of a target protein. Non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (nsSNPs) result in amino acid substitutions and may alter arsenic binding with cysteine residues. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to identify and analyze nsSNPs that lead to substitutions to or from cysteine residues as an indication of increased or decreased arsenic r...

  7. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  8. PGP9.5 As a Candidate Tumor Marker for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hibi, Kenji; Westra, William H.; Borges, Michael; Goodman, Steve; Sidransky, David; Jen, Jin

    1999-01-01

    PGP9.5 is a neurospecific peptide that functions to remove ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins and prevents them from targeted degradation by proteasomes. Using the serial analysis of gene expression method (SAGE), we observed that the PGP9.5 transcript was highly expressed in primary lung cancers and lung cancer cell lines but was not detectable in the normal lung. Here we examined the expression of PGP9.5 protein in normal lung epithelium, lung tumor cell lines, and 98 resected primary no...

  9. Comparison of candidate serologic markers for type I and type II ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dan; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Bristow, Robert E;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the value of individual and combinations of ovarian cancer associated blood biomarkers for the discrimination between plasma of patients with type I or II ovarian cancer and disease-free volunteers.......To examine the value of individual and combinations of ovarian cancer associated blood biomarkers for the discrimination between plasma of patients with type I or II ovarian cancer and disease-free volunteers....

  10. Candidate gene markers for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao; Mike Irey; Stephen M Garnsey; Siddarame Gowda

    2013-06-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. The aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for quick screening of HLB disease. Thirty-two different gene-specific primer pairs, across the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus genome, were successfully developed. The possibility of these primer pairs for cross-genome amplification across `Ca. Liberibacter africanus’ and `Ca. Liberibacter americanus’ were tested. The applicability of these primer pairs for detection and differentiation of Ca Liberibacter spp. is discussed.

  11. Reflection Positive Doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in terms of coupling constants, making it easy to check in concrete situations. We illustrate our methods with numerous examples.

  12. Eosinophil granule proteins ECP and EPX as markers for a potential early-stage inflammatory lesion in female genital schistosomiasis (FGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Kildemoes, Anna M. O.; Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital granulomas induced by Schistosoma haematobium eggs can manifest as different lesion types visible by colposcopy; rubbery papules (RP), homogenous sandy patches (HSP) and grainy sandy patches (GSP). Pronounced tissue eosinophilia is a candidate marker for active S. haematobium ...

  13. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  14. Antibody Arrays Identify Potential Diagnostic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Effective treatment of HCC patients is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic markers of HCC. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, the currently used HCC marker, misses 30%–50% of HCC patients, who therefore remain undiagnosed and untreated. In order to identify novel diagnostic markers that can be used individually or in combination with AFP, we used an antibody array platform to detect the levels of candidate proteins in the plasma of HCC patients (n = 48 and patients with chronic hepatitis B or C viral infections (n = 19 (both of which are the major risk factors of HCC. We identified 7 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (AFP, CTNNB, CSF1, SELL, IGFBP6, IL6R, and VCAM1.Importantly, we also identified 8 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients with ‘normal’ levels of AFP (<20 ng/ml from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (IL1RN, IFNG, CDKN1A, RETN, CXCL14, CTNNB, FGF2, and SELL. These markers are potentially important complementary markers to AFP. Using an independent immunoassay method in an independent group of 23 HCC patients and 22 hepatitis patients, we validated that plasma levels of CTNNB were significantly higher in the HCC group (p = 0.020. In conclusion, we used an antibody array platform to identify potential circulating diagnostic markers of HCC, some of which may be valuable when used in combination with AFP. The clinical utility of these newly identified HCC diagnostic markers needs to be systematically evaluated.

  15. Standardization of tumor markers - priorities identified through external quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Tumor markers are often heterogeneous substances that may be present in elevated concentrations in the serum of cancer patients. Typically measured by immunoassay, they contribute to clinical management, particularly in screening, case-finding, prognostic assessment, and post-treatment monitoring. Data both from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes and clinical studies demonstrate significant variation in tumor marker results obtained for the same specimen using different methods. Between-method between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CV) reported by EQA schemes generally reflect the complexity of the measurand, ranging from 25% for the complex mucinous cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Improving the standardization of tumor marker measurements is particularly important for three reasons. The primary use of tumor markers is in monitoring cancer patients over long periods of time. Clinical interpretation of trends may consequently be affected if results are obtained in different laboratories using different methods or if a laboratory has to change method. Differences in results may have major implications for adoption of area-wide decision cut-offs and make implementation of these difficult. Method-related differences also make it difficult to compare clinical studies. Improving comparability of tumor marker results requires broad international agreement about which molecular forms of the measurand have clinical utility, identifying and adopting pure molecular forms as calibrants, and defining antibody specificities for their optimal detection. These aims have been achieved to varying extents for the most frequently measured serum tumor markers as described in this paper. PMID:27542005

  16. Genetic relationships of some Citrus genotypes based on the candidate iron chlorosis genes

    OpenAIRE

    KAÇAR, Yıldız AKA; Özhan ŞİMŞEK; DÖNMEZ, Dicle; BONCUK, Melda; YEŞİLOĞLU, Turgut; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Iron is one of the most important elements in plant mineral nutrition. Fe deficiency is a critical abiotic stress factor for Mediterranean citriculture; the development of marker-assisted selection for this trait would greatly enhance rootstock breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were performed to determine the allelic diversity of genes associated with tolerance to iron chlorosis in citrus. Two candidate iron chlorosis toleran...

  17. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  18. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates invo...

  19. Development of SCAR markers for species identification of the genus Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuniwat, A; Chaveerach, A; Tanee, T; Sudmoon, R

    2009-11-15

    Nepenthes species in Thailand, namely N. mirabilis Druce, N. gracilis Korth., N. smilesii Hemsl., N. ampullaria Jack and N. kampotiana Lecomte, were collected for development of Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker, a genotype identification tool. Forty Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were screened and three successful primers produced different banding patterns including five candidate species-specific markers. The candidate markers were cloned and sequenced. The marker sequences are 602, 379, 420, 473 and 1017 bp for N. mirabilis, N. gracilis, N. smilesii, N. ampullaria and N. kampotiana, respectively. Then the sequences were used to design primers for development of a species-specific band being a SCAR marker, including Mir 1, Mir 2 and Mir 3 for N. mirabilis; Gra 1 and Gra 2 for N. gracilis; Smi 1, Smi 2 and Smi 3 for N. smilesii; Amp 1 and Amp 2 for N. ampullaria and Kam 1 and Kam 2 of N. kampotiana. The primers were evaluated with each other Nepenthes species. Finally, species-specific SCAR markers were successfully developed for N. gracilis, N. ampullaria and N. kampotiana. Application of these markers is feasible for identification of Nepenthes species in Thailand. PMID:20180319

  20. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  1. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content of...... the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership...

  2. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10 for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.

  3. MarkerSet: a marker selection tool based on markers location and informativity in experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent sequencing of full genomes has led to the availability of many SNP markers which are very useful for the mapping of complex traits. In livestock production, there are still no commercial arrays and many studies use home-made sets of SNPs. Thus, the current methodologies for SNP genotyping are still expensive and it is a crucial step to select the SNPs to use. Indeed, the main factors affecting the power of the linkage analyses are the density of the genetic map and the heterozygosity of markers in tested animal parents. Findings This is why we have developed a PERL program selecting a defined number of markers based on their locations on the genome and their informativity in specific experimental designs. As an option, different experimental designs can be combined in order to select the best possible common marker set. The program has been tested using different conditions of marker informativity and density with both real and simulated datasets. The results show the efficiency of our program to select the most informative markers even if there is a wide range of informativity for whole genome scan mapping analyses. In case of combination of different experimental crosses, the multidesign mode can optimize the SNP markers selection. Conclusion Written in PERL, it assures a maximum portability to other operating systems (OS and the source code availability for user modifications. Except for the simulation mode which could be time consuming, MarkerSet can compute results in a very short time.

  4. Reflection in professional practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzner, Stefanie Bianca

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the research on professional learning through reflective practice. The main goal is to examine—against the backdrop of workplace changes and errors—individual and contextual factors that are theoretically assumed to influence reflection in the context of professional work. Reflective practice is defined as a retrospective but future- and goal-oriented cognitive-affective process that basically involves (a) the awareness and review of incident...

  5. ADAM33, a new candidate for psoriasis susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Lesueur

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder with multifactorial etiology. In a recent study, we reported results of a genome-wide scan on 46 French extended families presenting with plaque psoriasis. In addition to unambiguous linkage to the major susceptibility locus PSORS1 on Chromosome 6p21, we provided evidence for a susceptibility locus on Chromosome 20p13. To follow up this novel psoriasis susceptibility locus we used a family-based association test (FBAT for an association scan over the 17 Mb candidate region. A total of 85 uncorrelated SNP markers located in 65 genes of the region were initially investigated in the same set of large families used for the genome wide search, which consisted of 295 nuclear families. When positive association was obtained for a SNP, candidate genes nearby were explored more in detail using a denser set of SNPs. Thus, the gene ADAM33 was found to be significantly associated with psoriasis in this family set (The best association was on a 3-SNP haplotype P = 0.00004, based on 1,000,000 permutations. This association was independent of PSORS1. ADAM33 has been previously associated with asthma, which demonstrates that immune system diseases may be controlled by common susceptibility genes with general effects on dermal inflammation and immunity. The identification of ADAM33 as a psoriasis susceptibility gene identified by positional cloning in an outbred population should provide insights into the pathogenesis and natural history of this common disease.

  6. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22869536

  7. Insights into orphan nuclear receptors as prognostic markers and novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Reidun eAesoy; Colin D Clyne; Ashwini eChand

    2015-01-01

    The roles of orphan nuclear receptors in breast cancer development and progression are not well understood. In this review, we correlate orphan nuclear receptor expression in breast cancer tumour subtypes with patient outcomes and provide an overview of functional evidence that identifies candidate orphan nuclear receptors as prognostic markers or as therapeutic targets in breast cancer.

  8. Candidate Gene Discovery Procedure after Follow-Up Confirmatory Analyses of Candidate Regions of Interests for Alzheimer’s Disease in the NIMH Sibling Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye M. Baye

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a procedure to identify candidate genes under linkage peaks confirmed in a follow-up of candidate regions of interests (CRIs identified in our original genome scan in the NIMH Alzheimer’s diseases (AD Initiative families (Blacker et al. [1]. There were six CRIs identified that met the threshold of multipoint lod score (MLS of ≥ 2.0 from the original scan. The most significant peak (MLS = 7.7 was at 19q13, which was attributed to APOE. The remaining CRIs with ‘suggestive’ evidence for linkage were identified at 9q22, 6q27, 14q22, 11q25, and 3p26. We have followed up and narrowed the 9q22 CRI signal using simple tandem repeat (STR markers (Perry et al. [2]. In this confirmatory project, we have followed up the 6q27, 14q22, 11q25, and 3p26 CRIs with a total of 24 additional flanking STRs, reducing the mean interval marker distance (MID in each CRI, and substantially increase in the information content (IC. The linkage signals at 6q27, 14q22 and 11q25 remain ‘suggestive’, indicating that these CRIs are promising and worthy of detailed fine mapping and assessment of candidate genes associated with AD.

  9. Does a Least-Preferred Candidate Win a Seat? A Comparison of Three Electoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hizen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the differences between two variations of proportional representation (PR, open-list PR and closed-list PR, are analyzed in terms of their ability to accurately reflect voter preference. The single nontransferable vote (SNTV is also included in the comparison as a benchmark. We construct a model of voting equilibria with a candidate who is least preferred by voters in the sense that replacing the least-preferred candidate in the set of winners with any loser is Pareto improving, and our focus is on whether the least-preferred candidate wins under each electoral system. We demonstrate that the least-preferred candidate never wins under the SNTV, but can win under open-list PR, although this is less likely than winning under closed-list PR.

  10. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  11. Reflecting Magnon Bound States

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, C; Rey, S J

    2008-01-01

    In N=4 super Yang-Mills spin chain, we compute reflection amplitudes of magnon bound-state off giant graviton. We first compute the reflection amplitude off Y=0 brane boundary and compare it with the scattering amplitude between two magnon bound-states in the bulk. We find that analytic structure of the two amplitudes are intimately related each other: the boundary reflection amplitude is a square-root of the bulk scattering amplitude. Using such relation as a guide and taking known results at weak and strong coupling limits as inputs, we find the reflection amplitude of an elementary magnon off Z=0 giant graviton boundary. The reflection phase factor is shown to solve crossing and unitarity relations. We then compute the reflection amplitude of magnon bound-state off the Z=0 brane boundary and observe that its analytic structures are again intimately related to the bulk scattering and the Y=0 boundary reflection amplitudes. We also take dyonic giant magnon limit of these reflection amplitudes and confirm tha...

  12. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  13. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  14. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette;

    2011-01-01

    variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome....... Several of the markers tested showed low or no association with any of the measurements of salivary cortisol. The number of studies exploring the association between cortisol in saliva and markers for inflammation is low, which limits the possibility of interpretation. The number of studies on adrenaline...... and noradrenaline is also low. To sum up, the proportion of non-significant findings was considerable. This may be due to a large number of studies with relatively small study populations. This is true for metabolic abnormalities, markers related to inflammation as well as other stress hormones...

  15. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  16. Reflecting on Čerenkov reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.; Gaug, M.; Oliva, P.

    2008-05-01

    MAGIC, as well as HESS and VERITAS, is a Čerenkov Telescope unveiling γ-ray sources above 60 GeV at vertical within noisy (hadronic) airshowering sky. These telescopes while facing the horizons may reveal rarest blazing UHECR as well as far fluorescence tails of downward PeV-EeV hadronic airshowers. Few of these inclined airshowers blazing on axis are spread by the geomagnetic field into twin spots. These twin flashes and their morphology may tag the UHECR origination site. There is a rich window of such reflecting Čerenkov lights visible by Telescopes on top of Mountains as MAGIC (and partially VERITAS): the reflections from the nearby ground (possibly enhanced by rain or snow, ice white cover), from the Sea and from the cloudy sky; in particular, these cloudy sheets may lay above or below the observer. MAGIC looking downward to the clouds or the snow, may well reveal blazing Moliere disks diffusing Čerenkov spots (few events per night). Because of geomagnetic forces and splitting of the inclined air-shower, one should reveal for the first time (at tens PeV or above) Čerenkov airshowers whose flashes are skimming the MAGIC nearby Sea and opened into twin spots. Their morphology may tag the UHECR origination, its consequent cross-section and composition. Magic telescopes looking upward into cloudy sky may observe very rare up-going UHE Tau, originated by UHE PeVs neutrinos skimming earth, air-showering into sky, reflecting into clouds. In particular Glashow resonant antineutrinos electron hitting into Earth electrons may lead to gauged boson W-, whose decay (inside the Earth) may produce a τ + bar nuτ [3], which later escape and decay in air is producing Čerenkov lights; these flashes may blaze into the clouds above MAGIC as upward dot spots. The Magic energy threshold for such UHE Neutrinos showers rises to PeV values. EeV UHE tau neutrinos by guaranteed GZK UHECR secondaries [6, 16], via the muon-tau flavor mixing, may skim the Earth, produce UHE tau

  17. Development and use of genic molecular markers (GMMs) for construction of a transcript map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujaria, Neha; Kumar, Ashish; Dauthal, Preeti; Dubey, Anuja; Hiremath, Pavana; Bhanu Prakash, A; Farmer, Andrew; Bhide, Mangla; Shah, Trushar; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Cook, Douglas R; May, Greg D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2011-05-01

    A transcript map has been constructed by the development and integration of genic molecular markers (GMMs) including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genic microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and intron spanning region (ISR)-based markers, on an inter-specific mapping population of chickpea, the third food legume crop of the world and the first food legume crop of India. For SNP discovery through allele re-sequencing, primer pairs were designed for 688 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of chickpea and 657 genes/ESTs of closely related species of chickpea. High-quality sequence data obtained for 220 candidate genic regions on 2-20 genotypes representing 9 Cicer species provided 1,893 SNPs with an average frequency of 1/35.83 bp and 0.34 PIC (polymorphism information content) value. On an average 2.9 haplotypes were present in 220 candidate genic regions with an average haplotype diversity of 0.6326. SNP2CAPS analysis of 220 sequence alignments, as mentioned above, provided a total of 192 CAPS candidates. Experimental analysis of these 192 CAPS candidates together with 87 CAPS candidates identified earlier through in silico mining of ESTs provided scorable amplification in 173 (62.01%) cases of which predicted assays were validated in 143 (82.66%) cases (CGMM). Alignments of chickpea unigenes with Medicago truncatula genome were used to develop 121 intron spanning region (CISR) markers of which 87 yielded scorable products. In addition, optimization of 77 EST-derived SSR (ICCeM) markers provided 51 scorable markers. Screening of easily assayable 281 markers including 143 CGMMs, 87 CISRs and 51 ICCeMs on 5 parental genotypes of three mapping populations identified 104 polymorphic markers including 90 markers on the inter-specific mapping population. Sixty-two of these GMMs together with 218 earlier published markers (including 64 GMM loci) and 20 other unpublished markers could be integrated into this genetic map. A genetic map developed here

  18. Molecular Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis for Numerous Spines on the Fruit of Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengping; Liu, Shulin; Miao, Han; Wang, Min; Liu, Panna; Wehner, Todd C; Gu, Xingfang

    2016-09-01

    Number of spines on the fruit is an important quality trait in cucumber. The inheritance and identification of molecular markers for fruit spine density gene can provide a basis for breeding and lay the foundation for gene cloning. Cucumber inbred lines NCG-122 with numerous spines and NCG-121 with few spines were used for genetic analysis and gene mapping in this study. Genetic analysis showed that the numerous spines trait in NCG-122 was qualitative, and a single recessive nuclear gene (ns) controlled this trait. The few spines trait was dominant over the numerous spines trait. In the preliminary genetic mapping of the ns gene, 8 SSR markers were found to be linked to ns, which mapped to chromosome 2 (Chr.2) of cucumber. The closest flanking markers SSR22338 and SSR11596 were linked to the ns gene, with genetic distances of 10.2 and 1.7cM, respectively. One-hundred and thirty pairs of new SSR primers and 28 pairs of Indel primers were developed based on sequence information in the preliminary mapping region of ns Fifteen SSR markers and 2 Indel markers were identified to be linked to the ns gene after analysis on the F2 mapping population using the new molecular markers. The 2 closest flanking markers, SSRns-127 and SSR04219, were 0.7 and 2.4 cM from ns, respectively. The physical distance between SSRns-127 and SSR04219 was 266.1kb, containing 27 predicted genes. Csa2G285390 was speculated as the probable candidate gene for numerous spines. The accuracy of the closest linked marker to the ns gene, SSRns-127, for MAS breeding was 95.0%. PMID:27317924

  19. Supervisor Use of Video as a Tool in Teacher Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecher, Laura; McCormack, Bede; Kung, Shiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Supervisors play a critical role in fostering teacher candidates' reflective thinking on their practice, yet too often it is the supervisor, rather than the teacher, doing most of the observation work. Video-based supervision offers a promising alternative, as teachers have an opportunity to examine their own lesson and thus engage with the…

  20. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The act of reflection has been analysed and abstracted from goal, content, context, means, and moment of reflecting. Reflection was operationalised as answering reflective questions. Bloom’s taxonomy ...

  1. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec,Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  2. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these...... genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these...... genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  3. Scattering Properties of Candidate Planetary Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory investigation of the scattering properties of candidate planetary regolith materials is an important technique for understanding the physical properties of a planetary regolith. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  5. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A., E-mail: smlandi@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  6. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION:...

  7. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non- federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request...

  8. Effluent specific chemical markers for petroleum industry discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing the contribution of various sources to contaminant bioaccumulation in aquatic organism presents a number of challenges. The use of effluent-specific chemical markers would greatly facilitate identification of sources of contaminants found in aquatic organisms. Two classes of compounds were investigated for use as effluent-specific markers for petroleum industry discharges: alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and rare earth elements (REE). Alkylated PAHs, specifically methyl and dimethyl naphthalenes, methyl and dimethyl phenanthrenes, and dibenzothiophene, appear to have excellent potential as effluent-specific markers for petroleum industry discharges. They are not associated with combustion sources, are abundant in crude oil and certain refined petroleum products, and were at detectable concentrations in bivalves exposed to refinery and produced water discharges. Three alkylated PAHs were detected in both refinery and produced water effluents, but not in receiving water samples from a highly urbanized estuary. REEs are incorporated into cracking catalysts used in refiners and would also appear to be excellent candidates for specific markers of refinery effluents. However, concentrations of REEs in a tertiary-treated refinery effluent were near or below detection and no significant bioaccumulation of REEs was observed for bivalves and fish

  9. Review of Teacher's Teaching Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽爽

    2015-01-01

    Teacher's teaching reflection has become the core focus in school.However,there are different understandings of the concept of teacher's teaching reflection.The paper introduces and compares different understandings of the concept of teachers' teaching reflection.Based on the summarizing of the concept on reflection and teaching reflection,this paper tries to provide reference for the teacher's teaching reflection.

