WorldWideScience

Sample records for candidate container materials

  1. Corrosion resistance of candidate transportation container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is currently remediating several sites that have been contaminated over the years with hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. Regulatory guidelines require strict compliance demonstrating public safety during remediation and the transport of these hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. The compatibility of the metallic transportation containers with the contents they are designed to transport is an ultimate concern that must be satisfied to ensure public safety. The transportation issue is inherently complicated due to the complex, varied, and unknown composition of the hazardous, mixed and radioactive waste that is being, considered for transport by the DOE facilities. Never before have the interactions between the waste being transported and the materials that comprise the transportation packages been more important. Therefore, evaluation of material performance when subjected to a simulated waste will ensure that all regulatory issues and requirements for transportation of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes are satisfied. The tasks encompassed by this study include defining criteria for candidate material selection, defining a test matrix that will provide pertinent information on the material compatibility with the waste stimulant, and evaluation of material performance when subjected to a stimulant waste. Our goal is to provide package design engineers with a choice of materials which exhibit enhanced performance upon exposure to hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste that is similar in composition to the waste stimulant used in this study. Due to the fact that there are many other possible waste compositions, additional work needs to be done to broaden our materials compatibility/waste stream data base

  2. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project's high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250 degree C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS), Type 316L SS, Incology 825, P-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7% Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks, and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in simulated Well J-13 water which is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site has been completed, and crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests are also being conducted under the same environmental conditions. 13 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs

  5. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Weiss, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview

  8. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials [CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)], which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  13. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27

  14. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs

  15. LONG-TERM CORROSION TESTING OF CANDIDATE MATERIALS FOR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE CONTAINMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented from the long-term corrosion test program of candidate materials for the high-level radioactive waste packages that would be emplaced in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The present waste package design is based on a multi-barrier concept having an inner container of a corrosion resistant material and an outer container of a corrosion allowance material. Test specimens have been exposed to simulated bounding environments that may credibly develop in the vicinity of the waste packages. Corrosion rates have been calculated for weight loss and crevice specimens, and U-bend specimens have been examined for evidence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Galvanic testing has been started recently and initial results are forthcoming. Pitting characterization of test specimens will be conducted in the coming year. This test program is expected to continue for a minimum of five years so that long-term corrosion data can be determined to support corrosion model development, performance assessment, and waste package design

  16. IDMS studies on sodalite - a candidate material for nuclear waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste management is one of the important aspects of nuclear fuel cycle from environmental and safety considerations. Different forms of waste storage matrices are known to be applicable for different kinds of nuclear wastes. Glass bonded sodalite (GBS) (Na8(AISiO4)6Cl2), a glass-ceramic, is a promising candidate for the immobilization of the chloride waste resulting from pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear fuels. Characterization of individual components is essential for the development of this waste storage material which is expected to encounter different physicochemical conditions. For this purpose, we have undertaken studies to determine the concentrations of individual components in GBS employing Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) owing to its capability to ensure precise and accurate data for multi element analysis in a matrix

  17. Localized corrosion of a candidate container material for high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized corrosion is one of the important considerations in the design of metallic containers used for the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. This paper addresses the effect of environmental factors on the localized corrosion behavior of alloy 825, one of the candidate alloys for containers in the Yucca Mountain repository site. A two-level, full factorial experimental design was used to examine the main effects and interactions of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, and temperature. This was augmented by additional experiments involving chloride and temperature at several levels. Cyclic, potentiodynamic polarization tests were used to determine the relative susceptibility of the alloy to localized corrosion. Crevice corrosion was detected at chloride levels as low as 20 ppm, and both pitting and crevice corrosion were observed at higher chloride levels. Among the environmental factors, chloride and sulfate were found to be promoters of localized corrosion, while nitrate and fluoride were inhibitors of localized corrosion. The experiments indicated that the electrochemical parameters (e.g., pitting potential, repassivation potential, or the difference between them) were not sufficient indicators of localized corrosion. Instead, the visual observation and electrochemical parameters were combined into an index, termed localized corrosion index (LCI), to quantify the extent of localized corrosion

