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Sample records for candidate fungal biopesticides

  1. Storage and persistence of a candidate fungal biopesticide for use against adult malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanford Simon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New products aimed at augmenting or replacing chemical insecticides must have operational profiles that include both high efficacy in reducing vector numbers and/or blocking parasite transmission and be long lasting following application. Research aimed at developing fungal spores as a biopesticide for vector control have shown considerable potential yet have not been directly assessed for their viability after long-term storage or following application in the field. Methods Spores from a single production run of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana were dried and then stored under refrigeration at 7°C. After 585 days these spores were sub-sampled and placed at either 22°C, 26°C or 32°C still sealed in packaging (closed storage or in open beakers and exposed to the 80% relative humidity of the incubator they were kept in. Samples were subsequently taken from these treatments over a further 165 days to assess viability. Spores from the same production run were also used to test their persistence following application to three different substrates, clay, cement and wood, using a hand held sprayer. The experiments were conducted at two different institutes with one using adult female Anopheles stephensi and the other adult female Anopheles gambiae. Mosquitoes were exposed to the treated substrates for one hour before being removed and their survival monitored for the next 14 days. Assays were performed at monthly intervals over a maximum seven months. Results Spore storage under refrigeration resulted in no loss of spore viability over more than two years. Spore viability of those samples kept under open and closed storage was highly dependent on the incubation temperature with higher temperatures decreasing viability more rapidly than cooler temperatures. Mosquito survival following exposure was dependent on substrate type. Spore persistence on the clay substrate was greatest achieving 80% population reduction for

  2. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  3. Fungal biopesticide production by solid-state fermentation : Growth and sporulation of coniothyrium minitans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijkaas, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of an inert carrier impregnated with a chemically defined medium might be attractive in industrial processes. This system can be used as alternative for agricultural substrates such as grains in solid-state fermentation for the production of fungal biopesticides. During recent years, the use

  4. Combining fungal biopesticides and insecticide-treated bednets to enhance malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Hancock

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing strategies to control malaria vectors, there is increased interest in biological methods that do not cause instant vector mortality, but have sublethal and lethal effects at different ages and stages in the mosquito life cycle. These techniques, particularly if integrated with other vector control interventions, may produce substantial reductions in malaria transmission due to the total effect of alterations to multiple life history parameters at relevant points in the life-cycle and transmission-cycle of the vector. To quantify this effect, an analytically tractable gonotrophic cycle model of mosquito-malaria interactions is developed that unites existing continuous and discrete feeding cycle approaches. As a case study, the combined use of fungal biopesticides and insecticide treated bednets (ITNs is considered. Low values of the equilibrium EIR and human prevalence were obtained when fungal biopesticides and ITNs were combined, even for scenarios where each intervention acting alone had relatively little impact. The effect of the combined interventions on the equilibrium EIR was at least as strong as the multiplicative effect of both interventions. For scenarios representing difficult conditions for malaria control, due to high transmission intensity and widespread insecticide resistance, the effect of the combined interventions on the equilibrium EIR was greater than the multiplicative effect, as a result of synergistic interactions between the interventions. Fungal biopesticide application was found to be most effective when ITN coverage was high, producing significant reductions in equilibrium prevalence for low levels of biopesticide coverage. By incorporating biological mechanisms relevant to vectorial capacity, continuous-time vector population models can increase their applicability to integrated vector management.

  5. Using particle size analysis to determine the hydrophobicity and suspension of fungal conidia with particular relevance to formulation of biopesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, B; Faull, Jane; Bateman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal formulations are vital for effective biopesticide development. Good formulations help to optimise field efficacy while poor formulations result in product failure. This study aimed to produce a hydrophobicity test that would be appropriate for fungal conidia produced to a commercial quality and determine relative hydrophobicity of fungi from four different genera by using laser diffraction. A particle size analyser was used to determine the hydrophobicity of: three Metarhizium acrid...

  6. An age-structured model to evaluate the potential of novel malaria-control interventions: a case study of fungal biopesticide sprays

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, P.A; M. B. Thomas; Godfray, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that mosquito vectors of human diseases, particularly malaria, may be controlled by spraying with fungal biopesticides that increase the rate of adult mortality. Though fungal pathogens do not cause instantaneous mortality, they can kill mosquitoes before they are old enough to transmit disease. A model is developed (i) to explore the potential for fungal entomopathogens to reduce significantly infectious mosquito populations, (ii) to assess the relative value of...

  7. Pathogenic Yet Environmentally Friendly? Black Fungal Candidates for Bioremediation of Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Barbara; Poyntner, Caroline; Rudavsky, Tamara; Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X.; Hoog, Sybren De; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A collection of 163 strains of black yeast-like fungi from the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Center (Utrecht, The Netherlands), has been screened for the ability to grow on hexadecane, toluene and polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) as the sole carbon and energy source. These compounds were chosen as representatives of relevant environmental pollutants. A microtiter plate-based culture assay was set up in order to screen the fungal strains for growth on the selected xenobiotics versus glucose, as a positive control. Growth was observed in 25 strains on at least two of the tested substrates. Confirmation of substrate assimilation was performed by cultivation on closed vials and analysis of the headspace composition with regard to the added volatile substrates and the generated carbon dioxide. Exophiala mesophila (CBS 120910) and Cladophialophora immunda (CBS 110551), both of the order Chaetothyriales and isolated from a patient with chronic sinusitis and a polluted soil sample, respectively, showed the ability to grow on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source. Toluene assimilation has previously been described for C. immunda but this is the first account for E. mesophila. Also, this is the first time that the capacity to grow on alkylbenzenes has been demonstrated for a clinical isolate. Assimilation of toluene could not be demonstrated for the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudoallescheria boydii (CBS 115.59, Microascales), but the results from microtiter plate assays suggest that strains of this species are promising candidates for further studies. The outstanding abilities of black yeast-like fungi to thrive in extreme environments makes them ideal agents for the bioremediation of polluted soils, and for the treatment of contaminated gas streams in biofilters. However, interrelations between hydrocarbonoclastic and potentially pathogenic strains need to be elucidated in order to avoid the possibility of biohazards occurring. PMID:27019541

  8. Development of Biopesticides and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glare, Travis R; Gwynn, Roma L; Moran-Diez, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    Biopesticides, pesticides based on living organisms or their extracts, are increasing in sales around the world, as synthetic pesticides are less available and environmental and health issues drive new approaches. Despite the increasing sales and use, there are still limitations that restrict more widespread uptake, such as slow to kill, cost, difficulties of production, lack of appropriate formulations, and reputation based on previous poor performance of biopesticides. Regulation continues to be problematic in many countries, as the processes are designed for evaluating chemistry rather than live organisms. Biopesticides do have a bright future, given the amount of investment currently in the area, improving products and growing need. PMID:27565502

  9. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

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    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  10. Pathogenic Yet Environmentally Friendly? Black Fungal Candidates for Bioremediation of Pollutants : Geomicrobiology Journal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasi, B.; Poyntner, C.; Rudavsky, T.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F. X.; De Hoog, S.; Tafer, H.; Sterflinger, K.

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 163 strains of black yeast-like fungi from the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Center (Utrecht, The Netherlands), has been screened for the ability to grow on hexadecane, toluene and polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) as the sole carbon and energy source. These compounds were chosen as re

  11. Fungal endocarditis with right ventricular candidal mycetoma in a premature neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Jayashree Purkayastha; Leslie Edward Lewis; Morakhia Jwalit V; Ranjan Shetty K; Muhammad Najih L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal mycetoma or endocarditis is rare in premature neonates and it is often associated with high mortality. In the majority of the cases diagnosis is made postmortem. Here we report a 0-week-old preterm neonate who developed Candida albicans blood stream infection complicated by endocarditis and subsequent mycetoma. Initially, this neonate had Klebsiella sepsis requiring multiple antibiotic courses. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter was used to give total parenteral nutrit...

  12. Powdery mildew fungal effector candidates share N-terminal Y/F/WxC-motif

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    Emmersen Jeppe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdery mildew and rust fungi are widespread, serious pathogens that depend on developing haustoria in the living plant cells. Haustoria are separated from the host cytoplasm by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane. They secrete effector proteins, some of which are subsequently transferred across this membrane to the plant cell to suppress defense. Results In a cDNA library from barley epidermis containing powdery mildew haustoria, two-thirds of the sequenced ESTs were fungal and represented ~3,000 genes. Many of the most highly expressed genes encoded small proteins with N-terminal signal peptides. While these proteins are novel and poorly related, they do share a three-amino acid motif, which we named "Y/F/WxC", in the N-terminal of the mature proteins. The first amino acid of this motif is aromatic: tyrosine, phenylalanine or tryptophan, and the last is always cysteine. In total, we identified 107 such proteins, for which the ESTs represent 19% of the fungal clones in our library, suggesting fundamental roles in haustoria function. While overall sequence similarity between the powdery mildew Y/F/WxC-proteins is low, they do have a highly similar exon-intron structure, suggesting they have a common origin. Interestingly, searches of public fungal genome and EST databases revealed that haustoria-producing rust fungi also encode large numbers of novel, short proteins with signal peptides and the Y/F/WxC-motif. No significant numbers of such proteins were identified from genome and EST sequences from either fungi which do not produce haustoria or from haustoria-producing Oomycetes. Conclusion In total, we identified 107, 178 and 57 such Y/F/WxC-proteins from the barley powdery mildew, the wheat stem rust and the wheat leaf rust fungi, respectively. All together, our findings suggest the Y/F/WxC-proteins to be a new class of effectors from haustoria-producing pathogenic fungi.

  13. Fungal endocarditis with right ventricular candidal mycetoma in a premature neonate

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    Jayashree Purkayastha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal mycetoma or endocarditis is rare in premature neonates and it is often associated with high mortality. In the majority of the cases diagnosis is made postmortem. Here we report a 0-week-old preterm neonate who developed Candida albicans blood stream infection complicated by endocarditis and subsequent mycetoma. Initially, this neonate had Klebsiella sepsis requiring multiple antibiotic courses. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter was used to give total parenteral nutrition. On day 24 of life, he developed candidemia, treated with 14 day course of fluconazole and shown improvement. Further, on day 60 of life he developed cholestasis, deranged liver function tests and persistent thrombocytopenia along with apnea, bradycardia and desaturations. Blood culture again grew again C. albicansEchocardiography showed large fungal vegetation on tricuspid valve with a mycetoma filling the right ventricle. He was treated with intravenous amphotericin B, fluconazole and upportive measures, but he deteriorated and succumbed after two weeks. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(3: 142-145

  14. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  15. Characterization of the Wheat Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) Fungal Effector Candidate PEC6 and Its Corresponding Host Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Changhai

    and understanding their mechanisms of action is fundamentally important to guide future fights against the stripe rust disease. In this PhD project, I studied the potential function of six stripe rust fungal effector candidates which are highly expressed in haustoria, by employing the Pseudomonas fluorescens Et......Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important fungal diseases on wheat worldwide and a serious threat to wheat production. Understanding the plant-microbe interaction mechanism is the basic step to assist future plant breeding aiming at increasing...... disease resistance. Based on the sequenced stripe rust fungus genome, several hundreds of small, secreted candidates for effector proteins are predicted. Effectors are believed to be pivotal for fungal pathogenicity with key roles in suppressing host defense. Thus, identifying key effectors...

  16. What are Microbial-based Biopesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Diez, María E; Glare, Travis R

    2016-01-01

    From the ancient civilizations, agriculture has played an important socioeconomic role in the development of our current human society. Modern farming methods developed during the Green Revolution increased the production of food worldwide. Keeping a sustainable production of food supplies will impact the long-term survival of the species as well as the natural resources, so it is important to work on the establishment of new farming methodologies, such as the use of biopesticides that allow the balance between production and preservation of the environment. This introductory chapter will guide the reader through the content of this book providing an overall view of what will be discussed in each chapter. PMID:27565487

  17. Epitope Mapping of Rhi o 1 and Generation of a Hypoallergenic Variant: A CANDIDATE MOLECULE FOR FUNGAL ALLERGY VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Gaurab; Jana, Kuladip; Dasgupta, Angira; Saha, Sudipto; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2016-08-19

    Efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy is often severely impaired by detrimental IgE-mediated side effects of native allergen during vaccination. Here, we present the molecular determinants for IgE recognition of Rhi o 1 and eventually converting the allergen into a hypoallergenic immunogen to restrain health hazards during desensitization. Rhi o 1 is a respiratory fungal allergen. Despite having cross-reactivity with cockroach allergen, we observed that non-cross-reactive epitope predominantly determined IgE binding to Rhi o 1. Denaturation and refolding behavior of the allergen confirmed that its IgE reactivity was not essentially conformation-dependent. A combinatorial approach consisting of computational prediction and a peptide-based immunoassay identified two peptides ((44)TGEYLTQKYFNSQRNN and (311)GAEKNWAGQYVVDCNK) of Rhi o 1 that frequently reacted with IgE antibodies of sensitized patients. Interestingly, these peptides did not represent purely linear IgE epitopes but were presented in a conformational manner by forming a spatially clustered surface-exposed epitope conferring optimal IgE-binding capacity to the folded allergen. Site-directed alanine substitution identified four residues of the IgE epitope that were crucial for antibody binding. A multiple mutant (T49A/Y52A/K314A/W316A) showing 100-fold lower IgE binding and reduced allergenic activity was generated. The TYKW mutant retained T-cell epitopes, as evident from its lymphoproliferative capacity but down-regulated pro-allergic IL-5 secretion. The TYKW mutant induced enhanced focusing of blocking IgG antibodies specifically toward the IgE epitope of the allergen. Anti-TYKW mutant polyclonal IgG antibodies competitively inhibited binding of IgE antibodies to Rhi o 1 up to 70% and suppressed allergen-mediated histamine release by 10-fold. In conclusion, this is a simple yet rational strategy based on epitope mapping data to develop a genetically modified hypoallergenic variant showing

  18. Epitope Mapping of Rhi o 1 and Generation of a Hypoallergenic Variant: A CANDIDATE MOLECULE FOR FUNGAL ALLERGY VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Gaurab; Jana, Kuladip; Dasgupta, Angira; Saha, Sudipto; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2016-08-19

    Efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy is often severely impaired by detrimental IgE-mediated side effects of native allergen during vaccination. Here, we present the molecular determinants for IgE recognition of Rhi o 1 and eventually converting the allergen into a hypoallergenic immunogen to restrain health hazards during desensitization. Rhi o 1 is a respiratory fungal allergen. Despite having cross-reactivity with cockroach allergen, we observed that non-cross-reactive epitope predominantly determined IgE binding to Rhi o 1. Denaturation and refolding behavior of the allergen confirmed that its IgE reactivity was not essentially conformation-dependent. A combinatorial approach consisting of computational prediction and a peptide-based immunoassay identified two peptides ((44)TGEYLTQKYFNSQRNN and (311)GAEKNWAGQYVVDCNK) of Rhi o 1 that frequently reacted with IgE antibodies of sensitized patients. Interestingly, these peptides did not represent purely linear IgE epitopes but were presented in a conformational manner by forming a spatially clustered surface-exposed epitope conferring optimal IgE-binding capacity to the folded allergen. Site-directed alanine substitution identified four residues of the IgE epitope that were crucial for antibody binding. A multiple mutant (T49A/Y52A/K314A/W316A) showing 100-fold lower IgE binding and reduced allergenic activity was generated. The TYKW mutant retained T-cell epitopes, as evident from its lymphoproliferative capacity but down-regulated pro-allergic IL-5 secretion. The TYKW mutant induced enhanced focusing of blocking IgG antibodies specifically toward the IgE epitope of the allergen. Anti-TYKW mutant polyclonal IgG antibodies competitively inhibited binding of IgE antibodies to Rhi o 1 up to 70% and suppressed allergen-mediated histamine release by 10-fold. In conclusion, this is a simple yet rational strategy based on epitope mapping data to develop a genetically modified hypoallergenic variant showing

  19. Potential applications of Neem based products as biopesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa AA; Ahmad A.

    2012-01-01

    Biopesticides are a good alternative to the synthetic pesticide. Both leaves and fruit of neem plant are known to have bitter taste having fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal properties. Azadirachtin, chemically a tetranorterpenoid component of neem acts on the mitotic cells and blocks the microtubule polymerization. Certain activities of genes and proteins are also altered by azadirachtin. As a botanical insecticide azadirachtin is effective against many biological processes. It may cau...

  20. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Eusebio Nava Pérez; Cipriano García Gutiérrez; Jesús Ricardo Camacho Báez; Elva Lorena Vázquez Montoya

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also...

  1. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture. PMID:24799184

  2. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  3. Fungal arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis. Causes Fungal ... symptoms of fungal arthritis. Prevention Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal ...

  4. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  5. Production of biopesticides in an in situ cell retention bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gunjan; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2008-12-01

    The seeds of Azadirachta indica contain azadirachtin and other limonoids, which can be used as a biopesticide for crop protection. Significant variability and availability of seed only in arid zones has triggered biotechnological production of biopesticides to cope up with its huge requirement. Batch cultivation of A. indica suspension culture was carried out in statistically optimized media (25.0 g/l glucose, 5.7 g/l nitrate, 0.094 g/l phosphate and 5 g/l inoculum) in 3 l stirred tank bioreactor. This resulted in 15.5 g/l biomass and 0.05 g/l azadirachtin production in 10 days leading to productivity of 5 mg l(-1) day(-1). Possible inhibition by the limiting substrates (C, N, P) were also studied and maximum inhibitory concentrations identified. The batch kinetic/inhibitory data were then used to develop and identify an unstructured mathematical model. The batch model was extrapolated to simulate continuous cultivation with and without cell retention in the bioreactor. Several offline computer simulations were done to identify right nutrient feeding strategies (with respect to key limiting substrates; carbon, nitrate and phosphate) to maintain non-limiting and non-inhibitory substrate concentrations in bioreactor. One such continuous culture (with cell retention) simulation was experimentally implemented. In this cultivation, the cells were propagated batch-wise for 8 days. It was then converted to continuous cultivation by feeding MS salts with glucose (75 g/l), nitrate (10 g/l), and phosphate (0.5 g/l) at a feed rate of 500 ml/day and withdrawing the spent medium at the same rate. The above continuous cultivation (with cell retention) demonstrated an improvement in cell growth to 95.8 g/l and intracellular accumulation of 0.38 g/l azadirachtin in 40 days leading to an overall productivity of 9.5 mg l(-1) day(-1). PMID:18392561

  6. Evaluation of Bioagents and Biopesticides against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and its Integrated Management in Common Bean

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    Bilal Ahmad PADDER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three bioagents (Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum and Gliocladium virens and five biopesticides (Achook, Neemgold, Wannis, Spictaf and Neemazal were evaluated under in vitro and in vivo conditions against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. All the three antagonistic fungi caused significant inhibition of mycelial growth, maximum being with T. viride (69.21% followed by T. harzianum (64.20%. Among the biopesticides tested at four concentrations, Wanis applied @ 1000 ?l/ml caused maximum inhibition of 82.12 per cent followed by Spictaf (52.85%. T. viride and Wanis @ 1000 ?l/ml were most effective in reducing the seed borne infection. Integration of bioagents with Bavistin showed that disease can be effectively managed with seed dressing either with Bavistin or biopesticide followed by foliar treatment with fungicide or biopesticide.

  7. Transcriptomics of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in response to the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes reveals candidate fungal defense response genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Mathioni

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved a first line of defense response to pathogens called innate or basal immunity. While basal defenses in these organisms are well studied, there is almost a complete lack of understanding of such systems in fungal species, and more specifically, how they are able to detect and mount a defense response upon pathogen attack. Hence, the goal of the present study was to understand how fungi respond to biotic stress by assessing the transcriptional profile of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, when challenged with the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes. Based on microscopic observations of interactions between M. oryzae and wild-type L. enzymogenes strain C3, we selected early and intermediate stages represented by time-points of 3 and 9 hours post-inoculation, respectively, to evaluate the fungal transcriptome using RNA-seq. For comparative purposes, we also challenged the fungus with L. enzymogenes mutant strain DCA, previously demonstrated to be devoid of antifungal activity. A comparison of transcriptional data from fungal interactions with the wild-type bacterial strain C3 and the mutant strain DCA revealed 463 fungal genes that were down-regulated during attack by C3; of these genes, 100 were also found to be up-regulated during the interaction with DCA. Functional categorization of genes in this suite included those with roles in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular transport and stress response. One gene in this suite belongs to the CFEM-domain class of fungal proteins. Another CFEM class protein called PTH11 has been previously characterized, and we found that a deletion in this gene caused advanced lesion development by C3 compared to its growth on the wild-type fungus. We discuss the characterization of this suite of 100 genes with respect to their role in the fungal defense response.

  8. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a /GNA in Pichia pastoris : sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Pyati, P; Fitches, E.; Gatehouse, J A

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast...

  9. Biopesticides from plants: Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, Juan R; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Avila, José G; Aqueveque, Pedro; Kubo, Isao; Alarcón, Julio

    2014-07-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on humans and biodiversity are multiple and varied. Nowadays environmentally-friendly pesticides are strongly preferred to POPs. It is noteworthy that the crop protection role of pesticides and other techniques, i.e. biopesticides, plant extracts, prevention methods, organic methods, evaluation of plant resistance to certain pests under an integrated pest management (IPM), could improve the risks and benefits which must be assessed on a sound scientific basis. For this directive it is crucial to bring about a significant reduction in the use of chemical pesticides, not least through the promotion of sustainable alternative solutions such as organic farming and IPM. Biopesticides are derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Most of them are biodegradable in relatively short periods of time. On this regard, substances from Calceolaria species emerge as a strong alternative to the use of POPs. The American genus Calceolaria species are regarded both as a notorious weeds and popular ornamental garden plants. Some have medicinal applications. Other taxa of Calceolaria are toxic to insects and resistant to microbial attack. These properties are probably associated with the presence of terpenes, iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids previously demonstrated to have interesting biological activities. In this article a comprehensive evaluation of the potential utilization of Calceolaria species as a source of biopesticides is made. The chemical profile of selected members of the Chilean Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex represents a significant addition to previous studies. New secondary metabolites were isolated, identified and tested for their antifeedant, insect growth regulation and insecticidal activities against Spodoptera frugiperda and Drosophila melanogaster. These species serve as a model of insect pests using conventional procedures

  10. Biopesticides from plants: Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, Juan R; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Avila, José G; Aqueveque, Pedro; Kubo, Isao; Alarcón, Julio

    2014-07-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on humans and biodiversity are multiple and varied. Nowadays environmentally-friendly pesticides are strongly preferred to POPs. It is noteworthy that the crop protection role of pesticides and other techniques, i.e. biopesticides, plant extracts, prevention methods, organic methods, evaluation of plant resistance to certain pests under an integrated pest management (IPM), could improve the risks and benefits which must be assessed on a sound scientific basis. For this directive it is crucial to bring about a significant reduction in the use of chemical pesticides, not least through the promotion of sustainable alternative solutions such as organic farming and IPM. Biopesticides are derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Most of them are biodegradable in relatively short periods of time. On this regard, substances from Calceolaria species emerge as a strong alternative to the use of POPs. The American genus Calceolaria species are regarded both as a notorious weeds and popular ornamental garden plants. Some have medicinal applications. Other taxa of Calceolaria are toxic to insects and resistant to microbial attack. These properties are probably associated with the presence of terpenes, iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids previously demonstrated to have interesting biological activities. In this article a comprehensive evaluation of the potential utilization of Calceolaria species as a source of biopesticides is made. The chemical profile of selected members of the Chilean Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex represents a significant addition to previous studies. New secondary metabolites were isolated, identified and tested for their antifeedant, insect growth regulation and insecticidal activities against Spodoptera frugiperda and Drosophila melanogaster. These species serve as a model of insect pests using conventional procedures

  11. Potential applications of Neem based products as biopesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajwa AA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides are a good alternative to the synthetic pesticide. Both leaves and fruit of neem plant are known to have bitter taste having fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal properties. Azadirachtin, chemically a tetranorterpenoid component of neem acts on the mitotic cells and blocks the microtubule polymerization. Certain activities of genes and proteins are also altered by azadirachtin. As a botanical insecticide azadirachtin is effective against many biological processes. It may cause a reduction in feeding habit, suspend the molting process, larvae and pupae death and also cause sterility in the emerging adults, this all depend on the given dose. Apart from azadirachtin, many other components of neem also have insecticidal properties. Among them are saponins that are found to have antimicrobial activity that inhibits moulds and protecting plant from attack of insects. Likewise Nim80 and Neemas are also neem products that produce the insecticidal activity. In addition Parker oil TM is also effective insecticide which is a commercial product. There is a maximum weight loss when azadirachtin and NPV are used in combination. Commercial neem formulation has been assayed for the control of pine weevil in forestry, against rice leaf folder, root-knot nematodes and P. xylostella. Azadirachtin-A is extremely sensitive to the presence of sunlight different mechanisms have been used to increase its photo stability.

  12. Les biopesticides, compléments et alternatives aux produits phytosanitaires chimiques (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deravel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides, a complementary and alternative approach to the use of agrochemicals. A review. Biopesticides are living organisms or products derived from them, which have the ability to suppress or to reduce pests. Biopesticides have been used for centuries by farmers and these products offer many advantages. Today, biopesticides are classified into three groups according to their origin (microbial, plant or animal. They can be used both in conventional agriculture and in organic farming. Some biopesticides allow plants to withstand abiotic stress and, in general, they are less toxic than their chemical counterparts. Although they often have the reputation for being less effective than chemical pesticides, biopesticides are the subject of growing interest among farmers, particularly in the context of Integrated Pest Management strategies. The marketing of biopesticides is facilitated in some regions, such as the USA, while in others, such as Western Europe, the approval process is long and expensive. The future development of biopesticides depends on many factors, such as government policies both in terms of research support and in regulating agribusiness strategies, and the evolution of consumer choice.

  13. Effects of multiple applications of a Beauveria based biopesticide on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) densities in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biopesticide, formulated with a strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites, was tested in an experiment in southern France and the results were were compared to published results from previous experiments with the same biopesticide. Bee colonies were treated either with biopesticide, ...

  14. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  15. Sub-chronic lung inflammation after airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth K; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Hammer, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess possible health effects of airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides in mice. Endpoints were lung inflammation evaluated by presence of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), clearance of bacteria from the lung...

  16. Teaching of Biopesticide Development as a Technoprenuership Opportunity in Plant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Plant protection is an important and integral part of an agricultural production system. Plant pests and diseases can cause yield losses on farm, ranging from 25 ??? 40% with a value of about US $550 billion worldwide. Excessive use of synthetic pesticides has caused detrimental effects on the environment and rendered agricultural production system uneconomical. Therefore, biopesticide is a promising alternative control measures in plant protection. This article discusses the teac...

  17. Efficacy of two fungus-based biopesticide against the honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelaal A; Abd-Elhady, Hany K

    2013-08-15

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) (Acari: Varroidae), is known as the most serious ectoparasitic mite on honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the world. Based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi, two commercial preparations; Bioranza (Metarhizium anisopliae) and Biovar (Beauveria bassiana) were evaluated through application into the hives against varroa mite. Data showed significant differences between treatments with Bioranza and Biovar, the results were significant after 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Mean a daily fallen mite individual was significantly different between the hives before and after the applications of the two biopesticides and wheat flour. Also, mites' mortality was, significantly, different between the hives before and after treatments. There were significant differences between treatments with the two biopesticides in worker's body weight. Bioranza and Biovar did not infect the honeybee in larval, prepupal, pupal and adult stages. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed spores and hyphae penetration through stigma and wounds on varroa. The results suggest that Bioranza and Biovar are potentially are effective biopesticides against V. destructor in honeybee colonies.