  10. Vaccine candidates for malaria: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Although it is more than a decade since the parasite genome information was obtained, standardized novel genome-wide selection/prioritization strategies for candidacy of malaria vaccine antigens are still sought. In the quest to systematically identify candidates, it is impossible to overemphasize the usefulness of wheat germ cell-free technology in expressing quality proteins for the post-genome vaccine candidate discovery. PMID:26559316

  11. Reflective Journal Writing on the Way to Becoming Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Doyran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study, the purpose was to analyze the reflective journal entries of the 26 pre-service teachers attending the teacher education department of a state university. These teacher candidates were asked to write their reflections on a weekly basis during the “school experience” course in the fall semester. Twelve weekly entries and the end of the year reflection reports of these pre-service teachers (338 documents all together were analyzed according to the contents; similar issues were coded; common themes were found; in the second phase, the findings were analyzed again in the light of reflective practice research to find out about the learning experiences of the pre-service teachers and to analyze in which stage of reflective practice their entries mostly fell into. The results revealed that pre-service teachers benefitted from keeping reflective journals and their reflections mostly fell under the “interpersonal stage” and did not have many comments reflecting the other stages which were procedural and conceptual. The results show that in order for the pre-service teachers to gain more awareness through reflective writing, they need to be trained on how to write reflections effectively and on the different stages related to the reflective practice.

  12. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  13. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... and researchers at primary schools in Denmark from 2004-2009. We argue for the importance of reflecting on values in school health nursing in order to navigate between human values and values deriving from medicine. Our studies demonstrate that value clarification, peer observation and reflective spaces at work...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  14. Action of booster immunization with E2 CSFV on immune response elicited by marker DNA-vaccine against CSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryabina O. G.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the influence of booster immunization with recombinant fragment of E2 CSFV on humoral immune response, elicited by candidate marker DNA-vaccine against CSF. Methods. The fragment of E2 CSFV gene has been detected by PCR, and the expression of encoded protein – by immunohistochemical analysis. The anti-E2 antibodies in blood serum after immunization have been detected by ELISA. Results. It has been shown that candidate marker DNA-vaccine transfected myocytes of murine biceps in situ. The data of immuno-histochemical analysis revealed the expression of fragment of glycoprotein E2 CSFV from the plasmid introduced. The booster immunization with recombinant E2 led to the significant increase of the titer of antibodies specific to the antigen studied. Conclusions. The data obtained show that boosting with recombinant E2 enhances humoral immune response elicited by the candidate marker DNA-vaccine against CSF.

  15. Candidate List of yoUr Biomarker (CLUB: A Web-based Platform to Aid Cancer Biomarker Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leigh Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CLUB (“Candidate List of yoUr Biomarkers” is a freely available, web-based resource designed to support Cancer biomarker research. It is targeted to provide a comprehensive list of candidate biomarkers for various cancers that have been reported by the research community. CLUB provides tools for comparison of marker candidates from different experimental platforms, with the ability to filter, search, query and explore, molecular interaction networks associated with cancer biomarkers from the published literature and from data uploaded by the community. This complex and ambitious project is implemented in phases. As a first step, we have compiled from the literature an initial set of differentially expressed human candidate cancer biomarkers. Each candidate is annotated with information from publicly available databases such as Gene Ontology, Swiss-Prot database, National Center for Biotechnology Information’s reference sequences, Biomolecular Interaction Network Database and IntAct interaction. The user has the option to maintain private lists of biomarker candidates or share and export these for use by the community. Furthermore, users may customize and combine commonly used sets of selection procedures and apply them as a stored workflow using selected candidate lists. To enable an assessment by the user before taking a candidate biomarker to the experimental validation stage, the platform contains the functionality to identify pathways associated with cancer risk, staging, prognosis, outcome in cancer and other clinically associated phenotypes. The system is available at http://club.bii.a-star.edu.sg.

  16. Marker evaluation of human breast and bladder cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayall, B.H.; Carroll, P.R.; Chen, Ling-Chun; Cohen, M.B.; Goodson, W.H. III; Smith, H.S.; Waldman, F.M. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-11-02

    We are investigating multiple markers in human breast and bladder cancers. Our aim is to identify markers that are clinically relevant and that contribute to our understanding of the disease process in individual patients. Good markers accurately assess the malignant potential of a cancer in an individual patient. Thus, they help identify those cancers that will recur, and they may be used to predict more accurately time to recurrence, response to treatment, and overall prognosis. Therapy and patient management may then be optimized to the individual patient. Relevant markers reflect the underlying pathobiology of individual tumors. As a tissue undergoes transformation from benign to malignant, the cells lose their differentiated phenotype. As a generalization, the more the cellular phenotype, cellular proliferation and cellular genotype depart from normal, the more advanced is the tumor in its biological evolution and the more likely it is that the patient has a poor prognosis. We use three studies to illustrate our investigation of potential tumor markers. Breast cancers are labeled in vivo with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to give a direct measure of the tumor labeling index. Bladder cancers are analyzed immunocytochemically using an antibody against proliferation. Finally, the techniques of molecular genetics are used to detect allelic loss in breast cancers. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...... experience of enacting action research. Our engagement in a large action research project brought about many dilemmas and uncertainties related to our roles and interventions. We focus on these uncertainties as a way of opening the ?black box? of action research ?in the making?. We conceptualize a...... methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  18. Andreev reflection in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Carlo

    2007-03-01

    Relativity and superconductivity have no common ground in ordinary matter, because the velocity of electrons is only a small fraction of the velocity of light. The unusual band structure of a single layer of carbon atoms (graphene) contains negatively and positively charged particles that move as relativistic electrons and positrons. The electron-like particles in the conduction band can be converted into positron-like particles in the valence band when they are reflected by a superconductor. (The missing charge of 2e enters the superconductor as a Cooper pair.) This interband reflection process can be distinguished from the usual intraband Andreev reflection, because the reflection angle has the opposite sign. A new phenomenology of graphene--superconductor junctions is predicted, including an anomalous scaling of the supercurrent with the length of the junction and the existence of charge-neutral modes propagating along the interface.

  19. Candid Reflections on the Departure of Black Women Faculty from Academe in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Crystal Renee

    2012-01-01

    Critical content analysis is used to identify content within blogs, exposing views within academe that reinforce and normalize racist, sexist, and interactively racist and sexist perspectives. The two themes explored here are unfairness and subjectivities within personnel processes and the qualifications of Black women faculty, as raised through a…

  20. Creatinine excretion rate, a marker of muscle mass, is related to clinical outcome in patients with chronic systolic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Damman, Kevin; Hillege, Hans L.; Bakker, Stephan J.; Anker, Stefan D.; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In chronic heart failure (CHF), low body mass as a reflection of low muscle mass has been associated with poor outcome. Urinary creatinine excretion rate (CER) is an established marker of muscle mass, but has not been investigated in CHF. This study aims to evaluate urinary CER as a marker of m

  1. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  2. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  3. LINKAGE MAPPING OF CANDIDATE GENES FOR INDUCED RESISTANCE AND GROWTH PROMOTION BY Trichoderma koningiopsis (Th003 IN TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotes Prado Alba Marina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Induced systemic resistance (ISR is a mechanism by which plants enhance defenses against any stress condition. ISR and growth promotion are enhanced when tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is inoculated with several strains of Trichoderma ssp. This study aims to genetically map tomato candidate genes involved in ISR and growth promotion induced by the Colombian native isolate Trichoderma koningiopsis Th003. Forty-nine candidate genes previously identified on tomato plants treated with Th003 and T. hamatum T382 strains were evaluated for polymorphisms and 16 of them were integrated on the highly saturated genetic linkage map named “TOMATO EXPEN 2000”. The location of six unigenes was similar to the location of resistance gene analogs (RGAs, defense related ESTs and resistance QTLs previously reported, suggesting new possible candidates for these quantitative trait loci (QTL regions. The candidate gene-markers may be used for future ISR or growth promotion assisted selection in tomato.

  4. Linkage mapping of candidate genes for induce resistance and growth promotion by trichoderma koningiopsis (th003) in tomato solanum lycopersicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is a mechanism by which plants enhance defenses against any stress condition. ISR and growth promotion are enhanced when tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is inoculated with several strains of Trichoderma ssp. this study aims to genetically map tomato candidate genes involved in ISR and growth promotion induced by the Colombian native isolate Trichoderma koningiopsis th003. Forty-nine candidate genes previously identified on tomato plants treated with th003 and T. hamatum T382 strains were evaluated for polymorphisms and 16 of them were integrated on the highly saturated genetic linkage map named TOMATO EXPEN 2000. The location of six unigenes was similar to the location of resistance gene analogs (RGAS), defense related ests and resistance QTLs previously reported, suggesting new possible candidates for these quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions. The candidate gene-markers may be used for future ISR or growth promotion assisted selection in tomato.

  5. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable......-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo...... systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  6. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P; Owen, M J; Ophoff, R A; O'Donovan, M C; Corvin, A; Cichon, S; Sullivan, P F

    2015-05-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why historical candidate gene studies did not achieve their primary aims is inadequate statistical power. However, the considerable efforts embodied in these early studies unquestionably set the stage for current successes in genomic approaches to schizophrenia. PMID:25754081

  7. Application of molecular markers in livestock improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Teneva A.; Petrović M.P.

    2010-01-01

    With recent developments in DNA technologies, a large number of genetic polymorphisms at DNA sequence level has been introduced over the last decades as named DNA-based markers. The discovery of new class of DNA profiling markers has facilitated the development of marker-based gene tags, mapbased cloning of livestock important genes, variability studies, phylogenetic analysis, synteny mapping, marker-assisted selection of favourable genotypes, etc. The most commonly used DNA-based markers hav...

  8. A Framework for Teacher Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Claire

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a framework for teacher reflection based on a longitudinal study of the development of six experienced second-language teachers who attempted to implement reflection and reflective action into their teaching practice. The resulting framework included several phases in the development of reflective teaching: engaging with reflection,…

  9. Closing the door on dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold dark matter candidates - if they exist - will be present in, and perhaps dominate the mass density of, the halo of our Galaxy. As they pass the vicinity of the Sun, such halo particles will be focussed gravitationally, pass through the Sun and - occasionally - be captured and accumulate in the solar core. When the density in the core of the Sun of dark matter candidates has increased sufficiently, they will annihilate and among the annihilation products will be energetic (≥ GeV) ''ordinary'' neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) which are detectable in deep underground experiments. The event rates in such detectors from the capture and annihilation of various dark matter candidates (Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, Sneutrinos and Photinos) are presented and it is shown how comparison with data may lead to constraints on (or, the exclusion of) the masses of these particles. 6 refs

  10. Facilitating management learning: Developing critical reflection through reflective tools

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, David E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how the practice of critical reflection within a management learning process can be facilitated through the application of reflective processes and tools. A distinction is drawn between reflection as a form of individual development (of, say, the reflective practitioner), and critical reflection as a route to collective action and a component of organizational learning and change. Critical reflection, however, is not a process that comes naturally to many...

  11. Bulk development and stringent selection of microsatellite markers in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Jun; Li, Ze-Min; Wang, Ze-Hua; Zhu, Liang; Gong, Ya-Jun; Chen, Min; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled investigation of microsatellites on a genome-wide scale. Faced with a huge amount of candidates, the use of appropriate marker selection criteria is crucial. Here, we used the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis for an empirical microsatellite survey and validation; 132,251 candidate microsatellites were identified, 92,102 of which were perfect. Dinucleotides were the most abundant category, while (AG)n was the most abundant motif. Sixty primer pairs were designed and validated in two natural populations, of which 30 loci were polymorphic, stable, and repeatable, but not all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage equilibrium. Four marker panels were constructed to understand effect of marker selection on population genetic analyses: (i) only accept loci with single nucleotide insertions (SNI); (ii) only accept the most polymorphic loci (MP); (iii) only accept loci that did not deviate from HWE, did not show SNIs, and had unambiguous peaks (SS) and (iv) all developed markers (ALL). Although the MP panel resulted in microsatellites of highest genetic diversity followed by the SNI, the SS performed best in individual assignment. Our study proposes stringent criteria for selection of microsatellites from a large-scale number of genomic candidates for population genetic studies. PMID:27197749

  12. Plasma Soluble (Prorenin Receptor Reflects Renal Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naro Ohashi

    Full Text Available (Prorenin receptor [(PRR], a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was identified as a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. (PRR is cleaved by furin, and soluble (PRR [s(PRR] is secreted into the extracellular space. Previous reports have indicated that plasma s(PRR levels show a significant positive relationship with urinary protein levels, which represent renal damage. However, it is not fully known whether plasma s(PRR reflects renal damage.We recruited 25 patients who were admitted to our hospital to undergo heminephrectomy. Plasma s(PRR levels were examined from blood samples drawn before nephrectomy. The extent of renal damage was evaluated by the levels of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of intrarenal (PRR and cell surface markers (cluster of differentiation [CD]3, CD19, and CD68 was performed on samples taken from the removed kidney. Moreover, double staining of (PRR and cell surface markers was also performed.There were significant positive relationships between plasma s(PRR and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blocker therapy. Significant positive relationships were found between plasma s(PRR levels and the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis after adjustment for age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, and plasma angiotensin II, in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blockers. Moreover, (PRR expression was elevated in infiltrated mononuclear cells but not connecting tubules or collecting ducts and vessels. Infiltrated cells positive for (PRR consisted of CD3 and CD68 but not CD19.These data suggest that plasma s(PRR levels may reflect (PRR expression levels in infiltrated mononuclear cells, which can be a surrogate marker of renal damage.

  13. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  14. Focused crossed Andreev reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, H.; Brataas, A.; Waintal, X.; Bauer, G. E. W.

    2011-03-01

    We consider non-local transport mediated by Andreev reflection in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) connected to one superconducting and two normal metal terminals. A robust scheme is presented for observing crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) between the normal metal terminals based on electron focusing by weak perpendicular magnetic fields. At slightly elevated temperatures the CAR signature can be easily distinguished from a background of quantum interference fluctuations. The CAR-induced entanglement between electrons can be switched on and off over large distances by the magnetic field.

  15. Reflection from black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, M Yu

    2003-01-01

    Black holes are presumed to have an ideal ability to absorb and keep matter. Whatever comes close to the event horizon, a boundary separating the inside region of a black hole from the outside world, inevitably goes in and remains inside forever. This work shows, however, that quantum corrections make possible a surprising process, reflection: a particle can bounce back from the event horizon. For low energy particles this process is efficient, black holes behave not as holes, but as mirrors, which changes our perception of their physical nature. Possible ways for observations of the reflection and its relation to the Hawking radiation process are outlined.

  16. Postscript: Delving into Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Noffke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Although, the authors presented an earlier version of the paper, "The Dimensions of Reflection: A Conceptual and Contextual Analysis", at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, April, 1988, they did not have a chance to publish the paper till today. This postscript is about why the paper stayed as an “unpublished” conference paper for so long. Editors believe that the authors’ reflection on their academic journey with the paper in the postscript could be seen as an outstanding practical exemplar, a moral-political narrative of how to shape and create well-formed academic lives and identities.

  17. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  18. Literature Review of Discourse Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕴萱; 王孝伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to supplying theoretical foundation for discourse markers(DMs),introducing the relevant definitions as well as the previous classifications of DMs.The functions of discourse markers are also added so as to provide a deep insight into

  19. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  20. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  1. Integral representation of Skorokhod reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Anantharam, Venkat; Konstantopoulos, Takis

    2010-01-01

    We show that a certain integral representation of the one-sided Skorokhod reflection of a continuous bounded variation function characterizes the reflection in that it possesses a unique maximal solution which solves the Skorokhod reflection problem.

  2. Exploring the Role of a Coteaching Model of Student Teaching in Supporting Candidates Learning to Teach Inquiry Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzey, Christine L.

    Coteaching has been proposed as an apprenticeship model of student teaching that helps candidates maximize their learning through high levels of collaboration with their partnering classroom teachers. Yet, what this collaboration looks like and how it supports candidates is poorly understood. Understanding collaborations between candidates and their teachers would help teacher educators design more effective programs. In this study, two preservice science candidates with their mentor teachers implemented a coteaching model that included professional development for mentor teachers, peripheral participation for candidates, co-planning and co-reflection, and the continued teaching presence of mentors in the classroom. Using a case study approach, data collected included audio recordings of conversations and video recordings of classroom teaching. Conversations and enactments were analyzed using ratings for interactions, contributions, and science inquiry elements. Interviews with candidates and mentors were analyzed using ratings for perceptions of support and professional development. Findings indicate candidates and mentors used seven distinct conversation patterns depending on the purpose of the conversation and each conversation type was supported by specific features of this coteaching model. In addition, the model appears to have supported candidates' beginning inquiry teaching. When teachers modeled inquiry, candidates attempted to use inquiry elements themselves. Because mentors maintained an active teaching presence, candidates were able to practice reflective thinking and adaptation skills with experienced teachers, see inquiry strategies modeled and immediately practice these strategies while their mentors assisted as needed. Overall, candidates reported feeling high levels of support from their mentors, while mentors felt professional development was necessary to implement coteaching. Implications for teacher education are that programs must provide

  3. Reflection in learning at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steen Høyrup

    2006-01-01

    Three domains and approaches of learning - adult learning, problem-solving and cirtical reflection theory are used as different lenses through which the question: what is reflection and how is reflection related to learning, - are interpreted.......Three domains and approaches of learning - adult learning, problem-solving and cirtical reflection theory are used as different lenses through which the question: what is reflection and how is reflection related to learning, - are interpreted....

  4. An efficient identification strategy of clonal tea cultivars using long-core motif SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rang Jian; Gao, Xiang Feng; Kong, Xiang Rui; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), especially those with long-core motifs (tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide) represent an excellent tool for DNA fingerprinting. SSRs with long-core motifs are preferred since neighbor alleles are more easily separated and identified from each other, which render the interpretation of electropherograms and the true alleles more reliable. In the present work, with the purpose of characterizing a set of core SSR markers with long-core motifs for well fingerprinting clonal cultivars of tea (Camellia sinensis), we analyzed 66 elite clonal tea cultivars in China with 33 initially-chosen long-core motif SSR markers covering all the 15 linkage groups of tea plant genome. A set of 6 SSR markers were conclusively selected as core SSR markers after further selection. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of the core SSR markers was >0.5, with ≤5 alleles in each marker containing 10 or fewer genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the core SSR markers were not strongly correlated with the trait 'cultivar processing-property'. The combined probability of identity (PID) between two random cultivars for the whole set of 6 SSR markers was estimated to be 2.22 × 10(-5), which was quite low, confirmed the usefulness of the proposed SSR markers for fingerprinting analyses in Camellia sinensis. Moreover, for the sake of quickly discriminating the clonal tea cultivars, a cultivar identification diagram (CID) was subsequently established using these core markers, which fully reflected the identification process and provided the immediate information about which SSR markers were needed to identify a cultivar chosen among the tested ones. The results suggested that long-core motif SSR markers used in the investigation contributed to the accurate and efficient identification of the clonal tea cultivars and enabled the protection of intellectual property. PMID:27504250

  5. Punctum: Reflections on Photography

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Group show for which I was invited to contribute one photograph to the exhibition Punctum. Consisting of fifty photographs and artworks chosen by artists, curators and writers, curated by Séamus Kealy, Punctum takes its cue from the term “punctum” coined by Roland Barthes in his final book Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography.

  6. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  7. Reflecting on Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  8. Changes Brought by Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Feng: A number of changes have taken place in Europe after reflection, such as specific anti-terrorist measures, progress in the construction of integration, changes in the structure of political forces and adjustments in the EU foreign policy. Would you make some comments first, Dr. Sun?

  9. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  10. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  11. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  12. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  13. The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toremen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates' responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstructured interview method…

  14. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  15. FAME's Search for Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.

    FAME is a five year survey mission to observe the positions, proper motions, and parallaxes of 40,000,000 stars down to 15th magnitude with accuracies of 50 microarcseconds at 9th magnitude. In addition to producing an astrometric and photometric catalog unparalleled for its accuracy and size, the survey will provide significant astrophysics results and search for extrasolar planet candidates.