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys --- CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni) --- are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement. The three copper-based alloys discussed here are being considered in addition to the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials discussed in Volume 3. The decay of radionuclides will result in substantial heat generation and in fluxes of gamma radiation. In this environment, container materials may degrade by atmospheric oxidation, uniform aqueous phase corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in tarnishing environments, or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in nontarnishing environments. This report is a critical survey of available data on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three copper-based alloys. The requisite conditions for TGSCC and IGSCC include combinations of stress, oxygen, ammonia or nitrite, and water. Note that nitrite is generated by gamma radiolysis of moisture films in air but that ammonia is not. TGSCC has been observed in CDA 102 and CDA 613 exposed to moist ammonia-containing environments whereas SCC has not been documented for CDA 715 under similar conditions. SCC is also promoted in copper by nitrite ions. Furthermore, phosphorus-deoxidized copper is unusually susceptible to embrittlement in such environments. The presence of tin in CDA 613 prevents IGSCC. It is believed that tin segregates to grain boundaries, where it oxidizes very slowly, thereby inhibiting the oxidation of aluminum. 117 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  20. In situ corrosion studies on candidate container materials for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK·CEN has developed in the early 1980's, with the support of NIRAS/ONDRAF and EC, an extensive in situ corrosion program to evaluate the long-term corrosion behavior of various candidate container materials for the disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. The in situ corrosion experiments were performed in the underground research facility, HADES, situated in the Boom Clay formation at a depth of 225 meters below ground level. These experiments place the samples either in direct contact with clay (type I), in a humid clay atmosphere (type 2), or in a concrete saturated clay atmosphere (type 3). During the period 1985--1994, twelve in situ corrosion experiments were installed in the underground laboratory. The exploitation of these experiments ended in 1996. All samples were recuperated and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the type 1 corrosion experiments (samples in direct contact with Boom Clay). Surface analyses tend to indicate that the so-called corrosion-resistant materials, e.g. stainless steels, Ni- and Ti-alloys, remain intact after exposure to Boom Clay between 16 and 170 C, whereas carbon steel presents significant pitting corrosion. Carbon steel seems to be unsuitable for the Belgian repository concept (pits up to 240microm deep are detected after direct exposure to the argillaceous environment for 2 years at 90 C). The stainless steels look very promising candidate container materials

  1. The future supply of and demand for candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of a literature survey carried out to assess the future world supply of and demand for titanium, copper and lead. These metals are candidate materials for the fabrication of containers for the immobilization and disposal of Canada's nuclear used-fuel waste for a reference Used-fuel Disposal Centre. Such a facility may begin operation by approximately 2020, and continue for about 40 years. The survey shows that the world has abundant supplies of titanium minerals (mostly in the form of ilmenite), which are expected to last up to at least 2110. However, for copper and lead the balance between supply and demand may warrant increased monitoring beyond the year 2000. A number of factors that can influence future supply and demand are discussed in the report

  2. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys

  3. Localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers in the US: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including: undesirable phase transformations due to lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This paper is an analysis of data from the literature relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of these alloys. Though all three austenitic candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these forms of localized attack. Both types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented for Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma irradiation has been found to enhance SCC of Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while microbiologically induced corrosion effects have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. Of the copper-based alloys, CDA 715 has the best overall resistance to localized attack. Its resistance to pitting is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. Observed rates of dealloying in CDA 715 are less than those observed in CDA 613 by orders of magnitude. The resistance of CDA 715 to SCC in tarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 102 and superior to that of CDA 613. Its resistance to SCC in nontarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. 22 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  5. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  6. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  7. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  8. Study of non aqueous reprocessing methods. Final progress report. [Container materials for pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitel, R. J.; Luderer, J. E.; Henderson, T. M.

    1978-11-17

    The problems associated with container materials for selected pyrochemical processes and process containment conditions are reviewed. A rationale for container materials selection is developed. Candidate process container materials are presented, and areas warranting further development are identified. 14 tables.

  9. Canister filling materials -- Design requirements and evaluation of candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has been evaluating a copper/steel canister for use in the disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Once the canister is breached by corrosion, it is possible that the void volume inside the canister might fill with water. Water inside the canister would moderate the energy of the neutrons emitted by spontaneous fission in the fuel. It the space in the canister between and around the fuel pins is occupied by canister filling materials, the potential for criticality is avoided. The authors have developed a set of design requirements for canister filling material for the case where it is to be used alone, with no credit for burnup of the fuel or other measures, such as the use of neutron absorbers. Requirements were divided into three classes: essential requirements, desirable features, and undesirable features. The essential requirements are that the material fill at least 60% of the original void space, that the solubility of the filling material be less than 100 mg/l in pure water or expected repository waters at 50 C, and that the material not compact under its own weight by more than 10%. In this paper they review the reasons for these requirements, the desirable and undesirable features, and evaluate 11 candidate materials with respect to the design requirements and features. The candidate materials are glass beads, lead shot, copper spheres, sand, olivine, hematite, magnetite, crushed rock, bentonite, other clays, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the determination of whether further work is needed to eliminate uncertainties in the evaluation of the ability of a particular filling material to be successfully used under actual conditions, and on the ability to predict the long-term performance of the material under the repository conditions