  18. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Calcofluor white stain): in general, if fungal elements are seen, then a fungus is the likely the cause of symptoms. These tests, however, do not identify the fungus. Culture: care must be taken when interpreting culture results. ...

  19. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  20. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  1. Low translocation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis to inner organs in mice after pulmonary exposure to commercial biopesticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Krogfelt, Karen A.;

    2010-01-01

    Translocation of viable cells from a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis-based biopesticide to inner organs in a mouse model was studied. Mice were exposed to the originally formulated product through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract by intratracheal instillation. Colony forming units (CFU) were...... grown from lungs, caecum, spleen and liver on Bacillus cereus-specific agar (BCSA) after 24 h and finally determined to be biopesticide strain B. t. israelensis by large plasmid profile. No CFU were found in spleen or liver of the control mice or in any aerosol background or material. We have shown...

  2. Biopesticide-induced behavioral and morphological alterations in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Wagner F; Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Bernardes, Rodrigo C; Siqueira, Maria Augusta L; Smagghe, Guy; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-09-01

    Because of their natural origin, biopesticides are assumed to be less harmful to beneficial insects, including bees, and therefore their use has been widely encouraged for crop protection. There is little evidence, however, to support this ingrained notion of biopesticide safety to pollinators. Because larval exposure is still largely unexplored in ecotoxicology and risk assessment on bees, an investigation was performed on the lethal and sublethal effects of a diet treated with 2 bioinsecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata, which is one of the most important pollinators in the Neotropics. Survival of stingless bee larvae was significantly compromised at doses above 210 ng a.i./bee for azadirachtin and 114 ng a.i./bee for spinosad. No sublethal effect was observed on larvae developmental time, but doses of both compounds negatively affected pupal body mass. Azadirachtin produced deformed pupae and adults as a result of its insect growth regulator properties, but spinosad was more harmful and produced greater numbers of deformed individuals. Only spinosad compromised walking activity of the adult workers at doses as low as 2.29 ng a.i./bee, which is 1/5000 of the maximum field recommended rate. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that bioinsecticides can pose significant risks to native pollinators with lethal and sublethal effects; future investigations are needed on the likelihood of such effects under field conditions. PMID:26190792

  3. Thermal behaviour of Anopheles stephensi in response to infection with malaria and fungal entomopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Andrew F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is a critical determinant of the development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes, and hence the geographic distribution of malaria risk, but little is known about the thermal preferences of Anopheles. A number of other insects modify their thermal behaviour in response to infection. These alterations can be beneficial for the insect or for the infectious agent. Given current interest in developing fungal biopesticides for control of mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi were examined to test whether mosquitoes showed thermally-mediated behaviour in response to infection with fungal entomopathogens and the rodent malaria, Plasmodium yoelii. Methods Over two experiments, groups of An. stephensi were infected with one of three entomopathogenic fungi, and/or P. yoelii. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes were released on to a thermal gradient (14 – 38°C for "snapshot" assessments of thermal preference during the first five days post-infection. Mosquito survival was monitored for eight days and, where appropriate, oocyst prevalence and intensity was assessed. Results and conclusion Both infected and uninfected An. stephensi showed a non-random distribution on the gradient, indicating some capacity to behaviourally thermoregulate. However, chosen resting temperatures were not altered by any of the infections. There is thus no evidence that thermally-mediated behaviours play a role in determining malaria prevalence or that they will influence the performance of fungal biopesticides against adult Anopheles.

  4. Challenges and opportunities of the bio-pesticides production by solid-state fermentation: filamentous fungi as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz Quiroz, Reynaldo; Roussos, Sevastianos; Hernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Raúl; Castillo, Francisco; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, production and use of bio-pesticides have increasing and replacing some synthetic chemical pesticides applied to food commodities. In this review, biological control is focused as an alternative, to some synthetic chemical treatments that cause environmental, human health, and food quality risks. In addition, several phytopathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance to some of these synthetic chemicals and become more difficult to control. Worldwide, the bio-pesticides market is growing annually at a rate of 44% in North America, 20% in Europe and Oceania, 10% in Latin and South American countries and 6% in Asia. Use of agro-industrial wastes and solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology offers an alternative to bio-pesticide production with advantages versus conventional submerged fermentations, as reduced cost and energy consumption, low production of residual water and high stability products. In this review, recent data about state of art regarding bio-pesticides production under SSF on agroindustrial wastes will be discussed. SSF can be defined as a microbial process that generally occurs on solid material in the absence of free water. This material has the ability to absorb water with or without soluble nutrients, since the substrate must have water to support the microorganism's growth and metabolism. Changes in water content are analyzed in order to select the conditions for a future process, where water stress can be combined with the best spore production conditions, obtaining in this way an inexpensive biotechnological option for modern agriculture in developing countries. PMID:24494699

  5. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  6. Sublethal effects of kaolin and the biopesticides Prestop-Mix and BotaniGard on metabolic rate, water loss and longevity in bumble bees (Bombus terrestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Karise, Reet; Muljar, Riin; Smagghe, Guy; Kaart, Tanel; Kuusik, Aare; Dreyersdorff, Gerit; Williams, Ingrid; Mänd, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Kaolin is an inert material with a broad range of applications, e.g. as an insecticide and as a filling substance in the formulation of biopesticides. Hence, bees that dispense biopesticides to the field in the context of entomovectoring are exposed to elevated risks because of sideeffects of those products. Here, we investigated with use of bumble bee workers of Bombus terrestris L. the lethal and sublethal effects of (i) pure kaolin, (ii) the biofungicide Prestop-Mix containing the parasiti...

  7. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biondi

    Full Text Available Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life

  8. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjin

    2016-02-01

    To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC50 of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml), a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC50 of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn't show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide. PMID:26889110

  9. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjin Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC₅₀ of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC₅₀ of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml, a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC₅₀ of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn’t show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide.

  10. Novel biopesticide based on a spider venom peptide shows no adverse effects on honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Erich Y T; Williamson, Sally M; Edwards, Martin G; Fitches, Elaine C; Gatehouse, John A; Wright, Geraldine A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2014-07-22

    Evidence is accumulating that commonly used pesticides are linked to decline of pollinator populations; adverse effects of three neonicotinoids on bees have led to bans on their use across the European Union. Developing insecticides that pose negligible risks to beneficial organisms such as honeybees is desirable and timely. One strategy is to use recombinant fusion proteins containing neuroactive peptides/proteins linked to a 'carrier' protein that confers oral toxicity. Hv1a/GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin), containing an insect-specific spider venom calcium channel blocker (ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a) linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) as a 'carrier', is an effective oral biopesticide towards various insect pests. Effects of Hv1a/GNA towards a non-target species, Apis mellifera, were assessed through a thorough early-tier risk assessment. Following feeding, honeybees internalized Hv1a/GNA, which reached the brain within 1 h after exposure. However, survival was only slightly affected by ingestion (LD50>100 µg bee(-1)) or injection of fusion protein. Bees fed acute (100 µg bee(-1)) or chronic (0.35 mg ml(-1)) doses of Hv1a/GNA and trained in an olfactory learning task had similar rates of learning and memory to no-pesticide controls. Larvae were unaffected, being able to degrade Hv1a/GNA. These tests suggest that Hv1a/GNA is unlikely to cause detrimental effects on honeybees, indicating that atracotoxins targeting calcium channels are potential alternatives to conventional pesticides.

  11. Seed treatments to control seedborne fungal pathogens of vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Valeria; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    Vegetable crops are frequently infected by fungal pathogens, which can include seedborne fungi. In such cases, the pathogen is already present within or on the seed surface, and can thus cause seed rot and seedling damping-off. Treatment of vegetable seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. Furthermore, seed treatments can be useful in reducing the amounts of pesticides required to manage a disease, because effective seed treatments can eliminate the need for foliar application of fungicides later in the season. Although the application of fungicides is almost always effective, their non-target environmental impact and the development of pathogen resistance have led to the search for alternative methods, especially in the past few years. Physical treatments that have already been used in the past and treatments with biopesticides, such as plant extracts, natural compounds and biocontrol agents, have proved to be effective in controlling seedborne pathogens. These have been applied alone or in combination, and they are widely used owing to their broad spectrum in terms of disease control and production yield. In this review, the effectiveness of different seed treatments against the main seedborne pathogens of some important vegetable crops is critically discussed. PMID:24293285

  12. How to evaluate the environmental safety of plant protection products of natural origin - Proposals for decision trees for microbial, semio-chemical, and plant-derived biopesticides: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; SEC

    2004-01-01

    The environmental safety of crop protection products of natural origin (biopesticides) is to be re-evaluated within a few years' time by the European Union. Also, new biopesticides will enter the EU market, due to the increasing importance of sustainable agriculture. There is, however, almost no gui

  13. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  14. etude de l'ifficacité des huilles essentielles de curcuma longa comme un biopesticides cas antifongique

    OpenAIRE

    larabi, souhila; rabah, souhila

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les plantes médicinales constituent une source immense de métabolites secondaires, dont les huiles essentielles, dotées de nombreuses activités biologiques ; Cette étude a pour objectif l'évaluation de l'effet des huiles essentielles de Curcuma longa Linn comme un biopesticide Cas antifongique. L'extraction des huiles essentielles de Curcuma Ionga Linn a été réalisée par hydrodistillation. Le rendement en HE est de 0,96%. L'activité antifongique est mise en évidence p...

  15. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana

  16. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  17. Complement and fungal pathogens: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Würzner, Reinhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections are a serious complication in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, patients with organ transplantations or with haematological neoplasia. The lethality of opportunistic fungal infection is high despite a growing arsenal of antimycotic drugs, implying the urgent need for supportive immunological therapies to strengthen the current inefficient antimicrobial defences of the immunocompromised host. Therefore, increasing effort has been directed to investigating the interplay between fungi and the host immunity and thus to find starting points for additional therapeutic approaches. In this article, we review the actual state of the art concerning the role of complement in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Important aspects include the activation of the complement system by the fungal pathogen, the efficiency of the complement-associated antimicrobial functions and the arsenal of immune evasion strategies applied by the fungi. The twin functions of complement as an interactive player of the innate immunity and at the same time as a modulator of the adaptive immunity make this defence weapon a particularly interesting therapeutic candidate to mobilise a more effective immune response and to strengthen in one fell swoop a broad spectrum of different immune reactions. However, we also mention the 'Yin-Yang' nature of the complement system in fungal infections, as growing evidence assigns to complement a contributory part in the pathogenesis of fungus-induced allergic manifestations. PMID:18705662

  18. Valorization of soy waste through SSF for the production of compost enriched with Bacillus thuringiensis with biopesticide properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardo, Cindy; Abraham, Juliana; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2016-03-15

    There is a growing generation of biodegradable wastes from different human activities from industrial to agricultural including home and recreational activities. On the other hand, agricultural and horticultural activities require significant amounts of organic amendments and pesticides. In this framework, the present study evaluates the viability of soy fiber residue valorization as organic soil amendment with biopesticide properties through aerobic solid-state fermentation (SSF) in the presence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The experiments were performed first under sterile and non-sterile conditions at lab scale using 115 g of sample and controlled temperature (30 °C). Bt growth was successful in sterile conditions, obtaining 6.2 × 10(11) CFU g(-1) DM and 8.6 × 10(10) spores g(-1) DM after 6 days. Bt survived on solid culture under non-sterile conditions (3.8 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) DM and 1.3 × 10(8) spores g(-1) DM). Further, the valorization process was scaled-up to 10 L reactors (2300 g) under non-sterile conditions obtaining a final stabilized material with viable Bt cells and spores (9.5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1) DM and 1.1 × 10(8) spores g(-1) DM in average) after 9 days of SSF. These results confirm the possibility of managing biodegradable wastes by their transformation to a waste derived soil amendment with enhanced biopesticide effect, in comparison to traditional compost using a valuable and low-cost technique (SSF). PMID:26731311

  19. Valorization of soy waste through SSF for the production of compost enriched with Bacillus thuringiensis with biopesticide properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardo, Cindy; Abraham, Juliana; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2016-03-15

    There is a growing generation of biodegradable wastes from different human activities from industrial to agricultural including home and recreational activities. On the other hand, agricultural and horticultural activities require significant amounts of organic amendments and pesticides. In this framework, the present study evaluates the viability of soy fiber residue valorization as organic soil amendment with biopesticide properties through aerobic solid-state fermentation (SSF) in the presence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The experiments were performed first under sterile and non-sterile conditions at lab scale using 115 g of sample and controlled temperature (30 °C). Bt growth was successful in sterile conditions, obtaining 6.2 × 10(11) CFU g(-1) DM and 8.6 × 10(10) spores g(-1) DM after 6 days. Bt survived on solid culture under non-sterile conditions (3.8 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) DM and 1.3 × 10(8) spores g(-1) DM). Further, the valorization process was scaled-up to 10 L reactors (2300 g) under non-sterile conditions obtaining a final stabilized material with viable Bt cells and spores (9.5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1) DM and 1.1 × 10(8) spores g(-1) DM in average) after 9 days of SSF. These results confirm the possibility of managing biodegradable wastes by their transformation to a waste derived soil amendment with enhanced biopesticide effect, in comparison to traditional compost using a valuable and low-cost technique (SSF).

  20. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  1. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  2. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  3. Can Some Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites Become Actual Anticancer Agents?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nelson G. M.; Florence Lefranc; Anake Kijjoa; Robert Kiss

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are known to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, and more than 1000 marine fungal-derived metabolites have already been reported. Despite the absence of marine fungal-derived metabolites in the current clinical pipeline, dozens of them have been classified as potential chemotherapy candidates because of their anticancer activity. Over the last decade, several comprehensive reviews have covered the potential anticancer activity of marine fungal-derived metabolites. ...

  4. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  5. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  6. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  7. Fungal infections of the folds (intertriginous areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Ahmet; Dilek, Nursel; Demirseven, Duriye Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are widespread, regardless of age and gender, in populations all around the world and may affect the skin and skin appendages. Although there are thousands of fungal infections from various genera and families in nature, those that are pathogenic for humans and nesting in skin folds are limited in number. The prevalence and distribution of these fungi vary according to the patients and certain environmental factors. Because the areas including the lids, external auditory canal, behind the ears, navel, inguinal region, and axillae, also called flexures, are underventilated and moist areas exposed to friction, they are especially sensitive to fungal infections. Fungi can both directly invade the skin, leading to infections, and indirectly stimulate immune mechanisms due to tissue interaction and their antigenic character and contribute to the development or exacerbation of secondary bacterial infections, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Superficial fungal infections can be classified and studied as dermatophyte infections, candidal infections, Malassezia infections, and other superficial infections independently from the involved skin fold areas. PMID:26051058

  8. FIELD EFFICACY OF NEEM ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) BASED BIOPESTICIDES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF INSECT - PESTS OF COTTON IN NORTHERN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Nboyine JA; Abudulai M; Opare - Atak ora DY

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important fiber crop grown in northern Ghana. Its cultivation is beset with numerous insect pest problems. Current pest management practices in cotton fields are based on the use of chlorpyrifos and lamda cyhalothrin based synthetic insecticides which is unaffordable to most peasant cotton farmers. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the field efficacy of neem based biopesticides like neem seed kernel extract (NSK E) and neem seed oil (NSO) as an alternative fo...

  9. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  10. Production of the biopesticide azadirachtin by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in liquid-phase bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).

  11. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As an ... fungal infections. What you need to know about fungal infections Fungal infections can range from mild to life- ...

  12. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  13. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  14. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  15. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  16. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a/GNA in Pichia pastoris: sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Prashant; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2014-08-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast Pichia pastoris. To prevent proteolysis, the Hv1a/GNA fusion expression construct was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to remove a potential Kex2 cleavage site at the C-terminus of the Hv1a peptide. To obtain a high expressing clone of P. pastoris to produce recombinant Hv1a/GNA, a straightforward method was used to produce multi-copy expression plasmids, which does not require multiple integrations to give clones of P. pastoris containing high copy numbers of the introduced gene. Removal of the Kex2 site resulted in increased levels of intact fusion protein expressed in wild-type P. pastoris strains, improving levels of intact recombinant protein recoverable. Incorporation of a C-terminal (His)6 tag enabled single step purification of the fusion protein. These modifications did not affect the insecticidal activity of the recombinant toxin towards lepidopteran larvae. Introduction of multiple expression cassettes increased the amount of secreted recombinant fusion protein in a laboratory scale fermentation by almost tenfold on a per litre of culture basis. Simple modifications in the expression construct can be advantageous for the generation of high expressing P. pastoris strains for production of a recombinant protein, without altering its functional properties.

  17. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a/GNA in Pichia pastoris: sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Prashant; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2014-08-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast Pichia pastoris. To prevent proteolysis, the Hv1a/GNA fusion expression construct was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to remove a potential Kex2 cleavage site at the C-terminus of the Hv1a peptide. To obtain a high expressing clone of P. pastoris to produce recombinant Hv1a/GNA, a straightforward method was used to produce multi-copy expression plasmids, which does not require multiple integrations to give clones of P. pastoris containing high copy numbers of the introduced gene. Removal of the Kex2 site resulted in increased levels of intact fusion protein expressed in wild-type P. pastoris strains, improving levels of intact recombinant protein recoverable. Incorporation of a C-terminal (His)6 tag enabled single step purification of the fusion protein. These modifications did not affect the insecticidal activity of the recombinant toxin towards lepidopteran larvae. Introduction of multiple expression cassettes increased the amount of secreted recombinant fusion protein in a laboratory scale fermentation by almost tenfold on a per litre of culture basis. Simple modifications in the expression construct can be advantageous for the generation of high expressing P. pastoris strains for production of a recombinant protein, without altering its functional properties. PMID:24898110

  18. Risk factors for mucocutaneous fungal infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düriye Deniz Demirseren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and design: Mucocutaneous fungal infections are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. However, fungal infections do not develop in every patient with DM. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for developing mucocutaneous fungal infections in patients with type 2 DM. Materials and methods: A total of 302 type 2 DM patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections and 326 type 2 DM patients without mucocutaneous fungal infections were enrolled. Demographic and clinical features, HbA1c levels, DM durations, body mass indexes (BMIs, and DM related complications of patients were compared and risk factors for developing mucocutaneous fungal infections were determined. Results: Of the 302 patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections, 81.2% (n=245 had dermatophytosis, 16.9% (n=51 had candidal infections, 2.0% (n=6 had pityriasis versicolor. Frequency of male gender, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy; DM durations and ages of patients were all significantly higher in diabetic patients with fungal infections than patients without fungal infections (all p<0.05. Male gender, age ≥ 50 years, nephropathy and neuropathy were independently associated with developing fungal infection in type 2 DM patients. In subgroup analyses, independent risk factors for dermatophytosis were male gender, age ≥ 50 years, DM duration ≥5 years, and nephropathy. For candidiasis, these factors were BMI≥30 and neuropathy. Conclusion: Elderly, male gender, diabetic neuropathy annd nephropathy are closely associated with developing mucocutaneous infections in patients with type 2 DM.

  19. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  20. Fungal photobiology: a synopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Corrochano, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. The photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, WC-1 in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a numbe...

  1. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  2. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    FabianHorn; ThorstenHeinekamp; JohannesPollmächer; AxelABrakhage

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal i...

  3. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  4. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  5. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  6. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  7. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection. PMID:26972663

  8. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  9. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  10. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  11. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  12. Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine A. Van Bael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms participate in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, yet studies of symbioses typically have focused on the reciprocal costs and benefits within a particular host-symbiont pair. Recent studies indicate that many ecological interactions involve alliances of symbionts acting together as mutualistic consortia against other consortia. Such interacting consortia are likely to be widespread in nature, even if the interactions often occur in a cryptic fashion. Little theory and empirical data exist concerning how these complex interactions shape ecological outcomes in nature. Here, we review recent work on fungal-fungal interactions between two consortia: (i leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former and (ii tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves of the former. Plant characteristics (e.g., secondary compounds or leaf physical properties of leaves are involved in leaf-cutting ant preferences, and a synthesis of published information suggests that these plant traits could be modified by fungal presence. We discuss potential mechanisms for how fungal-fungal interactions proceed in the leaf-cutting ant agriculture and suggest themes for future research.

  13. Teaching "Candide": A Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Theodore E. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches to teaching Voltaire's "Candide", one deriving meaning from the textual fabric or "inside" of the story and the other focusing on the author's "external" intent in writing the story, are presented and compared. (MSE)

  14. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  15. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  16. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  17. Map kinases in fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J R

    2000-12-01

    MAP kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Recently, MAP kinases homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. This MAP kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and female fertility. MAP kinases homologous to yeast Slt2 and Hog1 have also been characterized in Candida albicans and Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants disrupted of the Slt2 homologues have weak cell walls, altered hyphal growth, and reduced virulence. The Hog1 homologues are dispensable for growth but are essential for regulating responses to hyperosmotic stress in C. albicans and M. grisea. Overall, recent studies have indicated that MAP kinase pathways may play important roles in regulating growth, differentiation, survival, and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. PMID:11273677

  18. Fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A; Prasanna Kumar, S; Somu, L; Sudhir, B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of fungal laryngitis is often overlooked in immunocompetent patients because it is commonly considered a disease of the immunocompromised. Further confusion is caused by clinical and histological similarity to more common conditions like Leukoplakia. Demonstration of hyperkeratosis particularly if associated with intraepithelial neutrophils on biopsy should trigger a search for fungus using specialized stains. These patients usually present with hoarseness of voice. Pain is present inconsistently along with dysphagia and odynophagia. We present three cases of fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients out of which one underwent microlaryngeal surgery with excision biopsy. All these patients responded well with oral antifungal therapy.

  19. Protective immune responses to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.

  20. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal i...

  1. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, M.; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functio

  2. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  3. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  4. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  5. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarije Buitenhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers’ options to control this pest; (2 This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa were determined; (3 Mineral oil (0.1% v/v and insecticidal soap (0.5% + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4 Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

  6. FIELD EFFICACY OF NEEM ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss BASED BIOPESTICIDES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF INSECT - PESTS OF COTTON IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nboyine JA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important fiber crop grown in northern Ghana. Its cultivation is beset with numerous insect pest problems. Current pest management practices in cotton fields are based on the use of chlorpyrifos and lamda cyhalothrin based synthetic insecticides which is unaffordable to most peasant cotton farmers. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the field efficacy of neem based biopesticides like neem seed kernel extract (NSK E and neem seed oil (NSO as an alternative for the management of insect pests of cotton in northern Ghana. The treatments were 2% NSO, 5% NSO, 5% NSKE, 10% NSKE, chlorpyrifos alternated with lamda cyhalothrin and untreated control. The results showed that 10% NSKE significantly ( P <0.05 reduced the abundance of bollworms, aphids and white flies to 0.75, 3.71 and 3.29 respectively while for the untreated control they were as high as 3.07, 14.14 and 6.75 respectively. The neem was non - toxic to the natural e nemies. Seed cotton yield were between 52.20% and 90.82% higher in the neem treated plots than the untreated control while yield loss was 64.79% lower on the 10% NSKE treated plots than the untreated control plots

  7. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Brownbridge, Michael; Brommit, Angela; Saito, Taro; Murphy, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    (1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers' options to control this pest; (2) This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae) and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips) to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa) were determined; (3) Mineral oil (0.1% v/v) and insecticidal soap (0.5%) + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L) were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4) Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies. PMID:27681741

  8. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Brownbridge, Michael; Brommit, Angela; Saito, Taro; Murphy, Graeme

    2016-09-26

    (1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers' options to control this pest; (2) This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae) and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips) to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa) were determined; (3) Mineral oil (0.1% v/v) and insecticidal soap (0.5%) + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L) were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4) Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

  9. Leaf blight of catharanthus roseus (l). g. don caused by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid and its in vitro control through bio-pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catharanthus roseus (L.).G. Don, a highly valued medicinal plant suffers from a serious disease. A survey on the symptom and severity of the leaf blight of C. roseus was performed in the nurseries of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences (IFESCU), Bangladesh Council of Industrial Research (BCSIR) and Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Bangladesh. An observation was also made in the avenues and garden of King Saud University (KSU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No disease was recorded in KSU, but severe infections were found in all the locations surveyed in Bangladesh. The highest infection percentage and the highest disease index were found in BCSIR nursery followed by BFRI and the lowest was recorded in IFESCU nursery. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid was isolated and it was proved to be pathogenic. This is the first report of leaf blight of C. roseus caused by M. phaseolina. Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum Vitex negundo, Mucuna pruriens, Calotropis procera, Terminalia arjuna, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinalis and Allium cepa were used as biopesticides. Out of the nine plant species screened, T. arjuna showed the highest (58.37%) inhibition percentage which was followed by A. indica (55.72%) and the lowest (27.4%) inhibition percentage were obtained with V. negundo whereas the rest of the plant extracts showed more or less same inhibitory effect. (author)

  10. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-01

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence.

  11. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

  12. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  13. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  14. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  15. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    OpenAIRE

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary e...

  16. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    OpenAIRE

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/...

  17. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  18. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  19. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  20. Larvicidal efficacies of plants from Midwestern Brazil: melianodiol from Guarea kunthiana as a potential biopesticide against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Ulana Chaves; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Almeida, Luís Henrique de Oliveira; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Silva, Lilliam May Grespan Estodutto da; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-06-20

    A total of 36 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 27 plant species (18 families), native to the Pantanal and Cerrado biomes in Midwest Brazil, was assessed for their effect against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue, hemorrhagic dengue, Zika and chikungunya fevers. Only the extract obtained from seeds of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved active (LC50 = 169.93 μg/mL). A bioassay-guided investigation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of melianodiol, a protolimonoid, as the active constituent (LC50 = 14.44 mg/mL). Meliantriol, which was also obtained from the bioactive fraction, was nevertheless devoid of any larval toxicity, even at the highest concentration tested (LC50 > 100.0 mg/mL). These results indicate that the larvicidal activity of melianodiol stems from the presence of the carbonyl moiety at C-3 in the 21,23-epoxy-21,24,25-trihydroxy-tirucall-7-ene-type skeleton. The structures of both protolimonoids were established on the basis of spectral methods (1H and 13C NMR and MS). This is the first report on the toxicity of melianodiol against Ae. aegypti larvae. Based on the results, melianodiol can be regarded as a potential candidate for use as an ecologically sound biocontrol agent for reducing the larval population of this vector. PMID:27333366

  1. Larvicidal efficacies of plants from Midwestern Brazil: melianodiol from Guarea kunthiana as a potential biopesticide against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Ulana Chaves; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Almeida, Luís Henrique de Oliveira; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; da Silva, Lilliam May Grespan Estodutto; de Souza, Albert Schiaveto; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    A total of 36 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 27 plant species (18 families), native to the Pantanal and Cerrado biomes in Midwest Brazil, was assessed for their effect against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue, hemorrhagic dengue, Zika and chikungunya fevers. Only the extract obtained from seeds of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved active (LC50 = 169.93 μg/mL). A bioassay-guided investigation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of melianodiol, a protolimonoid, as the active constituent (LC50 = 14.44 mg/mL). Meliantriol, which was also obtained from the bioactive fraction, was nevertheless devoid of any larval toxicity, even at the highest concentration tested (LC50 > 100.0 mg/mL). These results indicate that the larvicidal activity of melianodiol stems from the presence of the carbonyl moiety at C-3 in the 21,23-epoxy-21,24,25-trihydroxy-tirucall-7-ene-type skeleton. The structures of both protolimonoids were established on the basis of spectral methods (1H and 13C NMR and MS). This is the first report on the toxicity of melianodiol against Ae. aegypti larvae. Based on the results, melianodiol can be regarded as a potential candidate for use as an ecologically sound biocontrol agent for reducing the larval population of this vector. PMID:27333366

  2. Allergen Immunotherapy in an HIV+ Patient with Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Ian A.; Satyen Gada

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV/AIDS can present with multiple types of fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal balls, granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, acute or chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Given the variable spectrum of immune status and susceptibility to severe infection from opportunistic pathogens it is extremely important that clinicians distinguish aggressive fungal invasive fungal disease from the much milder forms such as AFRS. Here we descr...