  16. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  17. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  18. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  19. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  20. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  1. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the western world for both men and women. Lung cancer appears to be a perfect candidate for a screening program, since it is the number one cancer killer, it has a long preclinical phase, curative treatment for the minority of patients who are diagnosed early and a target population at risk (smokers and it is also a major economic burden. The earliest approaches to identifying cancer markers were based on preliminary clinical or pathological observations, although molecular biology is a strong candidate for occupying a place among the set of methods. In search of markers, several alterations, such as mutations, loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability, DNA methylation, mitochondrial DNA mutations, viral DNA, modified expression of mRNA, miRNA and proteins, and structurally altered proteins have all been analysed. MicroRNAs (miRNA are small RNA molecules, about 19-25 nucleotides long and encoded in genomes of plants, animals, fungi and viruses. It has been reported that miRNAs may have multiple functions in lung development and that aberrant expression of miRNAs could induce lung tumorigenesis. We review here the role of miRNAs in lung tumorigenesis and also as a novel type of biomarker.-----------------------------------Cite this article as:Silva J, Garcia V, Lopez-Gonzalez A, Provencio M. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:010111. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0101.11

  2. Potential immunological markers for diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Rubinsky-Elefant

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In human toxocariasis, there are few approaches using immunological markers for diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. An immunoblot (IB assay using excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen was standardized for monitoring IgG, IgE and IgA antibodies in 27 children with toxocariasis (23 visceral, three mixed visceral and ocular, and one ocular form for 22-116 months after chemotherapy. IB sensitivity was 100% for IgG antibodies to bands of molecular weight 29-38, 48-54, 95-116, 121-162, >205 kDa, 80.8% for IgE to 29-38, 48-54, 95-121, > 205 kDa, and 65.4% for IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa. Candidates for diagnostic markers should be IgG antibodies to bands of low molecular weight (29-38 and 48-54 kDa. One group of patients presented the same antibody reactivity to all bands throughout the follow-up study; in the other group, antibodies decayed partially or completely to some or all bands, but these changes were not correlated with time after chemotherapy. Candidates for monitoring patients after chemotherapy may be IgG antibodies to > 205 kDa fractions, IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa and IgE to 95-121 kDa. Further identification of antigen epitopes related to these markers will allow the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays for the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of toxocariasis.

  3. Discovery and validation of methylation markers for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Killian, J Keith; Sampson, Joshua; Guido, Richard; Glass, Andrew; Adams, Lisa; Luhn, Patricia; Brinton, Louise A; Rush, Brenda; d'Ambrosio, Lori; Gunja, Munira; Yang, Hannah P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lacey, James V; Lissowska, Jolanta; Podratz, Karl; Meltzer, Paul; Shridhar, Viji; Sherman, Mark E

    2014-10-15

    The prognosis of endometrial cancer is strongly associated with stage at diagnosis, suggesting that early detection may reduce mortality. Women who are diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma often have a lengthy history of vaginal bleeding, which offers an opportunity for early diagnosis and curative treatment. We performed DNA methylation profiling on population-based endometrial cancers to identify early detection biomarkers and replicated top candidates in two independent studies. We compared DNA methylation values of 1,500 probes representing 807 genes in 148 population-based endometrial carcinoma samples and 23 benign endometrial tissues. Markers were replicated in another set of 69 carcinomas and 40 benign tissues profiled on the same platform. Further replication was conducted in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in prospectively collected endometrial brushings from women with and without endometrial carcinomas. We identified 114 CpG sites showing methylation differences with p values of ≤ 10(-7) between endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrium. Eight genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL2, HS3ST2, HTR1B, MME, NPY and SOX1) were selected for further replication. Age-adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer ranged from 3.44 (95%-CI: 1.33-8.91) for ASCL2 to 18.61 (95%-CI: 5.50-62.97) for HTR1B. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 was achieved for discriminating carcinoma from benign endometrium. Replication in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in endometrial brushings from an independent study confirmed the candidate markers. This study demonstrates that methylation markers may be used to evaluate women with abnormal vaginal bleeding to distinguish women with endometrial carcinoma from the majority of women without malignancy. PMID:24623538

  4. Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate vertebrate magnetoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Stephan H K; Cadiou, Hervé; Muhamad, Airina; McNaughton, Peter A; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Winklhofer, Michael

    2012-07-24

    Over the past 50 y, behavioral experiments have produced a large body of evidence for the existence of a magnetic sense in a wide range of animals. However, the underlying sensory physiology remains poorly understood due to the elusiveness of the magnetosensory structures. Here we present an effective method for isolating and characterizing potential magnetite-based magnetoreceptor cells. In essence, a rotating magnetic field is employed to visually identify, within a dissociated tissue preparation, cells that contain magnetic material by their rotational behavior. As a tissue of choice, we selected trout olfactory epithelium that has been previously suggested to host candidate magnetoreceptor cells. We were able to reproducibly detect magnetic cells and to determine their magnetic dipole moment. The obtained values (4 to 100 fAm(2)) greatly exceed previous estimates (0.5 fAm(2)). The magnetism of the cells is due to a μm-sized intracellular structure of iron-rich crystals, most likely single-domain magnetite. In confocal reflectance imaging, these produce bright reflective spots close to the cell membrane. The magnetic inclusions are found to be firmly coupled to the cell membrane, enabling a direct transduction of mechanical stress produced by magnetic torque acting on the cellular dipole in situ. Our results show that the magnetically identified cells clearly meet the physical requirements for a magnetoreceptor capable of rapidly detecting small changes in the external magnetic field. This would also explain interference of ac powerline magnetic fields with magnetoreception, as reported in cattle. PMID:22778440

  5. Photometric variability of candidate white dwarf binary systems from Palomar Transient Factory archival data

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Wil; Prince, Thomas A; Tang, Sumin; Ene, Irina; Kim, Kyu Bin; Levitan, David; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Laher, Russ R

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 59 periodic variables from the Palomar Transient Factory, selected from published catalogues of white dwarf (WD) candidates. The variability can likely be attributed to ellipsoidal variation of the tidally distorted companion induced by the gravity of the primary (WD or hot subdwarf) or to the reflection of hot emission by a cooler companion. We searched 11,311 spectroscopically or photometrically selected WD candidates from three hot star/WD catalogues, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to single out promising sources. We present period estimates for the candidates, 45 of which were not previously identified as periodic variables, and find that most have a period shorter than a few days. Additionally, we discuss the eclipsing systems in our sample and present spectroscopic data on selected sources.

  6. Photometric variability of candidate white dwarf binary systems from Palomar Transient Factory archival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wil; Kaplan, David L.; Prince, Thomas A.; Tang, Sumin; Ene, Irina; Kim, Kyu Bin; Levitan, David; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Laher, Russ R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a sample of 59 periodic variables from the Palomar Transient Factory, selected from published catalogues of white dwarf (WD) candidates. The variability can likely be attributed to ellipsoidal variation of the tidally distorted companion induced by the gravity of the primary (WD or hot subdwarf) or to the reflection of hot emission by a cooler companion. We searched 11 311 spectroscopically or photometrically selected WD candidates from three hot star/WD catalogues, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to single out promising sources. We present period estimates for the candidates, 45 of which were not previously identified as periodic variables, and find that most have a period shorter than a few days. Additionally, we discuss the eclipsing systems in our sample and present spectroscopic data on selected sources.

  7. Measuring Practicum Student Teachers' Reflectivity: The Reflective Pedagogical Thinking Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Toh Wah

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the original study was to investigate practicum student teachers' reflectivity. This paper describes the use of a revised version of the Reflective Pedagogical Thinking Scale (Sparks-Langer, et al., 1990) to measure reflectivity. The original scale was used by the developers to assess reflectivity through a structured interview. The…

  8. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  9. Metabolomics profiling reveals novel markers for leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Jonas; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten; Gieger, Christian; Codd, Veryan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Bell, Jordana; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Schulz, Holger; Weidinger, Stephan; Mohney, Robert P; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Tim; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered one of the most predictive markers of biological aging. The aim of this study was to identify novel pathways regulating LTL using a metabolomics approach. To this end, we tested associations between 280 blood metabolites and LTL in 3511 females from TwinsUK and replicated our results in the KORA cohort. We furthermore tested significant metabolites for associations with several aging-related phenotypes, gene expression markers and epigenetic markers to investigate potential underlying pathways. Five metabolites were associated with LTL: Two lysolipids, 1-stearoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10(-5)) and 1-palmitoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10(-5)), were found to be negatively associated with LTL and positively associated with phospholipase A2 expression levels suggesting an involvement of fatty acid metabolism and particularly membrane composition in biological aging. Moreover, two gamma-glutamyl amino acids, gamma-glutamyltyrosine (P=2.5×10(-6)) and gamma-glutamylphenylalanine (P=1.7×10(-5)), were negatively correlated with LTL. Both are products of the glutathione cycle and markers for increased oxidative stress. Metabolites were also correlated with functional measures of aging, i.e. higher blood pressure and HDL cholesterol levels and poorer lung, liver and kidney function. Our results suggest an involvement of altered fatty acid metabolism and increased oxidative stress in human biological aging, reflected by LTL and age-related phenotypes of vital organ systems. PMID:26797767

  10. The discovery of putative urine markers for the specific detection of prostate tumor by integrative mining of public genomic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available Urine has emerged as an attractive biofluid for the noninvasive detection of prostate cancer (PCa. There is a strong imperative to discover candidate urinary markers for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of PCa. The rising flood of various omics profiles presents immense opportunities for the identification of prospective biomarkers. Here we present a simple and efficient strategy to derive candidate urine markers for prostate tumor by mining cancer genomic profiles from public databases. Prostate, bladder and kidney are three major tissues from which cellular matters could be released into urine. To identify urinary markers specific for PCa, upregulated entities that might be shed in exosomes of bladder cancer and kidney cancer are first excluded. Through the ontology-based filtering and further assessment, a reduced list of 19 entities encoding urinary proteins was derived as putative PCa markers. Among them, we have found 10 entities closely associated with the process of tumor cell growth and development by pathway enrichment analysis. Further, using the 10 entities as seeds, we have constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI subnetwork and suggested a few urine markers as preferred prognostic markers to monitor the invasion and progression of PCa. Our approach is amenable to discover and prioritize potential markers present in a variety of body fluids for a spectrum of human diseases.

  11. 22 CFR 11.8 - Travel expenses of candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of candidates. 11.8 Section 11... Travel expenses of candidates. The travel and other personal expenses of candidates incurred in... Department may issue round-trip invitational travel orders to bring candidates to Washington at...

  12. Non-existence of strong regular reflections in self-similar potential flow

    OpenAIRE

    Elling, Volker

    2011-01-01

    We consider shock reflection which has a well-known local non-uniqueness: the reflected shock can be either of two choices, called weak and strong. We consider cases where existence of a global solution with weak reflected shock has been proven, for compressible potential flow. If there was a global strong-shock solution as well, then potential flow would be ill-posed. However, we prove non-existence of strong-shock analogues in a natural class of candidates.

  13. Phosphoprotein Secretome of Tumor Cells as a Source of Candidates for Breast Cancer Biomarkers in Plasma*

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzka, Anna M.; Schilling, Birgit; Cusack, Michael P.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Drake, Penelope; Fisher, Susan J.; Benz, Christopher C.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease whose molecular diversity is not well reflected in clinical and pathological markers used for prognosis and treatment selection. As tumor cells secrete proteins into the extracellular environment, some of these proteins reach circulation and could become suitable biomarkers for improving diagnosis or monitoring response to treatment. As many signaling pathways and interaction networks are altered in cancerous tissues by protein phosphorylation, changes...

  14. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations. PMID:20672542

  15. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  16. [Anti-Müllerian hormone - a marker of ovarian function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Sanna; Tapanainen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), also known as Müllerian inhibitory substance, is a useful marker of ovarian function. Granulosa cells of growing follicles secrete AMH, and its serum levels reflect the remaining follicular pool and thus the remaining length of a woman's reproductive lifespan. Serum AMH measurement can be used as a marker of ovarian dysfunction such as primary ovarian insufficiency, polycystic ovarian syndrome and granulosa cell tumors. Furthermore, it helps to estimate ovarian damage due to chemotherapy or surgery and can be used as a tool in infertility treatment. The use of AMH in clinical practice will likely become more common in the future as the new automatic assay methods become available. PMID:26951026

  17. Marker-assisted selection in wheat: Evolution, not revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the uptake of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat in a European context. Although less intense than the scale of its application in maize, reflecting the fact that maize varieties are predominantly F1 hybrids, the use of MAS in wheat has grown over the last few years. This growth has been encouraged by an increase in the number of amenable target traits, but more significantly by a combination of technological improvements, particularly in the areas of DNA acquisition, laboratory management systems and integration into the breeding cycle, which together have served to reduce the per unit cost of each data point. Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) are, and will likely remain for some time, the marker of choice because of their flexibility and the knowledge base associated with them. Some current examples are provided of the use of MAS in a major United Kingdom commercial breeding programme. (author)

  18. Are multiple markers the future of prostate cancer diagnostics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, Stephen D; Song, Yong; Wong, James R; Matson, Robert S; Rittenhouse, Harry G

    2004-07-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most successful and widely employed cancer serum marker in use today. There is growing evidence that the introduction of wide PSA screening and earlier detection can result in decreased cancer mortality associated with a decline in metastatic disease. PSA circulates in a number of distinct forms. Measurement of these in addition to total PSA significantly increases diagnostic utility. Diagnostic utility is likely to be further increased by adding kallikreins, cytokines, growth factors, receptors and cellular adhesion factors to the biomarker panel. The need for multiple markers reflects the multidimensional nature of prostate disease which ranges from metastatic cancer to indolent cancer to benign hyperplasia and inflammation, all of which require distinct treatments and medical interventions. PMID:15234233

  19. Service Learning Reflection Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Sass, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Service-Learning, a subset of service-engagement, is a course-based, credit-bearing educational experience in which students participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community needs; use knowledge and skills directly related to a course or discipline; and reflect on the service activity in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced sense of personal values and civic responsibility. This ...

  20. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnerty John R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Results Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal, were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Conclusion Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies.

  1. Mapping of five candidate sex-determining loci in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainbow trout have an XX/XY genetic mechanism of sex determination where males are the heterogametic sex. The homology of the sex-determining gene (SDG in medaka to Dmrt1 suggested that SDGs evolve from downstream genes by gene duplication. Orthologous sequences of the major genes of the mammalian sex determination pathway have been reported in the rainbow trout but the map position for the majority of these genes has not been assigned. Results Five loci of four candidate genes (Amh, Dax1, Dmrt1 and Sox6 were tested for linkage to the Y chromosome of rainbow trout. We exclude the role of all these loci as candidates for the primary SDG in this species. Sox6i and Sox6ii, duplicated copies of Sox6, mapped to homeologous linkage groups 10 and 18 respectively. Genotyping fishes of the OSU × Arlee mapping family for Sox6i and Sox6ii alleles indicated that Sox6i locus might be deleted in the Arlee lineage. Conclusion Additional candidate genes should be tested for their linkage to the Y chromosome. Mapping data of duplicated Sox6 loci supports previously suggested homeology between linkage groups 10 and 18. Enrichment of the rainbow trout genomic map with known gene markers allows map comparisons with other salmonids. Mapping of candidate sex-determining loci is important for analyses of potential autosomal modifiers of sex-determination in rainbow trout.

  2. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  3. My Reflective Practice as Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcia A.

    1999-01-01

    Using Schon's concepts and definition of reflective practice, this article elaborates a model used to analyze the author's own processes of "reflection-in-action" and "reflection-on-action" in teaching first-year architectural students. Emphasizes the importance of the concept of "role-frame" in informing the whole reflective process. (EV)

  4. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  5. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  6. Enrichment of MCI and early Alzheimer's disease treatment trials using neurochemical and imaging candidate biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, H

    2012-02-01

    In the earliest clinical stages of Alzheimer\\'s Disease (AD), when symptoms are mild, clinical diagnosis will still be difficult. AD related molecular mechanisms precede symptoms. Biological markers can serve as early diagnostic indicators, as markers of preclinical pathological change, e.g. underlying mechanisms of action (MoA). Hypothesis based candidates are derived from structural and functional neuroimaging as well as from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. Unbiased exploratory approaches e.g. proteome analysis or rater independent fully automated imaging post-processing methods yield novel candidates. Recent progress in the validation of core feasible imaging and neurochemical biomarkers for functions such as early detection, classification, progression and prediction of AD is summarized. Single core feasible biomarkers can already be used to enrich populations at risk for AD and may be further enhanced using distinct combinations. Some biomarkers are currently in the process of implementation as primary or secondary outcome variables into regulatory guideline documents, e.g. regarding phase II in drug development programs as outcome measures in proof of concept or dose finding studies. There are specific biomarkers available depending on the hypothesized mechanism of action of a medicinal product, e.g. impact on the amyloidogenic cascade or on tauhyperphosphorylation. Ongoing large-scale international controlled multi-center trials will provide further validation of selected core feasible imaging and CSF biomarker candidates as outcome measures in early AD for use in phase III clinical efficacy trials. There is a need of rigorous co-development of biological trait- and statemarker candidates facilitated through planned synergistic collaboration between academic, industrial and regulatory partners.

  7. Transcriptional changes induced by candidate malaria vaccines and correlation with protection against malaria in a human challenge model

    OpenAIRE

    Dunachie, S; Berthoud, T; Hill, AV; Fletcher, HA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complexity of immunity to malaria is well known, and clear correlates of protection against malaria have not been established. A better understanding of immune markers induced by candidate malaria vaccines would greatly enhance vaccine development, immunogenicity monitoring and estimation of vaccine efficacy in the field. We have previously reported complete or partial efficacy against experimental sporozoite challenge by several vaccine regimens in healthy malaria-naïve subj...

  8. Genomic Characterisation and Polymorphism Analysis of Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits and Association Studies in Three Cattle Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Seefried, Franz Reinhold

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, various mapping experiments resulted in the detection of several markers affecting milk production traits on bovine chromosome 6. The aim of this study was to identify causative polymorphisms of milk traits using a multiple breed approach. Six selected candidate genes on chromosome 6 in cattle were characterised and screened for polymorphisms. Following this, 50 polymorphisms were genotyped in sires of German Brown, Fleckvieh and German Holstein for investigation in assoc...

  9. Candidate Species Selection: Cultural and Photosynthetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cultural information is provided for a data base that will be used to select candidate crop species for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Lists of food crops which will satisfy most nutritional requirements of humans and also fit within the scope of cultural restrictions that logically would apply to a closed, regenerating system were generated. Cultural and environmental conditions that will allow the most rapid production of edible biomass from candidate species in the shortest possible time are identified. Cultivars which are most productive in terms of edible biomass production by (CE) conditions, and which respond to the ever-closed approach to optimization realized by each shortened production cycle are selected. The experimental approach with lettuce was to grow the crop hydroponically in a growth chamber and to manipulate such variables as light level and duration, day/night temperature, and nutrient form and level in the solution culture.

  10. New drug candidates in tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Evranos Aksöz

    2014-12-01

    makes them quit the treatment. From these problems emerges the need for development of effective new drugs, with smaller duration of therapy, less side effects and without the problem of resistance. After a long period such as 40 years, a new drug molecule bedaquiline was approved in December 2012 by FDA while the drug was in phase II research. Bedaquiline will be used in multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy. When the chemical structures of bedaquilline and other candidate drugs were examined, the structures such as diarylquinoline, oxazolidinone, nitroimidazole, ethylenediamine drew attention. These common structures will be directive in designing new molecules. In this review, bedaquiline and other candidate drug molecules such as sutezolide, linezolide, PA-824, delamanide, rifapentine, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, BTZ-043, TBA-354, CPZEN-45, DC-159a, Q201, SQ-609, SQ-641 were mentioned.

  11. Optical Nova Candidate in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 14.46 and 16.46 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.7. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h42m37.72s, Dec = +41d12'30.0"(J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 1'14" west and 3'39" south of the core of M 31. All magnitudes given are obtained from a photometric solution using R magnitudes of the Local Group Survey M 31 catalogue (Massey et al.

  12. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars and not...... planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  13. Reflective writing: a management skill

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze students' reflective writing in terms of identifiable outcomes and explore students' thoughts on reflection and reflective writing as a process. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed methods approach is taken with a qualitative analysis of 116 written reflections from MA Librarianship studying management over an eight-month period. A quantitative statistical analysis assesses the relationships between reflective writing and a number of po...

  14. Genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs identifies candidate genes involved in T helper cells and macrophage signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2....

  15. A new marker set that identifies fetal cells in maternal circulation with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatt, Lotte; Brinch, Marie; Singh, Ripudaman;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fetal cells from the maternal circulation (FCMBs) have the potential to replace cells from amniotic fluid or chorionic villi in a diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies. Good markers for enrichment and identification are lacking. METHOD: Blood samples from 78 normal pregnancies...... were used for testing the marker-set CD105 and CD141 for fetal cell enrichment. Fetal cell candidates were subsequently stained by a cocktail of cytokeratin antibodies, and the gender of the fetal cells was explored by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the X and Y chromosomes. RESULTS: Fetal...... cell candidates could be detected in 91% of the samples, and in 85% of the samples, it was possible to obtain X and Y chromosomal FISH results for gender determination. The concordance between gender determined by FISH on fetal cells in maternal blood and gender found at birth reached 100% if three or...

  16. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam Aliya; Brohan Elaine; Thornicroft Graham; Lewis-Holmes Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  17. Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, Monica; Weyant, C. M.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Faber, K. T.

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) oxide, due to its high-temperature capabilities and thermal expansion coefficient similar to silicon nitride, is a promising candidate for environmental barriers for silicon (Si) nitride-based ceramics. This paper focuses on the development of plasma-sprayed Ta oxide as an environmental barrier coating for silicon nitride. Using a D-optimal design of experiments, plasma-spray processing variables were optimized to maximize coating density. The effect of processing variables on c...

  18. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  19. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...