  10. Testing of Candidate Icons to Identify Acetaminophen-Containing Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding icons on labels of acetaminophen-containing medicines could help users identify the active ingredient and avoid concomitant use of multiple medicines containing acetaminophen. We evaluated five icons for communication effectiveness. Adults (n = 300 were randomized to view a prescription container label or over-the-counter labels with either one or two icons. Participants saw two icon candidates, and reported their interpretation; experts judged whether these reflected critical confusions that might cause harm. Participants rated how effectively each icon communicated key messages. Icons based on abbreviations of “acetaminophen” (“Ac”, “Ace”, “Acm” were rated less confusing and more effective in communicating the active ingredient than icons based on “APAP” or an abstract symbol. Icons did not result in critical confusion when seen on a readable medicine label. Icon implementation on prescription labels was more effective at communicating the warning against concomitant use than implementation on over-the-counter (OTC labels. Adding an icon to a second location on OTC labels did not consistently enhance this communication, but reduced rated effectiveness of acetaminophen ingredient communication among participants with limited health literacy. The abbreviation-based icons seem most suitable for labeling acetaminophen-containing medications to enable users to identify acetaminophen-containing products.

  11. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF[sub 3] and CeF[sub 3] as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF[sub 3] and the remainder CeF[sub 3] have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography. 2 figures.

  12. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  13. Candidate plasma-facing materials for EUV lithography source components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Burtseva, Tatiana; Brooks, Jeff N.; Konkashbaev, Isak K.; Rice, Bryan J.

    2003-06-01

    Material selection and lifetime issues for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are of critical importance to the success of this technology for commercial applications. This paper reviews current trends in production and use of plasma-facing electrodes, insulators, and wall materials for EUV type sources. Ideal candidate materials should be able to: withstand high thermal shock from the short pulsed plasma; withstand high thermal loads without structural failure; reduce debris generation during discharge; and be machined accurately. We reviewed the literature on current and proposed fusion plasma-facing materials as well as current experience with plasma gun and other simulation devices. Both fusion and EUV source materials involve issues of surface erosion by particle sputtering and heat-induced evaporation/melting. These materials are either bare structural materials or surface coatings. EUV materials can be divided into four categories: wall, electrode, optical, and insulator materials. For electric discharge sources, all four types are required, whereas laser-produced plasma EUV sources do not require electrode and insulator materials. Several types of candidate alloy and other materials and methods of manufacture are recommended for each component of EUV lithography light sources.

  14. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  15. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  16. Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

  17. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  18. 77 FR 20886 - Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions...

  19. Material Properties of Three Candidate Elastomers for Space Seals Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    A next-generation docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support Constellation Space Exploration Missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. A number of investigations were carried out to quantify the properties of candidate elastomer materials for use in the main interface seal of the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This seal forms the gas pressure seal between two mating spacecraft. Three candidate silicone elastomer compounds were examined: Esterline ELA-SA-401, Parker Hannifin S0383-70, and Parker Hannifin S0899-50. All three materials were characterized as low-outgassing compounds, per ASTM E595, so as to minimize the contamination of optical and solar array systems. Important seal properties such as outgas levels, durometer, tensile strength, elongation to failure, glass transition temperature, permeability, compression set, Yeoh strain energy coefficients, coefficients of friction, coefficients of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and are reported herein.