  3. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  4. Natural product of wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong: biopesticide to control the vector of banana blood disease bacterium in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N; Dharma, A; Efdi, M; Yuhendra; Eliesti, F

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the most important food crops in Indonesia. Its production is greater than any other agricultural commodity. With the population of 230 million in 2010, banana was consumed up to three million tons in this country. However, Banana Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB), one of the most devastating banana pathogens in the world, which is only found in Indonesia, threatens not only the growth of this plant but also the lives and the livelihoods for most of the Indonesian society. BDB is caused by a lethal bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype-4, which infects a wide range of bananas, from bananas used for consumption to wild bananas. In West Sumatera, the disease killed 1.40% of bananas in 1998, and then increased dramatically to 37.9% in 2003. The total banana production dropped to 62% in this province. The search for controlling the vector has led to the pre-investigation of Wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong C.K. Lim which has a stink bug odour similar to a methidathion insecticide. The plant was collected around the conservation area of Lembah Anal in West Sumatra. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of natural insecticides compound contained in E. slahmong against D. melanogaster. This study tested the effect of E. slahmong on the mortality, anti-feedant and repellent levels against Drosophila melanogaster, the vector of BDB. The essential oil of E. slahmong was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaves. We found that the extract of E. slahmong significantly affected the mortality of D. melanogaster of 30-40% and also acted as an antifeedant (with success rate of 73-93%) and repellent (with success rate of 99-99.6%). The long- term objective of this study is to develop green biopesticide to control BDB in Indonesia, based on an environmentally friendly pest management.

  5. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  6. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  7. 5.5.Fungal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930234 Penicilliosis marneffei report of a caseand review of literatures.KANG Xiaoming (康晓明),et al.Nanjing Army General Hosp,210002.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(6):336—338.Penicilliosis marneffei is a rare deep fungal in-fection.Southeast Asia is the endemic area.Inthe literatures before 1990,29 cases were re-ported and most of them were diagnosed patho-logically from autopsy.Since 1989 there havebeen more reports of P.marneffei in the HIV in-fected individuals or graft recipient,so far as

  8. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    The immune mechanisms of defence against fungal infections are numerous, and range from protective mechanisms that were present early in evolution (innate immunity) to sophisticated adaptive mechanisms that are induced specifically during infection and disease (adaptive immunity). The first-line innate mechanism is the presence of physical barriers in the form of skin and mucous membranes, which is complemented by cell membranes, cellular receptors and humoral factors. There has been a debate about the relative contribution of humoral and cellular immunity to host defence against fungal infections. For a long time it was considered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was important, but humoral immunity had little or no role. However, it is accepted now that CMI is the main mechanism of defence, but that certain types of antibody response are protective. In general, Th1-type CMI is required for clearance of a fungal infection, while Th2 immunity usually results in susceptibility to infection. Aspergillosis, which is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus, has been the subject of many studies, including details of the immune response. Attempts to relate aspergillosis to some form of immunosuppression in animals, as is the case with humans, have not been successful to date. The defence against Aspergillus is based on recognition of the pathogen, a rapidly deployed and highly effective innate effector phase, and a delayed but robust adaptive effector phase. Candida albicans, part of the normal microbial flora associated with mucous surfaces, can be present as congenital candidiasis or as acquired defects of cell-mediated immunity. Resistance to this yeast is associated with Th1 CMI, whereas Th2 immunity is associated with susceptibility to systemic infection. Dermatophytes produce skin alterations in humans and other animals, and the essential role of the CMI response is to destroy the fungi and produce an immunoprotective status against re-infection. The resolution

  9. antiSMASH : rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Blin, Kai; Cimermancic, Peter; de Jager, Victor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Fischbach, Michael A.; Weber, Tilmann; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide var

  10. antiSMASH: rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Blin, K.; Cimermancic, P.; Jager, de V.C.L.; Zakrzewski, P.; Fischbach, M.A.; Weber, T.; Takano, E.; Breitling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide var

  11. antiSMASH: rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Blin, K.; Cimermancic, P.; Jager, V.C.L. de; Zakrzewski, P.; Fischbach, M.A.; Weber, T.; Takano, E.; Breitling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide var

  12. A Novel CalB-Type Lipase Discovered by Fungal Genomes Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero, Maria E.; de Eugenio, Laura I.; Martínez, Maria J.; Jorge Barriuso

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Pseudozyma antarctica produces a lipase (CalB) with broad substrate specificity, stability, high regio- and enantio-selectivity. It is active in non-aqueous organic solvents and at elevated temperatures. Hence, CalB is a robust biocatalyst for chemical conversions on an industrial scale. Here we report the in silico mining of public metagenomes and fungal genomes to discover novel lipases with high homology to CalB. The candidates were selected taking into account homology and cons...

  13. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  14. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  15. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  16. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hise, Amy G; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-11-10

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modern medical interventions, disease-induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate immune system is well equipped to recognize and destroy pathogenic fungi through specialized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes.

  17. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  18. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪微; 温海; 廖万清

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation.Data sources An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990-2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles.Study selection Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: ① disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; ② opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient ’s conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. Conclusions It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  19. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  20. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  1. Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorscens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were found contaminating a biopesticide used in a previous study against Varroa destructor infestations in honey bee hives. In the aforementioned study the biopesticide, a formulation of the arthropod pathogen Beauveria bassiana, failed to have any impact on t...

  2. Evaluation of secretion prediction highlights differing approaches needed for oomycete and fungal effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eSperschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesised intracellularly and must be externalised to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localisation predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes.

  3. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  4. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  5. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  6. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  7. Analysis of fungal ball rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps under endoscopic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junyi; Li, Yunchuan; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Xiangdong; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the clinical microbiology of fungal ball (FB) rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps collected under endoscopic surgery. Methods: From April to November of 2012, fungal clumps were sampled by endoscopic surgery from patients diagnosed with FB using clinical and histopathological methods. The specimens were subjected to smear microscopy, and cultured for bacteria and fungi analysis. Results: Out of the 81 specimens from 80 patients, 69 (69/8...

  8. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  9. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...

  10. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette;

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary meta...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  11. FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS1

    OpenAIRE

    Wajszczuk, Charles P.; Dummer, J. Stephen; Ho, Monto; Van Thiel, David H.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Shaw, Byers

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two adults who underwent orthotopic liver transplantations between February 1981 and June 1983 were followed for a mean of 170 days after the operation. Twenty-six patients developed 30 episodes of significant fungal infection. Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata were responsible for 22 episodes and Aspergillus species for 6. Most fungal infections occurred in the first month after transplantation. In the first 8 weeks after transplantation, death occurred in 69% (18/26) of patients...

  12. Treatment of fungal infections: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Giannattasio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections represent a serious problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs worldwide. Preterm infants are a vulnerable population for major events and adverse sequelae from fungal sepsis. The primary fungus of concern in neonates is C. albicans, whose colonization is associated with devastating complication and high rate of mortality. Among the risk factors responsible for development of invasive fungal infections, previous mucosal and skin colonization are of primary importance. Fungal colonization in neonates may be secondary to either maternal transmission or nosocomial acquisition in the nursery. Antifungal prophylaxis is currently applied in different NICUs and in various patients groups with successful results. Prophylactic drugs can include oral nystatin and oral or intravenous fluconazole. To date, antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole is the recommended approach for neonates lower than 1,000 g and/or 27 weeks’ gestation or less, manly in NICUs with relatively high frequency of invasive candidiasis. First-line treatment of invasive fungal infections includes amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid preparations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, or micafungin. However, data on pharmacokinetic, schedule treatment and appropriate dosage of antifungal agents in neonates, mainly in premature, are still limited. Future strategies to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality derived from invasive fungal infections include new echinocandins not yet approved for neonatal use (caspofungin or anidulafungin and other adjuvant treatments as intravenous immunoglobulin, lactoferrin or probiotics. Since current therapies for systemic fungal diseases are not universally successful and morbidity remains high, future efforts will be also focused on better prevention of fungal diseases and understanding of appropriate dosing schedule of the available antifungal agents. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy

  13. Spontaneous course of an untreated fungal spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 29 known cases in the world, we report another case of fungal spondylitis being not yet treated. Within four months with increasing clinical complaints and without neurological defects the disease led to a complete involvement of two vertebras and their partial resorption. An early radiologic hint in fungal spondylitis is possible, a sure diagnosis, however, depends on puncture. Pathogenetic aspects and the importance of a new method to identify candida infection in blood-sample are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Striking a Balance: Fungal Commensalism versus Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Iliyan D.; Underhill, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The environment is suffused with nearly countless types of fungi, and our immune systems must be tuned to cope with constant exposure to them. In addition, it is becoming increasingly clear that many surfaces of our bodies are colonized with complex populations of fungi (the mycobiome) in the same way that they are colonized with complex populations of bacteria. The immune system must tolerate colonization with commensal fungi but defend against fungal invasion. Truly life-threatening fungal ...

  15. Experimental study on cryotherapy for fungal corneal ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yingxin; Yang, Weijia; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. Treatment of fungal corneal ulcer mainly depends on anti-fungal agents. In the current study, we developed an integrated combination therapy of cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents to facilitate effective treatment of fungal corneal ulcer. Methods Rabbit models of cornea infection were established using a combined method of intrastromal injection and keratoplasty. After treatment with cryotherapy and anti...

  16. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  17. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  18. Fungal Keratitis - Improving Diagnostics by Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Nielsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69, 6 out of 17 (35% cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86% IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  19. Can Some Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites Become Actual Anticancer Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nelson G M; Lefranc, Florence; Kijjoa, Anake; Kiss, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Marine fungi are known to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, and more than 1000 marine fungal-derived metabolites have already been reported. Despite the absence of marine fungal-derived metabolites in the current clinical pipeline, dozens of them have been classified as potential chemotherapy candidates because of their anticancer activity. Over the last decade, several comprehensive reviews have covered the potential anticancer activity of marine fungal-derived metabolites. However, these reviews consider the term "cytotoxicity" to be synonymous with "anticancer agent", which is not actually true. Indeed, a cytotoxic compound is by definition a poisonous compound. To become a potential anticancer agent, a cytotoxic compound must at least display (i) selectivity between normal and cancer cells (ii) activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells; and (iii) a preferentially non-apoptotic cell death mechanism, as it is now well known that a high proportion of cancer cells that resist chemotherapy are in fact apoptosis-resistant cancer cells against which pro-apoptotic drugs have more than limited efficacy. The present review thus focuses on the cytotoxic marine fungal-derived metabolites whose ability to kill cancer cells has been reported in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the compounds that kill cancer cells through non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms. PMID:26090846

  20. Can Some Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites Become Actual Anticancer Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. M. Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine fungi are known to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, and more than 1000 marine fungal-derived metabolites have already been reported. Despite the absence of marine fungal-derived metabolites in the current clinical pipeline, dozens of them have been classified as potential chemotherapy candidates because of their anticancer activity. Over the last decade, several comprehensive reviews have covered the potential anticancer activity of marine fungal-derived metabolites. However, these reviews consider the term “cytotoxicity” to be synonymous with “anticancer agent”, which is not actually true. Indeed, a cytotoxic compound is by definition a poisonous compound. To become a potential anticancer agent, a cytotoxic compound must at least display (i selectivity between normal and cancer cells (ii activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR cancer cells; and (iii a preferentially non-apoptotic cell death mechanism, as it is now well known that a high proportion of cancer cells that resist chemotherapy are in fact apoptosis-resistant cancer cells against which pro-apoptotic drugs have more than limited efficacy. The present review thus focuses on the cytotoxic marine fungal-derived metabolites whose ability to kill cancer cells has been reported in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the compounds that kill cancer cells through non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms.

  1. Structure-based designing of sordarin derivative as potential fungicide with pan-fungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Sejpal, Nikunjkumar Vinodray; Payghan, Pavan V; Ghoshal, Nanda; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-05-01

    Fungal infections have become a significant problem for immunosuppressed patients. Sordarin, a promising fungicidal agent, inhibits fungal protein synthesis by impairing elongation factor-2 (eEF2) function. Intriguingly, despite high sequence similarity among eEF2s from different species, sordarin has been shown to inhibit translation specifically in certain fungi while unable to do so in some other fungal species (e.g. Candida parapsilosis and Candida lusitaniae). The sordarin binding site on eEF2 as well as its mechanism of action is known. In a previous study, we have detailed the interactions between sordarin and eEF2 cavities from different fungal species at the molecular level and predicted the probable cause of sordarin sensitivity. Guided by our previous analysis, we aimed for computer-aided designing of sordarin derivatives as potential fungicidal agents that still remain ineffective against human eEF2. We have performed structural knowledge-based designing of several sordarin derivatives and evaluated predicted interactions of those derivatives with the sordarin-binding cavities of different eEF2s, against which sordarin shows no inhibitory action. Our analyses identify an amino-pyrrole derivative as a good template for further designing of promising broad-spectrum antifungal agents. The drug likeness and ADMET prediction on this derivative also supports its suitability as a drug candidate.

  2. Hypopyon in patients with fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-juan; SONG Xiu-sheng; ZHAO Jing; SUN Shi-ying; XIE Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypopyon is common in eyes with fungal keratitis.The evaluation of the clinical features,culture results and the risk factors for hypopyon and of the possible correlation between hypopyon and the treatment outcome could be helpful for making treatment decisions.Methods The medical records of 1066 inpatients (1069 eyes) with fungal keratitis seen at the Shandong Eye Institute from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features,risk factors,clinical characteristics,laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.The incidence of hypopyon,the fungal culture positivity for hypopyon,risk factors for hypopyon and the effect of hypopyon on the treatment and prognosis were determined.Results We identified 1069 eyes with fungal keratitis.Of the 850 fungal culture-positive eyes,the Fusarium species was the most frequent (73.6%),followed by Altemaria (10.0%) and Aspergillus (9.0%).Upon admission,562 (52.6%)eyes with hypopyon were identified.The hypopyon of 66 eyes was evaluated via fungal culturing,and 31 eyes (47.0%)were positive.A total of 194 eyes had ocular hypertension,and 172 (88.7%) of these eyes had hypopyon (P <0.001).Risk factors for incident hypopyon included long duration of symptoms (P <0.001),large lesion size (P <0.001) and infection caused by the Fusarium and Aspergillus species (P <0.001).The positivity of fungal culture for hypopyon was associated with duration of symptoms and lesion size.Surgical intervention was more common in cases with hypopyon (P <0.001).Hypopyon was a risk factor for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation (P=0.002).Conclusions Hypopyon is common in patients with severe fungal keratitis and can cause ocular hypertension.About half of the hypopyon cases were positive based on fungal culture.Long duration of symptoms,large lesion size and infection with the Fusarium and Aspergillus species were risk factors for hypopyon.The presence of hypopyon

  3. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  4. Proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Dmitry; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. They employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. Infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. These investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. Fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as their germination is one of the first steps towards a host infection. They represent interesting objects for proteomic studies because of the presence of unique proteins with unexplored biotechnological potential required for pathogen viability, development and the subsequent host infection. Proteomic peculiarities of survival structures of different fungi, including those of biotechnological significance (e.g., Asperillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Metarhizium anisopliae), in a dormant state, as well as changes in the protein production during early stages of fungal development are the subjects of the present review. We focused on biological aspects of proteomic studies of fungal survival structures rather than on an evaluation of proteomic approaches. For that reason, proteins that have been identified in this context are discussed from the point of view of their involvement in different biological processes and possible functions assigned to them. This is the first review paper summarizing recent advances in proteomics of fungal survival structures. PMID:26777984

  5. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26646287

  6. Fungal Involvement in Patients with Paranasal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kordbacheh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal involvement of the paranasal sinuses is frequently observed in the immunocompromised host and it can become lifethreatening if it is not diagnosed. Definitive diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy and culture. In this study biopsy materials of maxillary, ethmoidal and frontal sinuses of 60 patients with clinical manifestation of sinusitis and no response to medical therapy were assessed by mycological and pathological methods for the presence of fungi. Invasive fungal sinusitis was diagnosed in 3 patients and etiologic agents were Candida albicans, Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. Predisposing factors in these patients were leukemia, diabetes mellitus and previous sinus and polyp surgery, respectively. Allergic fungal sinusitis also was seen in one patient and Alternaria sp. isolated from the biopsy material. Only the patient with allergic form of disease survived but all the patients with invasive form of fungal infection were expired. This clearly underscores the need of early recognition of fungal sinusitis in at risk population in order to start urgent treatment. In this study Nocardia asteroids also was isolated from the biopsy sample in a patient with sinunasal adenocarcinoma.

  7. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  8. Heterologous Expression Screens in Nicotiana benthamiana Identify a Candidate Effector of the Wheat Yellow Rust Pathogen that Associates with Processing Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Saunders, Diane G O; Sklenar, Jan; Lorrain, Cécile; Krasileva, Ksenia V; Win, Joe; Duplessis, Sébastien; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-01-01

    Rust fungal pathogens of wheat (Triticum spp.) affect crop yields worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence of these pathogens remain elusive, due to the limited availability of suitable molecular genetic research tools. Notably, the inability to perform high-throughput analyses of candidate virulence proteins (also known as effectors) impairs progress. We previously established a pipeline for the fast-forward screens of rust fungal candidate effectors in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. This pipeline involves selecting candidate effectors in silico and performing cell biology and protein-protein interaction assays in planta to gain insight into the putative functions of candidate effectors. In this study, we used this pipeline to identify and characterize sixteen candidate effectors from the wheat yellow rust fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f sp tritici. Nine candidate effectors targeted a specific plant subcellular compartment or protein complex, providing valuable information on their putative functions in plant cells. One candidate effector, PST02549, accumulated in processing bodies (P-bodies), protein complexes involved in mRNA decapping, degradation, and storage. PST02549 also associates with the P-body-resident ENHANCER OF mRNA DECAPPING PROTEIN 4 (EDC4) from N. benthamiana and wheat. We propose that P-bodies are a novel plant cell compartment targeted by pathogen effectors.

  9. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  10. Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations. The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. (author)

  11. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  12. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  14. Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. (author)

  15. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  16. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paolo Zuccarini

    2009-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review provides an overview of the implications of such a phenomenon for basic and applied research. After an introduction about the environmental implications of tropospheric ozone and plant responses to biotic stresses, the biochemistry of ozone stress is analysed, pointing out its similarities with plant responses to pathogens and its possible applications.

  17. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  18. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  19. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  20. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  1. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  2. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Osherov

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus n...

  3. Cracking the Toll-like receptor code in fungal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina; Carvalho, Agostinho

    2010-01-01

    Innate control of fungal infection requires the specific recognition of invariant fungal molecular structures by a variety of innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors. In addition to the role in inducing protective immune responses, Toll-like receptor engagement may paradoxically favor fungal infections, by inducing inflammatory pathology and impairing antifungal immunity. Although the dissection of complex genetic traits modulating susceptibility to fungal infections is complex...

  4. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  5. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...

  6. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    ÇABUK, Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  7. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field d

  8. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture. R...

  9. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  10. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  11. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose;

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  12. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  13. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O; Ebbole, D J; Freeman, S; Rodriguez, R J; Dickman, M B

    2003-10-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  14. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the prima

  15. FUNGAL ASSOCIATION WITH SESSILE MARINE INVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eYarden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture- as well as metagenomic- and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include core residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal-fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals.

  16. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen;

    2012-01-01

    compounds to be identified within these species. Until now we have found that 11 out of 289 fungal extracts are active against CLL cells. Using our established chemotaxonomic discovery approach we have dereplicated and fractionated these extracts to track the activity into single fractions/compounds.2...

  17. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573 month

  18. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi

  19. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  20. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  1. Fungal hydrophobins in medical and technical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtmeijer, K; Wessels, JGH; Woster, HAB

    2001-01-01

    Class I and class II hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins that self-assemble at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces into amphipathic films. Apart from eight conserved cysteine residues, the amino acid sequences between and within both classes have diverged considerably, and this is reflect

  2. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  3. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  4. CT scan findings of fungal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fungal infection of the lung in immunocompromised patients has increased substantially during the last decades. Numerically the most patients are those with neutropenia, e.g. patients with malignancies or solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use and HIV infection. Although fungal infections can occur in immunocompetent patients, their frequency in this population is rare. The clinical symptoms such as fever accompanied with non-productive cough are unspecific. In some patients progression to hypoxemia and dyspnea may occur rapidly. In spite of improved antifungal therapy morbidity and mortality of these infections are still high. Therefore an early and non-invasive diagnosis is very important. That is why CT and even better High-Resolution-CT (HR-CT) is a very important modality in examining immunocompromised patients with a probability of fungal infection. CT is everywhere available and, as a non-invasive method, able to give the relevant diagnose efficiently. This paper should give an overview about the radiologic findings and possible differential diagnosis of diverse pulmonary fungal infections in CT. Pneumonias caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Candida, Histoplasma, Mucor and Geotrichum capitatum are illustrated. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology. (orig.)

  6. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  7. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.;

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  8. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    composition of fungi, but the effects were generally limited to the litter layer and the uppermost humus layer (0-5 cm), which was unexpected considering the ecosystem had been manipulated for 18 years. Taken together the global change experiments altered the soil fungal communities and thereby highlight...

  9. Diagnostic of Fungal Infections Related to Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella

    2016-01-01

    Fungal biofilm-related infections, most notably those caused by the Candida and Aspergillus genera, need to be diagnosed accurately and rapidly to avoid often unfavorable outcomes. Despite diagnosis of these infections is still based on the traditional histopathology and culture, the use of newer, rapid methods has enormously enhanced the diagnostic capability of a modern clinical mycology laboratory. Thus, while accurate species-level identification of fungal isolates can be achieved with turnaround times considerably shortened, nucleic acid-based or antigen-based detection methods can be considered useful adjuncts for the diagnosis of invasive forms of candidiasis and aspergillosis. Furthermore, simple, reproducible, and fast methods have been developed to quantify biofilm production by fungal isolates in vitro. In this end, isolates can be categorized as low, moderate, or high biofilm-forming, and this categorization may reflect their differential response to the conventional antifungal therapy. By means of drug susceptibility testing performed on fungal biofilm-growing isolates, it is now possible to evaluate not only the activity of conventional antifungal agents, but also of novel anti-biofilm agents. Despite this, future diagnostic methods need to target specific biofilm components/molecules, in order to provide a direct proof of the presence of this growth phenotype on the site of infection. In the meantime, our knowledge of the processes underlying the adaptive drug resistance within the biofilm has put into evidence biofilm-specific molecules that could be potentially helpful as therapeutic targets. Surely, the successful management of clinically relevant fungal biofilms will rely upon the advancement and/or refinement of these approaches. PMID:27300347

  10. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  11. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  12. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  13. Fungal pericarditis and endocarditis secondary to porcupine quill migration in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana; Lahmers, Sunshine; Barry, Sabrina L; Stanton, James; Stern, Joshua A

    2014-12-01

    A dog evaluated for acute onset of neurologic clinical signs was discovered to have a porcupine quill traversing the left atrium with fungal endocarditis. The dog had been quilled by a porcupine one month prior to presentation and had had several quills removed from the thoracic inlet and left dorsal shoulder areas. A new murmur was identified during the initial examination. Echocardiographic changes consistent with mitral valve endocarditis were identified, in addition to a linear, hyperechoic structure in the left atrium. A thoracic CT identified a possible mediastinal migrating foreign body tract. The foreign body was surgically removed and confirmed as a porcupine quill. Routine aerobic cultures of blood and pericardial samples resulted in growth of presumptive candidal organisms. PCR amplification and sequencing of samples from pericardial cultures identified the presence of a fungal organism, Lodderomyces elongisporus. The neurologic signs were attributed to a left-sided central vestibular lesion presumed secondary to an embolic event from infective endocarditis. After 3 months of antimicrobial and antifungal therapy the valvular changes had markedly improved and the clinical signs resolved. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of fungal endocarditis secondary to an intracardiac foreign body in a dog.

  14. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  15. Candidal Infection of the Gingiva Mimicking Desquamative Gingivitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamanchili, Pallavi Samatha; Potluri, Sushma; Surapaneni, Hemchand; Basha, Md Hafeez; Davanapelly, Pavithra

    2016-03-01

    There has been an increase in the occurrence of fungal infections in humans in the recent years due to the discrete use of broad spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive therapies. The genus candida is the most frequently found fungi in humans. Candida albicans is a mucosal microbiota although it can cause infections which can be mucosal or life threatening infections in susceptible individuals. Candidiasis is the most common oral opportunistic fungal infection in humans. Candidiasis usually affects oral mucosa (buccal mucosa) and hard palate. Candidiasis affecting gingiva is not so common, but when it occurs, it is often misdiagnosed as desquamative gingivitis because of its clinical appearance. This paper discusses a case of Candidal infection of gingiva that mimics desquamative gingivitis. PMID:27135011

  16. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present.

  17. 5种生物源杀虫剂防治辣椒烟青虫的试验研究%Experimental Study on Five Kinds of Bio-pesticides on Pepper Tobacco Budworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟兆明

    2011-01-01

    选择5种生物源杀虫剂对辣椒烟青虫进行药效试验,结果表明,0.3%印楝素乳油,1.8%阿维菌素乳油,2.5%多杀菌素悬浮剂,1.5%除虫菊素水剂防治烟青虫具有很好的效果,药后持效期较长,药后7~10d防治效果达到最大值,且对作物安全无药害.推荐用药量300~600 mL/hm2,叶面均匀喷雾,用药间隔期15d.%Five kinds of bio-pesticides were selected to conduct efficacy test on tobacco budworm. The results showed that, 0.3% Azadirachtin,1.8% Abamectin,2.5% Spinosad.and 1.5% pyrethrum had good control effects and long efficacy period on tobacco budworm. The control effects could reach the maximum in 7~10 days after using the pesticide. They were safe to the crop. The ideal dosage was 300~600mL/hm2, and they were foliage sprayed equably every 15 days.

  18. Chytrids dominate arctic marine fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, B T; Gradinger, R

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is altering Arctic ecosystem structure by changing weather patterns and reducing sea ice coverage. These changes are increasing light penetration into the Arctic Ocean that are forecasted to increase primary production; however, increased light can also induce photoinhibition and cause physiological stress in algae and phytoplankton that can favour disease development. Fungi are voracious parasites in many ecosystems that can modulate the flow of carbon through food webs, yet are poorly characterized in the marine environment. We provide the first data from any marine ecosystem in which fungi in the Chytridiomycota dominate fungal communities and are linked in their occurrence to light intensities and algal stress. Increased light penetration stresses ice algae and elevates disease incidence under reduced snow cover. Our results show that chytrids dominate Arctic marine fungal communities and have the potential to rapidly change primary production patterns with increased light penetration. PMID:26754171

  19. Overview of fungal lipase: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerolacyl hydrolases, EC3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. In this review paper, an overview regarding the fungal lipase production, purification, and application is discussed. The review describes various industrial applications of lipase in pulp and paper, food, detergent, and textile industries. Some important lipase-producing fungal genera include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Candida, etc. Current fermentation process techniques such as batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode of lipase production in submerged and solid-state fermentations are discussed in details. The purification of lipase by hydrophobic interaction chromatography is also discussed. The development of mathematical models applied to lipase production is discussed with special emphasis on lipase engineering. PMID:22072143

  20. Fungal environment in different rabbit intensive farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors (for example, temperature, relative humidity, ventilation, NH3 concentration can influence the health and welfare of rabbits reared in intensive farms. Among these elements, microorganisms and, in particular, fungi play a pivotal role in the spreading of potential pathogenic and zoonotic diseases. Aim of our work was to evaluate the fungal contamination in two different rabbit rearing (A and B. SAS System® (PBI International, Italy and opened plates, filled with cultural media for fungal growth (environmental and dermatophytes have been used. The data collected in both the farms showed that, for environmental fungi, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Penicillium were the most spread. On the contrary, for dermatophytes, there was a difference between farm A and B. In fact, in the first one Microsporum canis (a known zoonotic agent has been recovered in high concentration, while in the second rearing we have isolated Microsporum gypseum a geophilic fungus with a very low pathogenic potential.