  20. Comparing Candidate Selection : A Feminist Institutionalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnegard, Elin; Kenny, Meryl

    2016-01-01

    This contribution evaluates the theoretical and methodological challenges ofresearching the gendered dynamics of candidate selection in comparativeperspective. It argues that comparative studies should take into account not only thegendered nature of political parties and their wider institutional context, but mustalso investigate the informal aspects of the selection process and their genderedconsequences. The article explores these dynamics by revisiting original in-depthresearch on the can...

  1. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF ALLOSENSITIZED CARDIAC TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Mauricio; Johnson, Maryl R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation remains the best treatment in advanced heart failure patients with a high risk of death. However, an inadequate supply of donor hearts decreases the likelihood of transplantation for many patients. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are being increasingly used as a bridge to transplant in patients who may not survive long enough to receive a heart. This expansion in VAD use has been associated with increasing rates of allosensitization in cardiac transplant candidates. A...

  3. Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu PİJİ KÜÇÜK; Yusuf Barış UZUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant İzzet B...

  4. Preoperative Anxiety in Candidates for Heart Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi, Mehdi; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Joudi, Marjan; Joudi, Mitra; Mahdikhani, Helia; Ferasatkish, Rasool; Bakhshandeh, Houman; Jabbari Nooghabi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate preoperative anxiety and its predisposing factors in a group of adult patients who were candidate for any kind of heart surgery. Methods: We evaluated preoperative anxiety in 300 patients undergoing heart surgery whose ages ranged between 18-65 years. Relationship of probable demographic factors like gender, educational level, marital status, number of children, family support, opium addiction, occupational status, and left ventricular ejectio...

  5. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  6. APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR CUCUMBER IMPROVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The historicity of marker development, map construction, and the utility of marker-assisted selection is presented. Experimental results indicate that the identification of marker-trait associations will continue to be extremely expensive and time consuming, but will likely pay large dividends for ...

  7. Linguistic Markers of Inference Generation While Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Carlson, Sarah E; Seipel, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Words can be informative linguistic markers of psychological constructs. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between word use and the process of making meaningful connections to a text while reading (i.e., inference generation). To achieve this purpose, think-aloud data from third-fifth grade students ([Formula: see text]) reading narrative texts were hand-coded for inferences. These data were also processed with a computer text analysis tool, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, for percentages of word use in the following categories: cognitive mechanism words, nonfluencies, and nine types of function words. Findings indicate that cognitive mechanisms were an independent, positive predictor of connections to background knowledge (i.e., elaborative inference generation) and nonfluencies were an independent, negative predictor of connections within the text (i.e., bridging inference generation). Function words did not provide unique variance towards predicting inference generation. These findings are discussed in the context of a cognitive reflection model and the differences between bridging and elaborative inference generation. In addition, potential practical implications for intelligent tutoring systems and computer-based methods of inference identification are presented. PMID:25833811

  8. New prognostic markers in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Determining the prognosis of cirrhotic patients is not aneasy task. Prognostic scores, like Child-Pugh and Modelof End-stage Liver Disease scores, are commonly usedby hepatologists, but do not always reflect superimposedevents that may strongly influence the prognosis.Among them, bacterial intestinal translocation is a keyphenomenon for the development of cirrhosis-relatedcomplications. Several biological variables (C-reactiveprotein, serum free cortisol, copeptin, von Willebrandfactor antigen) are surrogates of "inflammatory stress"and have recently been identified as potential prognosticmarkers in cirrhotic patients. Most of these abovementioned markers were investigated in pilot studieswith sometimes a modest sample size but allow us tocatch a glimpse of the pathophysiological mechanismsleading to the worsening of cirrhosis. These new datashould generate further well-designed studies to betterassess the benefit for liver function of preventingintestinal bacterial translocation and microvascularthrombosis. The control of infection is vital and amongall actors of immunity, vitamin D also appears to actas an anti-infective agent and therefore has probably aprognostic value.

  9. Reflection of Labour Efficiency (Labour Productivity) within Rates of Return

    OpenAIRE

    CONSTANTIN CĂRUNTU; LOREDANA MIHAELA LĂPĂDUŞI

    2007-01-01

    Within the modern economy, the role of labour acquires primary coordinates, so that the most general and synthetical marker which characterizes the company's efficiency should be measured by labour productivity. The most important role among the multitude of productivity expressions is hold by labour productivity, due to the priority role of labour resource within the range of production factors. The reflection of labour efficiency within rates of return characterizes clearly describes the ex...

  10. Molecular Markers for Prostate Cancer in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Sequeiros; Marta García; Melania Montes; Mireia Oliván; Marina Rigau; Eva Colás; Inés de Torres; Juan Morote; Jaume Reventós; Andreas Doll

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in developed countries. The decisive method of diagnosis is based on the results of biopsies, morphologically evaluated to determine the presence or absence of cancer. Although this approach leads to a confident diagnosis in most cases, it can be improved by using the molecular markers present in the tissue. Both miRNAs and proteins are considered excellent candidates for biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE...

  11. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  12. Reflection on Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This smaller version of Reflection on Digestion, stemming from the nine metre edition, this version too, is awkward. In the same concertina form, a third the length of its sister, its eighteen pages hold a miniaturised text. The language is only legible with the aid of a magnifying glass, and even then the script is hard to read, hovering between word and image, content and form. The original scribed text stems from a body of knowledge encountered whilst on a post-graduate course in educa...

  13. Global South: Anthropological Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna; Kalb, Don

    2015-01-01

    The global south is a complex and dynamic concept that straddles multiple social science and humanist disciplines. Emerging around 2000, it reflects the agenda of two ascending forces in those years: the antiglobalist (alterglobalist/global justice) movement and the World Social Forum, on the one...... hand, and an alliance of Southern states within the World Trade Organization on the other. Generally seen as an inheritor of the emancipatory thought behind the notion of the ‘third world,’ in the social sciences the idea of the ‘global south’ is also entangled with more classical academic themes such...

  14. Study on de novo collagen biosynthesis and degradation markers of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was carried out to study the performance of de novo biochemical markers of serum pro collagen type-1 amino terminal extension (PINP), as a marker of collagen biosynthesis, and urinary collagen crosslink free deoxypyridinoline (DPD) as a marker of collagen degradation. Moreover, urinary calcium C Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P), as markers of bone demineralization, in addition to urinary creatinine (Cr), to reflect status of renal function, were also studied in order to assess the activity of bone turnover in osteoporotic (OST), postmenopausal (POST), peri menopausal(PERI), premenopausal (PRE) women and also in young adult (YON) ones. The obtained results showed that urinary creatinine levels were within the normal ranges in all women even in the elderly osteoporotic and postmenopausal women. Serum PINP did not reflect osteoblastic activity. Urinary DPD proved to be a good marker in monitoring the postmenopausal bone resorption and urinary Ca was a reliable marker for bone loss in osteoporosis and bone turnover in the postmenopausal status

  15. Force reflection with compliance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won S.

    1993-08-01

    Two types of systems for force-reflecting control, which enables high force-reflection gain, are presented: position-error-based force reflection and low-pass-filtered force reflection. Both of the systems are combined with shared compliance control. In the position-error-based class, the position error between the commanded and the actual position of a compliantly controlled robot is used to provide force reflection. In the low-pass-filtered force reflection class, the low-pass-filtered output of the compliance control is used to provide force reflection. The increase in force reflection gain can be more than 10-fold as compared to a conventional high-bandwidth pure force reflection system, when high compliance values are used for the compliance control.

  16. Clinical tumour markers in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, A; Nikliński, J; Laudański, T; Pluygers, E

    1998-02-01

    Within past few years, the measurement of serological, histochemical and molecular genetic markers has had an increasing influence on clinical decisions about initial treatment and follow-up. This review presents data concerning the most studied and interesting markers in ovarian cancer. CA 125, CA 19.9, TATI, CASA, CEA, TPA, TPS and CYFRA21-1 are now the most widely used serological tumour markers for management of ovarian cancer patients. Ras oncogenes, C-erb2 proto-oncogene, p53 suppressor gene and Bcl-2 oncogene are examples of currently used molecular genetic markers. As histochemical markers-proliferation markers, flow cytometric analysis, thymidine labelling index, Ki-67 nuclear antigen or differentiation markers are nowadays the ones most often determined. Some of these markers might be useful adjuncts for monitoring response to therapy, including early detection of tumour reactivation to allow curative therapy and rapid detection of treatment failure. The study of these markers may also lead to a better understanding of the biological characteristics of ovarian cancer. Numerous tumour markers characterized in this paper have been recognized as promising prognostic factors. The information derived from studies of these markers also represents the most promising avenue towards new treatment strategies; nevertheless to validate these factors, prospective studies of a large patient population are needed. PMID:9511849

  17. Molecular Markers: an Introduction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Rashad Al-Samarai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic development of molecular genetics has laid the groundwork for genomics. It has introduced new generations of molecular markers for use in the genetic improvement of farm animals. These markers provide more accurate genetic information and better understanding of the animal genetic resources. Scientists, unfamiliar with the different molecular techniques tend to get lost as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This review represents a trail to shade alight on the different types of molecular markers by introducing a brief summary on the development of genetic markers including both the classical genetic markers and more advanced DNA-based molecular markers. This review could be helpful to better understand the characteristics of different genetic markers and the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources.

  18. Searching for disease-modifying drugs in AD: can we combine neuropsychological tools with biological markers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraci, Filippo; Castellano, Sabrina; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo; Bosco, Paolo; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2014-02-01

    Drug discovery efforts in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been directed in the last ten years to develop "disease-modifying drugs" able to exert neuroprotective effects in an early phase of AD pathogenesis. Unfortunately several candidate disease-modifying drugs have failed in Phase III clinical trials conducted in mild to moderate AD for different methodological difficulties, such as the time course of treatment in relation to development of disease as well as the appropriate use of validated biological and neuropsychological markers. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been considered a precursor of AD. Much effort is now directed to identify the most appropriate and sensitive markers which can predict the progression from MCI to AD, such as neuroimaging markers (e.g. hippocampal atrophy and amyloid positron emission tomography imaging), cerebrospinal fluid markers (i.e. association of elevated tau with low levels of amyloid β -peptide(1-42) and neuropsychological markers (i.e. episodic memory deficits and executive dysfunction). Recent studies demonstrate that the combination of these different biomarkers significantly increases the chance to predict the conversion into AD within 24 months. These biomarkers will be essential in the future to analyze clinical efficacy of disease-modifying drugs in MCI patients at high risk to develop AD. In the present review we analyze recent evidence on the combination of neuropsychological and biological markers in AD as a new tool to track disease progression in early AD as well as the response to disease-modifying drugs. PMID:24040795

  19. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  20. Reflecting on Reflective Practice: (Re)Visiting Dewey and Schon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the author began work in reflective practice, at first informally in the late 1970s and then more formally in the mid-1980s, he has always looked at reflective practice as a compass of sorts to guide teachers when they may be seeking direction as to what they are doing in their classrooms. The metaphor of reflection as a compass enables…

  1. The first genetic linkage map of Primulina eburnea (Gesneriaceae) based on EST-derived SNP marker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHEN FENG; CHAO FENG; MING KANG

    2016-06-01

    Primulina eburneais a promising candidate for domestication and floriculture, since it is easy to culture and has beautiful flow-ers. An F2population of 189 individuals was established for the construction of first-generation linkage maps based onexpressed sequence tags-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism markers using the massARRAY genotyping platform. Ofthe 232 screened markers, 215 were assigned to 18 LG according to the haploid number of chromosomes in the species. Thelinkage map spanned a total of 3774.7 cM with an average distance of 17.6 cM between adjacent markers. This linkage mapprovides a framework for identification of important genes in breeding programm

  2. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of purple pericarp gene Pb in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Purple rice is a type of rice with anthocyanins deposited in its grain pericarp. The rice Pb gene controlling purple pericarp character is known to be on chromosome 4, and the purple color is dominant over white color. In this study, we fine mapped the Pb gene using two F2 segregating populations, i.e. Pei'ai 64S (white) × Yunanheixiannuo (purple) and Pei'ai 64S × Chuanheinuo (purple). In the first-pass mapping, the Pb gene was located in the region downstream the SSR marker RM3820. In the fine mapping, the candidate region was saturated with InDel and CAPS markers developed specifically for this study. Eventually, the Pb gene was mapped within the 25-kb region delimited by the upstream marker RID3 and the downstream marker RID4. The delimited region contained two annotated genes, Ra and bhlh16 (TIGR Rice Genome, R.5). The former is a homologue of the Myc transcription factor Lc controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize, and the latter is a homologue of the TT8 gene, which is also an Myc transcription factor gene controlling the pericarp pigmentation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence analysis showed that the exon 7 of the Ra gene of Yunanheixiannuo and Chuanheinuo had a 2-bp (GT) deletion compared with those of the white rice varieties Pei'ai 64S, 9311 and Nipponbare. A CAPS marker, CAPSRa, was developed according to the GT deletion for analysis of the two F2 segregating populations and 106 rice lines. The results showed that all F2 plants with white pericarp, and all non-purple rice lines (63 white and 22 red) contained no GT deletion, but all 20 purple rice lines contained the GT deletion. These results suggested that the Ra gene may be the Pb gene and the purple pericarp characteristic of rice is caused by the GT deletion within exon 7 of the Ra gene.

  3. Optical Nova Candidates in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 06.47 and 07.47 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.9.

  4. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  5. Dark Matter and its Particle Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bottino, A

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures we first briefly review the main observational facts which imply that most part of matter in the Universe is not visible and some recent intriguing experimental data which would point to a significant contribution to Omega due to a cosmological constant. We subsequently discuss some particle candidates for dark matter, with particular emphasis for the neutralino. We present the main properties of this particle, also in the light of the most recent experimental results in direct search for relic particles; furthermore, we discuss the perspectives for their indirect searches.

  6. Assessment of candidate accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of candidate accident management strategies, whose purpose is to prevent or mitigate in-vessel core damage, were identified from various Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry reports. These strategies have been grouped in this report by the challenges they are intended to meet, and assessed to provide information which may be useful to individual licensees for consideration when they perform their Individual Plant Examinations. Each assessment focused on describing and explaining the strategy, considering its relationship to existing requirements and practices as well as identifying possible associated adverse effects. 10 refs

  7. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  8. Candidate gene effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerljung, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of five candidate genes to the variation in meat tenderness, pH, colour, marbling and water holding capacity (WHC) was analysed in muscle samples from 243 young bulls of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, or Simmental breed, raised in Swedish commercial herds. The animals were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding calpain 1 (CAPN1:c.947G>C), calpastatin, (CAST:c.155C>T), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), leptin (UASMS2C>T) a...

  9. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  10. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  11. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyungrok; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions $\\Delta_0$ of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite $\\Delta_0$ as well as for large $\\Delta_0$. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.

  12. Reflections on SLAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLAP data bases represent a major step forward in the reliability analysis of passive components. The present reflections are motivated by draft documentation for SLAP and have profited greatly from discussions with the SLAP team. We collect a number of remarks and suggestions: The use of event and failure fields to organize the data seems sensible and feasible, from a data analysis viewpoint. Influence factors, i. e. environmental influences which are affected by plant operations, are clearly important yet very difficult to accommodate in any straightforward data analysis methodology. We would welcome a serious effort to estimate the exposure in the various exposure cells. These estimates would not be based on failure records, but on knowledge of plant design and operations. Quantitative expert judgement might be a viable alternative to a massive review of all plants in the SLAP data base

  13. Simple reflection holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeppen, John

    1990-03-01

    White light reflection holography is a good starting point for the first time holographer. The building of an inexpensive holographic camera offers an approach that has many distinct advantages. Not only can such a device be constructed by the average craftsman at a minimum cost but the monolithic design helps assure good results. The finished images are reasonably bright and easy to view in sunlight. The building of the camera itself is instructional as a design task which considers practical problems and scientific principles. The convenience of the finished device avoids many of the difficulties in setting up a dedicated optics lab. Further, the satisfaction of producing quality holograms is reinforced by a tangible reward for successful efforts. Methods, rather than theory, are the essence of this paper. It is intended that this project is not only an end in itself but that it serves as a basis for an outlook towards practical science.

  14. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH REFLECTIVE PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Kehily, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development of knowledge through reflective practice and more specifically the development of the author’s knowledge as a result of engaging in reflection on an issue in the field of the author’s research interest. The author commences by consulting and analysing existing published research on reflective practice. The paper sets out the theory of reflective practice as documented by eminent authors in the field. The author addresses the concept of action learning and f...

  15. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted A.G. Steemers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  16. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  17. Action Research and Reflective Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阿莉

    2008-01-01

    Reflection is an impontant core of professional development and action research in which the teachers reflect through the Systematic collection and analym of data is a form of srrucured reflection.The teachers can be provided with powerful means of professional development.

  18. Targeting 160 candidate genes for blood pressure regulation with a genome-wide genotyping array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siim Sõber

    Full Text Available The outcome of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS has challenged the field of blood pressure (BP genetics as previous candidate genes have not been among the top loci in these scans. We used Affymetrix 500K genotyping data of KORA S3 cohort (n = 1,644; Southern-Germany to address (i SNP coverage in 160 BP candidate genes; (ii the evidence for associations with BP traits in genome-wide and replication data, and haplotype analysis. In total, 160 gene regions (genic region+/-10 kb covered 2,411 SNPs across 11.4 Mb. Marker densities in genes varied from 0 (n = 11 to 0.6 SNPs/kb. On average 52.5% of the HAPMAP SNPs per gene were captured. No evidence for association with BP was obtained for 1,449 tested SNPs. Considerable associations (P50% of HAPMAP SNPs were tagged. In general, genes with higher marker density (>0.2 SNPs/kb revealed a better chance to reach close to significance associations. Although, none of the detected P-values remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P<0.05/2319, P<2.15 x 10(-5, the strength of some detected associations was close to this level: rs10889553 (LEPR and systolic BP (SBP (P = 4.5 x 10(-5 as well as rs10954174 (LEP and diastolic BP (DBP (P = 5.20 x 10(-5. In total, 12 markers in 7 genes (ADRA2A, LEP, LEPR, PTGER3, SLC2A1, SLC4A2, SLC8A1 revealed considerable association (P<10(-3 either with SBP, DBP, and/or hypertension (HYP. None of these were confirmed in replication samples (KORA S4, HYPEST, BRIGHT. However, supportive evidence for the association of rs10889553 (LEPR and rs11195419 (ADRA2A with BP was obtained in meta-analysis across samples stratified either by body mass index, smoking or alcohol consumption. Haplotype analysis highlighted LEPR and PTGER3. In conclusion, the lack of associations in BP candidate genes may be attributed to inadequate marker coverage on the genome-wide arrays, small phenotypic effects of the loci and/or complex interaction with life-style and metabolic parameters.

  19. Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Günthardt, G I; Camperi, J A; Díaz, R J; Gomez, P L; Bosch, G; Schirmer, M

    2015-01-01

    NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object i...

  20. Tracking quintessence and cold dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the generation of a kination-dominated phase in the context of a quintessential model with an inverse-power-law potential and a Hubble-induced mass term for the quintessence field. The presence of kination is associated with an oscillating evolution of the quintessence field and the barotropic index. We find that, in sizeable regions of the parameter space, a tracker scaling solution can be reached sufficiently early to alleviate the coincidence problem. Other observational constraints originating from nucleosynthesis, the inflationary scale, the present acceleration of the universe and the dark-energy-density parameter can be also met. The impact of this modified kination-dominated phase on the thermal abundance of cold dark matter candidates is also investigated. We find that: 1. the enhancement of the relic abundance of the WIMPs with respect to the standard paradigm, crucially depends on the hierarchy between the freeze-out temperature and the temperature at which the extrema in the evolution of the quintessence field are encountered, and; 2. the relic abundance of e-WIMPs takes its present value close to the temperature at which the earliest extremum of the evolution of the quintessence field occurs and, as a consequence, both gravitinos and axinos arise as natural cold dark matter candidates. In the case of unstable gravitinos, the gravitino constraint can be satisfied for values of the initial temperature well above those required in the standard cosmology

  1. Pulsar Candidates Toward Fermi Unassociated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Jagannathan, P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for steep spectrum radio sources within the 95% confidence error ellipses of the Fermi unassociated sources from the Large Array Telescope (LAT). Using existing catalogs and the newly released GMRT all-sky survey at 150 MHz we identify compact radio sources that are bright at MHz frequencies but faint or absent at GHz frequencies. Such steep spectrum radio sources are rare and constitute a sample of pulsar candidates, selected independently of period, dispersion measure, interstellar scattering and orbital parameters. We find point-like, steep spectrum candidates toward 11 Fermi sources. Based on the gamma-ray/radio positional coincidence, the rarity of such radio sources, and the properties of the 3FGL sources themselves, we argue that many of these sources could be pulsars. They may have been missed by previous radio periodicity searches due to interstellar propagation effects or because they lie in an unusually tight binary. If this hypothesis is correct, then renewed gamma-ray and ra...

  2. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  3. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Eisele

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  4. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  5. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  6. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  7. CASE via MS: Ranking Structure Candidates by Mass Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Adalbert; Meringer, Markus; Rücker, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Two important tasks in computer-aided structure elucidation (CASE) are the generation of candidate structures from a given molecular formula, and the ranking of structure candidates according to compatibility with an experimental spectrum. Candidate ranking with respect to electron impact mass spectra is based on virtual fragmentation of a candidate structure and comparison of the fragments’ isotope distributions against the spectrum of the unknown compound, whence a structure–spectrum compat...