  20. Candidate materials performance under Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, A.; Penttilae, S.; Rissanen, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is working at super-critical pressure (25 MPa) and a core coolant temperature up to 500 deg C. As an evolutionary step this reactor type follows the development path of modern supercritical coal-fired plants. This paper reviews the results on performance of commercial candidate materials for in-core applications focusing on corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and creep issues. General corrosion (oxidation) tests with an inlet oxygen concentration of 125-150 ppb have been performed on several iron and nickel alloys at 300 to 650 deg C and 25 MPa in supercritical water. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of selected austenitic stainless steels and a high chromium ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) alloy were also studied in slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in supercritical water at 500 deg C and 650 deg C. Furthermore, constant load creep tests have been performed on selected austenitic steels at 500 deg C and 650 deg C in supercritical water (25 MPa, 1 ppm O{sub 2}) and in an inert atmosphere (He, pressure 1 atm). Based on the materials studies, the current candidate materials for the core internals are austenitic steels with sufficient oxidation and creep resistance up to 500-550 deg C. High chromium austenitic steels and ODS alloys steels are considered for the fuel rod cladding due to their oxidation resistance up to 650 deg C. However, problems with manufacturing and joining of ODS alloys need to be solved. Alloys with high nickel content were not considered for the SCC or creep studies because of the strong effect of Ni on neutronics of the reactor core (orig.)

  1. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  2. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  3. Potentiodynamic polarization studies on candidate container alloys for the Tuff Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortest Columbus Technologies, Inc. (CC Technologies) is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level radioactive waste packages. This information is being developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to aid in their assessment of the Department of Energy's application to construct a geologic repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the results of cyclic-potentiodynamic-polarization (CCP) studies performed on candidate container materials for the Tuff Repository. The CPP technique was used to provide an understanding of how specific variables such as environmental composition, temperature, alloy composition, and welding affect both the general- and localized-corrosion behavior of two copper-base and two Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in simulated repository environments. A statistically-designed test solution matrix was formulated, based on an extensive search of the literature, to evaluate the possible range of environmental species that may occur in the repository over the life of the canister. Forty-two CPP curves were performed with each alloy and the results indicated that several different types of corrosion were possible. The copper-base alloys exhibited unusual CCP behavior in that hysteresis was not always associated with pitting. The effects of temperature on the corrosions behavior were evaluated in two types of tests; isothermal tests at temperatures from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C and heat-transfer tests where the solution was maintained at 50 degrees C and the specimen was internally heated to 90 degrees C. In the isothermal test, CPP curves were obtained with each alloy in simulated environments at 50 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C. The results of these CCP experiments indicated that no systematic trends were evident for the environments tested. Lastly, the effects of welding on the corrosion behavior of the alloys in simulated environments were examined

  4. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  5. Microwave irradiation of asbestos containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Dangerous wastes, i.e. fly ashes, nuclear waste, asbestos containing materials, can be regarded as multi-component materials having a wide range of compositions, and usually it is the presence of only some of these components that makes all the mixture a product to be disposed of. Thus, a process allowing selective treatment of the 'unwanted' portion of the waste, and to do this volumetrically, could represent an enormous advantage in terms of time and money, especially as far as materials presenting low thermal conductivity are concerned. This is the case of asbestos containing materials, which are mixtures of gypsum, cement, and minor polymeric components, whose inertitazion requires long heat treatments at temperature higher than the decomposition temperature of amphiboles, the dangerous mineral fibre in commercial items. Shorter heating time under 2.45 GHz irradiation, have suggested that the selectivity of microwave radiation for OH groups contained in the crystalline amphibole can be exploited to inertize asbestos containing materials. The experiments were performed either on small samples in closed multimode cavity or on large pieces under an open applicator. In both cases, depending on the output power and on sample positioning and lining, it was possible to lead the samples to complete inertisation, or, prolonging the thermal treatment, to vitrification. The treated samples are constituted mainly of enstatite, an harmless magnesium silicate, which could then be inserted as secondary raw materials in the body composition of many ceramic materials, like tiles and bricks. The open applicator with a remote control panel allowed the treatment of portion of contamined soil, such as, for example, the ground surrounding asbestos mining and treatment installations. The maximum installed power, 18 kW, is higher than that used in closed cavities, and inevitably the same happens regarding power losses. Improvements of applicator design for power

  6. Materials used for Seed Storage Containers: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient seed storage is a shared concern among the growing number of seed banks established for crop improvement or ex situ conservation. Container properties greatly affect seed interactions with the environment and the overall cost and success of seed banking operations. Several material proper...