  1. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by γ-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  2. Fungal invasion of the rhizosphere microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Emilie; Mendes, Rodrigo; Bakker, Peter A H M; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the infection court where soil-borne pathogens establish a parasitic relationship with the plant. To infect root tissue, pathogens have to compete with members of the rhizosphere microbiome for available nutrients and microsites. In disease-suppressive soils, pathogens are strongly restricted in growth by the activities of specific rhizosphere microorganisms. Here, we sequenced metagenomic DNA and RNA of the rhizosphere microbiome of sugar beet seedlings grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. rRNA-based analyses showed that Oxalobacteraceae, Burkholderiaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere upon fungal invasion. Metatranscriptomics revealed that stress-related genes (ppGpp metabolism and oxidative stress) were upregulated in these bacterial families. We postulate that the invading pathogenic fungus induces, directly or via the plant, stress responses in the rhizobacterial community that lead to shifts in microbiome composition and to activation of antagonistic traits that restrict pathogen infection. PMID:26023875

  3. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  4. Synthesis and assembly of fungal melanin

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenman, Helene C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Melanin is a unique pigment with myriad functions that is found in all biological kingdoms. It is multifunctional, providing defense against environmental stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) light, oxidizing agents and ionizing radiation. Melanin contributes to the ability of fungi to survive in harsh environments. In addition, it plays a role in fungal pathogenesis. Melanin is an amorphous polymer that is produced by one of two synthetic pathways. Fungi may synthesize melanin from endogenous s...

  5. Circadian Control Sheds Light on Fungal Bioluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Anderson G.; Cassius V. Stevani; Waldenmaier, Hans E.; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Jay C Dunlap

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi – only 71 species, all within the ~9000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales Order - are reported from among ~100,000 described fungal species [6,7]. All require oxygen [8] a...

  6. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Monteiro Souza; Mona Lisa de Assis Bittencourt; Carolina Canielles Caprara; Marcela de Freitas; Renata Paula Coppini de Almeida; Dâmaris Silveira; Yris Maria Fonseca; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho; Adalberto Pessoa Junior; Pérola Oliveira Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy...

  7. Drug resistance mechanisms of fungal biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, CJ; Samaranayake, LP

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in nature and exist in soil, water, plants, and in animals and humans. Similar to bacteria, fungi also form confluent biofilms either singly (mono-species) or with other microbial species (mixed-species). Fungal biofilms are known to be highly resistant to the adverse environmental conditions including antimicrobials and biocide compared to its planktonic (free-floating) counterparts. Although bacterial biofilms have been studied in detail, relatively little is known of f...

  8. Fungal ABC transporter deletion and localization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Weber, Stefan S; Nijland, Jeroen G; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological function. Among different approaches available, the localization analysis based on the expression of GFP fusions is commonly used as a relatively fast and cost-efficient method that allows visualization of proteins of interest in both live and fixed cells. In addition, inactivation of transporter genes is an important tool to resolve their specific function. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the deletion and localization analysis of ABC transporters in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. It includes construction of expression plasmids, their transformation into fungal strains, cultivation of transformants, microscopy analysis, as well as additional protocols on staining of fungal cells with organelle-specific dyes like Hoechst 33342, MitoTracker DeepRed, and FM4-64. PMID:22183644

  9. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  10. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  11. Distribution of introns in fungal histone genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Soo Yun

    Full Text Available Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lack intron in their histone genes, except for an intron in one of histone H4 genes of Yarrowia lipolytica. On the other hand, Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina have introns in their histone genes. We compared the distributions of 81, 47, 79, and 98 introns in the fungal histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Based on the multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of histones, we identified 19, 13, 31, and 22 intron insertion sites in the histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Surprisingly only one hot spot of introns in the histone H2A gene is shared between Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina, suggesting that most of introns of Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina were acquired independently. Our findings suggest that the common ancestor of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota maybe had a few introns in the histone genes. In the course of fungal evolution, Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lost the histone introns; Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina acquired other introns independently. In addition, most of the introns have sequence similarity among introns of phylogenetically close species, strongly suggesting that horizontal intron transfer events between phylogenetically distant species have not occurred recently in the fungal histone genes.

  12. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  13. Comparative genomics allowed the identification of drug targets against human fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Natalia F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs has increased steadily worldwide in the last few decades. Particularly, there has been a global rise in the number of infections among immunosuppressed people. These patients present severe clinical forms of the infections, which are commonly fatal, and they are more susceptible to opportunistic fungal infections than non-immunocompromised people. IFIs have historically been associated with high morbidity and mortality, partly because of the limitations of available antifungal therapies, including side effects, toxicities, drug interactions and antifungal resistance. Thus, the search for alternative therapies and/or the development of more specific drugs is a challenge that needs to be met. Genomics has created new ways of examining genes, which open new strategies for drug development and control of human diseases. Results In silico analyses and manual mining selected initially 57 potential drug targets, based on 55 genes experimentally confirmed as essential for Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus and other 2 genes (kre2 and erg6 relevant for fungal survival within the host. Orthologs for those 57 potential targets were also identified in eight human fungal pathogens (C. albicans, A. fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Paracoccidioides lutzii, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Of those, 10 genes were present in all pathogenic fungi analyzed and absent in the human genome. We focused on four candidates: trr1 that encodes for thioredoxin reductase, rim8 that encodes for a protein involved in the proteolytic activation of a transcriptional factor in response to alkaline pH, kre2 that encodes for α-1,2-mannosyltransferase and erg6 that encodes for Δ(24-sterol C-methyltransferase. Conclusions Our data show that the comparative genomics analysis of eight fungal pathogens enabled the identification of

  14. Fungal His-tagged nitrilase from Gibberella intermedia: gene cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Song Gong

    degradation efficiency and wide substrate spectrum. This fungal nitrilase might be a potential candidate for industrial applications in carboxylic acids production.

  15. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not expenditures. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section...

  16. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not contributions. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section...

  17. A resource for the in silico identification of fungal polyketide synthases from predicted fungal proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Javier A; Al-Azzam, Omar; Denton, Anne M; Markell, Samuel G; Goswami, Rubella S

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a tool specifically designed to identify iterative polyketide synthases (iPKSs) from predicted fungal proteomes. A fungi-based PKS prediction model, specifically for fungal iPKSs, was developed using profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) based on two essential iPKS domains, the β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain and acyltransferase (AT) domain, derived from fungal iPKSs. This fungi-based PKS prediction model was initially tested on the well-annotated proteome of Fusarium graminearum, identifying 15 iPKSs that matched previous predictions and gene disruption studies. These fungi-based pHMMs were subsequently applied to the predicted fungal proteomes of Alternaria brassicicola, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. The iPKSs predicted were compared against those predicted by the currently available mixed-kingdom PKS models that include both bacterial and fungal sequences. These mixed-kingdom models have been proven previously by others to be better in predicting true iPKSs from non-iPKSs compared with other available models (e.g. Pfam and TIGRFAM). The fungi-based model was found to perform significantly better on fungal proteomes than the mixed-kingdom PKS model in accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision. In addition, the model was capable of predicting the reducing nature of fungal iPKSs by comparison of the bit scores obtained from two separate reducing and nonreducing pHMMs for each domain, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of the KS domain. Biological confirmation of the predictions was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the KS and AT domains of predicted iPKSs from V. dahliae using domain-specific primers and genomic DNA, followed by sequencing of the PCR products. It is expected that the fungi-based PKS model will prove to be a useful tool for the identification and annotation of fungal PKSs from predicted proteomes. PMID:22112245

  18. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection of the hip: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Schoof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature concerning fungal PJI in total hip arthroplasty, including 45 cases of fungal PJI. At the moment a two-stage revision procedure is favorable and there is an ongoing discussion on the therapeutic effect of antifungal drug loaded cement spacers on fungal periprosthetic infections of the hip. Due to the fact that there is rare experience with it, there is urgent need to establish guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections of total hip arthroplasty.

  19. Pathogenesis and CT findings of primary pulmonary fungal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary pulmonary fungal infection occurs in immunocompetent hosts without underlying lesions. In the clinic, the most common pathogenic fungal are cryptococcus (cryptococcus neoformans) and aspergillus. Due to the increased incidence of the disease, the misdiagnosis rate and mortality, it has great clinical importance to study the clinical and CT features. By reviewing the recent domestic and overseas literatures, the definition, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations. clinical diagnosis, and CT findings of primary pulmonary fungal infection are summarized. (authors)

  20. Nitrosative and oxidative stress responses in fungal pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alistair JP; Haynes, Ken; Quinn, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Fungal pathogenicity has arisen in polyphyletic manner during evolution, yielding fungal pathogens with diverse infection strategies and with differing degrees of evolutionary adaptation to their human host. Not surprisingly, these fungal pathogens display differing degrees of resistance to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species used by human cells to counteract infection. Furthermore, whilst evolutionarily conserved regulators, such as Hog1, are central to such stress responses in many fun...

  1. Initial fungal effector production is mediated by early endosome motility

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Yujiro

    2015-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogenicity is facilitated by effector proteins that are specifically expressed during infection and are responsible for suppressing plant defense mechanisms. Recent studies have elucidated the detailed molecular mechanisms of effector action throughout fungal infection. However, little is known about the trafficking and secretion of effectors in fungal hyphae during the initial stage of infection. Using state-of-the-art microscopy we have demonstrated that early endosome (EE) ...

  2. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN DEFENSE, PATHOGENESIS AND THERAPY OF FUNGAL DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2012-01-01

    Only two decades ago antibodies to fungi were thought to have little or no role in protection against fungal diseases. However, subsequent research has provided convincing evidence that certain antibodies can modify the course of fungal infection to the benefit or detriment of the host. Hybridoma technology was the breakthrough that enabled the characterization of antibodies to fungi, illuminating some of the requirements for antibody efficacy. As discussed in this review, fungal specific ant...

  3. Specific antibiotics and nematode trophic groups agree in assessing fungal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Dam, Marie; Madsen, Mette Vestergård;

    2012-01-01

    -induced respiration (SIR) inhibition approach. Here we compare fungal contribution to the microbial active biomass assessed by the SIR inhibition method with the contribution of fungal-feeding nematodes to the microbial-feeding nematode community. Four cultivation systems on the same soil that differ in carbon inputs...... with a factor two ranked exactly the same with the two methods. A conventionally farmed rotation with low organic input had the lowest fungal fraction, while three organically farmed soils ranked higher....

  4. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  5. Candidate worldviews for design theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2008-01-01

    Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... at the same time. Examples are given of how the first steps of the method may be carried out and a number of candidate worldviews are outlined and briefly discussed. In its own way, each worldview answers certain fundamental questions about the nature of design. These include the ontological question of what...

  6. MycoCosm portal: gearing up for 1000 fungal genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Nikitin, Roman; Haridas, Sajeet; Kuo, Alan; Ohm, Robin; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Zhao, Xueling; Korzeniewski, Frank; Smirnova, Tatyana; Nordberg, Henrik; Dubchak, Inna; Shabalov, Igor

    2013-10-09

    MycoCosm is a fungal genomics portal (http://jgi.doe.gov/fungi), developed by the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute to support integration, analysis and dissemination of fungal genome sequences and other omics data by providing interactive web-based tools. MycoCosm also promotes and facilitates user community participation through the nomination of new species of fungi for sequencing, and the annotation and analysis of resulting data. By efficiently filling gaps in the Fungal Tree of Life, MycoCosm will help address important problems associated with energy and the environment, taking advantage of growing fungal genomics resources.

  7. Natural occurrence of fungi and fungal metabolites in moldy tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Fresh tomatoes, homegrown and from supermarkets, with developing fungal lesions were collected. Each lesion was sampled, and the resulting fungal cultures were identified morphologically, and extracted for analyzes of secondary metabolites. The tomatoes were incubated at 25 degreesC for a week....... extracted, and analyzed for fungal metabolites. Extracts from pure cultures were compared with extracts from the moldy tomatoes and fungal metabolite standards in two HPLC systems with DAD and FLD detection. The results showed that Penicillium tularense, Stemphylium eturmiunum. and S. cf. lycopersici were....... This study is the first to report on the detection of tentoxin, paxillines, janthitrems. verrucolone, infectopyrone, macrosporin, and stemphols in naturally contaminated tomatoes....

  8. Immunology of fungal infections: lessons learned from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Chad; Wormley, Floyd L

    2012-08-01

    The continuing AIDS epidemic coupled with increased usage of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ rejection or treat autoimmune diseases has resulted in an increase in individuals at risk for acquiring fungal diseases. These concerns highlight the need to elucidate mechanisms of inducing protective immune responses against fungal pathogens. Consequently, several experimental models of human mycoses have been developed to study these diseases. The availability of transgenic animal models allows for in-depth analysis of specific components, receptors, and signaling pathways that elicit protection against fungal diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of immune responses to fungal infections gained using animal models.

  9. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brownstein, John S; Madoff, Lawrence C; McCraw, Sarah L; Gurr, Sarah J

    2012-04-12

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  10. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kai WANG; Kevin D. HYDE; Kasem SOYTONG; Fu-cheng LIN

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  11. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  12. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  13. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  14. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zaragoza

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  15. Intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent for recurrent maxillary fungal rhinosinusitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dunmade Adekunle D; Afolabi Olushola A; Alabi Biodun S; Segun-Busari Segun; Koledoye Olubisi A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognized entity both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Treatment has been via use of either surgical or medical modalities, or a combination of the two. Here, we present a case of utilization of intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent in the management of recurrent fungal sinusitis in an indigent Nigerian patient. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old West African...

  16. Study of antibody-coated fungi in patients with funguria and suspected disseminated fungal infections or primary fungal pyelonephritis1

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, William J.

    1980-01-01

    The direct immunofluorescence method for the detection of antibody-coated bacteria in urine sediments has been used by investigators to distinguish invasive bacterial disease of the renal parenchyma from noninvasive bladder bacteriuria. The purpose of the present investigation was to test the usefulness of the demonstration of urinary fungal immunoglobulins and complement in distinguishing patients with fungal cystitis from those with suspected disseminated fungal disease. Twenty-one patients...

  17. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  18. Fungal spore fragmentation as a function of airflow rates and fungal generation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaani, Hussein; Hargreaves, Megan; Ristovski, Zoran; Morawska, Lidia

    The aim of this study was to characterise and quantify the fungal fragment propagules derived and released from several fungal species ( Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides) using different generation methods and different air velocities over the colonies. Real time fungal spore fragmentation was investigated using an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVASP) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The study showed that there were significant differences ( p controlled conditions can be predicted on the basis of the number of spores, for Penicillium and A. niger, but not for C. cladosporioides. The fluorescence percentage of fragment samples was found to be significantly different to that of non-fragment samples ( p < 0.0001) and the fragment sample fluorescence was always less than that of the non-fragment samples. Size distribution and concentration of fungal fragment particles were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, by both UVAPS and SMPS, and it was found that the UVAPS was more sensitive than the SMPS for measuring small sample concentrations, whilethe results obtained from the UVAPS and SMAS were not identical for the same samples.

  19. Fungal melanins differ in planar stacking distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    Full Text Available Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments.

  20. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. PMID:26449505

  1. Disulfide bonds and glycosylation in fungal peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, P; Kjalke, M; Vind, J; Tams, J W; Johansson, T; Welinder, K G

    1995-01-15

    Four conserved disulfide bonds and N-linked and O-linked glycans of extracellular fungal peroxidases have been identified from studies of a lignin and a manganese peroxidase from Trametes versicolor, and from Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and recombinant C. cinereus peroxidase (rCIP) expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. The eight cysteine residues are linked 1-3, 2-7, 4-5 and 6-8, and are located differently from the four conserved disulfide bridges present in the homologous plant peroxidases. CIP and rCIP were identical in their glycosylation pattern, although the extent of glycan chain heterogeneity depended on the fermentation batch. CIP and rCIP have one N-linked glycan composed only of GlcNAc and Man at residue Asn142, and two O-linked glycans near the C-terminus. The major glycoform consists of single Man residues at Thr331 and at Ser338. T. versicolor lignin isoperoxidase TvLP10 contains a single N-linked glycan composed of (GlcNAc)2Man5 bound to Asn103, whereas (GlcNAc)2Man3 was found in T. versicolor manganese isoperoxidase TvMP2 at the same position. In addition, mass spectrometry of the C-terminal peptide of TvMP2 indicated the presence of five Man residues in O-linked glycans. No phosphate was found in these fungal peroxidases. PMID:7851395

  2. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J; Workman, Alan D; Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6-12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  3. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  4. Disulfide bonds and glycosylation in fungal peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, P; Kjalke, M; Vind, J; Tams, J W; Johansson, T; Welinder, K G

    1995-01-15

    Four conserved disulfide bonds and N-linked and O-linked glycans of extracellular fungal peroxidases have been identified from studies of a lignin and a manganese peroxidase from Trametes versicolor, and from Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and recombinant C. cinereus peroxidase (rCIP) expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. The eight cysteine residues are linked 1-3, 2-7, 4-5 and 6-8, and are located differently from the four conserved disulfide bridges present in the homologous plant peroxidases. CIP and rCIP were identical in their glycosylation pattern, although the extent of glycan chain heterogeneity depended on the fermentation batch. CIP and rCIP have one N-linked glycan composed only of GlcNAc and Man at residue Asn142, and two O-linked glycans near the C-terminus. The major glycoform consists of single Man residues at Thr331 and at Ser338. T. versicolor lignin isoperoxidase TvLP10 contains a single N-linked glycan composed of (GlcNAc)2Man5 bound to Asn103, whereas (GlcNAc)2Man3 was found in T. versicolor manganese isoperoxidase TvMP2 at the same position. In addition, mass spectrometry of the C-terminal peptide of TvMP2 indicated the presence of five Man residues in O-linked glycans. No phosphate was found in these fungal peroxidases.

  5. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  6. Management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis (POFE after failed pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and antifungal therapy. Settings and Design: Tertiary Care Referral Centre in North India. Retrospective, single institution, interventional case-series. Materials and Methods: Six patients with microbiologically proven recurrent post-operative fungal endophthalmitis refractory to conventional management were included. The final recurrence was managed with intraocular lens (IOL explantation and re-PPV. Main outcome measures included preserved globe anatomy, visual acuity and retinal status. ′Anatomical success′ was defined as preserved anatomy of the globe, and absence of signs of inflammation. ′Functional success′ was defined as an attached retina and a best corrected visual acuity of better than 20/400. Results: Of the six cases of POFE, five were culture positive [Aspergillus flavus (1, Aspergillus fumigatus (2, Candida albicans (1 and Candida glabrata (1] and one was smear positive for yeast. All recurred (mean recurrences, 4 despite a mean of 2.17 PPVs and intravitreal amphotericin B. No recurrences were observed after IOL explantation with re - PPV (median follow-up, 37 months. Pre-study defined criteria for successful ′anatomical′ and ′functional′ outcomes were achieved in 83.3% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: This report highlights the effective role of combined IOL explantation with PPV in managing recurrent POFE.

  7. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  8. Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal pneumonia: a silent epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the southwestern US. A costly problem • In ...

  9. Fungal community assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucheta, A.R.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in

  10. Structure and biosynthesis of fungal alpha-glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Christian Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The fungal cell wall is unique among eukaryotes and therefore it forms an ideal target for the development of novel antifungal drugs. Fungal cell morphology and integrity depend on a cell-surrounding wall, which is composed of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Disrupting enzymes that are involved i

  11. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  12. Imaging of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a common cause of serious morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. Combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting is the best approach to pulmonary infectious processes. The aim of this article is to assess the chest radiographs and CT imaging features of different opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

  13. Invasive fungal infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriet, S.S.V.; Verweij, P.E.; Holland, S.M.; Warris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major threat for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of published invasive fungal infections in the CGD host through an extensive review of epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data. In ad

  14. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  15. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, R.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Pietro, Di A.; Spanu, P.D.; Rudd, J.J.; Dickman, M.; Kahmann, R.; Ellis, J.; Foster, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international co

  16. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  17. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  18. Newly identified YSO candidates towards LDN 1188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton , G.; Verebélyi, E.; Kiss, Cs.; Smidla, J.

    2013-11-01

    We present an analysis of young stellar object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat, and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  19. Immunoglobulins in defense, pathogenesis, and therapy of fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2012-05-17

    Only two decades ago antibodies to fungi were thought to have little or no role in protection against fungal diseases. However, subsequent research has provided convincing evidence that certain antibodies can modify the course of fungal infection to the benefit or detriment of the host. Hybridoma technology was the breakthrough that enabled the characterization of antibodies to fungi, illuminating some of the requirements for antibody efficacy. As discussed in this review, fungal-specific antibodies mediate protection through direct actions on fungal cells and through classical mechanisms such as phagocytosis and complement activation. Although mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection are often species-specific, numerous fungal antigens can be targeted to generate vaccines and therapeutic immunoglobulins. Furthermore, the study of antibody function against medically important fungi has provided fresh immunological insights into the complexity of humoral immunity that are likely to apply to other pathogens.

  20. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  1. Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic boundary sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Abundant occurrences of the palynomorph Reduviasporonites have been described as "fungal spike" from several Permian/Triassic boundary sections and related to the supposed destruction of woody vegetation by fungal pathogens during the Permian/Triassic extinction event. The biological affinity of this taxa considered by some authors of fungal origin is still controversially discussed since there is geochemical evidence that it is most probably related to algae. The abundance peak of this species is used by some authors as a stratigraphic marker, notably in terrestrial Permian/Triassic boundary sections from South China. Illustrations of the reported fungal remains however show potentially erroneous taxonomic identification of Reduviasporonites, and, based on differences in thermal maturation, they may represent recent contamination. Here Reduviasporonites chalastus of Early Triassic age is illustrated together with recent fungal remains originating from a strongly weathered and otherwise barren sample from a Middle Triassic section.

  2. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars over extended time intervals. During the past years, it has also included a search for periodic, very shallow "dips" in the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs [2] or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 177 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of several hundred thousand stars in three southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, another within the Carina constellation and the third within the Centaurus/Musca constellations. The nature of the transiting object can however only be established by subsequent radial-velocity observations of the parent star. The size of the velocity variations (the amplitude) is directly related to the mass of the companion object and therefore allows discrimination between stars and planets as the cause of the observed brightness "dip". A Bonanza of Low-Mass Stars An international team of astronomers [3] has made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope for this work. Profiting from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of up to 8 objects simultaneously, they have looked at 60 OGLE transit candidate stars, measuring their radial velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s [4]. This ambitious programme has so far resulted in the discovery of five new transiting exoplanets (see, e.g., ESO PR 11/04 for the announcement of two of those). Most of the other transit candidates identified by OGLE have turned out to be eclipsing binaries, that is, in most cases common, small and low-mass stars passing in front of a solar-like star. This additional wealth of data on small and light stars is a real bonanza for the astronomers. Constraining the Relation Between Mass and Radius Low-mass stars are exceptionally interesting objects, also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with

  3. Model simulations of fungal spore distribution over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Tabish U.; Valsan, Aswathy E.; Ojha, N.; Ravikrishna, R.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Fungal spores play important role in the health of humans, animals, and plants by constituting a class of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs). Additionally, these could mediate the hydrological cycle by acting as nuclei for ice and cloud formation (IN and CCN respectively). Various processes in the biosphere and the variations in the meteorological conditions control the releasing mechanism of spores through active wet and dry discharge. In the present paper, we simulate the concentration of fungal spores over the Indian region during three distinct meteorological seasons by combining a numerical model (WRF-Chem) with the fungal spore emissions based on land-use type. Maiden high-resolution regional simulations revealed large spatial gradient and strong seasonal dependence in the concentration of fungal spores over the Indian region. The fungal spore concentrations are found to be the highest during winter (0-70 μg m-3 in December), moderately higher during summer (0-35 μg m-3 in May) and lowest during the monsoon (0-25 μg m-3 in July). The elevated concentrations during winter are attributed to the shallower boundary layer trapping the emitted fungal spores in smaller volume. In contrast, the deeper boundary layer mixing in May and stronger monsoonal-convection in July distribute the fungal spores throughout the lower troposphere (∼5 km). We suggest that the higher fungal spore concentrations during winter could have potential health impacts. While, stronger vertical mixing could enable fungal spores to influence the cloud formation during summer and monsoon. Our study provides the first information about the distribution and seasonal variation of fungal spores over the densely populated and observationally sparse Indian region.

  4. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  5. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Jonathan A; Collignon, R Maxwell; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Kanekar, Sanat S; Hussain, Altaf; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs) help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success. PMID:27583519

  6. Fungal stress biology: a preface to the Fungal Stress Responses special edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Alder-Rangel, Alene; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Finlay, Roger D; Kupiec, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Braga, Gilberto U L; Corrochano, Luis M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-08-01

    There is currently an urgent need to increase global food security, reverse the trends of increasing cancer rates, protect environmental health, and mitigate climate change. Toward these ends, it is imperative to improve soil health and crop productivity, reduce food spoilage, reduce pesticide usage by increasing the use of biological control, optimize bioremediation of polluted sites, and generate energy from sustainable sources such as biofuels. This review focuses on fungi that can help provide solutions to such problems. We discuss key aspects of fungal stress biology in the context of the papers published in this Special Issue of Current Genetics. This area of biology has relevance to pure and applied research on fungal (and indeed other) systems, including biological control of insect pests, roles of saprotrophic fungi in agriculture and forestry, mycotoxin contamination of the food-supply chain, optimization of microbial fermentations including those used for bioethanol production, plant pathology, the limits of life on Earth, and astrobiology. PMID:26116075

  7. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    the ant gut without being digested, and are excreted by the ants in their fecal fluid which they mix with freshly foraged plant material placed on the top of the fungus garden. The enzymes are still active and have therefore an important role in the biodegradation of the plant material. With this I show......-cutting ant genera forage for rather different plant material, with Atta species specializing on tree-leaves and Acromyrmex focusing more on flower material and herbal plant material. This difference is reflected in the overall enzyme activity patterns in the fungus gardens, with Atta specializing more...... on specific enzyme groups and Acromyrmex having an overall high enzyme activity. Finally, I show that the fungal symbiont of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior produces large amounts of biodegrading enzymes in special structures called gongylidia. The ants eat these structures, but enzymes pass...