  8. Markers of Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawlik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Diabetes is considered a state of increased oxidative stress. This study evaluates blood concentrations of selected markers of antioxidant defense in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The study included 80 type 2 diabetes patients and 79 apparently healthy controls. Measured markers included ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT and uric acid serum, and plasma and/or hemolysate levels. Results. FRAP, uric acid, CRP, and GGT levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes. Plasma and hemolysate GR was significantly higher whereas GPx activity was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. There were no significant differences in antioxidant defense markers between patients with and without chronic diabetes complications. Fasting serum glucose correlated with plasma GPx, plasma and hemolysate GR, FRAP, and serum GGT, and HbA1c correlated with serum GGT. Only FRAP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in obese (BMI>30 kg/m2 patients with diabetes than in nonobese patients. Conclusions. Some components of antioxidant defense such as GR, uric acid, and GGT are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the whole system cannot compensate for an enhanced production of ROS as reflected by the trend toward decreased erythrocytes GSH.

  9. Identity Functions and Empathetic Tendencies of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Alpaslan; Kadi, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research is to investigate identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. Sample consists of 232 teacher candidates in social studies teacher education. Survey model is preferred to investigate the difference between identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. And also correlational…

  10. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  11. Perceptions of Candidate Teachers about Concept of the Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate candidate teachers' metaphors about project concept in Turkey. Study group of research is 171 candidate teachers enrolled 2011-2012 educational terms one of the faculty of education in Turkey. Data was obtained from the candidate teachers' completion of the sentence "Project is like ..., because ...".…

  12. Testing of Candidate Icons to Identify Acetaminophen-Containing Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding icons on labels of acetaminophen-containing medicines could help users identify the active ingredient and avoid concomitant use of multiple medicines containing acetaminophen. We evaluated five icons for communication effectiveness. Adults (n = 300 were randomized to view a prescription container label or over-the-counter labels with either one or two icons. Participants saw two icon candidates, and reported their interpretation; experts judged whether these reflected critical confusions that might cause harm. Participants rated how effectively each icon communicated key messages. Icons based on abbreviations of “acetaminophen” (“Ac”, “Ace”, “Acm” were rated less confusing and more effective in communicating the active ingredient than icons based on “APAP” or an abstract symbol. Icons did not result in critical confusion when seen on a readable medicine label. Icon implementation on prescription labels was more effective at communicating the warning against concomitant use than implementation on over-the-counter (OTC labels. Adding an icon to a second location on OTC labels did not consistently enhance this communication, but reduced rated effectiveness of acetaminophen ingredient communication among participants with limited health literacy. The abbreviation-based icons seem most suitable for labeling acetaminophen-containing medications to enable users to identify acetaminophen-containing products.

  13. Curcumin: A Natural Lead for Potential New Drug Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Sofia; Sousa, Emília; Vasconcelos, Maria Helena; Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (1) is a secondary metabolite of turmeric, derived from Curcuma longa L. and was shown to have many biological activities. One of the most interesting properties of curcumin (1) is the antitumour activity allied with the ability to act as a multidrug resistance (MDR) modulator. Several curcumin derivatives have been synthesized with the purpose of discovering more information about the mechanisms of action, to establish structure-activity relationships (SAR), and to overcome pharmacokinetic problems. Over the past few decades, more potent and more stable curcumin derivatives have emerged with potential as drug candidates. Some important SAR studies pointed out that the unstable α,β-unsaturated diketone linker present in curcumin (1) may not be necessary for the antitumour activity; generally, shorter linkers result in more potent compounds than curcumin (1); the type of substituents and their substitution pattern are crucial regarding the biological activities of interest. Overall, the structure of curcumin (1) may represent an important basis for the development of more effective therapeutic agents, particularly in chemotherapy, as reflected by ongoing clinical trials. This article aims to review the synthesis and biological activities of curcumin (1) and derivatives, highlighting the MDR modulation properties of curcumin (1), since these effects makes this natural product a promising lead compound for the development of new anticancer drugs. PMID:26511469

  14. Proteomic candidate biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available Improved biomarkers of acute nephrotoxicity are coveted by the drug development industry, regulatory agencies, and clinicians. In an effort to identify such biomarkers, urinary peptide profiles of rats treated with two different nephrotoxins were investigated. 493 marker candidates were defined that showed a significant response to cis-platin comparing a cis-platin treated cohort to controls. Next, urine samples from rats that received three consecutive daily doses of 150 or 300 mg/kg gentamicin were examined. 557 potential biomarkers were initially identified; 108 of these gentamicin-response markers showed a clear temporal response to treatment. 39 of the cisplatin-response markers also displayed a clear response to gentamicin. Of the combined 147 peptides, 101 were similarly regulated by gentamicin or cis-platin and 54 could be identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Most were collagen type I and type III fragments up-regulated in response to gentamicin treatment. Based on these peptides, classification models were generated and validated in a longitudinal study. In agreement with histopathology, the observed changes in classification scores were transient, initiated after the first dose, and generally persistent over a period of 10-20 days before returning to control levels. The data support the hypothesis that gentamicin-induced renal toxicity up-regulates protease activity, resulting in an increase in several specific urinary collagen fragments. Urinary proteomic biomarkers identified here, especially those common to both nephrotoxins, may serve as a valuable tool to investigate potential new drug candidates for the risk of nephrotoxicity.

  15. Examination of NRCAM, LRRN3, KIAA0716, and LAMB1 as autism candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santangelo Susan L

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial body of research supports a genetic involvement in autism. Furthermore, results from various genomic screens implicate a region on chromosome 7q31 as harboring an autism susceptibility variant. We previously narrowed this 34 cM region to a 3 cM critical region (located between D7S496 and D7S2418 using the Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism (CLSA chromosome 7 linked families. This interval encompasses about 4.5 Mb of genomic DNA and encodes over fifty known and predicted genes. Four candidate genes (NRCAM, LRRN3, KIAA0716, and LAMB1 in this region were chosen for examination based on their proximity to the marker most consistently cosegregating with autism in these families (D7S1817, their tissue expression patterns, and likely biological relevance to autism. Methods Thirty-six intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one microsatellite marker within and around these four candidate genes were genotyped in 30 chromosome 7q31 linked families. Multiple SNPs were used to provide as complete coverage as possible since linkage disequilibrium can vary dramatically across even very short distances within a gene. Analyses of these data used the Pedigree Disequilibrium Test for single markers and a multilocus likelihood ratio test. Results As expected, linkage disequilibrium occurred within each of these genes but we did not observe significant LD across genes. None of the polymorphisms in NRCAM, LRRN3, or KIAA0716 gave p LAMB1, the allelic association analysis revealed suggestive evidence for a positive association, including one individual SNP (p = 0.02 and three separate two-SNP haplotypes across the gene (p = 0.007, 0.012, and 0.012. Conclusions NRCAM, LRRN3, KIAA0716 are unlikely to be involved in autism. There is some evidence that variation in or near the LAMB1 gene may be involved in autism.

  16. Difficulties of Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Regarding to Reflection Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihriban Hacısalihoğlu Karadeniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the misconceptions of primary mathematics teachers on symmetry concept. The participants of the study consist of 28 teacher candidates studying in fourth class of Primary Mathematics Teaching at Kocaeli University during the fall semester of the 2012-2013 academic years. The data of this study which has the characteristics of descriptive research were obtained by open-ended test prepared by the researchers. At the end of analysis of the data, it is seen that the majority of teacher candidates cannot identify the concept of reflection and they have tried to identify by using the concept of symmetry which is often synonymous with the concept of reflection. On the other hand, it has been observed that they neglect the image is the reverse which is obtained as a result of the reflection. It can be said that they do not have the correct definition as a response to the questions asked about the symmetry axis. In general, it has been seen that they use the phrase of "it is a line that divides an object to two equal parts" for the symmetry axis. It has been also seen that the vast majority of teacher candidates have an answer that parallelogram is a symmetrical shape and there are four symmetry axes and they give the wrong answer. Finally, it has been observed that they cannot give satisfactory answers when they are asked whether they are symmetric or not.Keywords: Symmetry concept, misconceptions, teacher candidates of mathematics in the primary education

  17. Novel Molecular Tumor Cell Markers in Regional Lymph Nodes and Blood Samples from Patients Undergoing Surgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oddmund Nordgård; Gurpartap Singh; Steinar Solberg; Lars Jørgensen; Ann Rita Halvorsen; Rune Smaaland; Odd Terje Brustugun; Åslaug Helland

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that microscopic lymph node metastases and circulating tumor cells may have clinical importance in lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify new molecular markers for tumor cells in regional lymph nodes (LNs) and peripheral blood (PB) from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Candidate markers were selected based on digital transcript profiling and previous literature. KRT19, CEACAM5, EPCAM, DSG3, SFTPA, SFTPC and SFTPB...

  18. A comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity- responsive ESTs for gene discovery and marker development in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Ramamurthy; Xiao Yongli; Vadez Vincent; Deokar Amit A; Balaji Jayashree; Kashiwagi Junichi; Lekha Pazhamala; Hiremath Pavana J; Varshney Rajeev K; Gaur Pooran M; Siddique Kadambot HM; Town Christopher D; Hoisington David A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an important grain legume crop of the world is seriously challenged by terminal drought and salinity stresses. However, very limited number of molecular markers and candidate genes are available for undertaking molecular breeding in chickpea to tackle these stresses. This study reports generation and analysis of comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity-responsive expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and gene-based markers. Results A total of...

  19. Statistical Classification of Multivariate Flow Cytometry Data Analyzed by Manual Gating: Stem, Progenitor, and Epithelial Marker Expression in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer and Normal Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Normolle, Daniel P.; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.

    2012-01-01

    The use of supervised classification to extract markers from primary flow cytometry data is an emerging field that has made significant progress, spurred by the growing complexity of multidimensional flow cytometry. Whether the markers are extracted without supervision or by conventional gate and region methods, the number of candidate variables identified is typically larger than the number of specimens (p < n) and many variables are highly intercorrelated. Thus, comparison across groups or ...

  20. Survey of Reflection-Asymmetric Nuclear Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Erik; Birge, Noah; Erler, Jochen; Nazarewicz, Witek; Perhac, Alex; Schunck, Nicolas; Stoitsov, Mario; Nuclei Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Due to spontaneous symmetry breaking it is possible for a nucleus to have a deformed shape in its ground state. It is theorized that atoms whose nuclei have reflection-asymmetric or pear-like deformations could have non-zero electric dipole moments (EDMs). Such a trait would be evidence of CP-violation, a feature that goes beyond the Standard Model of Physics. It is the purpose of this project to predict which nuclei exhibit a reflection-asymmetric deformation and which of those would be the best candidates for an EDM measuring experiment. Using nuclear Density Functional Theory along with the new computer code AxialHFB and massively parallel computing we calculated ground state nuclear properties for thousands of even-even nuclei across the nuclear chart: from light to superheavy and from stable to short-lived systems. Six different Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) were used to assess systematic errors in our calculations. Overall, 140 even-even nuclei (near and among the lantanides and actinides and in the superheavy region near N = 184) were predicted by all 6 EDFs to have a pear-like deformation. The case of 112Xe also proved curious as it was predicted by 5 EDFs to have a pear-like deformation despite its proximity to the two-proton drip line. Deceased.

  1. Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan Podzimek; Lucie Vondrackova; Jana Duskova; Tatjana Janatova; Zdenek Broukal

    2016-01-01

    The determination of biomarkers in saliva is becoming an important part of laboratory diagnostics and the prediction of not only periodontal, but also other tissue and organ diseases. Biomarkers in saliva (e.g., enzymes, protein markers, or oxidative stress markers) can be used for activity determination and for periodontal disease prognosis. Saliva also contains many markers which can predict the risk of certain diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, oncology, endocrinology, and ...

  2. What makes cancer stem cell markers different?

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Since the cancer stem cell concept has been widely accepted, several strategies have been proposed to attack cancer stem cells (CSC). Accordingly, stem cell markers are now preferred therapeutic targets. However, the problem of tumor specificity has not disappeared but shifted to another question: how can cancer stem cells be distinguished from normal stem cells, or more specifically, how do CSC markers differ from normal stem cell markers? A hypothesis is proposed which might help to solve t...

  3. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  4. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and ubiquitin as fertility markers in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovercamp, K W; Safranski, T J; Fischer, K A; Manandhar, G; Sutovsky, M; Herring, W; Sutovsky, P

    2007-03-01

    Accurate semen analysis is an important issue in the swine industry. We evaluated two candidate fertility marker proteins associated with sperm cytoplasmic droplet (CD), including 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and ubiquitin (UBI) in a controlled single-sire artificial insemination (AI) trial. Ejaculates (n=116) were collected from 18 fertile Large White boars monthly for 8 mo, and analyzed by semi-quantitative, densitometry-based Western blotting and flow cytometry with antibodies against 15-LOX and UBI. Data were correlated with farrowing rates (FR) and total numbers of piglets born (TNB) from 1754 AI services by 13 of 18 boars, and compared with a conventional microscopic semen analysis. In semi-quantitative Western blotting, both 15-LOX and UBI were correlated with seasonal changes in the percentage of normal (r=-0.38, Pflow cytometry, UBI and 15-LOX levels showed seasonal changes coinciding with seasonal changes of FR and TNB, representing 13 boars, 88 ejaculates and 1,232 AI services. There were correlations between flow cytometric values of UBI and FR (r=0.31; PFlow cytometric measurements of 15-LOX correlated negatively with TNB (r=-0.33; Pboar fertility estimation could be achieved within a group of fertile boars by the use of objectively measurable fertility markers. Flow cytometry appeared more informative and more practical than semi-quantitative Western blotting. This technology could be further optimized for the selection of the most fertile sires in an artificial insemination program. PMID:17116325

  5. Markers of bacterial translocation in end-stage liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Bamias, Giorgos

    2015-09-18

    Bacterial translocation (BT) refers to the passage of viable bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen, through the intestinal epithelium, into the systemic circulation and extraintestinal locations. The three principal mechanisms that are thought to be involved in BT include bacterial overgrowth, disruption of the gut mucosal barrier and an impaired host defence. BT is commonly observed in liver cirrhosis and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the complications of end stage liver disease, including infections as well as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the importance of BT in the natural history of cirrhosis, there is intense interest for the discovery of biomarkers of BT. To date, several such candidates have been proposed, which include bacterial DNA, soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, calprotectin and procalcitonin. Studies on the association of these markers with BT have demonstrated not only promising data but, oftentimes, contradictory results. As a consequence, currently, there is no optimal marker that may be used in clinical practice as a surrogate for the presence of BT. PMID:26380651

  6. Candidate gene association studies in syndromic and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daack-Hirsch, S.; Basart, A.; Frischmeyer, P. [Univ. of Iowa, IA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Using ongoing case ascertainment through a birth defects registry, we have collected 219 nuclear families with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate and 111 families with a collection of syndromic forms. Syndromic cases include 24 with recognized forms and 72 with unrecognized syndromes. Candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide searches for evidence of microdeletions and isodisomy are currently being carried out. Candidate gene association studies, to date, have made use of PCR-based polymorphisms for TGFA, MSX1, CLPG13 (a CA repeat associated with a human homologue of a locus that results in craniofacial dysmorphogenesis in the mouse) and an STRP found in a Van der Woude syndrome microdeletion. Control tetranucleotide repeats, which insure that population-based differences are not responsible for any observed associations, are also tested. Studies of the syndromic cases have included the same list of candidate genes searching for evidence of microdeletions and a genome-wide search using tri- and tetranucleotide polymorphic markers to search for isodisomy or structural rearrangements. Significant associations have previously been identified for TGFA, and, in this report, identified for MSX1 and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (p = 0.04, uncorrected). Preliminary results of the genome-wide scan for isodisomy has returned no true positives and there has been no evidence for microdeletion cases.

  7. Reflective Fourier ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Shaun; Zheng, Guoan; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-02-01

    The Fourier ptychography technique in reflection mode has great potential applications in tissue imaging and optical inspection, but the current configuration either has a limitation on cut-off frequency or is not practical. By placing the imaging aperture stop outside the illumination path, the illumination numerical aperture (NA) can be greater than the imaging NA of the objective lens. Thus, the cut-off frequency achieved in the proposed optical system is greater than twice the objective's NA divided by the wavelength (2NAobj/λ), which is the diffraction limit for the cut-off frequency in an incoherent epi-illumination configuration. We experimentally demonstrated that the synthesized NA is increased by a factor of 4.5 using the proposed optical concept. The key advantage of the proposed system is that it can achieve high-resolution imaging over a large field of view with a simple objective. It will have a great potential for applications in endoscopy, biomedical imaging, surface metrology, and industrial inspection.

  8. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  9. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugwell, Jenna, E-mail: jenna.tugwell@googlemail.co [Department of Radiology, Ysbyty Gwynedd Hospital, Bangor, North Wales (United Kingdom); Maddison, Adele [Nuffield Health, Shrewsbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  10. Serum Tumor Markers for Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shijie; Zhidong LIU; Xu, Shaofa; Zikun LIANG

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective Progress has been made in research of lung cancer tumor markers in recent years, and these tumor markers have been used in clinical application. This study is to evaluate the regimens of six serum tumor markers in lung cancer diagnosis. Methods The serum levels of the six tumor markers (NSE、pro-GRP、CYFRA21-1、SCC、p53 antibody and CA199) were detected in 80 healthy adults, 170 patients with lung cancer and 80 patients with respiratory infection by ELISA. Results The lev...

  11. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-01-01

    A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored) and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.). But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which i...

  12. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  13. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  14. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 3rd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : Hauviller First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  15. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : HAUVILLER First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  16. Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-09-01

    The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

  17. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 4th candidate

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  18. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 4

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  19. Radion Candidate for the LHC Diphoton Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Chakraborty, Amit; Maitra, Ushoshi; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Samui, Tousik

    2015-01-01

    The recent observation of a modest excess in diphoton final states at the LHC, by both the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, has sparked off the expected race among theorists to find the right explanation for this proto-resonance, assuming that the signal will survive and not prove to be yet another statistical fluctuation. We carry out a general analysis of this `signal' in the case of a scalar which couples only to pairs of gluons (for production) and photons (for diphoton decay modes), and establish that an explanation of the observed resonance, taken together with the null results of new physics searches in all the other channels, requires a scalar with rather exotic behaviour. We then demonstrate that a fairly simple-minded extension of the minimal Randall-Sundrum model can yield a radion candidate which might reproduce this exotic behaviour.

  20. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R

    2009-09-01

    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease. PMID:19446931

  1. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Gong-He; REN Zhao-Yu; GUO Ping; ZHENG Ji-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments,frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors.

  2. UCD Candidates in the Hydra Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Wehner, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    NGC 3311, the giant cD galaxy in the Hydra cluster (A1060), has one of the largest globular cluster systems known. We describe new Gemini GMOS (g',i') photometry of the NGC 3311 field which reveals that the red, metal-rich side of its globular cluster population extends smoothly upward into the mass range associated with the new class of Ultra-Compact Dwarfs (UCDs). We identify 29 UCD candidates with estimated masses > 6x10^6 solar masses and discuss their characteristics. This UCD-like sequence is the most well defined one yet seen, and reinforces current ideas that the high-mass end of the globular cluster sequence merges continuously into the UCD sequence, which connects in turn to the E galaxy structural sequence.

  3. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-01-01

    Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning ...

  4. Nurse teachers' constructions of reflection and reflective practice

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Aideen; Hyde, Abbey; Treacy, Margaret P.

    2010-01-01

    This article concerns the meanings that a sample of nurse teachers ascribed to the concepts of reflection and reflective practice as aspects of an undergraduate nursing curriculum. It represents one of the major findings in a qualitative study that set out to explore nurse teachers’ perceptions and experiences of using reflection with diploma nursing students in the Republic of Ireland. Eleven nurse teachers were interviewed intensively, and data were analysed using a strategy ...