  8. The Extracellular Matrix of Fungal Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kaitlin F; Zarnowski, Robert; Andes, David R

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of biofilms is their production of an extracellular matrix. This material covers the biofilm cells, providing a protective barrier to the surrounding environment. During an infection setting, this can include such offenses as host cells and products of the immune system as well as drugs used for treatment. Studies over the past two decades have revealed the matrix from different biofilm species to be as diverse as the microbes themselves. This chapter will review the composition and roles of matrix from fungal biofilms, with primary focus on Candida species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Additional coverage will be provided on the antifungal resistance proffered by the Candida albicans matrix, which has been studied in the most depth. A brief section on the matrix produced by bacterial biofilms will be provided for comparison. Current tools for studying the matrix will also be discussed, as well as suggestions for areas of future study in this field. PMID:27271680

  9. Fungal morphogenetic changes inside the mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevijano-Contador, Nuria; Rueda, Cristina; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2016-09-01

    One of the main features of the majority of pathogenic fungi is the ability to switch between different types of morphological forms. These changes include the transition between cells of different shapes (such as the formation of pseudohyphae and hyphae), or the massive growth of the blastoconidia and formation of titan cells. Morphological changes occur during infection, and there is extensive evidence that they play a key role in processes required for disease, such as adhesion, invasion and dissemination, immune recognition evasion, and phagocytosis avoidance. In the present review, we will provide an overview of how morphological transitions contribute to the development of fungal disease, with special emphasis in two cases: Candida albicans as an example of yeast that switches between blastoconidia and filaments, and Cryptococcus neoformans as an example of a fungus that changes the size without modifying the shape of the cell. PMID:27101887

  10. Recent progress in vaccines against fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Antonio; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by fungi are increasingly impacting the health of the human population and now account for a large fraction of infectious disease complications in individuals with impaired immunity or breached tissue defenses. Antifungal therapy is often of limited effectiveness in these patients, resulting into treatment failures, chronic infections and unacceptable rates of mortality, morbidity and their associated costs. Consequently there is a real medical need for new treatments and preventive measures to combat fungal diseases and, toward this goal, safe and efficacious vaccines would constitute major progress. After decades of complacency and neglect of this critically important field of research, remarkable progress has been made in recent years. A number of highly immunogenic and protective vaccine formulations in preclinical setting have been developed, and at least two have undergone Phase 1 clinical trials as preventive and/or therapeutic tools against candidiasis.

  11. Fungicide resistance assays for fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana V

    2012-01-01

    Fungicide resistance assays are useful to determine if a fungal pathogen has developed resistance to a fungicide used to manage the disease it causes. Laboratory assays are used to determine loss of sensitivity, or resistance, to a fungicide and can explain fungicide failures and for developing successful fungicide recommendations in the field. Laboratory assays for fungicide resistance are conducted by measuring reductions in growth or spore germination of fungi in the presence of fungicide, or by molecular procedures. This chapter describes two techniques for measuring fungicide resistance, using the sugarbeet leaf spot fungus Cercospora beticola as a model for the protocol. Two procedures are described for fungicides from two different classes; growth reduction for triazole (sterol demethylation inhibitor; DMI) fungicides, and inhibition of spore germination for quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides.

  12. Liquid Culture Production of Fungal Microsclerotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark A; Payne, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Fungal microsclerotia ("small" sclerotia) are compact hyphal aggregates, typically 50-600 μm in diameter, that are formed under unfavorable nutritional and/or environmental conditions. These structures are often melanized and desiccated to some degree containing endogenous nutritional reserves for use when favorable conditions return. Many fungi, mostly plant pathogens, produce microsclerotia as a survival structure. Liquid culture methods have been developed for producing microsclerotia of the Ascomycota Metarhizium spp, Colletotrichum truncatum, Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, and Trichoderma spp. While these fungi have varying culture conditions that optimize microsclerotia production, all share common nutritional and environmental requirements for microsclerotia formation. Described are the general liquid culture techniques, media components, and harvesting and drying methods necessary to produce stable microsclerotial granules of these fungi. PMID:27565493

  13. [Fungal flora in houses (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallea, M; Renard, M; Charpin, J

    1982-01-01

    In certain cases, allergic respiratory phenomena appear to be connected with a particular dwelling place. This observations, if it is not explained by a specific allergen (eg. an animal), raises the possible contribution of domestic moulds. The author shows the results of a study on domestic moulds in 65 houses in the Bouches-du-Rhône by culture on Petri dishes. The species most often detected were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria. In some houses identical fungi were found to those in the atmosphere, in others greater numbers were found inside than outside. The study of fungal spores is of great interest; it gives an idea of their numerical importance which can be considerable; in addition besides those fungi which are present in the routine battery of tests, it may show other species that should perhaps be considered in the diagnostic aetiology.

  14. Comparison of Nitrogen Depletion and Repletion on Lipid Production in Yeast and Fungal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. We then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. While the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion on

  15. Comparison of Nitrogen Depletion and Repletion on Lipid Production in Yeast and Fungal Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui; Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-09-01

    Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. We then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. While the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion on lipid production

  16. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  17. Fungal degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, T

    1999-01-01

    A number of fungal cultures were screened to select an organism suitable to be used in the detoxification of aflatoxin B1. They were co-cultured in Czapek-Dox-Casamino acid medium with aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus. Several fungal cultures were found to prevent synthesis of aflatoxin B1 in liquid culture medium. Among these Phoma sp., Mucor sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma sp. 639, Rhizopus sp. 663, Rhizopus sp. 710, Rhizopus sp. 668, Alternaria sp. and some strains belonging to the Sporotrichum group (ADA IV B14(a), ADA SF VI BF (9), strain 720) could inhibit aflatoxin synthesis by > or =90%. A few fungi, namely ADA IV B1, ADA F1, ADA F8, also belonging to the Sporotrichum group, were less efficient than the Phoma sp. The Cladosporium sp. and A. terreus sp. were by far the least efficient, registering aflatoxin biosynthesis are also capable of degrading the preformed toxin. Among these, Phoma sp. was the most efficient destroying about 99% of aflatoxin B1. The cell free extract of Phoma sp. destroyed nearly 50 microg aflatoxin B1 100 ml(-1) culture medium (90% of the added toxin), and this was more effective than its own culture filtrate over 5 days incubation at 28+/-2 degrees C. The degradation was gradual: 35% at 24 h, 58% at 48 h, 65% at 72 h, 85% at 96 h and 90% at 120 h. The possibility of a heat stable enzymatic activity in the cell free extract of Phoma is proposed. PMID:10945479

  18. The Fungal Genetics Stock Center: a repository for 50 years of fungal genetics research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K McCluskey; A Wiest; M Plamann

    2010-03-01

    The Fungal Genetics Stock Center (FGSC) was established in 1960 to ensure that important strains used in early genetics research were available to subsequent generations of fungal geneticists. Originally, only mutant strains were held. At present, any organism that has had its genome sequenced is a genetic system and so the FGSC has added many new organisms. The FGSC is well integrated in its core community and, as research came to depend on cloned genes, vectors and gene libraries, the FGSC included these materials. When the community expanded to include plant and human pathogens, the FGSC adopted these systems as well. Wild isolates from around the world have also proven instrumental in answering important questions. The FGSC holds tremendous diversity of the Neurospora species, which form the core of the collection. The growth in the number of strains distributed illustrates the growth in research on fungi. Because of its position near the centre of the fungal genetics effort, the FGSC is also the first to see trends in research directions. One recent example is the 300% jump in requests for strains of Neurospora crassa carrying a mutation that makes them sensitive to high salt concentration. These strains were seldom requested over many years, but became among our most popular resources following the demonstration of their utility in studying fungicide resistance. This exemplifies why materials need to be preserved without regard to their immediate perceived value and reinforces the need for long-term support for preservation of a broad variety of genetic resources.

  19. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  20. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... also cover or carry candidate debates in accordance with 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C and part 100... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political...

  1. Enhancement of rutin production in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with its endophytic fungal elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianglin; Xiang, Dabing; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural bioactive flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examines the effects of endophytic fungi on rutin production in the hairy root cultures of F. tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the hairy roots, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors efficiently stimulated the hairy root growth and rutin biosynthesis, and the stimulation effect was mainly dependent on the mycelia elicitor species, as well as its treatment dose. Two endophytic fungal isolates Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened as promising candidates for promoting F. tataricum hairy root growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS) of endophyte Fat9 (200 mg/L), and PS of endophyte Fat15 (100 mg/L) to the hairy root cultures on day 25, the rutin yield was increased to 45.9 mg/L and 47.2 mg/L, respectively. That was about 3.1- to 3.2-fold in comparison with the control level of 14.6 mg/L. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of rutin resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia PS treatments. This may be an efficient strategy for enhancing rutin production in F. tataricum hairy root culture provided with its endophytic mycelia elicitors.

  2. Finding of a novel fungal immunomodulatory protein coding sequence in Ganoderma australe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea González Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most common human diseases with immune system compromise are autoimmune diseases, cancer, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Many of these diseases still have no treatment or their therapies have undesirable side effects. This has aroused a great interest in the search for new natural products with therapeutic potential and scientifically proven effects, showing minimal side effects. Formal clinical and pharmacological investigation in various medicinal fungi of the genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae has shown immunomodulatory effects and tumor growth inhibition in mammals, attributable to the presence of immunomodulatory proteins and other secondary metabolites. To date, six fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs have been reported in Ganoderma. This paper seeks to advance in the discovery of immunomodulatory proteins present in Ganoderma australe, through mycelium transcriptome 454 Roche® pyrosequencing (RNA-seq and bioinformatics analyses. The results suggest the presence of gene sequences related to an immunomodulatory protein which has been reported only once in other fungal species Taiwanofungus camphoratus. The candidate gene sequences found in G. australe exhibit high identity values in their amino acid composition and predicted protein secondary structure with the protein reported for Tai. camphoratus. According to present knowledge about the action mechanisms of these proteins, it is possible to suggest that this is a promising molecule for the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with certain immune deficiencies, cancer, and other diseases with compromised immune systems. Future studies are proposed in order to determine its immunomodulatory potential using in vitro and in vivo assays.

  3. Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

  4. Development of Proteomics-Based Fungicides: New Strategies for Environmentally Friendly Control of Fungal Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rabie El-Akhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics has become one of the most relevant high-throughput technologies. Several approaches have been used for studying, for example, tumor development, biomarker discovery, or microbiology. In this “post-genomic” era, the relevance of these studies has been highlighted as the phenotypes determined by the proteins and not by the genotypes encoding them that is responsible for the final phenotypes. One of the most interesting outcomes of these technologies is the design of new drugs, due to the discovery of new disease factors that may be candidates for new therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, no commercial fungicides have been developed from targeted molecular research, this review will shed some light on future prospects. We will summarize previous research efforts and discuss future innovations, focused on the fight against one of the main agents causing a devastating crops disease, fungal phytopathogens.

  5. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:24310522

  6. Fungal Enzymes for Bio-Products from Sustainable and Waste Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijai K; Kubicek, Christian P; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Wilson, David W; Couturier, Marie; Berlin, Alex; Filho, Edivaldo X F; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2016-07-01

    Lignocellulose, the most abundant renewable carbon source on earth, is the logical candidate to replace fossil carbon as the major biofuel raw material. Nevertheless, the technologies needed to convert lignocellulose into soluble products that can then be utilized by the chemical or fuel industries face several challenges. Enzymatic hydrolysis is of major importance, and we review the progress made in fungal enzyme technology over the past few years with major emphasis on (i) the enzymes needed for the conversion of polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose) into soluble products, (ii) the potential uses of lignin degradation products, and (iii) current progress and bottlenecks for the use of the soluble lignocellulose derivatives in emerging biorefineries. PMID:27211037

  7. Development of proteomics-based fungicides: new strategies for environmentally friendly control of fungal plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Francisco Javier Fernández; Carbú, María; El-Akhal, Mohamed Rabie; Garrido, Carlos; González-Rodríguez, Victoria E; Cantoral, Jesús M

    2011-01-21

    Proteomics has become one of the most relevant high-throughput technologies. Several approaches have been used for studying, for example, tumor development, biomarker discovery, or microbiology. In this "post-genomic" era, the relevance of these studies has been highlighted as the phenotypes determined by the proteins and not by the genotypes encoding them that is responsible for the final phenotypes. One of the most interesting outcomes of these technologies is the design of new drugs, due to the discovery of new disease factors that may be candidates for new therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, no commercial fungicides have been developed from targeted molecular research, this review will shed some light on future prospects. We will summarize previous research efforts and discuss future innovations, focused on the fight against one of the main agents causing a devastating crops disease, fungal phytopathogens.

  8. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  9. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  10. Impact of metal pollution on fungal diversity and community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Rineau, Francois; Smits, Mark; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2015-06-01

    The impact of metal pollution on plant communities has been studied extensively in the past, but little is known about the effects of metal pollution on fungal communities that occur in metal-polluted soils. Metal-tolerant ecotypes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus are frequently found in pioneer pine forests in the Campine region in Belgium on metal-polluted soils. We hypothesized that metal pollution would play an important role in shaping below-ground fungal communities that occur in these soils and that Suillus luteus would be a dominant player. To test these hypotheses, the fungal communities in a young pine plantation in soil polluted with zinc, and cadmium were studied using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Results show that zinc, cadmium and soil organic matter content were strongly correlated with the fungal community composition, but no effects on fungal diversity were observed. As hypothesized, S. luteus was found to be a dominant member of the studied fungal communities. However, other dominant fungal species, such as Sistotrema sp., Wilcoxina mikolae and Cadophora finlandica were found as well. Their presence in metal-polluted sites is discussed. PMID:24947496

  11. Untangling above- and belowground mycorrhizal fungal networks in tropical orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, J R; Cameron, D D

    2012-10-01

    Orchids typically depend on fungi for establishment from seeds, forming mycorrhizal associations with basidiomycete fungal partners in the polyphyletic group rhizoctonia from early stages of germination, sometimes with very high specificity. This has raised important questions about the roles of plant and fungal phylogenetics, and their habitat preferences, in controlling which fungi associate with which plants. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Martos et al. (2012) report the largest network analysis to date for orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi, sampling a total of over 450 plants from nearly half the 150 tropical orchid species on Reunion Island, encompassing its main terrestrial and epiphytic orchid genera. The authors found a total of 95 operational taxonomic units of mycorrhizal fungi and investigated the architecture and nestedness of their bipartite networks with 73 orchid species. The most striking finding was a major ecological barrier between above- and belowground mycorrhizal fungal networks, despite both epiphytic and terrestrial orchids often associating with closely related taxa across all three major lineages of rhizoctonia fungi. The fungal partnerships of the epiphytes and terrestrial species involved a diversity of fungal taxa in a modular network architecture, with only about one in ten mycorrhizal fungi partnering orchids in both groups. In contrast, plant and fungal phylogenetics had weak or no effects on the network. This highlights the power of recently developed ecological network analyses to give new insights into controls on plant-fungal symbioses and raises exciting new hypotheses about the differences in properties and functioning of mycorrhiza in epiphytic and terrestrial orchids.

  12. Biochemical degradation of soil humic acids and fungal melanins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavgorodnyaya, Y.A.; Demin, V.V.; Kurakov, A.V. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Soil Science

    2002-07-01

    Studies were conducted to compare properties and biodegradation of fungal melanins from Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporiodes with those of humic acids from soils and brown coal. Compared to the humic acids the fungal melanins contained more functional groups, were less hydrophilic and had relatively high molecular weights. Under the conditions of incubation the melanins were found to be more readily degradable than the humic acids studied. The changes in elemental composition, optical parameters and the decrease of molecular weight, observed for both fungal melanins during degradation, made them more similar to soil humic acids.

  13. CT findings of fungal infection of maxillary sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses has increased. However, the preoperative diagnosis is often difficult. We report four cases of fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses. Their CT scans. Showed: 1) A high density area in the homogeneous shadow. 2) A mass suspected of being a fungus ball surrounding the opening of the maxillary sinus to the nasal cavity. 3) Thickening of bone in the maxillary sinus except in the inner wall. These results indicate that CT scanning is useful in the diagnosis of fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses. (author)

  14. [Confocal microscopy for the diagnostics of fungal keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, L; Viestenz, A; Bischoff, M; Hasenfus, A; Seitz, B

    2016-09-01

    Fungal keratitis is a rare but very serious eye disease in industrial nations with a frequency of 1-5 % of all forms of keratitis from microbial causes. We present two patients with keratitis of primary unknown cause. Using confocal microscopy fungal filaments could be identified that partially showed a parallel configuration (like "railway tracks"). Thus, the correct diagnosis can often be made and suitable therapy can be non-invasively initiated even before the results of in vitro cultivation (fungal culture), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histological investigations are available.

  15. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Eldin Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  16. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  17. Novel fungal disease in complex leaf-cutting ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Evans, Harry C.; Hywel-Jones, Nigel;

    2009-01-01

    . Specific fungal diseases of the leaf-cutting ants themselves have not been described, possibly because broad spectrum anti-fungal defences against mycopathogens have reduced their susceptibility to entomopathogens. 3. Using morphological and molecular tools, the present study documents three rare infection......1. The leaf-cutting ants practise an advanced system of mycophagy where they grow a fungus as a food source. As a consequence of parasite threats to their crops, they have evolved a system of morphological, behavioural, and chemical defences, particularly against fungal pathogens (mycopathogens). 2...... among the five host ants, the ability of Ophiocordyceps to shift between such distant hosts is remarkable; the results are discussed in the context of ant ecological immunology and fungal invasion strategies....

  18. Re: Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Dries David J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A response to Struck MF. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009 Oct 9;17(1):51. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19818134.

  19. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome.

  20. Fungal Communities in Soils: Soil Organic Matter Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větrovský, Tomáš; Štursová, Martina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) provides the opportunity to label decomposer microorganisms that build their biomass on a specific substrate. In combination with high-throughput sequencing, SIP allows for the identification of fungal community members involved in a particular decomposition process. Further information can be gained through gene-targeted metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, opening the possibility to describe the pool of genes catalyzing specific decomposition reactions in situ and to identify the diversity of genes that are expressed. When combined with gene descriptions of fungal isolates from the same environment, specific biochemical reactions involved in decomposition can be linked to individual fungal taxa. Here we describe the use of these methods to explore the cellulolytic fungal community in forest litter and soil. PMID:26791498

  1. Role And Relevance Of Mast Cells In Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit eSaluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their detrimental role in allergic diseases, mast cells (MCs are well known to be important cells of the innate immune system. In the last decade, they have been shown to contribute significantly to optimal host defense against numerous pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The contribution of MCs to the immune responses in fungal infections, however, is largely unknown. In this review, we first discuss key features of mast cell responses to pathogens in general and then summarize the current knowledge on the function of MCs in the defense against fungal pathogens. We especially focus on the potential and proven mechanisms by which MC can detect fungal infections and on possible MC effector mechanisms in protecting from fungal infections.

  2. Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 7 , 8 Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) 9 , 10 Invasive Candida infection 7 Invasive aspergillosis 7 Other fungal infections, such as oral candidiasis (thrush) , are usually not life threatening. 11 What ...

  3. Priority effects during fungal community establishment in beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Jennifer; Savoury, Melanie; Müller, Carsten T; Lindahl, Björn D; Rogers, Hilary J; Boddy, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    Assembly history of fungal communities has a crucial role in the decomposition of woody resources, and hence nutrient cycling and ecosystem function. However, it has not been clearly determined whether the fungal species that arrive first may, potentially, dictate the subsequent pathway of community development, that is, whether there is a priority effect at the species level. We used traditional culture-based techniques coupled with sequencing of amplified genetic markers to profile the fungal communities in beech (Fagus sylvatica) disks that had been pre-colonised separately with nine species from various stages of fungal succession. Clear differences in community composition were evident following pre-colonisation by different species with three distinct successor communities identified, indicating that individual species may have pivotal effects in driving assembly history. Priority effects may be linked to biochemical alteration of the resource and combative ability of the predecessor. PMID:25798754

  4. Evolution of Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    , indirectly, on fungal enzymes to break down the plant material brought in by the ants as fungal substrate. The more than 210 extant fungus-growing ant species differ considerably in colony size, social complexity and substrate-use. Only the derived leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves...... as garden substrate, whereas the more basal genera use leaf litter, insect feces and insect carcasses. We hypothesized that enzyme activity of fungal symbionts has co-evolved with substrate use and we measured enzyme activities of fungus gardens in the field to test this, focusing particularly on plant...... decomposing enzymes. We further obtained gene sequences coding for specific enzymes and used them to reconstruct the fungal symbiont phylogeny and to compare the trees obtained with those known from sequence information of genes that have no specific link to enzyme function. Differences in fungus garden...

  5. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  6. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid production from the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577 and ATCC 12846 was observed to occur with the highest malic acid level acid being produced by A. niger ATCC 12846. Fungal biomass production from crude glycerol was similar, but ATCC 10577 produced the highest biomass. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into the commercially valuable organic acid malic acid appeared feasible.

  7. Neglected fungal zoonoses: Hidden threats to man and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, J; Tolooe, Ali; Verweij, Paul; de Hoog, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractZoonotic fungi can be naturally transmitted between animals and humans, and in some cases cause significant public health problems. A number of mycoses associated with zoonotic transmission are among the group of the most common fungal diseases, worldwide. It is, however, notable that some fungal diseases with zoonotic potential have lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient attention on their preventive strategies. This review aims ...

  8. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection of the hip: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Schoof; Oliver Jakobs; Stefan Schmidl; Till Orla Klatte; Lars Frommelt; Thorsten Gehrke; Matthias Gebauer

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we condu...

  9. Fungal Orbital Infection Mimicking Malignancy in a Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouh Taghipour Zahir; Naser Sefidrokh Sharahjin; Koorosh Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infection of the orbit is rare especially among immunocompetent patients. We present a 9-year–old girl with peri-orbital, eyelid and internal canthus swelling of the left eye. Clinical impression was suggestive of malignant tumor such as rhabdomyosarcoma or lymphoma. Histopathological examination of biopsied tissue revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation confirmed as fungal infection. Complete response to antifungal therapy was noted after four months.

  10. Novel Approaches for Fungal Transcriptomics from Host Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans adaptation to the host requires a profound reprogramming of the fungal transcriptome as compared to in vitro laboratory conditions. A detailed knowledge of the C. albicans transcriptome during the infection process is necessary in order to understand which of the fungal genes are important for host adaptation. Such genes could be thought of as potential targets for antifungal therapy. The acquisition of the C. albicans transcriptome is, however, technically challenging due to...

  11. Fungal prosthetic joint infection after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Kankanala J; Shah, Jay D; Rohit V Kale; T Jayakrishna Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Fungal prosthetic joint infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare complication. Lacunae exist in the management of this complication. 62 year old lady presented with pain and swelling in left knee and was diagnosed as Candida tropicalis fungal infection after TKA. She underwent debridement, resection arthroplasty and antifungal plus antibiotic loaded cement spacer insertion, antifungal therapy with fluconazole followed by delayed revision TKA and further fluconazole therapy. Tot...

  12. Untangling the fungal niche: the trait-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Maynard, Daniel S; Crowther, Terence R; Peccia, Jordan; Smith, Jeffrey R; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy toward functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology. PMID:25400630

  13. UNTANGLING THE FUNGAL NICHE: A TRAIT-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Crowther

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy towards functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.

  14. Enhanced Thermostability of a Fungal Alkaline Protease by Different Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh P. Nirmal; R. Seeta Laxman

    2014-01-01

    A fungal strain (Conidiobolus brefeldianus MTCC 5184) isolated from plant detritus secreted a high activity alkaline protease. Thermostability studies of the fungal alkaline protease (FAP) revealed that the protease is stable up to 50°C with 40% residual activity after one hour. Effect of various additives such as sugars, sugar alcohols, polyols, and salts, on the thermostability of FAP was evaluated. Among the additives tested, glycerol, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol, and trehalose were found ...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is therefore slow. Ill this paper we have retrieved studies providing evidence for the ECM habit of fungal species and For the identification of the mycobiont(s) ill specific ECM associations, using pub...

  16. Fungal neuroinfections: rare disease but unacceptably high mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njambi, S; Huttova, M; Kovac, M; Freybergh, P F; Bauer, F; Muli, J M

    2007-06-01

    Within last 25 years we have observed 20 cases of fungal meningitis and/or cerebral abscesses. Commonest etiologic agens was Candida spp. (C. albicans 9 of 20). Molds were responsible for 4 cases of brain abscess. Mortality was 50% what seems to be very high. Extremely high mortality is caused by delayed onset of therapy, severe underlying disease and multiresistant fungal organisms such as Mucorales, Fusarium solani and Aureobasidium.

  17. Emerging Threats in Antifungal-Resistant Fungal Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The use of antifungal drugs in the therapy of fungal diseases can lead to the development of antifungal resistance. Resistance has been described for virtually all antifungal agents in diverse pathogens, including Candida and Aspergillus species. The majority of resistance mechanisms have also been elucidated at the molecular level in these pathogens. Drug resistance genes and genome mutations have been identified. Therapeutic choices are limited for the control of fungal diseases, and it is ...

  18. Fungal Secretome for Biorefinery: Recent Advances in Proteomic Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Siu Kwan Sze; Adav, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal biotechnology has been well established in food and healthcare sector, and now being explored for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their great potential to produce a wide array of extracellular enzymes for nutrient recycling. Due to global warming, environmental pollution, green house gases emission and depleting fossil fuel, fungal enzymes for lignocellulosic biomass refinery become a major focus for utilizing renewal bioresources. Proteomic technologies tender better biological und...

  19. Contamination by uranium mine drainages affects fungal growth and interactions between fungal species and strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia; Pratas, João; Canhoto, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The presence of aquatic hyphomycetes has been reported for several heavy metal-contaminated waters. Tolerance probably is one adaptation to coping with heavy metals. To help clarify this issue strains of two species of aquatic hyphomycetes (Tricladium splendens Ingold and Varicosporium elodeae Kegel) were isolated from a reference stream and a stream contaminated with heavy metals and grown on malt extract agar prepared with reference and contaminated water to characterize colony morphology, growth rate, growth inhibition and interaction among species and strains. In V. elodeae the morphology of colonies differed between strains. Colony diameter increased linearly over time with growth rates being lower for strains isolated from contaminated than from reference streams (mostly for V. elodeae). Strains from the contaminated stream grew faster in medium prepared with contaminated water than in medium prepared with reference water, while for strains from the reference stream there was no significant difference in growth rates on the two media. In interacting isolates radial growth toward the opposing colony was generally lower than toward the dish edge. Percentage growth inhibition was higher for isolates in intraspecific interactions (13-37%) than in interspecific interactions (3-27%). However differences in growth inhibition experienced by interacting isolates were observed only in three cases out of 16. The difference between the percentage inhibition caused and experienced by a given isolate was highest in interactions involving isolates with distinct growth rates. Our results suggest that strains from the reference stream tolerate heavy metals while strains from the contaminated stream seem to be adapted to contaminated waters. We hypothesize that in natural environments fungal species-specific limits of tolerance to metal contamination might determine an abrupt or gradual response of the original fungal community to mine pollution giving origin to a poorer

  20. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, M.A. van; Brunner, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information i

  1. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  2. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24...... of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published...... on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  3. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-05-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates’ development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the achievement of their chemistry pedagogical aspirations. Two theoretical frameworks, both having their origins in the pioneering work of Kurt Lewin, are used to conceptualize how a complex amalgam of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay among these factors influence teacher candidate developmental trajectories. The tenets of both Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model and Learning Environment research provide insights into how the factors influencing teacher candidate development can be understood and systematically documented to provide a template for reflective consideration of the practicum experience for both teacher candidates and those involved in fostering the development of chemistry teacher candidates.

  4. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  5. Population Genomics of Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, Niklaus J; McDonald, Bruce A; Milgroom, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    We are entering a new era in plant pathology in which whole-genome sequences of many individuals of a pathogen species are becoming readily available. Population genomics aims to discover genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypes associated with adaptive traits such as pathogenicity, virulence, fungicide resistance, and host specialization, as genome sequences or large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms become readily available from multiple individuals of the same species. This emerging field encompasses detailed genetic analyses of natural populations, comparative genomic analyses of closely related species, identification of genes under selection, and linkage analyses involving association studies in natural populations or segregating populations resulting from crosses. The era of pathogen population genomics will provide new opportunities and challenges, requiring new computational and analytical tools. This review focuses on conceptual and methodological issues as well as the approaches to answering questions in population genomics. The major steps start with defining relevant biological and evolutionary questions, followed by sampling, genotyping, and phenotyping, and ending in analytical methods and interpretations. We provide examples of recent applications of population genomics to fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. PMID:27296138

  6. An unusual cause of fungal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dharmic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 year old female, known asthmatic on steroids intermittently, with no other co-morbidity presented with fever, breathlessness and cough with mucoid expectoration of ten days duration with bilateral crepts, went for Type II respiratory failure and was intubated followed by tracheostomy in view of prolonged ventilator support. In spite of high end antibiotics as per sputum culture sensitivity, weaning off the ventilator was not possible. Blood investigations revealed leucocytosis with neutrophilic predominance and I g E levels were within normal limits. CT chest showed multiple patchy consolidations of the right upper, middle and lower lobes with ground glass appearance and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Work up for retrovirus, tuberculosis and Sputum for KOH mount was negative. No evidence of sputum and blood eosinophilia. BAL sample grew Curvularia species. Fluconazole 150mg OD was added. Serial imaging of the chest showed resolution of the consolidation and was weaned off the ventilator and was comfortable on room air. Pneumonia caused by Curvularia, in an immune competent patient is very rare. Even in broncho pulmonary involvement these fungi usually occur in allergic conditions as in ABPA than appearing as a solitary cause for lung infection. But if diagnosed and treated early, will respond well to triazoles. This case report highlights a unilateral fungal pneumonia with dramatic clinical improvement post treatment once the rare causative organism was identified.

  7. ILC2s and fungal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Kita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s, a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4+ T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients.

  8. Fungal Laccases and Their Applications in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddolla Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, which catalyze the monoelectronic oxidation of a broad spectrum of substrates, for example, ortho- and para-diphenols, polyphenols, aminophenols, and aromatic or aliphatic amines, coupled with a full, four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Hence, they are capable of degrading lignin and are present abundantly in many white-rot fungi. Laccases decolorize and detoxify the industrial effluents and help in wastewater treatment. They act on both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, and they can be effectively used in paper and pulp industries, textile industries, xenobiotic degradation, and bioremediation and act as biosensors. Recently, laccase has been applied to nanobiotechnology, which is an increasing research field, and catalyzes electron transfer reactions without additional cofactors. Several techniques have been developed for the immobilization of biomolecule such as micropatterning, self-assembled monolayer, and layer-by-layer techniques, which immobilize laccase and preserve their enzymatic activity. In this review, we describe the fungal source of laccases and their application in environment protection.

  9. Fungal biology: compiling genomes and exploiting them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Uehling, Jessie K [ORNL; Payen, Thibaut [INRA; Plett, Jonathan [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2014-01-01

    The last 10 years have seen the cost of sequencing complete genomes decrease at an incredible speed. This has led to an increase in the number of genomes sequenced in all the fungal tree of life as well as a wide variety of plant genomes. The increase in sequencing has permitted us to study the evolution of organisms on a genomic scale. A number of talks during the conference discussed the importance of transposable elements (TEs) that are present in almost all species of fungi. These TEs represent an especially large percentage of genomic space in fungi that interact with plants. Thierry Rouxel (INRA, Nancy, France) showed the link between speciation in the Leptosphaeria complex and the expansion of TE families. For example in the Leptosphaeria complex, one species associated with oilseed rape has experienced a recent and massive burst of movement by a few TE families. The alterations caused by these TEs took place in discrete regions of the genome leading to shuffling of the genomic landscape and the appearance of genes specific to the species, such as effectors useful for the interactions with a particular plant (Rouxel et al., 2011). Other presentations showed the importance of TEs in affecting genome organization. For example, in Amanita different species appear to have been invaded by different TE families (Veneault-Fourrey & Martin, 2011).

  10. An unusual cause of fungal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmic, S; Nair, Shraddha; Harish, M

    2015-04-01

    A 65 year old female, known asthmatic on steroids intermittently, with no other co-morbidity presented with fever, breathlessness and cough with mucoid expectoration of ten days duration with bilateral crepts, went for Type II respiratory failure and was intubated followed by tracheostomy in view of prolonged ventilator support. In spite of high end antibiotics as per sputum culture sensitivity, weaning off the ventilator was not possible. Blood investigations revealed leucocytosis with neutrophilic predominance and IgE levels were within normal limits. CT chest showed multiple patchy consolidations of the right upper, middle and lower lobes with ground glass appearance and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Work up for retrovirus, tuberculosis and Sputum for KOH mount was negative. No evidence of sputum and blood eosinophilia. BAL sample grew Curvularia species. Fluconazole 150mg OD was added. Serial imaging of the chest showed resolution of the consolidation and was weaned off the ventilator and was comfortable on room air. Pneumonia caused by Curvularia, in an immune competent patient is very rare. Even in broncho pulmonary involvement these fungi usually occur in allergic conditions as in ABPA than appearing as a solitary cause for lung infection. But if diagnosed and treated early, will respond well to triazoles. This case report highlights a unilateral fungal pneumonia with dramatic clinical improvement post treatment once the rare causative organism was identified. PMID:26015753

  11. Serum Glucan Levels Are Not Specific for Presence of Fungal Infections in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Digby, Justin; Kalbfleisch, John; Glenn, Andy; Larsen, Angie; Browder, William; Williams, David

    2003-01-01

    Fungal infections in the critically ill patient are difficult to diagnose and are associated with a high mortality rate. A major obstacle to managing fungal infection is the lack of a reliable clinical assay that will rapidly identify patients with fungal sepsis. Glucans are polymers of glucose that are found in the cell wall of fungi and certain bacteria. Glucans are also released from the fungal cell wall into the extracellular milieu. Several studies have reported that detection of fungal ...

  12. Diversity and species composition of fungal endophytes in Avenella flexuosa under different sheep grazing regimes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to be extremely widespread and abundant in terrestrial plants. It is also known that fungal endophytes may affect the grazing intensity of the host plant. In this study the occurrence of fungal endophytes in the perennial grass Avenella flexuosa was investigated under different grazing regimes in a field site in Norway. The main aim was to reveal to what degree the grazing influenced the fungal diversity and species composition. The fungal endophytes were ana...

  13. Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yea...

  14. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates....... We therefore suggest that the political implications of social media are generally better understood in terms of facilitating indirect communication and institutional change than in terms of direct communication....

  15. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    OpenAIRE

    Shiril Paskalis; Anandina Irmagita

    2013-01-01

    Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture pla...

  16. Serpentine soils do not limit mycorrhizal fungal diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Branco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiologically stressful environments tend to host depauperate and specialized biological communities. Serpentine soils exemplify this phenomenon by imposing well-known constraints on plants; however, their effect on other organisms is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a combination of field and molecular approaches to test the hypothesis that serpentine fungal communities are species-poor and specialized. We conducted surveys of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity from adjacent serpentine and non-serpentine sites, described fungal communities using nrDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS fragment and sequence analyses, and compared their phylogenetic community structure. Although we detected low fungal overlap across the two habitats, we found serpentine soils to support rich fungal communities that include representatives from all major fungal lineages. We failed to detect the phylogenetic signature of endemic clades that would result from specialization and adaptive radiation within this habitat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that serpentine soils do not constitute an extreme environment for ectomycorrhizal fungi, and raise important questions about the role of symbioses in edaphic tolerance and the maintenance of biodiversity.

  17. Plasma membrane lipids and their role in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable evidence in recent years suggesting that plasma membrane lipids are important regulators of fungal pathogenicity. Various glycolipids have been shown to impart virulent properties in several fungal species, while others have been shown to play a role in host defense. In addition to their role as virulence factors, lipids also contribute to other virulence mechanisms such as drug resistance, biofilm formation, and release of extracellular vesicles. In addition, lipids also affect the mechanical properties of the plasma membrane through the formation of packed microdomains composed mainly of sphingolipids and sterols. Changes in the composition of lipid microdomains have been shown to disrupt the localization of virulence factors and affect fungal pathogenicity. This review gathers evidence on the various roles of plasma membrane lipids in fungal virulence and how lipids might contribute to the different processes that occur during infection and treatment. Insight into the role of lipids in fungal virulence can lead to an improved understanding of the process of fungal pathogenesis and the development of new lipid-mediated therapeutic strategies.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of fungal infection after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xian-jie; LU Shao-cheng; HE Lei; L(U) Fang; LIANG Yu-rong; LUO Ying; JI Wen-bin; ZHAO Zhi-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage liver diseases;however,infections after transplantation can seriously affect the patient's health. The aim of this research was to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infection following liver transplantation.Methods Clinical data for 232 liver transplant patients at risk of fungal infection were examined for the presence of fungus in the blood,fluid,sputum,urine and stools of patients and by chest or abdominal CT scans. Patients diagnosed with a fungal infection were treated with Fluconazole or,if this was not effective,Voriconazole or Amphotericin B.Immunosuppressive therapy was also reviewed.Results Thirty-seven of 232 (15.9%) patients were diagnosed with a fungal infection,which occurred 4 to 34 days post-transplantation. Candida infections were diagnosed in 23 cases (62.2%) and Aspergillus infections in 12 cases (32.4%). Twenty-one cases were effectively treated with Fluconazole,11 cases with Voriconazole,and two cases with Amphotericin B;however,three cases were not effectively treated with any of the antifungal agents. Overall,treatment was effective in 91.9% of patients.Conclusions Fungal infection has a significant influence on survival rate after liver transplantation. Imaging studies,and pathogenic and biopsy examinations can diagnose fungal infections,which can be effectively treated with antifungal agents such as Fluconazole,Voriconazole or Amphotericin B.

  19. Posaconazole in the management of refractory invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Langner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Langner, Philipp B Staber, Peter NeumeisterDivision of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, AustriaAbstract: The rising incidence of invasive fungal infections due to the expanding population of immunocompromised hosts and the increasing prevalence of fungal resistance has led to the need for novel antifungal agents. Posaconazole, a new member of the triazole class has demonstrated in vitro activity against a broad spectrum of fungi and clinical activity against various fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., zygomycetes, and Fusarium spp. To date, posaconazole has been approved for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in stem cell transplant recipients with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD and neutropenic patients receiving intensive induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. In addition, it has been licensed for use in oropharyngeal candidiasis and for salvage therapy in invasive aspergillosis, fusariosis, coccidioidomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. Posaconazole is the only azole with activity against zygomycetes and other difficult-to-treat fungi, representing a potential treatment option for refractory invasive mycosis. This article reviews available preclinical and clinical data of posaconazole, focusing on its role in the teatment of refractory invasive fungal infections.Keywords: posaconazole, refractory invasive fungal infections, salvage therapy

  20. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  1. Impact of invasive fungal disease on the chemotherapy schedule and event-free survival in acute leukemia patients who survived fungal disease: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Even, Caroline; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Hicheri, Yosr; Pautas, Cécile; Botterel, Francoise; Maury, Sébastien; Cabanne, Ludovic; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Patients with acute leukemia who initially survive invasive fungal disease must receive chemotherapy or go on to transplant. Many centers change subsequent chemotherapy to decrease the risk of fungal reactivation. This case-control study compared acute leukemia patients (n=28) who developed a proven or probable fungal disease and survived four weeks later, to patients who did not (n=78), and assessed the impact of fungal disease on the chemotherapy regimens, and overall and event-free survival.

  2. Role of salivary and candidal proteins in denture stomatitis: an exploratory proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Warren C; Schwartz-Baxter, Sarah; Carlson, Jim; Barros, Silvana; Offenbacher, Steven; Bencharit, Sompop

    2014-07-29

    Denture stomatitis, inflammation and redness beneath a denture, affects nearly half of all denture wearers. Candidal organisms, the presence of a denture, saliva, and host immunity are the key etiological factors for the condition. The role of salivary proteins in denture stomatitis is not clear. In this study 30 edentulous subjects wearing a maxillary complete denture were recruited. Unstimulated whole saliva from each subject was collected and pooled into two groups (n = 15 each), healthy and stomatitis (Newton classification II and III). Label-free multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) proteomics on two mass spectrometry platforms were used to determine peptide mass differences between control and stomatitis groups. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to determine the differential expression among the groups. The two proteomic platforms identified 97 and 176 proteins (ANOVA; p stomatitis groups. Three proteins including carbonic anhydrase 6, cystatin C, and cystatin SN were found to be the same as previous study. Salivary proteomic profiles of patients with denture stomatitis were found to be uniquely different from controls. Analysis of protein components suggests that certain salivary proteins may predispose some patients to denture stomatitis while others are believed to be involved in the reaction to fungal infection. Analysis of candidal proteins suggests that multiple species of candidal organisms play a role in denture stomatitis.

  3. Exploiting the fungal highway: development of a novel tool for the in situ isolation of bacteria migrating along fungal mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Job, Daniel; Wick, Lukas Y; Filippidou, Sevasti; Kooli, Wafa M; Verrecchia, Eric P; Junier, Pilar

    2015-11-01

    Fungi and bacteria form various associations that are central to numerous environmental processes. In the so-called fungal highway, bacteria disperse along fungal mycelium. We developed a novel tool for the in situ isolation of bacteria moving along fungal hyphae as well as for the recovery of fungi potentially involved in dispersal, both of which are attracted towards a target culture medium. We present the validation and the results of the first in situ test. Couples of fungi and bacteria were isolated from soil. Amongst the enriched organisms, we identified several species of fast-growing fungi (Fusarium sp. and Chaetomium sp.), as well as various potentially associated bacterial groups, including Variovorax soli, Olivibacter soli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and several species of the genera Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter and Ochrobactrum. Migration of bacteria along fungal hyphae across a discontinuous medium was confirmed in most of the cases. Although the majority of the bacteria for which migration was confirmed were also positive for flagellar motility, not all motile bacteria dispersed using their potential fungal partner. In addition, the importance of hydrophobicity of the fungal mycelial surface was confirmed. Future applications of the columns include targeting different types of microorganisms and their interactions, either by enrichment or by state of the art molecular biological methods.

  4. Exploiting the fungal highway: development of a novel tool for the in situ isolation of bacteria migrating along fungal mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Job, Daniel; Wick, Lukas Y; Filippidou, Sevasti; Kooli, Wafa M; Verrecchia, Eric P; Junier, Pilar

    2015-11-01

    Fungi and bacteria form various associations that are central to numerous environmental processes. In the so-called fungal highway, bacteria disperse along fungal mycelium. We developed a novel tool for the in situ isolation of bacteria moving along fungal hyphae as well as for the recovery of fungi potentially involved in dispersal, both of which are attracted towards a target culture medium. We present the validation and the results of the first in situ test. Couples of fungi and bacteria were isolated from soil. Amongst the enriched organisms, we identified several species of fast-growing fungi (Fusarium sp. and Chaetomium sp.), as well as various potentially associated bacterial groups, including Variovorax soli, Olivibacter soli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and several species of the genera Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter and Ochrobactrum. Migration of bacteria along fungal hyphae across a discontinuous medium was confirmed in most of the cases. Although the majority of the bacteria for which migration was confirmed were also positive for flagellar motility, not all motile bacteria dispersed using their potential fungal partner. In addition, the importance of hydrophobicity of the fungal mycelial surface was confirmed. Future applications of the columns include targeting different types of microorganisms and their interactions, either by enrichment or by state of the art molecular biological methods. PMID:26432804

  5. Intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent for recurrent maxillary fungal rhinosinusitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmade Adekunle D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognized entity both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Treatment has been via use of either surgical or medical modalities, or a combination of the two. Here, we present a case of utilization of intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent in the management of recurrent fungal sinusitis in an indigent Nigerian patient. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old West African Yoruba man, an indigent Nigerian clergyman, who presented to our facility with a history of recurrent nasal discharge (about one year, recurrent nasal blockage (about five months, and right facial swelling (about one week. After intra-nasal antrostomy for debulking with a systemic anti-fungal agent, our patient had a recurrence after four months. Our patient subsequently had an intra-antral application of flumetasone and clioquinol (Locacorten®-Vioform® weekly for six weeks with improvement of symptoms and no recurrence after six months of follow-up. Conclusions We conclude that topical intra-antral application of anti-fungal agents is effective in patients with recurrent fungal maxillary sinusitis after surgical debulking.

  6. Working Group VIII: Biological Pesticides (Biopesticides)

    OpenAIRE

    Midtvedt, Tore

    2011-01-01

    The control of insect pests of crops (in agriculture, horticulture, plantations, forestry) is a major factor which influences the productivity of cultivated land. In most situations control is achieved through the use of chemical insecticides. A variety of these products are on the market and in common usage. While chemical insecticides are relatively easy to mass produce, store and apply to crops, it has become apparent there are problems associated with their use. Specifically, their effect...

  7. PRODUCTION OF BIOPESTICIDES FROM WASTEWATER PLANT BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of different kinds of insects and pests that affect agriculture, forestry or that are disease vectors has been done extensively by the use of chemical insecticides. The use of chemical insecticides has been successful in controlling these pests but their production is...

  8. Challenges for developing biopesticides against varroa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of bee pests is a small but growing field as beekeepers and bee researchers seek ways to reduce pesticide use. Of the arthropod pests of honey bees, the pests that have been targets of biological control on at least the laboratory level are the Wax Moths Galleria mellonella and Ac...

  9. Standardization of fungal polymerase chain reaction for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An early initiation of antifungal therapy in invasive fungal infections (IFIs is critical in reducing the high mortality rate. Current diagnosis of fungal infection relies on microscopy, culture, antigen, antibody specific tests and histological diagnosis. However, these tests either lack sensitivity or specificity. There is thus the need for a rapid, specific and accurate diagnostic method. Objective: The aim of our study was to establish PCR for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus species in clinical specimens with improved sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 proven cases of IFI (confirmed by culture were collected. A total of 15 healthy, 15 patients suffering from bacterial sepsis and 15 patients with HIV, HBV viral infections were included as controls. Clinical specimens were subjected to a standardized nested amplification to produce Round I (504 bp and Round II (150 bp amplicons. Restriction digestion was performed on these products for further identification. Results: Analytical sensitivity was determined using 10 6 -10 CFU/ml of cell suspension. The lower detection limit of the assay was 10 CFU/ml of blood. This test was 100% sensitive and specific with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96.7%. Conclusion: The assay was found to be effective for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus in clinical specimens.

  10. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  11. One fungus, which genes? Development and assessment of universal primers for potential secondary fungal DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stielow, J B; Lévesque, C A; Seifert, K A; Meyer, W; Iriny, L; Smits, D; Renfurm, R; Verkley, G J M; Groenewald, M; Chaduli, D; Lomascolo, A; Welti, S; Lesage-Meessen, L; Favel, A; Al-Hatmi, A M S; Damm, U; Yilmaz, N; Houbraken, J; Lombard, L; Quaedvlieg, W; Binder, M; Vaas, L A I; Vu, D; Yurkov, A; Begerow, D; Roehl, O; Guerreiro, M; Fonseca, A; Samerpitak, K; van Diepeningen, A D; Dolatabadi, S; Moreno, L F; Casaregola, S; Mallet, S; Jacques, N; Roscini, L; Egidi, E; Bizet, C; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Martín, M P; Deng, S; Groenewald, J Z; Boekhout, T; de Beer, Z W; Barnes, I; Duong, T A; Wingfield, M J; de Hoog, G S; Crous, P W; Lewis, C T; Hambleton, S; Moussa, T A A; Al-Zahrani, H S; Almaghrabi, O A; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; McCormick, W; Omer, G; Dukik, K; Cardinali, G; Eberhardt, U; de Vries, M; Robert, V

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential candidate gene regions and corresponding universal primer pairs as secondary DNA barcodes for the fungal kingdom, additional to ITS rDNA as primary barcode. Amplification efficiencies of 14 (partially) universal primer pairs targeting eight genetic markers were tested across > 1 500 species (1 931 strains or specimens) and the outcomes of almost twenty thousand (19 577) polymerase chain reactions were evaluated. We tested several well-known primer pairs that amplify: i) sections of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene large subunit (D1-D2 domains of 26/28S); ii) the complete internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1/2); iii) partial β -tubulin II (TUB2); iv) γ-actin (ACT); v) translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1α); and vi) the second largest subunit of RNA-polymerase II (partial RPB2, section 5-6). Their PCR efficiencies were compared with novel candidate primers corresponding to: i) the fungal-specific translation elongation factor 3 (TEF3); ii) a small ribosomal protein necessary for t-RNA docking; iii) the 60S L10 (L1) RP; iv) DNA topoisomerase I (TOPI); v) phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK); vi) hypothetical protein LNS2; and vii) alternative sections of TEF1α. Results showed that several gene sections are accessible to universal primers (or primers universal for phyla) yielding a single PCR-product. Barcode gap and multi-dimensional scaling analyses revealed that some of the tested candidate markers have universal properties providing adequate infra- and inter-specific variation that make them attractive barcodes for species identification. Among these gene sections, a novel high fidelity primer pair for TEF1α, already widely used as a phylogenetic marker in mycology, has potential as a supplementary DNA barcode with superior resolution to ITS. Both TOPI and PGK show promise for the Ascomycota, while TOPI and LNS2 are attractive for the Pucciniomycotina, for which universal primers for ribosomal subunits often fail

  12. Circadian control sheds light on fungal bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson G; Stevani, Cassius V; Waldenmaier, Hans E; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2015-03-30

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi-only 71 species, all within the ∼ 9,000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales order-are reported from among ∼ 100,000 described fungal species [6, 7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature-compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millennia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin "mushrooms," internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans), as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants), at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy, where wind flow is greatly reduced.

  13. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  14. Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ≥97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation.

  15. Evaluation of fungal flora in normal and diseased canine ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn J; Coyner, Kimberly S; Rankin, Shelley C; Lewis, Thomas P; Schick, Anthea E; Shumaker, Amy K

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize otic fungal flora encountered in normal dogs, atopic dogs with no clinical or cytological evidence of otitis and dogs with otitis externa. Forty-two normal dogs, 23 atopic dogs and 32 dogs with otitis were included in the study. Samples for otic fungal culture and cytology were obtained from all animals, for a total of 194 ears. Sixty-seven ear samples (34%) were culture positive for saprophytic fungal organisms, as follows: 43 (64%) Penicillium species, 13 (19%) Aspergillus species and the remaining 17% comprised of various other saprophytic fungal organisms. Cytological evidence of saprophytic fungal colonization or infection was not found in any animal. There was no relationship between positive saprophytic fungal culture and any study group. Thirty-three ear samples (17%) were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis. Cytological findings of Malassezia were significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia (P = 0.006 left ear; P = 0.019 right ear). Furthermore, increased numbers of Malassezia led to a higher chance of positive culture (P = 0.003 left ear; P = 0.008 right ear; McNemar's test). Malassezia pachydermatis was more likely to be cultured from ears with increased cerumen. Ear type (erect or pendulous) was not significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia or saprophytic fungal organisms. There was no relationship between positive Malassezia culture and any study group; however, Malassezia was more likely to be cultured from individual dogs in the atopic or otitis groups that also had other dermatological signs consistent with allergic dermatitis and/or pyoderma (P = 0.031 left ear; P = 0.005 right ear). PMID:20868397

  16. Primary renal candidiasis: fungal mycetomas in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal infections of the urinary tract have a predilection for drainage structures rather than for the renal parenchyma. Of the causal factors, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed states, AIDS and prematurity are those most commonly encountered. The case of a young, diabetic man whose chief clinical presentation was dysuria is described. On further examination he was found to harbour fungal balls in the right kidney. Radiological manifestations of acute pyelonephritis were also present. Although primary renal candidiasis is often commensurate with systemic fungaemia, he displayed none of the clinical features of disseminate infection and, hence, was treated conservatively with oral antifungal agents. Fortuitously, spontaneous passage of fungal particulate matter in urine was later reported. A significant increase in the incidence of fungal cystitis has been found in recent years; however, the patient presents with many non-specific features of cystitis. Both sonography and CT show thickening of the bladder wall but, again, this lacks specificity. In the rare instance of prostate involvement, low attenuation foci on CT are seen within the gland. Despite the existence of a large number of fungal species, only a few are pathogenic to humans. Of those that cause disease in the urinary tract, Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered. A highly characteristic finding in such infections is of fungal balls, which are made up of aggregates of mycelia. However, care should be exercised in interpretation as a host of other conditions can mimic fungal bezoars. Although a CT scan at initial examination may qualify as the more descriptive, sonography provides a serial non-invasive means of evaluating the urinary tract. When in doubt, a urine culture clinches the diagnosis. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  18. Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Victor Ohileobo; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Ayodele, Maria; Kumar, P Lava

    2014-01-01

    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria-the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ≤ 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers. PMID:25674452

  19. Repurposing of Aspirin and Ibuprofen as Candidate Anti-Cryptococcus Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundeji, Adepemi O; Pohl, Carolina H; Sebolai, Olihile M

    2016-08-01

    The usage of fluconazole and amphotericin B in clinical settings is often limited by, among other things, drug resistance development and undesired side effects. Thus, there is a constant need to find new drugs to better manage fungal infections. Toward this end, the study described in this paper considered the repurposing of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and ibuprofen as alternative drugs to control the growth of cryptococcal cells. In vitro susceptibility tests, including a checkerboard assay, were performed to assess the response of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii to the above-mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. Next, the capacity of these two drugs to induce stress as well as their mode of action in the killing of cryptococcal cells was determined. The studied fungal strains revealed a response to both aspirin and ibuprofen that was dose dependent, with ibuprofen exerting greater antimicrobial action. More importantly, the MICs of these drugs did not negatively (i) affect growth or (ii) impair the functioning of macrophages; rather, they enhanced the ability of these immune cells to phagocytose cryptococcal cells. Ibuprofen was also shown to act in synergy with fluconazole and amphotericin B. The treatment of cryptococcal cells with aspirin or ibuprofen led to stress induction via activation of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, and cell death was eventually achieved through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated membrane damage. The presented data highlight the potential clinical application of aspirin and ibuprofen as candidate anti-Cryptococcus drugs. PMID:27246782

  20. Fungal rhinosinusitis with atypical presentation - a report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael da Costa Monsanto; Rodrigo Silva Orem; Fernanda Resende e Silva; Fabio Hiroshi Okuyama; Fabio Tadeu Moura Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis affects approximately 20% of the population, and the chronic rhinosinusitis represents over 90% of all cases of rhinosinusitis. The correct diagnosis is important for proper treatment and to predict its evolution. This study presents two cases of atypical frontal sinus disease, which the follow-up revealed a diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. The present study aims to describe the cases of two patients with atypical lesions on the left frontal sinus; the treatment options, surgical approach, results, diagnosis and follow-up are further discussed. A significant increase in the reported cases of fungal rhinosinusitis has been seen in the last two decades, justified by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and steroids, as well as the increased number of immunocompromised individuals. This study reports the cases of two patients with a type of fungal rhinosinusitis named "fungal ball", characterized by a tangle of hyphae in the sinuses without tissue invasion. The treatment included surgical removal of the fungal infectious process with aeration of the affected sinus, and the procedure was successfully performed in our patients.

  1. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorny, Rafa L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus [Cincinnati Univ., Dept. of Environmental Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm {sup -2} from surface with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration of a frequency of 1Hz at a power level of 14W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10min. (Author)

  2. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Akhtar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Coal conversion technologies can help in taking advantage of huge low rank coal reserves by converting those into alternative fuels like methane. In this regard, fungal degradation of coal can serve as a pretreatment step in order to make coal a suitable substrate for biological beneficiation. A fungal isolate MW1, identified as Penicillium chrysogenum on the basis of fungal ITS sequences, was isolated from a core sample of coal, taken from a well drilled by the US. Geological Survey in Montana, USA. The low rank coal samples, from major coal fields of Pakistan, were treated with MW1 for 7 days in the presence of 0.1% ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 0.1% glucose as a supplemental carbon source. Liquid extracts were analyzed through Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) to obtain qualitative estimates of solubilized coal; these analyses indicated the release of complex organic functionalities. In addition, GC–MS analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of single ring aromatics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic nitrogen compounds and aliphatics. Subsequently, the released organics were subjected to a bioassay for the generation of methane which conferred the potential application of fungal degradation as pretreatment. Additionally, fungal-mediated degradation was also prospected for extracting some other chemical entities like humic acids from brown coals with high huminite content especially from Thar, the largest lignite reserve of Pakistan.