  5. CRISPLD2: a novel NSCLP candidate gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, Brett T; Lidral, Andrew C; Stal, Samuel; Mulliken, John B; Moreno, Lina M; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Arco-Burgos, Mauricio; Valencia-Ramirez, Consuelo; Blanton, Susan H; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2007-09-15

    Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) results from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Candidate gene analysis and genome scans have been employed to identify the genes contributing to NSCLP. In this study, we evaluated the 16q24.1 chromosomal region, which has been identified by multiple genome scans as an NSCLP region of interest. Two candidate genes were found in the region: interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2). Initially, Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP multiplex families and simplex parent-child trios were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both IRF8 and CRISPLD2. CRISPLD2 was subsequently genotyped in a data set comprised of NSCLP families from Colombia, South America. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified a significant association between CRISPLD2 and NSCLP in both our Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP cohorts. SNP rs1546124 and haplotypes between rs1546124 and either rs4783099 or rs16974880 were significant in the Caucasian multiplex population (P=0.01, P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). An altered transmission of CRISPLD2 SNPs rs8061351 (P=0.02) and rs2326398 (P=0.06) was detected in the Hispanic population. No association was found between CRISPLD2 and our Colombian population or IRF8 and NSCLP. In situ hybridization showed that CRISPLD2 is expressed in the mandible, palate and nasopharynx regions during craniofacial development at E13.5-E17.5, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that genetic variation in CRISPLD2 has a role in the etiology of NSCLP. PMID:17616516

  6. On the influence of soft tissue coverage in the determination of bone kinematics using skin markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William R; Ehrig, Rainald M; Duda, Georg N; Schell, Hanna; Seebeck, Petra; Heller, Markus O

    2005-07-01

    Accurate measurement of underlying bone positions is important for the understanding of normal movement and function, as well as for addressing clinical musculoskeletal or post-injury problems. Non-invasive measurement techniques are limited by the analysis technique and movement of peripheral soft tissues that can introduce significant measurement errors in reproducing the kinematics of the underlying bones when using external skin markers. Reflective markers, skeletally mounted to the right hind limb of three Merino-mix sheep were measured simultaneously with markers attached to the skin of each segment, during repetitions of gait trials. The movement of the skin markers relative to the underlying bone positions was then assessed using the Point Cluster Technique (PCT), raw averaging and the Optimal Common Shape Technique (OCST), a new approach presented in this manuscript. Errors in the position of the proximal joint centre, predicted from the corresponding skin markers, were shown to be phasic and strongly associated with the amount soft tissue coverage, averaging 8.5 mm for the femur, 2.8 for the tibia and 2.0 for the metatarsus. Although the results show a better prediction of bone kinematics associated with the Optimal Common Shape Technique, these errors were large for all three assessment techniques and much greater than the differences between the various techniques. Whilst individual markers moved up to 4 mm from the optimal marker set configuration, average peak errors of up to 16, 5 and 3 mm (hip, knee and tibio-metatarsal joints respectively) were observed, suggesting that a large amount of kinematic noise is produced from the synchronous shifting of marker sets, potentially as a result of underlying muscle firing and the inertial effects of heel impact. Current techniques are therefore limited in their ability to determine the kinematics of underlying bones based on skin markers, particularly in segments with more pronounced soft tissue coverage

  7. Glycoprotein and protein markers for strain differentiation and growth environment or media attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschel, David S.; Fox, Alvin; Wahl, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experience with Bacillus spore characterization has demonstrated that protein markers can provide potentially vital identifying and bioforensic information. The masses of constitutively expressed proteins and their peptide fragments can be used to identify bacterial isolates. Protein marker mass variation information reflects the underlying amino acid sequence variation to provide complementary information to genetic sequence analysis. Protein markers (identified by mass or sequence) that are conserved or variable can be readily selected. In contrast, genetic primers, as used in PCR, target conserved genetic regions. Furthermore, protein markers are relatively stable compared to nucleic acids and may remain in samples for longer periods of time. This is important to consider when the source, age and condition of samples may vary in a forensic investigation. Examples of constitutively expressed proteins that have been extensively characterized include the exosporium BclA and BclB proteins and small acid soluble proteins (SASPs). Finally, gene expression (usually assessed at the mRNA level) can vary in response to different environmental conditions. As a result, the profile of protein markers of the organism also reflects the culture environment. Mass spectrometric tools can be used to access the same information on culture-related protein expression variation. However, unlike genetic methods, with proteomic methodology there is the potential to define exactly which medium was employed for organism growth. This potential could provide additional clues for forensic attribution

  8. A general pipeline for the development of anchor markers for comparative genomics in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stougaard Jens

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete or near-complete genomic sequence information is presently only available for a few plant species representing a large phylogenetic diversity among plants. In order to effectively transfer this information to species lacking sequence information, comparative genomic tools need to be developed. Molecular markers permitting cross-species mapping along co-linear genomic regions are central to comparative genomics. These "anchor" markers, defining unique loci in genetic linkage maps of multiple species, are gene-based and possess a number of features that make them relatively sparse. To identify potential anchor marker sequences more efficiently, we have established an automated bioinformatic pipeline that combines multi-species Expressed Sequence Tags (EST and genome sequence data. Results Taking advantage of sequence data from related species, the pipeline identifies evolutionarily conserved sequences that are likely to define unique orthologous loci in most species of the same phylogenetic clade. The key features are the identification of evolutionarily conserved sequences followed by automated design of intron-flanking Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR primer pairs. Polymorphisms can subsequently be identified by size- or sequence variation of PCR products, amplified from mapping parents or populations. We illustrate our procedure in legumes and grasses and exemplify its application in legumes, where model plant studies and the genome- and EST-sequence data available have a potential impact on the breeding of crop species and on our understanding of the evolution of this large and diverse family. Conclusion We provide a database of 459 candidate anchor loci which have the potential to serve as map anchors in more than 18,000 legume species, a number of which are of agricultural importance. For grasses, the database contains 1335 candidate anchor loci. Based on this database, we have evaluated 76 candidate anchor loci

  9. Endothelial cell markers reflecting endothelial cell dysfunction in patients with mixed connective tissue disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soltész Pál (1961-) (belgyógyász, kardiológus); Bereczki Dániel (1960-) (neurológus); Szodoray Péter (1973-) (belgyógyász, orvos); Magyar Mária Tünde (1970-) (neurológus); Dér Henrietta (1977-) (orvos); Csípő István (1953-) (vegyész); Hajas Ágota Helga (1985-) (orvos); Paragh György (1953-) (belgyógyász, kardiológus, endokrinológus, lipidológus, sürgősségi orvostani szakorvos, belgyógyászati angiológiai minősített orvos); Szegedi Gyula (1936-2013) (belgyógyász, immunológus); Bodolay Edit (1950-) (belgyógyász, allergológus és klinikai immunológus)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and to determine which biomarkers are associated with atherosclerotic complications, such as cardiovascular disease. Methods Fifty MCTD patients and 38 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. In order to describe endothelial dysfunction, we assessed flow-mediated di...

  10. Hyaluronate in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a new marker in sarcoidosis reflecting pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hällgren, R; Eklund, A; Engström-Laurent, A; Schmekel, B

    1985-01-01

    Hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid) was not detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from smoking or nonsmoking healthy volunteers but was present in fluid from 23 patients with sarcoidosis; the mean concentration was 16 micrograms/1 returned fluid (range less than or equal to 5-430) or, expressed in relation to the amount of albumin recovered, 0.22 micrograms/mg albumin (range less than or equal to 0.05-3.6). The serum hyaluronate concentrations in the patients with sarcoidosis were normal. Ther...

  11. Salivary inflammatory mediator profiling and correlation to clinical disease markers in asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric F Little

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: There is a need for a readily available, non-invasive source of biomarkers that predict poor asthma control. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if there is an association between the salivary inflammatory profile and disease control in children and adults with asthma. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we collected demographic and clinical information from two independent populations at different sites, resulting in convenience samples of 58 pediatric and 122 adult urban asthmatics. Control was assessed by symptom questionnaire (children and by Asthma Control Questionnaire and current exacerbation (adults. Saliva was collected in all subjects. We applied principal component analysis to a 10-plex panel of relevant inflammatory markers to characterize marker profiles and determined if profiles were associated with asthma control. RESULTS: There were similar, strong correlations amongst biologically related markers in both populations: eosinophil-related: eotaxin-1/CCL11, RANTES/CCL5, and IL-5 (p<.001; myeloid/innate: IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2, and IL-8/CXCL8 (p<.001. The first three principal components captured ≥74% of variability across all ten analytes in both populations. In adults, the Principal Component 1 score, broadly reflective of all markers, but with greater weight given to myeloid/innate markers, was associated with Asthma Control Questionnaire score and exacerbation. The Principal Component 3 score, reflective of IP-10/CXCL10, was associated with current exacerbation. In children, the Principal Component 1, 2, and 3 scores were associated with recent asthma symptoms. The Principal Component 2 score, reflective of higher eosinophil markers, was inversely correlated with symptoms. The Principal Component 3 score was positively associated with all symptom outcomes. CONCLUSION: The salivary inflammatory profile is associated with disease control in children and adults with asthma.

  12. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. A. Jadhav; S. J. Rayate; L. B. Mhase; M. Thudi; A. Chitikineni; P. N. Harer; A. S. Jadhav; R. K. Varshney; P. L. Kulwal

    2015-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding $Q$ values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  13. Discovery and validation of prognostic markers in gastric cancer by genome-wide expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Zheng Zhang, Lian-Hai Zhang, Yang Gao, Chao-Hua Li, Shu-Qin Jia, Ni Liu, Feng Cheng, De-Yun Niu, William CS Cho, Jia-Fu Ji, Chang-Qing Zeng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To develop a prognostic gene set that can predict patient overall survival status based on the whole genome expression analysis.METHODS: Using Illumina HumanWG-6 BeadChip followed by semi-supervised analysis, we analyzed the expression of 47 296 transcripts in two batches of gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection. Thirty-nine samples in the first batch were used as the training set to discover candidate markers correlated to overall survival, and thirty-three samples in the second batch were used for validation.RESULTS: A panel of ten genes were identified as prognostic marker in the first batch samples and classified patients into a low- and a high-risk group with significantly different survival times (P = 0.000047. This prognostic marker was then verified in an independent validation sample batch (P = 0.0009. By comparing with the traditional Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging system, this ten-gene prognostic marker showed consistent prognosis results. It was the only independent prognostic value by multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.007. Interestingly, six of these ten genes are ribosomal proteins, suggesting a possible association between the deregulation of ribosome related gene expression and the poor prognosis.CONCLUSION: A ten-gene marker correlated with overall prognosis, including 6 ribosomal proteins, was identified and verified, which may complement the predictive value of TNM staging system.

  14. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  15. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milinkovic, Danielle [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia)]. E-mail: d.milinkovic@fhs.usyd.edu.au; Field, Nikki [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences.

  16. Inflammatory markers in primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šomlóová, Z; Petrák, O; Rosa, J; Štrauch, B; Indra, T; Zelinka, T; Haluzík, M; Zikán, V; Holaj, R; Widimský, J

    2016-06-20

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension with a high frequency of cardiovascular complications. The unfavorable cardiometabolic profile may be due to aldosterone-mediated activation of inflammatory cells, circulatory cytokines and activation of collagen synthesis in the vessel wall. Aim of our study was to evaluate differences in the levels of hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha and N-terminal propeptide of collagen I (PINP) in patients with PA and essential hypertension (EH) as a control group, and between the subtypes of PA (aldosterone producing adenoma - APA, idiopathic hyperaldosteronism - IHA). We studied 28 patients with PA (IHA - 10 patients, APA - 12 patients, 6 unclassified) and 28 matched patients with EH. There were no differences in the levels of inflammatory markers between the followed groups [EH vs. PA: TNF-alpha (5.09 [3.68-6.32] vs. 4.84 [3.62-6.50] pg/ml), IL-6 (0.94 [0.70-1.13] vs. 0.97 [0.71-1.28] pg/ml), hsCRP (0.53 [0.25-1.54] vs. 0.37 [0.31-0.61] mg/l), leukocytes (6.35+/-1.42 vs. 5.97+/-1.29 10(9) l); APA vs. IHA: TNF-alpha (4.54 [3.62-7.03] vs. 5.19 [4.23-5.27] pg/ml), IL-6 (0.96 [0.63-1.21] vs. 0.90 [0.65-1.06] pg/ml), hsCRP (0.34 [0.29-0.47] vs. 0.75 [0.36-1.11] mg/l), leukocytes (6.37+/-1.41 vs. 5.71+/-1.21 10(9) l)]. Significant differences in the levels of PINP between PA and EH group were observed (35.18 [28.46-41.16] vs. 45.21 [36.95-62.81] microg/l, pmarkers were observed between the followed groups, we confirmed higher levels of PINP in patients with PA. PMID:26447510

  17. Web Science and Reflective Practice

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron; Hall, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The notion of reflective practice has been influential in professional practice of all kinds, including engineering. Reflective practice suggests that knowledge and practice are linked, that improvisation based on actual practice, as opposed to the application of formalised theory, drives understanding in many applied fields. A key feature of reflective practice is a feedback loop between actions and their effects, which need to be evaluated to produce understanding. The WWW is of course a pi...

  18. Update on genetic markers for pork quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the robustness of reported marker associations with pork quality traits, assay systems were developed for as many polymorphisms from the literature as possible. These assays were genotyped across pigs (n = 1,291) with pork quality data available from four populations. Genetic marker-phe...

  19. New immunological serum markers in bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Pedersen, S S; Koldkjær, O G;

    2008-01-01

    High mobility group-box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late-onset proinflammatory cytokine. Soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) is a specific marker of anti-inflammatory macrophages. The study purpose was to relate the levels of these new markers in bactaeremic patients to levels of well-know...

  20. Percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G.F.; Josipovic, Mirjana; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund;

    2013-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications.......A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications....

  1. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  2. Smart magnetic markers use in hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-11-01

    One of the main challenges and unknowns during shale gas exploration is to assess the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. It is also essential to assess the distribution of proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. Solving these problems may considerably increase the efficiency of the shale gas extraction. Because of that, the idea of smart magnetic marker, which can be detected when added to fracturing fluid, has been considered for a long time. This study provides overview of the possibilities of magnetic marker application for shale gas extraction. The imaging methods using electromagnetic markers, are considered or developed in two directions. The first possibility is the markers' electromagnetic activity throughout the whole volume of the fracturing fluid. Thus, it can be assumed that the whole fracturing fluid is the marker. Among these type of hydraulic fracturing solutions, ferrofluid could be considered. The second possibility is marker, which is just one of many components of the fracturing fluid. In this case feedstock magnetic materials, ferrites and nanomaterials could be considered. Magnetic properties of magnetite could be too low and ferrofluids' or nanomaterials' price is unacceptably high. Because of that, ferrites, especially ZnMn ferrites seems to be the best material for magnetic marker. Because of the numerous applications in electronics, it is cheap and easily available, although the price is higher, then that of magnetite. The disadvantage of using ferrite, could be too small mechanical strength. It creates an essential need for combining magnetic marker with proppant into magnetic-ceramic composite. PMID:27475294

  3. Signals for specular Andreev reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyun; Fu, Deyi; Wang, Baigeng; Zhang, R; Xing, D Y

    2008-07-25

    We report a theoretical investigation of the spin-dependent Andreev reflection at the interface of a graphene-based ferromagnet/superconductor junction. It is found that the ferromagnetic exchange interaction in the ferromagnet can suppress Andreev retroreflection but enhance the specular Andreev reflection. There is a transition between the specular Andreev reflection and Andreev retroreflection at which the shot noise vanishes and the Fano factor has a universal value. The present work provides a new method of detecting the specular Andreev reflection, which can be experimentally tested within the present-day technique. PMID:18764360

  4. Self-sputtering and reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-sputtering and reflection are investigated with the Monte Carlo program TRIMSP. The results include particle and energy reflection coefficients, sputtering yields and sputtered energy versus incident angle and energy. Angular and energy distributions of reflected and sputtered particles are also given. Reflection and sputtering values are compared to show their contributions to selfsputtering. A comparison of calculated sputtering yields and sputtering efficiencies (sputtering energy) with experimental data is carried out. The systems investigated are mainly the bombardment of C, Ni, and W with self-ions. (orig.)

  5. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  6. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  7. Embodied Reflection and the Epistemology of Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2007-01-01

    Donald Schon's theory of reflective practice has been extensively referred to and has had enormous impact in education and related fields. Nonetheless, there continues to be tremendous conceptual and practical confusion surrounding interpretations of reflective practice and philosophical assumptions underlying the theory. In this paper, I argue…

  8. Reflective Practice Interventions: Raising Levels of Reflective Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Audrey; Schoen, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Reflective practice is a major focus of teacher preparation programs (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1992; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Zeichner, 1986; Zeichner & Liston, 1987), yet Zeichner (1986) asserts that developing reflective practice in preservice teachers has focused primarily on short-term, less systematic interventions and that interventions must be…

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n = 677) and Holstein × Jersey (n = 264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the SCS: GHR_140 and OPN_8514C-T. The heterozygote genotype for GHR_140 showed a favorable effect in reducing the SCS. On the other hand, heterozygote genotypes for OPN8514C-T caused an increase in the SCS; moreover, combined genotypes for OPN SNPs showed an even larger effect. These findings can contribute to the design of effective marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:25783851

  10. Prioritization of candidate genes in “QTL-hotspot” region for drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sandip M; Jaganathan, Deepa; Ruperao, Pradeep; Chen, Charles; Punna, Ramu; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Roorkiwal, Manish; Katta, Mohan AVSK; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Garg, Vanika; Kishor, P B Kavi; Gaur, Pooran M; Nguyen, Henry T; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Sutton, Tim; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    A combination of two approaches, namely QTL analysis and gene enrichment analysis were used to identify candidate genes in the “QTL-hotspot” region for drought tolerance present on the Ca4 pseudomolecule in chickpea. In the first approach, a high-density bin map was developed using 53,223 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICC 4958 (drought tolerant) and ICC 1882 (drought sensitive) cross. QTL analysis using recombination bins as markers along with the phenotyping data for 17 drought tolerance related traits obtained over 1–5 seasons and 1–5 locations split the “QTL-hotspot” region into two subregions namely “QTL-hotspot_a” (15 genes) and “QTL-hotspot_b” (11 genes). In the second approach, gene enrichment analysis using significant marker trait associations based on SNPs from the Ca4 pseudomolecule with the above mentioned phenotyping data, and the candidate genes from the refined “QTL-hotspot” region showed enrichment for 23 genes. Twelve genes were found common in both approaches. Functional validation using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated four promising candidate genes having functional implications on the effect of “QTL-hotspot” for drought tolerance in chickpea. PMID:26478518

  11. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  12. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  13. Deletions and candidate genes in Williams syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jurado, L.A.; Peoples, R.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemizygosity at the elastin locus (ELN) on chromosome 7q11.23 has recently been reported in several familial and sporadic cases of the developmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS). Because the deletion is greater than the span of the ELN gene, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome has been suggested as the probable molecular basis for this condition. Thus far, neither the size of the deletion(s), nor other genes within it are known. We have analyzed samples from 27 sporadic WS patients by genotyping two multiallelic ELN intragenic polymorphisms, detectable by PCR amplification, and by Southern blotting for ELN gene dosage. Twenty four patients were hemizygous at the ELN locus while 3 showed no deletion or detectable rearrangement. Genotype studies on parental DNA were informative in 12 of the deletions. All 12 were due to de novo events, 8 in the maternal and 4 in the paternal chromosome. In an attempt to identify genes involved in WS we are also using a candidate gene approach. Delayed clearance of an exogenous calcium load with normal or slightly increased calcitonin levels in serum has been documented in WS patients suggesting a defective calcitonin action or calcium sensing function. The calcitonin receptor (CTR) gene is, therefore, a good candidate since CTR has a dual role as a hormonal receptor for calcitonin and an extracellular calcium sensor. We have mapped the CTR gene to chromosome 7q21.1 by PCR-SSCA of somatic cell hybrids and FISH analysis. Using two color FISH with probes for ELN and CTR, both loci are located on 7q at a distance of {approximately}10 Mb, CTR being telomeric. Our CTR probe does not detect any genomic abnormality by FISH or Southern blot in the patients` samples analyzed. We have identified a diallelic polymorphism in the CTR cDNA and are currently testing the hypothesis of an impaired CTR expression as responsible for some of the clinical features of WS by analysing the CTR transcripts by RT-PCR.

  14. The differential approach to estimation of renal damage in the patients with nephrolithiasis by means of noninva-sive markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossolovsky A.N.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the estimation of clinical importance markers of renal damage at surgical treatment of nephrolithiasis. We studied results of operations in 110 patients with nephrolithiasis. The study presents new candidates for biochemical markers of acute kidney injury and renal interstitial fibrosis, with potentially high sensitivity and specificity. In this study were measured the concentrations of these biomarkers in urine. We suggested, that increased concentrations molecular mediators of renal damage (L2, IL-18 and interstitial fibrosis (MCP-1, TGFp, IGF1 in the patients with nephrophibrosis and strongetubulointerstitial injury, saved long-time period after operation, has been shown of progression chronic kidney disease

  15. A Safe Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Platform with Two Negative Markers for Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Uddowla, Sabena; Hollister, Jason; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of domestic animals with chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is widely practiced to control FMD. Currently, FMD vaccine manufacturing requires the growth of large volumes of virulent FMDV in biocontainment-level facilities. Here, two marker FMDV vaccine candidates (A24LL3DYR and A24LL3BPVKV3DYR) featuring the deletion of the leader coding region (Lpro) and one of the 3B proteins were constructed and evaluated. These vaccine candidates also contain either one...

  16. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  17. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. (paper)

  18. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  19. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 2nd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates for parkinsonian disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RaduConstantinescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in atypical parkinsonian disorders compared with PD and healthy controls. The new "omics" techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.

  1. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name: MAURINFirst Name:Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives.One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted...

  2. New optical nova candidate in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of a possible nova in M 31 on a 12x60s stacked R filter CCD image obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k, 13.5 micron sq. pixels) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA) on 2010 December 11.095 UT with magnitude of 16.6. The object is visible on all individual images. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h42m31.08s, Dec = +41d27'20.3"(J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 149" west and 672" north of the core of M 31. We do not detect the object on a 4x60s stacked SLOTIS CCD image obtained on2010 December 5.213 UT (limiting R magnitude at the position of 19.0). There is no entry in VizieR/CDS for this object and no minor planet could be found on this position using the MPC/IAU Minor Planet Checker (see http://scully.harvard.edu/~cgi/CheckMP) . All magnitudes given are obtained from a photometric solution using R magnitudes of the Local Group Survey M 31 catalogue (Massey et al.

  3. Comet candidates among quasi-Hilda objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; García-Migani, E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present the results of a search for quasi-Hilda comets. We wanted to find objects that have recently arrived from the Centaur zone that could became active near the perihelion of their orbits. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-seven objects from the ASTORB database were selected following a dynamical criteria to constrain the unstable quasi-Hilda region. These objects were integrated backward 50 000 yr in order to identify those that have recently arrived from the outer regions of the solar system. Results: The backward integration showed that 11 objects could be Centaurs or transneptunian objects that ended their dynamical evolution as quasi-Hilda comets. The dynamical evolution of these objects from a statistical point of view was studied by computing the time-averaged distribution of a number of clones as a function of the aphelion and perihelion distances. All the candidates show a dynamical behavior that is expected for comets injected in the inner solar system from the Centaur or transneptunian regions and reaching the quasi-Hilda region.

  4. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARDFirst Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you...

  5. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  6. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, G.; Aguilar, J. C.; Dueñas, S.; Hermida, L.; Iglesias, E.; Penton, E.; Lobaina, Y.; Lopez, M.; Mussachio, A.; Falcon, V.; Alvarez, L.; Martinez, G.; Gil, L.; Valdes, I.; Izquierdo, A.; Lazo, L.; Marcos, E.; Guzman, G.; Muzio, V.; Herrera, L.

    2013-03-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October - 2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  7. MR imaging of cochlear implant candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the value of diagnostic imaging in the workup of patients for possible placement of a multichannel intracochlear hearing device. Forty-five candidates for cochlear implantation were examined with both CT and MR imaging. In 32 adult patients coronal and axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences were performed. In 10 patients, we used a T2*-weighted gradient-echo three-dimensional sequence with axial presaturation instead. Three children were examined with an ultrafast snapshot sequence for scout viewing, followed by a T2-weighted axial half-Fourier spin-echo sequence. In 36 patients we found the cochlea to be patent. Thirty-three of these patients successfully received an implant device. Three patients still await surgery. Six patients showed pathologic conditions in at least one ear at CT and MR alone. In 3 patients there was evidence of bony occulsion of the cochlear duct at CT; MR revealed a reduced signal intensity in the cochlea as well. Two patients with normal CT results showed abnormal conditions at MR imaging (reduced signal on T2-weighted images) and were not operated on

  8. Radio observations of candidate magnetic O stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schnerr, R S; van der Horst, A J; Oosterloo, T A; Miller-Jones, J C A; Henrichs, H F; Spoelstra, T A Th; Foley, A R; 10.1051/0004-6361:20066299

    2010-01-01

    Context: Some O stars are suspected to have to have (weak) magnetic fields because of the observed cyclical variability in their UV wind-lines. However, direct detections of these magnetic fields using optical spectropolarimetry have proven to be very difficult. Aims: Non-thermal radio emission in these objects would most likely be due to synchrotron radiation. As a magnetic field is required for the production of synchrotron radiation, this would be strong evidence for the presence of a magnetic field. Such non-thermal emission has already been observed from the strongly magnetic Ap/Bp stars. Methods: We have performed 6 & 21 cm observations using the WSRT and use these, in combination with archival VLA data at 3.6 cm and results from the literature, to study the radio emission of 5 selected candidate magnetic O stars. Results: Out of our five targets, we have detected three: $\\xi$ Per, which shows a non-thermal radio spectrum, and $\\alpha$ Cam and $\\lambda$ Cep, which show no evidence of a non-thermal s...

  9. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 5

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  10. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 5th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  11. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  12. Fission reactor irradiation of candidate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of eleven candidate ceramics (MgO. xAl2O3 in five forms, and Al2O3, Si3N4 and SiC in two forms each) have been sent to the EBR-II fission reactor for neutron irradiation testing. EBR-II is being used because of its high neutron flux and the absence of thermal neutrons which cause undesirable nuclear reactions with 14N. The four families of ceramics selected for inclusion have all shown acceptable performance in irradiation tests carried out by the LASL Ceramics Program or by others. The present study will in some cases yield results at temperatures not yet investigated, and in others will allow the evaluation of forms of these ceramics never before irradiated. Samples will be irradiated at 675 and 825 K to approx. 2.4 x 1022 n/cm2 (E/sub n/ > 0.1 MeV), after which changes in electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties will be determined

  13. Craniosynostosis suggestive of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome: Clinical description of a large kindred and exclusion of candidate regions on 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Gernet, S.; Muehlbauer, W.; Fairley, J. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Bogenhausen, Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-05-03

    We describe the clinical manifestations of an autosomal dominant form of craniosynostosis in a large family with eight affected relatives. Unilateral or bilateral coronal synostosis, low frontal hair line, strabismus, ptosis, and partial cutaneous syndactyly of fingers and toes are findings suggestive of the diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. The disease locus was excluded from the two adjacent Saethre-Chotzen candidate regions on 7p by linkage analysis with markers D7S664 and D7S507. This indicates heterogeneity of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome with a locus outside the candidate regions on 7p. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A Review of Reflective Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2013-01-01

      This thesis aims at exploring theoretical basis of reflective learning in learning experience and providing the learners from all walks of life with an effective way of learning by observing and explaining how the learning as well as practice is promoted effectively and consciously through reflective activities.

  15. Why Reflection in Teacher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBoskey, Vicki Kubler

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on preservice teacher education by considering teacher reflectivity as an end rather than a means. The article provides a rationale for reflective teacher education in arguing the need to have teachers who are thoughtful, passionate, and principled educational decision makers. (GLR)

  16. Reflections on Justice in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Patricia F.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the concept of justice as practiced in the public schools in the United States. Examples of justice denied or misconstrued are included. Cases, stories, and concepts invite educational leaders to reflect anew on delivering justice in education to all children. Underlying the article is the belief that understanding…

  17. Transmittance of reflected diffuse radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiam, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A correlation is presented which allows the transmittance of reflected diffuse radiation from a planar reflector to be determined. Use of the correlation involves an initial evaluation of the geometric cover-to-reflector configuration or view factor. The value of configuration factor is itself required in the evaluation of the reflected irradiance on the cover.

  18. Reflection Positivity for Majorana Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states defined by a certain class of Hamiltonians that describe the interaction of Majorana fermions on a lattice. These Hamiltonians may include many-body interactions, as long as the signs of the associated coupling constants satisfy certain restrictions. We show that reflection positivity holds on an even subalgebra of Majorana fermions.

  19. Can Reflective Practice Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Gail; Thomas, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Almost ubiquitous in discourses about the development of teachers, reflective practice describes the process that occurs when persons are apprenticed to any meaningful activity. But reflective practice is a descriptive term for that process: it does not imply that the process is itself open to dissection and instruction. We contend that mistaken…

  20. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  1. Self-Reflection and the Psychosis-Prone Brain : An fMRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Renken, Remco; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, Andre

    2011-01-01

    The Cortical Mid line Structures (CMS) play a critical role in self-reflection, together with the insula. Abnormalities in self-referential processing and its neural underpinnings have been reported in schizophrenia and at-risk populations, suggesting they might be markers of psychotic vulnerability

  2. TEACHER CANDIDATES' PERCEPTIONS ABOUT TEACHING AND ASSESSING FLUENT READING

    OpenAIRE

    ULUSOY, MUSTAFA; DEDEOĞLU, Hakan; Ertem, İhsan Seyit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher candidates' perceptions about how to teach and assess fluent reading. To this end, the data was collected from 180 candidates by using a survey consisting of 5 open-ended questions. The data was analyzed by using qualitative techniques and frequency analysis. Most of the teacher candidates believed that fluent reading should be done by considering spelling and punctuation, and the process should result in comprehension. The results also sho...

  3. Physical education candidate teachers' beliefs about vocational self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    OZSAKER, Murat; CANPOLAT, A. Meliha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...

  4. The presidential candidates on Twitter during the 2009 Romanian elections

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio MOMOC

    2012-01-01

    What changes introduced Twitter in political communication? Which are the advantages and disadvantages of Twitter usage in electoral communication for candidates and for voters? As the specialized literature barely mentions the use of Twitter in the Romanian elections, we shall answer the question regarding the way in which the 2009 presidential candidates used their own Twitter accounts. This article starts from the assumption that presidential candidates use the online communication tools i...

  5. Newly identified YSO candidates towards the LDN 1188

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Gábor; Kiss, Csaba; Smidla, József

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  6. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills. PMID:11040626

  7. Markers of exacerbation severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Michael J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD can experience 'exacerbations' of their conditions. An exacerbation is an event defined in terms of subjective descriptors or symptoms, namely dyspnoea, cough and sputum that worsen sufficiently to warrant a change in medical management. There is a need for reliable markers that reflect the pathological mechanisms that underlie exacerbation severity and that can be used as a surrogate to assess treatment effects in clinical studies. Little is known as to how existing study variables and suggested markers change in both the stable and exacerbation phases of COPD. In an attempt to find the best surrogates for exacerbations, we have reviewed the literature to identify which of these markers change in a consistent manner with the severity of the exacerbation event. Methods We have searched standard databases between 1966 to July 2004 using major keywords and terms. Studies that provided demographics, spirometry, potential markers, and clear eligibility criteria were included in this study. Central tendencies and dispersions for all the variables and markers reported and collected by us were first tabulated according to sample size and ATS/ERS 2004 Exacerbation Severity Levels I to III criteria. Due to the possible similarity of patients in Levels II and III, the data was also redefined into categories of exacerbations, namely out-patient (Level I and in-patient (Levels II & III combined. For both approaches, we performed a fixed effect meta-analysis on each of the reported variables. Results We included a total of 268 studies reported between 1979 to July 2004. These studies investigated 142,407 patients with COPD. Arterial carbon dioxide tension and breathing rate were statistically different between all levels of exacerbation severity and between in out- and in-patient settings. Most other measures showed weak relationships with either level or setting, or they had

  8. [Clinical usefulness of bone turnover markers in the management of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shozo

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a state of elevated risk for bone fracture due to depressed bone strength, which is considered to be the sum of bone mineral density and bone quality. Since a measure of bone quality has not been established, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers are the only way to evaluate bone strength. Bone turnover markers are classified into bone formation marker and resorption marker, which are correlated with the bone formation rate and resorption rate, respectively, and bone matrix-related marker. Bone is always metabolized; old tissue is resorbed by acids and proteases derived from osteoclasts, whereas new bone is produced by osteoblasts. Bone formation and resorption rates should be balanced (also called coupled). When the bone resorption rate exceeds the formation rate(uncoupled state), bone volume will be reduced. Thus, we can comprehend bone metabolism by measuring both formation and resorption markers at the same time. Increased fracture risk is recognized by elevated bone resorption markers and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, which reflects vitamin K insufficiency and bone turnover. These values and the time course give us helpful information to choose medicine suitable for the patients and to judge the responsiveness. If the value is extraordinarily high without renal failure, metabolic bone disorder or bone metastatic tumor should be considered. Bone quality may be assessed by measuring bone matrix-related markers such as homocystein and pentosidine. Since recent studies indicate that the bone is a hormone-producing organ, it is possible that glucose metabolism or an unknown mechanism could be assessed in the future. PMID:24369600

  9. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  10. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR METASTATIC PROSTATE ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of molecular markers of metastasing and prognosis in prostate cancer remains an urgent task. In this study, we investigated the relationship of gene expression heparanase-1 (HPSE1 and D-glucuronil C5-epimerase (GLCE with early disease relapse and metastasis of a 2,5−3 years after diagnosis. It was shown that the ratio of the expression levels of genes HPSE1/GLCE > 1 may serve as a prognostic relapse marker and trends of the tumour to metastasis. The data obtained suggest to use this option as a molecular marker for the diagnostics of metastatic process and the disease prognosis.

  11. Efficient marker data utilization in genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid

    Genomic prediction is a novel method to recognize the best animals for breeding. The aim of this PhD is to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction in dairy cattle by effeiently utilizing marker data. The thesis focuses on three aspects for improving the genomc prediction, which are: criteria of...... editing marker data, methods to handle missing genotypes and prediction using haplotypes constructed with an advanced method. The results of this study show that the accuracy of genomc prediction increases by: optimal criteria for marker data editing parameters, proper handling of missing genotypes using...

  12. Additional first-trimester ultrasound markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonek, J; Nicolaides, K

    2010-09-01

    The first trimester (11-13 +6 weeks) ultrasound examination is useful for several reasons: determination of an accurate date of confinement, diagnostic purposes, and screening for fetal defects. Nuchal translucency measurement combined with maternal serum markers (free b-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) is the mainstay of first-trimester screening for chromosomal defects. However, over the past decade additional ultrasound markers have been developed that improve the performance of this type of screening. The novel markers include evaluation of the nasal bone, fronto-maxillary angle measurement, and Doppler evaluations of the blood flow across the tricuspid valve and in the ductus venosus. PMID:20638573

  13. Corrosion resistance of candidate transportation container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is currently remediating several sites that have been contaminated over the years with hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. Regulatory guidelines require strict compliance demonstrating public safety during remediation and the transport of these hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. The compatibility of the metallic transportation containers with the contents they are designed to transport is an ultimate concern that must be satisfied to ensure public safety. The transportation issue is inherently complicated due to the complex, varied, and unknown composition of the hazardous, mixed and radioactive waste that is being, considered for transport by the DOE facilities. Never before have the interactions between the waste being transported and the materials that comprise the transportation packages been more important. Therefore, evaluation of material performance when subjected to a simulated waste will ensure that all regulatory issues and requirements for transportation of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes are satisfied. The tasks encompassed by this study include defining criteria for candidate material selection, defining a test matrix that will provide pertinent information on the material compatibility with the waste stimulant, and evaluation of material performance when subjected to a stimulant waste. Our goal is to provide package design engineers with a choice of materials which exhibit enhanced performance upon exposure to hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste that is similar in composition to the waste stimulant used in this study. Due to the fact that there are many other possible waste compositions, additional work needs to be done to broaden our materials compatibility/waste stream data base

  14. Characterization for Fusion Candidate Vanadium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Muroga; T. Nagasaka; J. M. Chen; Z. Y. Xu; Q. Y. Huang; y. C. Wu

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent achievements in the characterization of candidate vanadium alloys obtained for fusion in the framework of the Japan-China Core University Program.National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has a program of fabricating high-purity V-4Cr4Ti alloys. The resulting products (NIFS-HEAT-1,2), were characterized by various research groups in the world including Chinese partners. South Western Institute of Physics (SWIP) fabricated a new V-4Cr-4Ti alloy (SWIP-Heat), and carried out a comparative evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heat. The tensile test of hydrogen-doped alloys showed that the NIFS-HEAT maintained the ductility to relatively high hydrogen levels.The comparison of the data with those of previous studies suggested that the reduced oxygen level in the NIFS-HEATs should be responsible for the increased resistance to hydrogen embrittlement.Based on the chemical analysis data of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heats, neutron-induced activation was analyzed in Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP-CAS) as a function of cooling time after the use in the fusion first wall. The results showed that the low level of Co dominates the activity up to 50 years followed by a domination of Nb or Nb and Al in the respective alloys. It was suggested that reduction of Co and Nb, both of which are thought to have been introduced via cross-contamination into the alloys from the molds used should be crucial for reducing further the activation.

  15. Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Martínez-García

    Full Text Available The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity (ETI responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot.

  16. Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Bostock, Richard M; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

  17. Shallow seismic reflection profiling of waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional approaches to environmental site characterization usually involve drilling of relatively dense networks of continuously sampled and geophysically logged boreholes. In glaciated terrains, problems are often encountered in determining the lateral continuity and three-dimensional subsurface geometry of sediments between borehole locations. An improved and potentially more cost-effective approach combines drilling and borehole sampling with high-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiling. This approach is illustrated with case studies from candidate landfill sites. Seismic data provide critical information regarding the lateral continuity and geometry of sediments and pathways for ground water and contaminants. (author). 38 refs., 11 figs

  18. Tumor markers: applications and recommendations. New IZOTOPE products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At work aspects are discussed: Tumor markers; New products IZOTOP; Measuring principle of IRMA kits for tumor markers; Guidelines and Recommendations for the use of tumor markers. pre-analytical, post-analytical and Quality control recommendations are given

  19. Progestins and cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    2000-01-01

    Several risks are attributed to progestins as a class-effect; however, the progestins used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have varying pharmacologic properties and do not induce the same side effects. Natural progesterone (P) and some of its derivatives, such as the 19-norprogesterones, do not exert any androgenic effect and, hence, have no negative effect on the lipids. On the other hand, the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and even some 17-hydroxyprogesterones have a partial androgenic effect, which may explain some of the negative effects observed on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk. The relevance of the lipid changes induced by sex steroids has been questioned, and studies in the female cynomolgous monkey have not shown a direct relationship to atherosclerosis. Results suggest that estrogens (E) have antiatherogenic effects and that P does not reverse the beneficial effect of estradiol. Also, sex hormones modulate the vasomotor response of the main arteries. E preserves the normal endothelium-mediated dilation of coronary arteries, and P does not reverse this potential cardioprotective mechanism. In the same animal model, the addition of cyclic or continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to E inhibited vasodilatation by 50%, while nomegestrol acetate did not diminish the E-induced vasodilatation. Not all progestins act similarly on vasomotion or affect cardiovascular risk factors in the same way. Progestins, such as MPA or norethisterone acetate (NETA), exert a partial detrimental effect on the beneficial actions of estrogens with regard to lipid changes, atheroma development, or vasomotion. In contrast, progesterone itself does not have this inhibitory effect on lipid changes and vascular reactivity in animal models or on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in humans. Nonandrogenic molecules of P itself and of derivatives, such as 19-norprogesterones, would appear neutral on the vessels. Several ongoing randomized controlled trials of HRT are

  20. Identification of putative candidate genes for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrid) using LD-based association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram K; Banerjee, Nandita; Khan, M S; Yadav, Sonia; Kumar, Sanjeev; Duttamajumder, S K; Lal, Ram Ji; Patel, Jinesh D; Guo, H; Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum that has a colossal damage potential. The fungus, prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, keeps on producing new pathogenic strains leading to breakdown of resistance in newly released varieties and hence the deployment of linked markers for marker-assisted selection for resistance to this disease can fine tune the breeding programme. This study based on a panel of 119 sugarcane genotypes fingerprinted for 944 SSR alleles was undertaken with an aim to identify marker-trait associations (MTAs) for resistance to red rot. Mixed linear model containing population structure and kinship as co-factor detected four MTAs that were able to explain 10-16 % of the trait variation, individually. Among the four MTAs, EST sequences diagnostic of three could be BLAST searched to the sorghum genome with significant sequence homology. Several genes encoding important plant defence related proteins, viz., cytochrome P450, Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter-1, MAP Kinase-4, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Ring finger domain protein and others were localized to the vicinity of these MTAs. These positional candidate genes are worth of further investigation and possibly these could contribute directly to red rot resistance, and may find a potential application in marker-assisted sugarcane breeding. PMID:26961118

  1. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species. PMID:26901189

  2. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Robledo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species.

  3. Genome-wide distribution and organization of microsatellites in plants: an insight into marker development in Brachypodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humira Sonah

    Full Text Available Plant genomes are complex and contain large amounts of repetitive DNA including microsatellites that are distributed across entire genomes. Whole genome sequences of several monocot and dicot plants that are available in the public domain provide an opportunity to study the origin, distribution and evolution of microsatellites, and also facilitate the development of new molecular markers. In the present investigation, a genome-wide analysis of microsatellite distribution in monocots (Brachypodium, sorghum and rice and dicots (Arabidopsis, Medicago and Populus was performed. A total of 797,863 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in the whole genome sequences of six plant species. Characterization of these SSRs revealed that mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats, and that the frequency of repeats decreased with increase in motif length both in monocots and dicots. However, the frequency of SSRs was higher in dicots than in monocots both for nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Interestingly, GC-rich repeats were the dominant repeats only in monocots, with the majority of them being present in the coding region. These coding GC-rich repeats were found to be involved in different biological processes, predominantly binding activities. In addition, a set of 22,879 SSR markers that were validated by e-PCR were developed and mapped on different chromosomes in Brachypodium for the first time, with a frequency of 101 SSR markers per Mb. Experimental validation of 55 markers showed successful amplification of 80% SSR markers in 16 Brachypodium accessions. An online database 'BraMi' (Brachypodium microsatellite markers of these genome-wide SSR markers was developed and made available in the public domain. The observed differential patterns of SSR marker distribution would be useful for studying microsatellite evolution in a monocot-dicot system. SSR markers developed in this study would be helpful for genomic studies in Brachypodium

  4. Exclusion of the PAX2 gene as a candidate gene for Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.A.; Gorry, M.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Warman, M. [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis (CFD, MIM 123500) is an abnormality of craniofacial development characterized by premature craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, and shallow orbits. We have mapped the CFD gene locus using a candidate gene approach to a 7 centiMorgan region on chromosome 10q in three CFD families. A maximal multipoint LOD score of 12.33 was achieved for a locus 2 cM distal to the microsatellite marker D10S209. A comparison of several physical, cytogenetic, and linkage maps revealed that the cytogenetic bands, 10q25-q26, most likely contain this CFD locus. The PAX2 gene, which has been mapped near another marker which in turn has been mapped to 10q25, was analyzed as a candidate gene. PAX2 was chosen for analysis because mutations in other members of the PAX gene family have been identified with human craniofacial abnormalities (e.g. Waardenburg syndrome). A YAC contig, consisting of 5 overlapping groups and composed of 11 YACs that spans the entire 7 cM region, was assembled for PAX2 analyses. None of these YACs supported PAX2-specific amplification using primer sets for both the second and third PAX2 exons. Control amplifications for YAC vector sequences produced robust amplifications in all cases. In addition, SSCP analyses of amplification products generated from the second and third PAX2 exons and the 3{prime} untranslated region of the PAX2 gene from both affected and unaffected family members in two of the kindreds failed to reveal any polymorphisms. Although it remains theoretically possible, due to artifacts in the YAC contigs, it is unlikely that PAX2 is the CFD gene.