  3. Risk factors for invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yong; Thomas Hartmann; AO Jun-hong; YANG Rong-ya

    2012-01-01

    To the editor:Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are significant complications in liver transplant recipients, which are associated with high morbidity/mortality and higher healthcare costs.The incidence of IFIs is mainly influenced by the patients'clinical condition,the level of immune suppression,surgical factors,and the technical complexity of the surgery.We read with great interest the research article by Shi et al.1 Although they have reached a high curative ratio with their "experiential" therapy based on their previous clinical experience,they did not provide us with detailed,definite criteria for identifying suspected patients and allowing for their early "experiential" treatment.Updated,standardized guidelines from the Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group in Europe and the Mycoses Study Group in the United States provide definitions of patients,who are eligible for enrollment in clinical trials.The "Probable" and "Possible" IFIs were defined based on specific host factors,clinical manifestations of fungal infection and mycological findings.The current diagnostic methods for fungal infections lack sensitivity and specificity,so understanding the risk factors associated with fungal infections in liver transplant recipients may improve identification of high-risk patients and guide appropriate initiation of early antifungal treatment.

  4. CNS fungal meningitis to the "Top of the basilar"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Logan CS; Kirschner RC; Simonds GR

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system(CNS) infections are a rare complication of epidural steroid injections and without strong clinical suspicion, fungal organisms may be overlooked among the long differential of causes of meningitis.Rare sequela of fungal meningitis is the development of stroke.To our knowledge, we present the first case of post epidural steroid injection(ESI) fungal meningitis leading toa basilar artery stroke, otherwise known as“top of the basilar” syndrome.We present a49-year-old female with a history ofESIs who presented to the emergency department with headache, neck stiffness, and abdominal pain.She was discharged after her labs and symptoms were deemed inconsistent with meningitis.She was eventually admitted and twelve days after her originalED visit, she was diagnosed with meningitis and started on anti-fungal treatment.She was discharged88 days later but was readmitted due to left sided weakness and mental status changes.She quickly lost motor and bulbar functions.AnMRA showed diminished distal flow through the basilar artery, suggesting near complete occlusion.Although appropriate long term anti-fungal treatment was started, the patient still succumbed to a rare vascular event.Physicians who are treating patients forESI meningitis should be aware of the potential for vasculitic and encephalitic complications.

  5. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  6. Clinical experiences in fungal keratitis caused by Acremonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seong-Jae Kim,1,2 Yong-Wun Cho,1 Seong-Wook Seo,1,2 Sun-Joo Kim,2,3 Ji-Myong Yoo1,21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju, KoreaPurpose: To report the predisposing risk factors, clinical presentation, management, and therapeutic outcomes of fungal keratitis caused by Acremonium.Methods: This is a retrospective study of cases with Acremonium fungal keratitis that presented to our tertiary referral center between January 2006 and August 2012. Patient demographic and clinical details were determined and reported.Results: Five cases of fungal keratitis from Acremonium species were identified in five patients (three males, two females. The mean age of the patients was of 73.4±5.46 years, with a mean follow-up time of 124±72 days. All patients had a history of corneal trauma with vegetable matter. Four cases were unresponsive to initial treatment (0.2% fluconazole, 0.15% amphotericin B and required topical 5% natamycin, and, in two out of five cases, topical 1% voriconazole.Conclusion: The most common risk factors for Acremonium fungal keratitis was ocular trauma. When a corneal lesion is found to be unresponsive to the initial treatment, we should consider adding or substituting topical natamycin or voriconazole for treatment.Keywords: Acremonium, fungal keratitis, natamycin, prognosis, voriconazole

  7. The burden of serious human fungal infections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzi, Juliana; Baethgen, Ludmila; Carneiro, Lilian C; Millington, Maria Adelaide; Denning, David W; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human fungal infections are prevalent, however, these conditions are not officially reportable diseases. To estimate the burden of serious fungal diseases in 1 year in Brazil, based on available data and published literature. Historical official data from fungal diseases were collected from Brazilian Unified Health System Informatics Department (DATASUS). For fungal diseases for which no official data were available, assumptions of frequencies were made by estimating based on published literature. The incidence (/1000) of hospital admissions for coccidioidomycosis was 7.12; for histoplasmosis, 2.19; and for paracoccidioidomycosis, 7.99. The estimated number of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis cases was 6832. Also, there were 4115 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients per year, 1 010 465 aspergillosis and 2 981 416 cases of serious Candida infections, including invasive and non-invasive diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that more than 3.8 million individuals in Brazil may be suffering from serious fungal infections, mostly patients with malignant cancers, transplant recipients, asthma, previous tuberculosis, HIV infection and those living in endemic areas for truly pathogenic fungi. The scientific community and the governmental agencies should work in close collaboration in order to reduce the burden of such complex, difficult-to-diagnose and hard to treat diseases.

  8. Natural Sources as Innovative Solutions Against Fungal Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardot, Marion; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Fungal cells are capable of adhering to biotic and abiotic surfaces and form biofilms containing one or more microbial species that are microbial reservoirs. These biofilms may cause chronic and acute infections. Fungal biofilms related to medical devices are particularly responsible for serious infections such as candidemia. Nowadays, only a few therapeutic agents have demonstrated activities against fungal biofilms in vitro and/or in vivo. So the discovery of new anti-biofilm molecules is definitely needed. In this context, biodiversity is a large source of original active compounds including some that have already proven effective in therapies such as antimicrobial compounds (antibacterial or antifungal agents). Bioactive metabolites from natural sources, useful for developing new anti-biofilm drugs, are of interest. In this chapter, the role of molecules isolated from plants, lichens, algae, microorganisms, or from animal or human origin in inhibition and/or dispersion of fungal biofilms (especially Candida and Aspergillus biofilms) is discussed. Some essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, peptides and proteins and alkaloids could be of particular interest in fighting fungal biofilms. PMID:27115410

  9. Fungal Community Assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucheta, Adriano Reis; Cannavan, Fabiana de Souza; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2016-05-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in ADE soils were more similar to each other than their ADJ soils, except for only one site. Phosphorus and aluminum saturation were the main soil chemical factors contributing to ADE and ADJ fungal community dissimilarities. Differences in fungal richness were not observed between ADE and ADJ soil pairs regarding to the most sites. In general, the most dominant subphyla present in the soils were Pezizomycotina, Agaricomycotina, and Mortierellomycotina. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in ADE showed similarities with the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps confragosa and the saprobes Fomitopsis pinicola, Acremonium vitellinum, and Mortierellaceae sp., whereas OTUs similar to Aspergillus niger, Lithothelium septemseptatum, Heliocephala gracillis, and Pestalosphaeria sp. were more abundant in ADJ soils. Differences in fungal community composition were associated to soil chemical factors in ADE (P, Ca, Zn, Mg, organic matter, sum of bases, and base saturation) and ADJ (Al, potential acidity, Al saturation, B, and Fe) soils. These results contribute to a deeper view of the fungi communities in ADE and open new perspectives for entomopathogenic fungi studies. PMID:26585119

  10. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górny, Rafał L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm -2 from surfaces with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration at a frequency of 1 Hz at a power level of 14 W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10 min.

  11. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  12. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  13. Issue-Advocacy versus Candidate Advertising: Effects on Candidate Preferences and Democratic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Holbert, R. Lance; Szabo, Erin Alison; Kaminski, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of soft-money-sponsored issue-advocacy advertising in U.S. House and Senate campaigns, comparing its effects against candidate-sponsored positive advertising and contrast advertising on viewers' candidate preferences and on their attitude that reflect democratic values. Reveals no main effects for advertising approach on…

  14. Candida Infections: An Update on Host Immune Defenses and Anti-Fungal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species are becoming increasing prevalent in the human population. Such pathogens cause life-threatening diseases with high mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Host defenses against fungal infections are provided by an exquisite interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, effective anti-fungal agents for Candida infections are limited, and fungal drug resistance is a significant treatment challenge. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of host–fungal interactions, discuss the modes action of anti-fungal drugs, explore host defense mechanisms, and define the new challenges for treating Candida infections.

  15. Radiation sensitivity of fungal microflora isolated from some pharmaceutical ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of fungal microflora of D-glucose, NaCl, KCl and their solutions was determined. The fungal isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. Aspergillus niger; Spicaria divaricate and Spicaria silvatica and their response to γ-radiation was determined, the most predominant isolate Asp. fumigatus was also the most irradiation resistant. The Dio and the lethal dose were determined for each isolate in a pure spore suspension as well as in the presence of the other isolates. The higher lethal dose values obtained for pure spore suspension as compared to that obtained for the natural fungal flora a D-glucose are discussed in terms of spore clumping. The activity of amylase, protease and L-asparaginase of Asp. fumigatus was examined prior to and after exposure to different doses of γ-radiation. Though all were inhibited at high doses, the effect was not as drastic as it was on cell viability

  16. Fungal Infections in Patients With Walled-off Pancreatic Necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werge, Mikkel; Roug, Stine; Novovic, Srdan;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of fungal infection and antifungal treatment on outcome in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON). METHODS: A retrospective description of fungal infections in a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic, transmural...... drainage and necrosectomy for WON, treated in a tertiary referral center was reviewed. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2013, fungal infection in WON was documented in 57 (46%) of 123 patients. The most common isolates at first positive culture were Candida albicans (55%) and Candida glabrata (20%). Thirty...... not treated or treated inadequately.The in-hospital mortality was 18% (10 patients). Concomitant fungemia was found in 6 patients, of which 3 died, as opposed to 7 with fungi in the necrosis only (50% vs 14%, P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high incidence and associated high in-hospital...

  17. Climate change and predicted trend of fungal keratitis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Hussein, A; El-Mofty, H M; Hassanien, M A

    2011-06-01

    Rising rates of invasive fungal infections may be linked to global climate change. A study was made of the trend of ophthalmic fungal corneal keratitis in the greater Cairo area of Egypt and its association with climate records during the same period. Data on diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis were collected from records of ophthalmic departments of Cairo University hospital and atmospheric temperature and humidity for the greater Cairo area were obtained from online records. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the relative frequency of keratomycosis during 1997-2007. The rise correlated significantly with rises n min,mum temperature and the maximum atmospheric humidity in the greater Cairo area over the same period (after exclusion of the effect of the maximum atmos pheric temperature). The predicted increase in keratomycosis up to the year 2030 corresponds to predicted increases in CO2 emissions and surface temperature from climate change models for Egypt.

  18. Fungal spores overwhelm biogenic organic aerosols in a midlatitudinal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukuda, Yasuro; Mochida, Michihiro; Iwamoto, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Both primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) and oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute significantly to organic aerosols (OAs) in forested regions. However, little is known about their relative importance in diurnal timescales. Here, we report biomarkers of PBAP and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) for their diurnal variability in a temperate coniferous forest in Wakayama, Japan. Tracers of fungal spores, trehalose, arabitol and mannitol, showed significantly higher levels in nighttime than daytime (p levels in daytime than nighttime, indicating substantial photochemical SOA formation. Using tracer-based methods, we estimated that fungal spores account for 45 % of organic carbon (OC) in nighttime and 22 % in daytime, whereas BVOC oxidation products account for 15 and 19 %, respectively. To our knowledge, we present for the first time highly time-resolved results that fungal spores overwhelmed BVOC oxidation products in contributing to OA especially in nighttime. This study emphasizes the importance of both PBAPs and SOAs in forming forest organic aerosols.

  19. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites. PMID:26443032

  20. Vaccination approaches against opportunistic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Utz; Herrmann, Sahra; Asif, Abdul R

    2014-01-01

    Although innate immunity primarily combats systemic infections of opportunistic fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida spp., acquired and protective immunoreactions were observed long ago in animal trials following sublethal systemic infections caused by viable fungi or after challenging animals with inactivated fungal cells. Based on these observations, fungal antigens should exist which mediate such protective immunoreactions and have in part already been identified. In this context, this review focuses primarily on the various approaches that have been used to identify protection-mediating Aspergillus-antigens and their rationale. Emphasis is placed on screening methods that have exploited genetic or proteomic approaches on the basis of the corresponding fungal genome projects. Thereby, a survey and description is given of the antigens so far known to be capable of inducing immune responses that protect animals against acquiring lethal systemic aspergillosis.

  1. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  2. Fungal central nervous system infections: prevalence and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, Irene S; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-02-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but they pose a significant challenge. Their prevalence spans a wide array of hosts including immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals, patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those carrying implantable CNS devices. Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. remain the most common pathogens. Magnetic resonance imaging can help localize the lesions, but diagnosis is challenging since invasive procedures may be needed for the retrieval of tissue, especially in cases of fungal abscesses. Antigen and antibody tests are available and approved for use in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR-based techniques are promising but they are not validated for use in the CSF. This review provides an overview on the differential diagnosis of the fungal CNS disease based on the host and the clinical syndrome and suggests the optimal use of diagnostic techniques. It also summarizes the emergence of Cryptococcus gatti and an unanticipated outbreak caused by Exserohilum rostratum.

  3. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-01-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the…

  4. Spectroscopy of Hyades L dwarf candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bejar, V J S

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic follow-up of L dwarf candidates identified in the Hyades cluster by Hogan et al. (2008). We obtained low-resolution optical spectroscopy with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio de Canarias for all 12 L dwarf candidates as well as new J-band imaging for a subsample of eight to confirm their proper motion. We also present mid-infrared photometry from the Wise Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for the Hyades L and T dwarf candidates and estimate their spectroscopic distances, effective temperatures, and masses. We confirm the cool nature of several L dwarf candidates and confirm astrometrically their membership, bridging the gap between the coolest M dwarfs and the two T dwarfs previously reported in the Hyades cluster. These members represent valuable spectral templates at an age of 625 Myr and slightly super solar metallicity (Fe/H=+0.13). We update the Hyades mass function across the hydrogen-burning limit and in the substel...

  5. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  6. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excess of the aggregate payments to which they will be entitled under 11 CFR part 9004. (2) That no... funds under 11 CFR 9003.2(c)(3) shall not count against such candidate's $50,000 expenditure limitation... expenditures in excess of the limitations of 11 CFR 110.8(a), the Commission may seek civil penalties under...

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Beginning Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Madeline; Espinoza, Sue

    2007-01-01

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Texas will need over 82,000 new teachers by 2008. Many teachers are leaving the profession within 5 years of being employed. Closing a revolving door, teacher preparation programs are discussing this phenomenon. One hundred sixty beginning teacher candidates were surveyed using the Emotional Skills…

  8. Fuzzy Treatment of Candidate Outliers in Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo E. D'Errico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robustness against the possible occurrence of outlying observations is critical to the performance of a measurement process. Open questions relevant to statistical testing for candidate outliers are reviewed. A novel fuzzy logic approach is developed and exemplified in a metrology context. A simulation procedure is presented and discussed by comparing fuzzy versus probabilistic models.

  9. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  10. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  11. The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toremen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates' responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstructured interview method…

  12. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  13. FAME's Search for Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.

    FAME is a five year survey mission to observe the positions, proper motions, and parallaxes of 40,000,000 stars down to 15th magnitude with accuracies of 50 microarcseconds at 9th magnitude. In addition to producing an astrometric and photometric catalog unparalleled for its accuracy and size, the survey will provide significant astrophysics results and search for extrasolar planet candidates.

  14. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  15. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Rietman; J.-P. Sommeijer; C.N. Levelt; J.A. Heimel; A.B. Brussaard; J.G.G. Borst; Y. Elgersma; N. Galjart; G.T. van der Horst; C.M. Pennartz; A.B. Smit; B.M. Spruijt; M. Verhage; C.I. de Zeeuw

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  16. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  17. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  18. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  19. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  20. Arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaalid, Rakel; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Høiland, Klaus; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb Bistorta vivipara on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. We sampled 160 plants of B. vivipara from 32 localities across Svalbard. DNA was extracted from entire root systems, and 454 pyrosequencing of ITS1 amplicons was used to profile the fungal communities. The fungal communities were predominantly composed of Basidiomycota (55% of reads) and Ascomycota (35%), with the orders Thelephorales (24%), Agaricales (13.8%), Pezizales (12.6%) and Sebacinales (11.3%) accounting for most of the reads. Plants from the same site or region had more similar fungal communities to one another than plants from other sites or regions, and sites clustered together along a weak latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, a decrease in per-plant OTU richness with increasing latitude was observed. However, no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation between sites was detected, suggesting that environmental filtering, not dispersal limitation, causes the observed patterns. Our analyses suggest that while latitudinal patterns in community composition and richness might reflect bioclimatic influences at global spatial scales, at the smaller spatial scale of the Svalbard archipelago, these changes more likely reflect varied bedrock composition and associated edaphic factors. The need for further studies focusing on identifying those specific bioclimatic and edaphic factors structuring root-associated fungal community composition at both global and local scales is emphasized. PMID:24320873

  1. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Manpreet K; Weir, Bevan S; Taylor, Michael W; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2013-01-01

    Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks). Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community closely associated

  2. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    Full Text Available Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks. Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community

  3. Fungal farming in a non-social beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae, which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage/inoculation, so-called mycangium, and also obligate dependence of the insect on the fungal associate. Adult females of D. bucculenta bore a hole on a recently-dead bamboo culm with their specialized mandibles, lay an egg into the internode cavity, and plug the hole with bamboo fibres. We found that the inner wall of the bamboo internode harboring a larva is always covered with a white fungal layer. A specific Saccharomycetes yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( = Pichia anomala, was consistently isolated from the inner wall of the bamboo internodes and also from the body surface of the larvae. Histological examination of the ovipositor of adult females revealed an exoskeletal pocket on the eighth abdominal segment. The putative mycangium contained yeast cells, and W. anomalus was repeatedly detected from the symbiotic organ. When first instar larvae were placed on culture media inoculated with W. anomalus, they grew and developed normally to adulthood. By contrast, first instar larvae placed on either sterile culture media or autoclaved strips of bamboo inner wall exhibited arrested growth at the second instar, and addition of W. anomalus to the media resumed growth and development of the larvae. These results strongly suggest a mutualistic nature of the D. bucculenta-W. anomalus association with morphological specialization and physiological dependence. Based on these results, we compare the fungal farming of D. bucculenta with those of social and subsocial insects, and discuss ecological factors relevant to the

  4. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liset Rietman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity. To this aim, we combined previously obtained data from recombinant inbred BXD strains on ocular dominance (OD plasticity and gene expression levels in the neocortex. We validated our approach using a list of genes which alter OD plasticity when inactivated. The expression levels of one fifth of these genes correlated with the amount of OD plasticity. Moreover, the two genes with the highest relative inter-strain differences were among the correlated genes. This suggests that correlation between gene expression levels and OD plasticity is indeed likely to point to genes with a causal role in modulating or generating plasticity in the visual cortex. After this validation on known plasticity genes, we identified new candidate genes by a multi-step approach. First, a list was compiled of all genes of which the expression level in BXD strains correlate with the amount of OD plasticity. To narrow this list to the more promising candidates, we took its cross-section with a list of genes co-regulated with the sensitive period for OD plasticity and a list of genes associated with pathways implicated in OD plasticity. This analysis resulted in a list of 32 candidate genes. The list contained unproven, but not surprising, candidates, such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A receptor, acetylcholine esterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This was indicative of the viability of our approach, but more interesting were the novel candidate genes: Akap7, Akt1, Camk2d, Cckbr, Cd44, Crim1, Ctdsp2, Dnajc5, Gnai1, Itpka, Mapk8, Nbea, Nfatc3, Nlk, Npy5r, Phf21a, Phip, Ppm1l, Ppp1r1b, Rbbp4, Slc1a3, Slit2, Socs2, Spock3, St8sia1, Zfp207. The possible role of some of these candidates is discussed in the article.

  5. Resilience of Fungal Communities to Elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresoglou, Stavros D; Anderson, Ian C; de Sousa, Natalia M F; Hempel, Stefan; Rillig, Matthias C

    2016-08-01

    Soil filamentous fungi play a prominent role in regulating ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. This necessitates understanding their responses to climate change drivers in order to predict how nutrient cycling and ecosystem services will be influenced in the future. Here, we provide a quantitative synthesis of ten studies on soil fungal community responses to elevated CO2. Many of these studies reported contradictory diversity responses. We identify the duration of the study as an influential parameter that determines the outcome of experimentation. Our analysis reconciles the existing globally distributed experiments on fungal community responses to elevated CO2 and provides a framework for comparing results of future CO2 enrichment studies. PMID:27273090

  6. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.

  7. Heterologous production of fungal secondary metabolites in Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    Fungal natural products comprise a wide range of compounds. Some are medically attractive as drugs and drug leads, some are used as food additives, while others are harmful mycotoxins. In recent years the genome sequence of several fungi has become available providing genetic information of a large...... number of putative biosynthetic pathways. However, compound discovery is difficult as the genes required for the production of the compounds often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, the lack of available tools for genetic manipulation of most fungal species hinders...

  8. Experimental soil warming at the treeline shifts fungal communities species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Lindahl, Björn; Dawes, Melissa; Peter, Martina; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi play a major role in decomposition processes, plant nutrient uptake and nutrient cycling. In high elevation ecosystems in Alpine and Arctic regions, the fungal community may be particularly sensitive to climate warming due to the removal of temperature limitation in the plant and soil system, faster nutrient cycling and changes in plant carbon allocation to maintain roots systems and sustain the rhizosphere. In our study, we estimated the effects of 9 years CO2 enrichment and three years of experimental soil warming on the community structure of fungal microorganisms in an alpine treeline ecosystem. In the Swiss Alps, we worked on a total of 40 plots, with c. 40-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata trees (20 plots for each tree species). Half of the plots with each tree species were randomly assigned to an elevated CO2 treatment (ambient concentration +200 ppm), whereas the remaining plots received no supplementary CO2. Five individual plots for each combination of CO2 concentration and tree species were heated by an average of 4°C during the growing season with heating cables at the soil surface. At the treeline, the fungal diversity analyzed by high-throughput 454-sequencing of genetic markers, was generally low as compared to low altitude systems and mycorrhizal species made a particularly small contribution to the total fungal DNA. Soil warming led to a shift in the structure and composition of the fungal microbial community, with an increase of litter degraders and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We further observed changes in the productivity of specific fungal fruiting bodies (i.e. more Lactarius rufus sporocarps and less Hygrophorus lucorum sporocarps) during the course of the experiment, that were consistent with the 454-sequencing data. The warming effect was more pronounced in the Larix plots. These shifts were accompanied by an increased soil CO2 efflux (+40%), evidence of increased N availability and a

  9. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  10. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  11. The mycotoxin definition reconsidered towards fungal cyclic depsipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Vreese, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-04-01

    Currently, next to the major classes, cyclic depsipeptides beauvericin and enniatins are also positioned as mycotoxins. However, as there are hundreds more fungal cyclic depsipeptides already identified, should these not be considered as mycotoxins as well? The current status of the mycotoxin definition revealed a lack of consistency, leading to confusion about what compounds should be called mycotoxins. Because this is of pivotal importance in risk assessment prioritization, a clear and quantitatively expressed mycotoxin definition is proposed, based on data of widely accepted mycotoxins. Finally, this definition is applied to a set of fungal cyclic depsipeptides, revealing that some of these should indeed be considered as mycotoxins.

  12. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... dioxide concentration in the incubation atmosphere. Change in oxygen level from 3 to 25% and pH from 4 to 8 has no significant effect on growth of the fungi. The fungi can be separated into different physiological groups depending on the sensitivity to the tested factors. Fungi associated to the same...

  13. An evolutionary perspective on zinc uptake by human fungal pathogens†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to withhold essential micronutrients from invading pathogens. These processes, collectively known as nutritional immunity serve to limit microbial proliferation and bolster killing of the invader. Successful pathogens, therefore, have developed strategies to counteract nutritional immunity and acquire essential micronutrients in the restrictive environment of the infected host. Here I take advantage of the now large number of sequenced fungal genomes to explore the zinc acquisition strategies of human fungal pathogens and reflect on the evolutionary context of these uptake pathways. PMID:25652414

  14. Anti-jamming in a fungal transport network

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Foshe, Sierra; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Congestion limits the efficiency of transport networks ranging from highways to the internet. Fungal hyphal networks are studied as an examples of optimal biological transport networks, but the scheduling and direction of traffic to avoid congestion has not been examined. We show here that the Neurospora crassa fungal network exhibits anticongestion: more densely packed nuclei flow faster along hyphal highways, and transported nuclei self-organize into fast flowing solitons. Concentrated transport by solitons may allow cells to cycle between growing and acting as transport conduits.

  15. 22 CFR 11.8 - Travel expenses of candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of candidates. 11.8 Section 11... Travel expenses of candidates. The travel and other personal expenses of candidates incurred in... Department may issue round-trip invitational travel orders to bring candidates to Washington at...

  16. 32 CFR 901.6 - Candidate fitness test requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candidate fitness test requirement. 901.6... Requirements § 901.6 Candidate fitness test requirement. Before being offered an appointment, candidates must take a Candidate Fitness Test (CFT) which consists of exercises designed to measure muscular...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF FUNGAL (PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) GROWTH ON THREE HVAC DUCT MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses laboratory experiments to evaluate the susceptibility of three ventilation duct materials (fibrous glass ductboard, galvanized steel, and insulated flexible duct) to fungal (P. chrysogenum) growth. [NOTE: Many building investigators have documented fungal bi...

  18. Cost effectiveness of itraconazole in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Daenen, S.; Tolley, K.; Glasmacher, A.; Prentice, A.; Howells, S.; Christopherson, H.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Postma, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients treated for haematological malignancies are associated with a high mortality rate and, therefore, require early treatment. As the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections is difficult, effective antifungal prophylaxis is desirable. So far

  19. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  20. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations.

  1. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations. PMID:20672542

  2. Prevalence of fungal infections using National Health Insurance data from 2009-2013, South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Hwa Young; Kim, Young Kwon; Song, Yeong Jun; Ki, Moran

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The symptoms of fungal infections vary from minor to severe. According to recent reports, fungal infection prevalence is increasing due to increases in the aging population and in patients with compromised immune systems. However, the total prevalence of fungal infections in South Korea is unknown. We investigated the recent 5-year prevalence of each type of fungal infection in South Korea across age, sex, and regional groups. METHODS Nationwide data from the National Health Insura...

  3. Epidemiological Characterization of Skin Fungal Infections Between the Years 2006 and 2010 in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Ha; Cho, Seung-Hak; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Je-Seop; Choi, Jong Tae; Bak, Young-Seok; Yu, Young-Bin; Kim, Young Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to build and provide a basic database of skin fungal infections for the effective management of skin fungal infections in the future. Methods We collected health insurance data between the years 2006 and 2010 from the Health Insurance Corporation (Seoul, Korea) and analyzed the data to determine the prevalence and treatment management of skin fungal infections. Results Skin fungal infections were divided into two groups: namely dermatophytosis and othe...

  4. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Farenhorst; B.G.J. Knols

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting s

  5. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections. T

  6. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  7. Measuring Chitinase and Protease Activity in Cultures of Fungal Entomopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Peter; Glare, Travis R; Rostás, Michael; Haines, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating. The critical enzymes chitinase and proteinase are also excreted into the supernatants of fungal cultures and can be used as indicators of virulence. Chromogenic assays adapted for 96-well microtiter plates that measure these enzymes provide a sensitive, fast, and easy screening method for evaluating the potential biocontrol activity of fungal isolates and may be considered as an alternative to laborious and time-consuming bioassays. Furthermore, monitoring fungal enzyme production in dependence of time, nutrient sources, or other factors can facilitate in establishing optimal growth and harvesting conditions for selected isolates with the aim of achieving maximum biocontrol activity. PMID:27565500

  8. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  9. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds.