  5. QTL analysis and candidate gene mapping for the polyphenol content in cider apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy F Verdu

    Full Text Available Polyphenols have favorable antioxidant potential on human health suggesting that their high content is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They control the quality of ciders as they predominantly account for astringency, bitterness, color and aroma. In this study, we identified QTLs controlling phenolic compound concentrations and the average polymerization degree of flavanols in a cider apple progeny. Thirty-two compounds belonging to five groups of phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by reversed phase liquid chromatography on both fruit extract and juice, over three years. The average polymerization degree of flavanols was estimated in fruit by phloroglucinolysis coupled to HPLC. Parental maps were built using SSR and SNP markers and used for the QTL analysis. Sixty-nine and 72 QTLs were detected on 14 and 11 linkage groups of the female and male maps, respectively. A majority of the QTLs identified in this study are specific to this population, while others are consistent with previous studies. This study presents for the first time in apple, QTLs for the mean polymerization degree of procyanidins, for which the mechanisms involved remains unknown to this day. Identification of candidate genes underlying major QTLs was then performed in silico and permitted the identification of 18 enzymes of the polyphenol pathway and six transcription factors involved in the apple anthocyanin regulation. New markers were designed from sequences of the most interesting candidate genes in order to confirm their co-localization with underlying QTLs by genetic mapping. Finally, the potential use of these QTLs in breeding programs is discussed.

  6. Identification of two new drought specific candidate genes in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Simon and G. Hemaprabha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective identification and understanding of genes contribute to improve plant drought resistance. A study was conducted toidentify drought responsive candidate genes in sugarcane. Two genes viz., SOD (Superoxide dismutase and IGS (Indole 3-glycerol phosphate synthase were used as gene specific markers. Specific primers were designed based on the sequences inGenbank databases. Mapping population developed by crossing a drought tolerant parent (Co 740 and a drought susceptibleparent (Co 775 were phenotyped using physiological and sugar yield contributing parameters and were characterized into groupsof varying levels of resistance and susceptibility. Parental polymorphism for SOD and IGS specific primers was established usinggenomic DNA from field grown drought tolerant and susceptible parents, as the presence in Co 740 (resistant and absence in Co775 (susceptible respectively. Resistant and susceptible parents and six each resistant and susceptible progeny were subjected todrought imposition and RNA were isolated and RT - PCR analysis performed using these gene specific primers. A specific bandof 618 bp was identified in drought tolerant parent and progeny, absent in drought susceptible parent and progeny genotypedusing SOD gene. A specific band of 340 bp was identified in drought tolerant parent and progeny while it was absent in droughtsusceptible parent and progeny genotyped using IGS gene. These two fragments of interests were cloned in PTz57R/T vector andsequenced. SOD618 sequence was BLAST searched that showed 98 % homology with the drought inducible protein in Saccharumhybrid and IGS340 showed 80 % homology with the hypothetical protein expressed in rice genome. These new genes hold promiseimproving drought resistance of sugarcane through their use as candidate genes in marker assisted selection and in genetictransformation.

  7. Osteoporosis and Osteopathy Markers in Patients with Mastocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Alpay Kanıtez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis, osteosclerosis, and lytic bone lesions have been observed in patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM. We examined bone mineral density (BMD biochemical turnover markers and serum tryptase levels in SM, which is considered a rare disease. METHODS: Seventeen adult patients (5 females, 12 males; median age: 33 years, range: 20-64 with mastocytosis were included in this study. We investigated the value of quantitative ultrasound (QUS of the calcaneus in the assessment of BMD in SM patients, as well as BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4, femoral neck, and distal radius using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and plasma tryptase levels, biochemical markers of bone turnover. RESULTS: At lumbar spine L1-L4, the femoral neck, and the distal radius or as calcaneus stiffness, 12 of 17 patients had T-scores of less than -1 at least at 1 site, reflecting osteopenia. Three of 17 patients had T-scores showing osteoporosis (T-score <-2.5. There was no relationship between DXA and bone lesion severity. We also found a significant positive correlation between tryptase levels and disease severity, as well as between disease severity and pyridinoline (p<0.01 by Spearman’s test. CONCLUSION: DXA and calcaneal QUS may not be appropriate techniques to assess bone involvement in SM patients because of the effects of osteosclerosis. This study further shows that the osteoclastic marker pyridinoline is helpful in patients with severe disease activity and sclerotic bone lesions to show bone demineralization.

  8. Feasibility of proposed single-nucleotide polymorphisms as predictive markers for targeted regimens in metastatic colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J. C.; Ha, Y J; Roh, S A; Choi, E. Y.; Yoon, Y.S.; Kim, K P; Hong, Y S; Kim, T. W.; Cho, D H; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surrogate biomarkers for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are urgently needed to achieve the best outcomes for targeted therapy. Methods: A clinical association analysis was performed to examine the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were previously proposed as markers of chemosensitivity to the cetuximab (124 patients) and bevacizumab regimens (100 patients) in mCRC patients. In addition, biological correlations were examined for the candidate SNPs in terms of t...

  9. Molecular markers: tools to improve genebank efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.; Treuren, van R.

    2002-01-01

    Possibilities for using molecular markers to improve genebank efficiency are increasingly present thanks to developments in genebanks and developments in molecular genetics. These possibilities relate to all aspects of genebank management: acquisition, maintenance, characterisation and utilisation.

  10. Confirmation of Clematis hybrids using molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hybrid origin of two progeny from reciprocal crosses of Clematis tubulosa and C. brevicaudata was investigated using molecular markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Morphologi...

  11. Diagnostically Relevant Molecular Markers in Head and Neck Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Soma Susan Varghese; Philips Mathew; Jithin Jose

    2013-01-01

    Tumor markers are grouped into diagnostic and prognostic markers. Specific diagnostic markers appear extensively in cells of a particular neoplasm and not in other tumors. These markers can be used to assess the cellular lineage and histogenic origin of various neoplasms. Thus, diagnostic markers can be used for the confirmatory diagnosis of various tumors. This paper reviews the literature on various diagnostic markers and aims to group them based on the cellular lineage of neoplasms.

  12. Molecular markers of tumor invasiveness in ameloblastoma: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Li; CHEN, XINMING

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present article was to review the current new knowledge on the molecular markers of tumor invasion in ameloblastoma. In this review, tumor molecular markers were identified and allocated to the following six groups according to their functions: (I) Markers involved in extracellular matrix degradation, (II) Molecular markers involved in cell adhesion lost, (III) Molecular markers involved in bone remodeling, (IV) Cytokines involved in angiogenesis, (V) Molecular markers related ...

  13. Genetic effects of polymorphisms in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken age at first egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Min

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age at first egg (AFE, an important indicator for sexual maturation in female chickens, is controlled by polygenes. Based on our knowledge of reproductive physiology, 6 genes including gonadotrophin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I, neuropeptide Y (NPY, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, VIP receptor-1 (VIPR-1, and prolactin (PRL, were selected as candidates for influencing AFE. Additionally, the region between ADL0201 and MCW0241 of chromosome Z was chosen as the candidate QTL region according to some QTL databases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of mutations in candidate genes and the QTL region on chicken AFE. Results Marker-trait association analysis of 8 mutations in those 6 genes in a Chinese native population found a highly significant association (P G840327C of the GnRH-I gene with AFE, and it remained significant even with Bonferroni correction. Based on the results of the 2-tailed χ2 test, mutations T32742394C, T32742468C, G32742603A, and C33379782T in the candidate QTL region of chromosome Z were selected for marker-trait association analysis. The haplotypes of T32742394C and T32742468C were significantly associated (P T32742394C and T32742468C were located in the intron region of the SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2 gene, which appeared to be associated in the endocytosis and development of the oocyte. Conclusion This study found that G840327C of the GnRH-I gene and the haplotypes of T32742394C-T32742468C of the SH3GL2 gene were associated with the chicken AFE.

  14. Oxidative stress markers in preovulatory follicular fluid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwik, M; Wolczynski, S; Jozwik, M; Szamatowicz, M

    1999-05-01

    Intensified peroxidation in the Graafian follicle may be a factor compromising the normal development of the oocyte. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of three oxidative stress markers: conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in preovulatory follicular fluids and sera of 145 women attending an in-vitro fertilization programme, and to correlate these concentrations with pregnancy outcome. Determinations were conducted either with or without an antioxidant (10 microM butylated hydroxytoluene) and an iron chelate (10 microM deferoxamine mesylate) to examine peroxidation associated with the methods used. Concentrations of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in follicular fluid were all significantly lower than those in serum, both in the presence or absence of the antioxidant and iron chelate. These concentrations did not correlate with pregnancy outcome. In conclusion, the intensity of peroxidation in the Graafian follicle is much lower than that in serum. This gradient is the result of the lower rate of initiation of peroxidation in the follicular fluid, suggestive of the presence of efficient antioxidant defence systems in the direct milieu of the oocyte before ovulation. The concentrations of investigated oxidative stress markers in follicular fluid do not reflect the reproductive potential of oocytes. PMID:10338363

  15. Biochemical markers of trisomy 21 in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K; Muller, F; Aitken, D A

    1997-01-01

    In a study of amniotic fluid from 91 Down's syndrome cases and 240 controls, we have shown that the median values of four biochemical markers (AFP, total hCG, free beta hCG, and unconjugated oestriol) in the amniotic fluid of pregnancies affected by Down's syndrome on the whole reflect those observed in the maternal serum of affected cases. The median MOM for AFP was lower than average (0.56), as was that for unconjugated oestriol (0.55), whilst those for total hCG (1.82) and free beta hCG (2.10) were increased on average. The width of the distribution of marker levels in amniotic fluid is similar to that in serum for free beta hCG and total hCG but between 1.5 and 2 times wider for unconjugated oestriol and AFP. Analysis of data by fetal sex showed a significantly higher median MOM in female control cases compared with male controls for the analytes free beta hCG, total hCG, and unconjugated oestriol, but not for AFP. Amongst the Down's syndrome cases, this trend was not statistically significant and we cannot confirm a previous study which reported that elevated levels of amniotic fluid total and free beta hCG were associated only with female fetuses. PMID:9021826

  16. Forced-choice Five Factor markers

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Anna; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The Big Five Questionnaire (Brown & Maydeu-Olivares, 2011) was developed in the context of a study researching item response theory (IRT) modeling of forced-choice questionnaires. The purpose of the questionnaire is to measure the Big Five personality factor markers. Items were drawn from the 100 items of the International Personality Item Pool. The authors selected 60 items so that 12 items would measure each of the five marker traits, with 8 positively and 4 negatively keyed items per trait...

  17. LRRN4 and UPK3B are markers of primary mesothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsumi Kanamori-Katayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is a highly malignant tumor that is primarily caused by occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibers. Despite worldwide restrictions on asbestos usage, further cases are expected as diagnosis is typically 20-40 years after exposure. Once diagnosed there is a very poor prognosis with a median survival rate of 9 months. Considering this the development of early pre clinical diagnostic markers may help improve clinical outcomes. METHODOLOGY: Microarray expression arrays on mesothelium and other tissues dissected from mice were used to identify candidate mesothelial lineage markers. Candidates were further tested by qRTPCR and in-situ hybridization across a mouse tissue panel. Two candidate biomarkers with the potential for secretion, uroplakin 3B (UPK3B, and leucine rich repeat neuronal 4 (LRRN4 and one commercialized mesothelioma marker, mesothelin (MSLN were then chosen for validation across a panel of normal human primary cells, 16 established mesothelioma cell lines, 10 lung cancer lines, and a further set of 8 unrelated cancer cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Within the primary cell panel, LRRN4 was only detected in primary mesothelial cells, but MSLN and UPK3B were also detected in other cell types. MSLN was detected in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells and UPK3B was detected in retinal pigment epithelial cells and urothelial cells. Testing the cell line panel, MSLN was detected in 15 of the 16 mesothelioma cells lines, whereas LRRN4 was only detected in 8 and UPK3B in 6. Interestingly MSLN levels appear to be upregulated in the mesothelioma lines compared to the primary mesothelial cells, while LRRN4 and UPK3B, are either lost or down-regulated. Despite the higher fraction of mesothelioma lines positive for MSLN, it was also detected at high levels in 2 lung cancer lines and 3 other unrelated cancer lines derived from papillotubular adenocarcinoma, signet ring carcinoma and transitional

  18. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data...

  19. Teacher Education and Teacher Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough Jr., Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    The efforts of a small group of teacher educators to develop a program emphasizing reflectivity is described. Grounding program development in a conceptual framework is emphasized. Lessons learned about the program development process are shared. (IAH)

  20. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  1. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or national security as a result of the preliminary risk assessment, the candidate or the Provider... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14... CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  2. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  3. Opinions of Counselor Candidates Regarding Counseling Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Mine; Yaka, Baris; Koç, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of the quality of counseling skills training and counselor education through the medium of understanding the opinions of counselor candidates regarding counseling skills training. The research group consisted of 67 counselor candidates who voluntarily participated in the study. The research…

  4. Facebook Connection Styles among Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogdu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Facebook connection styles of physical education (PE) teacher candidates. The participants were composed of 626 (age = 21.21 ± 2.024) physical education teacher candidates from the departments of Physical Education and Sports. They teach in five different universities. It was done in 2014-2015 academic…

  5. Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Tice, Kathleen; Collins, Denise; Brown, Amber; Smith, Cleta; Fox, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates…

  6. Chemical Literacy Levels of Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Turkish science and mathematics teacher candidates' levels of attainment in chemical literacy. These candidates had all studied the new Turkish chemistry curriculum in high school. The sample of the study consisted of 112 students, who were first-year students in the Department of Secondary Science…

  7. Teacher Candidates' Views of Digital Games as Learning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research study was to explore teacher candidate views toward digital learning games using an immersive strategy. Specifically, we were interested in finding out what game use in classroom settings taught candidates about the role of teacher as facilitator of instruction. The procedures first focused teacher candidate…

  8. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  9. Elections, Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    The quality of political candidates often depends on the current state of the world, for example because their personal characteristics are more valuable in some situations than in others. We explore the implications of state-dependent candidate quality in a model of electoral competition where v...

  10. 11 CFR 9033.1 - Candidate and committee agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to 11 CFR part 9039. The candidate and authorized committee(s) shall facilitate the audit by... authorized committee(s) will comply with the conditions set forth in 11 CFR 9033.1(b). The candidate may... committee(s) will comply with the documentation requirements set forth in 11 CFR 9033.11. (3) The...

  11. Detection of immunocytological markers in photomicroscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, David; zur Jacobsmühlen, Joschka; Braunschweig, Till; Bell, André; Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    Early detection of cervical cancer can be achieved through visual analysis of cell anomalies. The established PAP smear achieves a sensitivity of 50-90%, most false negative results are caused by mistakes in the preparation of the specimen or reader variability in the subjective, visual investigation. Since cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), the detection of HPV-infected cells opens new perspectives for screening of precancerous abnormalities. Immunocytochemical preparation marks HPV-positive cells in brush smears of the cervix with high sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this work is the automated detection of all marker-positive cells in microscopic images of a sample slide stained with an immunocytochemical marker. A color separation technique is used to estimate the concentrations of the immunocytochemical marker stain as well as of the counterstain used to color the nuclei. Segmentation methods based on Otsu's threshold selection method and Mean Shift are adapted to the task of segmenting marker-positive cells and their nuclei. The best detection performance of single marker-positive cells was achieved with the adapted thresholding method with a sensitivity of 95.9%. The contours differed by a modified Hausdorff Distance (MHD) of 2.8 μm. Nuclei of single marker positive cells were detected with a sensitivity of 95.9% and MHD = 1.02 μm.

  12. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. PMID:25128690

  13. Comparative Study between the Quality Management Indicators, Marker of Major Psychiatric Disorders in Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    BONDARI, D.; Bondari, Simona; GHEONEA, IOANA; ANDRONACHE, ANDREEA

    2014-01-01

    Indicators of quality management are represented by: accounting hospitalization days (duration of stay); mortality rate; the rate of nosocomial infections; patients readmitted in 30 days; the percentage patients transferred; inconsistent diagnoses. The hospitalization period is a marker of evolution. The present study reflects comparative data between duration and the number of hospitalisations in patients with major psychiatric disorders. Introduction. Medical Psychiatry as a discipline has ...

  14. Periarticular Osteophytes as an Appendicular Joint Stress Marker (JSM): Analysis in a Contemporary Japanese Skeletal Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Saiki, Kazunobu; OKAMOTO, Keishi; Imamura, Takeshi; Maeda, Junichiro; Manabe, Yoshitaka; Wakebe, Tetsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that periarticular osteophytes plays a role as a appendicular joint stress marker (JSM) which reflects the biomechanical stresses on individuals and populations. Methods A total of 366 contemporary Japanese skeletons (231 males, 135 females) were examined closely to evaluate the periarticular osteophytes of six major joints, the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle and osteophyte scores (OS) were determined using an or...

  15. Angiogenesis Markers Quantification in Breast Cancer and Their Correlation with Clinicopathological Prognostic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Rykala, Jan; Przybylowska, Karolina; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Pasz-Walczak, Grazyna; Sygut, Andrzej; Dziki, Adam; Kruk-Jeromin, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Tumoural angiogenesis is essential for the growth and spread of breast cancer cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of angiogenesis markers in tumours and there reflecting levels in serum of breast cancer patients. Angiogenin, Ang2, fibroblast growth factor basic, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and VEGF-A were measured using a FASTQuant angiogenic growth factor multiplex p...

  16. Are retinal arteriolar or venular diameters associated with markers for cardiovascular disorders? The Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ikram, Kamran; de Jong, Frank Jan; Vingerling, Hans; Witteman, Jacqueline; Breteler, Monique; Jong, Paulus; Hofman, Albert

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: A lower retinal arteriolar-to-venular ratio (AVR) has been suggested to reflect generalized arteriolar narrowing and to predict the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The contribution of the separate arteriolar and venular diameters to this AVR is unknown. Thus, associations between retinal arteriolar and venular diameters, and the AVR on the one hand and blood pressure, atherosclerosis, inflammation markers, and cholesterol levels on the other were examined in the Rotterda...

  17. Automated reasoning for reflective programs

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Reflective programming allows one to construct programs that manipulate or examine their behaviour or structure at runtime. One of the benefits is the ability to create generic code that is able to adapt to being incorporated into different larger programs, without modifications to suit each concrete setting. Due to the runtime nature of reflection, static verification is difficult and has been largely ignored or only weakly supported. This work focusses on supporting verification for cases w...

  18. Reflections on wisdom and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    The end of the year is often a time of reflection. For most of us, 2012 will have brought events that were planned, perhaps for years, as well as others that were full of serendipity or unexpected misfortune. We are invariably older than we were in January. We approach December with our own rituals: summer holidays, Hanukkah, Christmas or New Year's Eve. We may reflect on our joys and disappointments, or our actions and lessons learnt. PMID:23342382

  19. Joint reflection in teacher training

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie; Hošpesová, A.; Macháčková, Jana

    Plzeň : ZČU PedF, 2006 - (Coufalová, J.), s. 293-298 ISBN 80-7043-478-3. [CIEAEM 58. Srní (CZ), 09.07.2006-15.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/05/2444 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : individual reflection * joint reflection * teachers´knowledge base Subject RIV: AM - Education

  20. Green Criminology: Reflections, Connections, Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel South

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces aspects of the development of a ‘green’ criminology. It starts with personal reflections and then describes the emergence of explicit statements of a green criminological perspective. Initially these statements were independently voiced, in different parts of the world but they reflected shared concerns. These works have found unification as a ‘green’, ‘eco-global’ or ‘conservation’ criminology. The paper reviews the classifications available when talking about not only lega...