  10. Unlocking the bacterial and fungal communities assemblages of sugarcane microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Soares Correa; Okura, Vagner Katsumi; Armanhi, Jaderson Silveira Leite; Jorrín, Beatriz; Lozano, Núria; da Silva, Márcio José; González-Guerrero, Manuel; de Araújo, Laura Migliorini; Verza, Natália Cristina; Bagheri, Homayoun Chaichian; Imperial, Juan; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbiome and its manipulation herald a new era for plant biotechnology with the potential to benefit sustainable crop production. However, studies evaluating the diversity, structure and impact of the microbiota in economic important crops are still rare. Here we describe a comprehensive inventory of the structure and assemblage of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with sugarcane. Our analysis identified 23,811 bacterial OTUs and an unexpected 11,727 fungal OTUs inhabiting the endophytic and exophytic compartments of roots, shoots, and leaves. These communities originate primarily from native soil around plants and colonize plant organs in distinct patterns. The sample type is the primary driver of fungal community assemblage, and the organ compartment plays a major role in bacterial community assemblage. We identified core bacterial and fungal communities composed of less than 20% of the total microbial richness but accounting for over 90% of the total microbial relative abundance. The roots showed 89 core bacterial families, 19 of which accounted for 44% of the total relative abundance. Stalks are dominated by groups of yeasts that represent over 12% of total relative abundance. The core microbiome described here comprise groups whose biological role underlies important traits in plant growth and fermentative processes. PMID:27358031

  11. Splash : the dispersal of fungal plant pathogens in rain events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat, A.

    2000-01-01

    Models were developed to study splash dispersal of fungal plant pathogens in space and time. The models incorporate the main mechanisms involved in splash dispersal, that is 1. A raindrop hits the thin water film on the crop surface containing spores and spores are dispersed in the splashing rain dr

  12. Indium 111 WBC scan in local and systemic fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe two patients-one with a systemic fungal infection and one with a localized form-who had strikingly abnormal indium 111 leukocyte (WBC) scans. The patient with systemic disease had an abnormal WBC scan before lesions became clinically apparent

  13. Studies on the production of fungal peroxidases in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpo

  14. The Selection Exerted by Oil Contamination on Mangrove Fungal Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Rigonato, Janaina; Fiore, Marli de Fatima; Soares, Fabio Lino; Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are tropical environments that are characterized by the interaction between the land and the sea. As such, this ecosystem is vulnerable to oil spills. Here, we show a culture-independent survey of fungal communities that are found in the sediments of the following two mangroves t

  15. Fungal biomass development in a chronosequence of land abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.; Veen, van J.A.; Smant, W.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Bloem, J.; Kardol, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Boer, de W.

    2006-01-01

    Based on biomass size, the contribution of fungi to nutrient cycling and soil properties is in general more important in natural ecosystems than in agro-ecosystems. Therefore, we expect an increase of fungal biomass after cessation of cultivation to values of a natural ecosystem. However, so far, in

  16. Elevated CO2 does not favor a fungal decomposition pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van K.J.; Six, J.; Harris, D.; Kessel, van C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of prolonged elevated CO2 on the concentration of fungal- and bacterial-derived compounds by quantifying the soil contents of the amino sugars glucosamine, galactosamine and muramic acid. Soil samples were collected from three different terrestrial ecosystems (grassland, an as

  17. Unlocking the bacterial and fungal communities assemblages of sugarcane microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Soares Correa; Okura, Vagner Katsumi; Armanhi, Jaderson Silveira Leite; Jorrín, Beatriz; Lozano, Núria; da Silva, Márcio José; González-Guerrero, Manuel; de Araújo, Laura Migliorini; Verza, Natália Cristina; Bagheri, Homayoun Chaichian; Imperial, Juan; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbiome and its manipulation herald a new era for plant biotechnology with the potential to benefit sustainable crop production. However, studies evaluating the diversity, structure and impact of the microbiota in economic important crops are still rare. Here we describe a comprehensive inventory of the structure and assemblage of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with sugarcane. Our analysis identified 23,811 bacterial OTUs and an unexpected 11,727 fungal OTUs inhabiting the endophytic and exophytic compartments of roots, shoots, and leaves. These communities originate primarily from native soil around plants and colonize plant organs in distinct patterns. The sample type is the primary driver of fungal community assemblage, and the organ compartment plays a major role in bacterial community assemblage. We identified core bacterial and fungal communities composed of less than 20% of the total microbial richness but accounting for over 90% of the total microbial relative abundance. The roots showed 89 core bacterial families, 19 of which accounted for 44% of the total relative abundance. Stalks are dominated by groups of yeasts that represent over 12% of total relative abundance. The core microbiome described here comprise groups whose biological role underlies important traits in plant growth and fermentative processes. PMID:27358031

  18. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  19. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Moll

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit, occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is th

  1. Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic dune soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Lafeber, P.; Janse, J.H.; Spit, B.E.; Woldendorp, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic soil bacteria may enable them to compete successfully for chitin with fungi. Additionally, the production of chitinase may be part of a lytic system that enables the bacteria to use living hyphae rather than chitin as the actual growth substrate, since chitin i

  2. Adhesins in Human Fungal Pathogens : Glue with Plenty of Stick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Piet W. J.; Bader, Oliver; de Boer, Albert D.; Weig, Michael; Chauhan, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of an infectious disease is critical for developing new methods to prevent infection and diagnose or cure disease. Adherence of microorganisms to host tissue is a prerequisite for tissue invasion and infection. Fungal cell wall adhesins involved in adherence to host ti

  3. Trends in invasive fungal infections, with emphasis on invasive aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erjavec, Z.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.; Verweij, P. E.

    2009-01-01

    P>Patterns of invasive fungal infections are changing in many ways. Although yeast infections appear to have reached a stable incidence, the number of infections as a result of Aspergillus species appears to be increasing. Especially for mould infection, the diagnosis remains difficult and the detec

  4. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Postharvest Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Rae-Dong; Shin, Eun-Jung; Chu, Eun-Hee; Park, Hae-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Postharvest diseases cause losses in a wide variety of crops around the world. Irradiation, a useful nonchemical approach, has been used as an alternative treatment for fungicide to control plant fungal pathogens. For a preliminary study, ionizing radiations (gamma, X-ray, or e-beam irradiation) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer through mycelial growth, spore germination, and morphological analysis under various conditions. Different fungi exhibited different radiosensitivity. The inhibition of fungal growth showed in a dose-dependent manner. Three fungal pathogens have greater sensitivity to the e-beam treatment compared to gamma or X-ray irradiations. The inactivation of individual fungal-viability to different irradiations can be considered between 3-4 kGy for B. cinerea and 1-2 kGy for P. expansum and R. stolonifer based on the radiosensitive and radio-resistant species, respectively. These preliminary data will provide critical information to control postharvest diseases through radiation. PMID:26060436

  5. Germination inhibitors of fungal spores: identification and mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Fungi can be found in a wide variety of environments, such as seeds, plants, soil, water, insects, and food products. Fungi and their toxic metabolites cause losses of food products, and diseases in plants and animals, and may have adverse effects on human health. A crucial step in fungal

  6. Nocardia asteroids causing pulmonary nocardiosis presenting as fungal ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimoch Projna Paty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary nocardiosis presenting as a fungal ball in a preexisting cavity is a rare presentation. We report such a case in a 18 yrs old male patient presented with cough with expectoration & episodes of haemoptysis with a past history of tuberculosis. Diagnosis was done by microscopic examination of the resected sample & confirmed on culture.

  7. Biomineralization and formulation of endosulfan degrading bacterial and fungal consortiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jayanthi; Silambarasan, Sivagnanam

    2014-11-01

    Microbial degradation offers an effective approach to remove toxicants and in this study, a microbial consortium consisting of bacterial strains and fungal strains were originally obtained from endosulfan contaminated agricultural soils. Identification of the bacterial isolates by 16S rRNA sequences revealed the isolates to be Halophilic bacterium JAS4, Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, Enterobacter asburiae JAS5, and Enterobacter cloacae JAS7, whereas the fungal isolates were identified by 18S rRNA sequences and the isolates were Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6, Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 and Lasiodiplodia sp. JAS12. The biodegradation of endosulfan was monitored by using HPLC and FTIR analysis. The bacterial and fungal consortium could degrade 1000 mg l(-1) of endosulfan efficiently in aqueous medium and in soil. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded samples in the aqueous medium by bacterial and fungal consortium showed bands at 1400 and 950 cm(-1) which are the characteristics of COOH group and acid dimer band respectively. In the present investigation, low cost solid materials such as sawdust, soil, fly ash, molasses and nutrients were used for the formulation of microbial consortium and to achieve greater multiplication and survival of the microbial strains. PMID:25454517

  8. Antifungal metabolites from fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumarah, Mark W; Kesting, Julie R; Sørensen, Dan;

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of five foliar fungal endophytes isolated from Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) that showed antifungal activity in disc diffusion assays were selected for further study. From these strains, the aliphatic polyketide compound 1 and three related sesquiterpenes 2-4 were isolated...

  9. Attitudes of Teacher Candidates Towards Teaching Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Emre BOZDOĞAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of teacher candidates regarding teaching profession from the point of view of different variables. This study was taken place at Ahi Ervan University Teachers’ College in 2006-2007 year of education and 181 Applied science and Social science students participated it. In order to obtain the data of the research scanning method entitled “Determination of Attitude Towards Teaching Profession” was used which was developed by Aşkar and Erden (1987 . During the analysis of the research data SPSS 12.0 program and the necessary statistical methods were used to analize the data of the research. As a result of the research it is understood that the attitudes of teacher candidates change according to sex and factor that made them to choose the department they study.

  10. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  11. Candidate Species Selection: Cultural and Photosynthetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cultural information is provided for a data base that will be used to select candidate crop species for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Lists of food crops which will satisfy most nutritional requirements of humans and also fit within the scope of cultural restrictions that logically would apply to a closed, regenerating system were generated. Cultural and environmental conditions that will allow the most rapid production of edible biomass from candidate species in the shortest possible time are identified. Cultivars which are most productive in terms of edible biomass production by (CE) conditions, and which respond to the ever-closed approach to optimization realized by each shortened production cycle are selected. The experimental approach with lettuce was to grow the crop hydroponically in a growth chamber and to manipulate such variables as light level and duration, day/night temperature, and nutrient form and level in the solution culture.

  12. New drug candidates in tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Evranos Aksöz

    2014-12-01

    makes them quit the treatment. From these problems emerges the need for development of effective new drugs, with smaller duration of therapy, less side effects and without the problem of resistance. After a long period such as 40 years, a new drug molecule bedaquiline was approved in December 2012 by FDA while the drug was in phase II research. Bedaquiline will be used in multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy. When the chemical structures of bedaquilline and other candidate drugs were examined, the structures such as diarylquinoline, oxazolidinone, nitroimidazole, ethylenediamine drew attention. These common structures will be directive in designing new molecules. In this review, bedaquiline and other candidate drug molecules such as sutezolide, linezolide, PA-824, delamanide, rifapentine, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, BTZ-043, TBA-354, CPZEN-45, DC-159a, Q201, SQ-609, SQ-641 were mentioned.

  13. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam Aliya; Brohan Elaine; Thornicroft Graham; Lewis-Holmes Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  14. Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, Monica; Weyant, C. M.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Faber, K. T.

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) oxide, due to its high-temperature capabilities and thermal expansion coefficient similar to silicon nitride, is a promising candidate for environmental barriers for silicon (Si) nitride-based ceramics. This paper focuses on the development of plasma-sprayed Ta oxide as an environmental barrier coating for silicon nitride. Using a D-optimal design of experiments, plasma-spray processing variables were optimized to maximize coating density. The effect of processing variables on c...

  15. Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu PİJİ KÜÇÜK; Yusuf Barış UZUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant İzzet B...

  16. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF ALLOSENSITIZED CARDIAC TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Mauricio; Johnson, Maryl R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation remains the best treatment in advanced heart failure patients with a high risk of death. However, an inadequate supply of donor hearts decreases the likelihood of transplantation for many patients. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are being increasingly used as a bridge to transplant in patients who may not survive long enough to receive a heart. This expansion in VAD use has been associated with increasing rates of allosensitization in cardiac transplant candidates. A...

  18. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  19. Comparing Candidate Selection : A Feminist Institutionalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnegard, Elin; Kenny, Meryl

    2016-01-01

    This contribution evaluates the theoretical and methodological challenges ofresearching the gendered dynamics of candidate selection in comparativeperspective. It argues that comparative studies should take into account not only thegendered nature of political parties and their wider institutional context, but mustalso investigate the informal aspects of the selection process and their genderedconsequences. The article explores these dynamics by revisiting original in-depthresearch on the can...

  20. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...

  1. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  2. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  3. Searching for candidate genes for male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.N.Truong; E.K.Moses; J.E.Armes; D.J.Venter; H.W.G.Baker

    2003-01-01

    Aim: We describe an approach to search for candidate genes for male infertility using the two human genome databases: the public University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) and private Celera databases which list known and predicted gene sequences and provide related information such as gene function, tissue expression,known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods and Results: To demonstrate this in silico research, the following male infertility candidate genes were selected: (1) human BOULE, mutations of which may lead to germ cell arrest at the primary spermatocyte stage, (2) mutations of casein kinase 2 alpha genes which may cause globozoospermia, (3) DMR-N9 which is possibly involved in the spermatogenic defect of myotonic dystrophy and (4) several testes expressed genes at or near the breakpoints of a balanced translocation associated with hypospermatogenesis. We indicate how information derived from the human genome databases can be used to confirm these candidate genes may be pathogenic by studying RNA expression in tissue arrays using in situ hybridization and gene sequencing. Conclusion: The paper explains the new approach to discovering genetic causes of male infertility using information about the human genome. ( Asian J Andro1 2003 Jun; 5:137-147 )

  4. Fungal communities on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kartchner Caverns, located near Benson, Arizona, USA, is an active carbonate cave that serves as the major attraction for Kartchner Caverns State Park. Low-impact development and maintenance have preserved prediscovery macroscopic cavern features and minimized disturbances to biological communities within the cave.. The goal of this study was to examine fungal diversity in Kartchner Caverns on actively-forming speleothem surfaces. Fifteen formations were sampled from five sites across the cave. Richness was assessed using standard culture-based fungal isolation techniques. A culture-independent analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was used to assay evidence of community homogeneity across the cave through the separation of 18S rDNA amplicons from speleothem community DNA. The culturing effort recovered 53 distinct morphological taxonomic units (MTUs, corresponding to 43 genetic taxonomic units (GTUs that represented 21 genera. From the observed MTU accumulation curve and the projected total MTU richness curve, it is estimated that 51 percent of the actual MTU richness was recovered. The most commonly isolated fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Phialophora, and Aspergillus.This culture- based analysis did not reveal significant differences in fungal richness or number of fungi recovered across sites. Cluster analysis using DGGE band profiles did not reveal distinctive groupings of speleothems by sample site. However, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA analysis of culture-independent DGGE profiles showed a significant effect of sampling site and formation type on fungal community structure.Taken together, these results reveal that diverse fungal communities exist on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, and that these communities are not uniformly distributed spatially. Analysis of sample saturation indicated that more sampling depth is required to uncover the full scale of mycological richness

  5. Seasonal Trends in Airborne Fungal Spores in Coastal California Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin, J.; Crandall, S. G.; Gilbert, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne fungal spores cause disease in plants and animals and may trigger respiratory illnesses in humans. In terrestrial systems, fungal sporulation, germination, and persistence are strongly regulated by local meteorological conditions. However, few studies investigate how microclimate affects the spatio-temporal dynamics of airborne spores. We measured fungal aerospora abundance and microclimate at varying spatial and time scales in coastal California in three habitat-types: coast redwood forest, mixed-evergreen forest, and maritime chaparral. We asked: 1) is there a difference in total airborne spore concentration between habitats, 2) when do we see peak spore counts, and 3) do spore densities correlate with microclimate conditions? Fungal spores were caught from the air with a volumetric vacuum air spore trap during the wet season (January - March) in 2013 and 2014, as well as monthly in 2014. Initial results suggest that mixed-evergreen forests exhibit the highest amounts of spore abundance in both years compared to the other habitats. This may be due to either a higher diversity of host plants in mixed-evergreen forests or a rich leaf litter layer that may harbor a greater abundance of saprotrophic fungi. Based on pilot data, we predict that temperature and to a lesser degree, relative humidity, will be important microclimate predictors for high spore densities. These data are important for understanding when and under what weather conditions we can expect to see high levels of fungal spores in the air; this can be useful information for managers who are interested in treating diseased plants with fungicides.

  6. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient. PMID:26433528

  7. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  8. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...... wall acetylation (Chapter 2), identification of a candidate gene required for acetylation of pectin (Chapter 3), screening of pectin mutants for susceptibility to the nectrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea (Chapter 4), and identification and functional characterization of an arabinan...

  9. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic bioma

  10. Discovery of a novel dual fungal CYP51/human 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor: implications for anti-fungal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K Hoobler

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of a novel dual inhibitor targeting fungal sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51 or Erg11 and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX with improved potency against 5-LOX due to its reduction of the iron center by its phenylenediamine core. A series of potent 5-LOX inhibitors containing a phenylenediamine core, were synthesized that exhibit nanomolar potency and >30-fold selectivity against the LOX paralogs, platelet-type 12-human lipoxygenase, reticulocyte 15-human lipoxygenase type-1, and epithelial 15-human lipoxygenase type-2, and >100-fold selectivity against ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygnease-2. The phenylenediamine core was then translated into the structure of ketoconazole, a highly effective anti-fungal medication for seborrheic dermatitis, to generate a novel compound, ketaminazole. Ketaminazole was found to be a potent dual inhibitor against human 5-LOX (IC50 = 700 nM and CYP51 (IC50 = 43 nM in vitro. It was tested in whole blood and found to down-regulate LTB4 synthesis, displaying 45% inhibition at 10 µM. In addition, ketaminazole selectively inhibited yeast CYP51 relative to human CYP51 by 17-fold, which is greater selectivity than that of ketoconazole and could confer a therapeutic advantage. This novel dual anti-fungal/anti-inflammatory inhibitor could potentially have therapeutic uses against fungal infections that have an anti-inflammatory component.

  11. Stop and smell the fungi: Fungal volatile metabolites are overlooked signals involved in fungal interaction with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse fungi are intimately associated with plants, and molecules secreted from both the plant and fungal sides play critical roles in the establishment of their associations and resulting effects on plant growth and health. Through evolutionary arms races and strategic alliances with plants, fungi...

  12. Exo-metabolome of some fungal isolates growing on cork-based medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2011-01-01

    Fungal species colonize the cork slabs during the manufacturing of cork stoppers process. The most important fungal species that colonizes cork slabs immediately after boiling is Chrysonilia sitophila. Other fungal species may germinate replacing the C. sitophila mycelium on the cork slabs when...... they can be dependent of the remains of former colonizers. In fact, the production of the exo-metabolites by the studied fungal isolates suggests that, under the used experimental conditions, they appear to play an important role in fungal interactions amongst the cork mycoflora....

  13. Light controls growth and development via a conserved pathway in the fungal kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Idnurm

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Light inhibits mating and haploid fruiting of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but the mechanisms involved were unknown. Two genes controlling light responses were discovered through candidate gene and insertional mutagenesis approaches. Deletion of candidate genes encoding a predicted opsin or phytochrome had no effect on mating, while strains mutated in the white collar 1 homolog gene BWC1 mated equally well in the light or the dark. The predicted Bwc1 protein shares identity with Neurospora crassa WC-1, but lacks the zinc finger DNA binding domain. BWC1 regulates cell fusion and repression of hyphal development after fusion in response to blue light. In addition, bwc1 mutant strains are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light. To identify other components required for responses to light, a novel self-fertile haploid strain was created and subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis. One UV-sensitive mutant that filaments equally well in the light and the dark was identified and found to have an insertion in the BWC2 gene, whose product is structurally similar to N. crassa WC-2. The C. neoformans Bwc1 and Bwc2 proteins interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Deletion of BWC1 or BWC2 reduces the virulence of C. neoformans in a murine model of infection; the Bwc1-Bwc2 system thus represents a novel protein complex that influences both development and virulence in a pathogenic fungus. These results demonstrate that a role for blue/UV light in controlling development is an ancient process that predates the divergence of the fungi into the ascomycete and basidiomycete phyla.

  14. Improved Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Arising during Leukemia Treatment Using a Panel of Host Response Proteins and Fungal Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R Brasier

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. In this group, Aspergillus infections account for the majority of deaths due to mold pathogens. Although early detection is associated with improved outcomes, current diagnostic regimens lack sensitivity and specificity. Patients undergoing chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation were enrolled in a multi-site prospective observational trial. Proven and probable IPA cases and matched controls were subjected to discovery proteomics analyses using a biofluid analysis platform, fractionating plasma into reproducible protein and peptide pools. From 556 spots identified by 2D gel electrophoresis, 66 differentially expressed post-translationally modified plasma proteins were identified in the leukemic subgroup only. This protein group was rich in complement components, acute-phase reactants and coagulation factors. Low molecular weight peptides corresponding to abundant plasma proteins were identified. A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides, fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan, and cell wall components (β-D glucan were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. Quantitative measurements were developed to qualify the differential expression of the candidate host response proteins using selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays, and then applied to a separate cohort of 57 patients with leukemia. In this verification cohort, a machine learning ensemble-based algorithm, generalized pathseeker (GPS produced a greater case classification accuracy than galactomannan (GM or host proteins alone. In conclusion, Integration of host response proteins with GM improves the diagnostic detection of probable IPA in patients

  15. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition in a lithophytic and epiphytic orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoke; Gai, Xuege; Liu, Qiang; Hart, Miranda M; Guo, Shunxing

    2015-05-01

    Some orchid species are present as epiphytes and lithophytes in the same habitat, but little is known about the differences of their mycorrhizal fungal communities. We used Coelogyne viscosa, which occurs both as an epiphyte and a lithophyte, as a study system to investigate orchid mycorrhizal fungal communities in lithophytes and epiphytes in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve (Yunnan Province, China). Twenty-three fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 18 sampling sites were identified. Results indicated that mycorrhizal fungal community composition was different between epi- and lithophytes. When we analyzed the Tulasnellaceae and Sebacinales communities separately, we found that the Sebacinales fungal communities were significantly different in the two growth habitats, but the Tulasnellaceae fungal communities were not. Our results provide evidence for distinct orchid mycorrhiza fungal communities depending on the growth habitat of the orchid. Consistent with some recent investigations of mycorrhizal fungus community composition, this study suggests that for one orchid, growth habitat affects mycorrhizal symbioses. PMID:25319065

  16. Controls over fungal communities and consequences for nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, K. K.; Majumder, P.; Bent, E.; Borneman, J.; Allison, S. D.; Hanson, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Soils harbor a high diversity of microbes-- as many as 100 species of fungi within a square meter. If different species target different components of litter, a more diverse community of fungi should lead to faster decomposition rates. We examined the hypotheses that variation in substrate use among fungal groups and variation in nitrogen availability are both important controls over the diversity of fungi in an Alaskan boreal forest. Nitrogen availability was considered because microbes are often N-limited, and because humans are altering N availability via anthropogenic N deposition and global warming. We used nucleotide analogs to link fungal groups with their role in decomposition in field samples. Leaf litter collected from the forest floor was supplemented with one of four N-containing compounds. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, a thymidine analog) was also added. After 48 hours incubation, DNA was extracted. Most growing fungi should have assimilated the BrdU into new DNA. Their genetic identity was determined using oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG). OFRG is an rRNA gene profiling method that sorts genes into taxonomic groups with a high degree of resolution, and has a large capacity for sample processing. Fungal groups that proliferated following the addition of a given compound probably metabolized that compound. We found that fungal taxa varied in their responses to different substrates, indicating that they differed in substrate use. Specifically, community composition of fungi was significantly different among substrate treatments (P tannin-protein complexes (P = 0.014); Saccharomycetales, arginine (P = 0.042); and Polyporales, arginine and lignocellulose (P = 0.040). In a complementary experiment, we used BrdU labeling to characterize effects of N fertilization on fungal community composition. We observed that N fertilization decreased the richness of fungal taxa by 22%. Helotiales and Saccharomycetales tended to increase under N

  17. Experimental verification and molecular basis of active immunization against fungal pathogens in termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Li, Ganghua; Sun, Pengdong; Lei, Chaoliang; Huang, Qiuying

    2015-10-13

    Termites are constantly exposed to many pathogens when they nest and forage in the field, so they employ various immune strategies to defend against pathogenic infections. Here, we demonstrate that the subterranean termite Reticulitermes chinensis employs active immunization to defend against the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed that allogrooming frequency increased significantly between fungus-treated termites and their nestmates. Through active social contact, previously healthy nestmates only received small numbers of conidia from fungus-treated individuals. These nestmates experienced low-level fungal infections, resulting in low mortality and apparently improved antifungal defences. Moreover, infected nestmates promoted the activity of two antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and upregulated the expression of three immune genes (phenoloxidase, transferrin, and termicin). We found 20 differentially expressed proteins associated with active immunization in R. chinensis through iTRAQ proteomics, including 12 stress response proteins, six immune signalling proteins, and two immune effector molecules. Subsequently, two significantly upregulated (60S ribosomal protein L23 and isocitrate dehydrogenase) and three significantly downregulated (glutathione S-transferase D1, cuticle protein 19, and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme) candidate immune proteins were validated by MRM assays. These findings suggest that active immunization in termites may be regulated by different immune proteins.

  18. Halotolerant Ability and α-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

  19. Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for the Treatment of Clinically Presumed Fungal Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Mao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected corneal lesions were completely removed and the clinical symptoms resolved in 41 cases (87.2%. The mean ablation depth was 114.39±45.51 μm and diameter of ablation was 4.06±1.07 mm. The mean time for healing of the epithelial defect was 8.8±5.6 days. Thirty-four eyes (82.9% showed an improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of two or more lines. PTK complications included mild to moderate corneal haze, hyperopic shift, irregular astigmatism, and thinning cornea. Six eyes (12.8% still showed progressed infection, and conjunctival flap covering, amniotic membrane transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty were given. PTK is a valuable therapeutic alternative for superficial infectious keratitis. It can effectively eradicate lesions, hasten reepithelialization, and restore and preserve useful visual function. However, the selection of surgery candidates should be conducted carefully.

  20. Immobilization of fungal laccase onto a nonionic surfactant-modified clay material: application to PAH degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tang; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Liu, Keng-Hua; Liao, Yi-Fen; Yang, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    Nonionic surfactant-modified clay is a useful absorbent material that effectively removes hydrophobic organic compounds from soil/groundwater. We developed a novel material by applying an immobilized fungal laccase onto nonionic surfactant-modified clay. Low-water-solubility polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene/phenanthrene) were degraded in the presence of this bioactive material. PAH degradation by free laccase was higher than degradation by immobilized laccase when the surfactant concentration was allowed to form micelles. PAH degradation by immobilized laccase on TX-100-modified clay was higher than on Brij35-modified clay. Strong laccase degradation of PAH can be maintained by adding surfactant monomers or micelles. The physical adsorption of nonionic surfactants onto clay plays an important role in PAH degradation by laccase, which can be explained by the structure and molecular interactions of the surfactant with the clay and enzyme. A system where laccase is immobilized onto TX-100-monomer-modified clay is a good candidate bioactive material for in situ PAHs bioremediation.