  7. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  8. Biologically-Induced Micropitting of Alloy 22, a Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment (or microcosm) consisting of crushed rock (tuff) from the Yucca Mountain repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years at room temperature and 30 C. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Room temperature, biotically-incubated coupons show a wide distribution of pores covering the coupon surface, while coupons incubated at 30 C show the pores restricted to polishing ridges

  9. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  10. Phase stability effects on the corrosion behavior of the metal barrier candidate materials for the nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six candidate materials are currently under consideration by the Nuclear Waste Management Program (NWMP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as potential metal barrier materials for high-level nuclear waste storage. The waste package, which must meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing requirements for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project (NNWSI), will contain spent fuel from civilian nuclear power plants PWR and BWR fuel assemblies, commercial high level waste (CHLW) in the form of borosilicate glass containing commercial spent fuel reprocessing wastes and defense high level waste (DHLW) contained in borosilicate glass. The waste package is being designed for emplacement in the unsaturated zone above the water table at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. This location should result in a slightly oxidizing repository environment. The Metal Barrier Selection and Testing Task is responsible for the selection of the materials to be employed in the waste package container. The candidate materials include three iron to nickel-based austenitic materials and three copper-based alloy materials. The austenitic materials are AISI 304L stainless steel, AISI 316L stainless steel and alloy 825. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al) and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The selection of the final metal barrier material is dependent upon the expected behavior of these materials in the repository environment

  11. Characterization of Candidate Materials for Remote Recession Measurements of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bradley D.; Winter, Michael; Panerai, Francesco; Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Stackpoole, Margaret; Danehy, Paul M.; Splinter, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring surface recession of a material sample in a plasma flow through emission spectroscopy of the post shock layer was characterized through experiments in the NASA Langley HYMETS arc jet facility. Different methods for delivering the seed products into the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material samples were investigated. Three samples were produced by seeding the PICA material with combinations of Al, Si, HfO2, VB2, Al2O3, SiO2, TiC, HfC, NaCl, and MgCl2 through infusing seed materials into a core of PICA, or through encapsulating seed material in an epoxy disk, mechanically bonding the disk to a PICA sample. The PICA samples seeded with the candidate tracers were then tested at surface temperatures near 2400 K under low pressure air plasma. The emission of Al, Ti, V, Na, and Mg in the post-shock layer was observed in the UV with a high resolution imaging spectrometer viewing the whole stagnation line from the side, and from UV to NIR with a fiber-coupled miniaturized spectrometer observing the sample surface in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1,100 nm from the front through a collimator. Al, Na, and Mg were found to be emitting in the post-shock spectra even before the recession reached the seeding depth - therefore possibly characterizing the pyrolysis process rather than the recession itself. The appearance of Ti and V emission in the spectra was well correlated with the actual recession which was monitored through a video of the front surface of the sample. The applicability of a seed material as an indicator for recession appears to be related to the melting temperature of the seed material. Future parametric studies will be carried out in low power plasma facilities at the University of Kentucky.

  12. DISSOLUTION OF FISSILE MATERIALS CONTAINING TANTALUM METAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of composite materials containing plutonium (Pu) and tantalum (Ta) metals is currently performed in Phase I of the HB-Line facility. The conditions for the present flowsheet are the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal in the 15 L dissolver using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO3) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) at 95 C for 4-6 h.[1] The Ta metal, which is essentially insoluble in HNO3/fluoride solutions, is rinsed with process water to remove residual acid, and then burned to destroy classified information. During the initial dissolution campaign, the total mass of Pu and Ta in the dissolver charge was limited to nominally 300 g. The reduced amount of Pu in the dissolver charge coupled with significant evaporation of solution during processing of several dissolver charges resulted in the precipitation of a fluoride salt contain Pu. Dissolution of the salt required the addition of aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3) and a subsequent undesired 4 h heating cycle. As a result of this issue, HB-Line Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to optimize the dissolution flowsheet to reduce the cycle time, reduce the risk of precipitating solids, and obtain hydrogen (H2) generation data at lower fluoride concentrations.[2] Using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material, we performed three experiments to demonstrate the dissolution of the Pu metal using HNO3 solutions containing 0.15 and 0.175 M KF. When 0.15 M KF was used in the dissolving solution, 95.5% of the Pu in the sample dissolved in approximately 6 h. The undissolved material included a small amount of Pu metal and plutonium oxide (PuO2) solids. Complete dissolution of the metal would have likely occurred if the dissolution time had been extended. This assumption is based on the steady increase in the Pu concentration observed during the last several hours of the experiment. We attribute the formation of PuO2 to the complexation of fluoride by the Pu. The fluoride became

  13. Potential containment materials for liquid-lead and lead-bismuth eutectic spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (44Pb-56Bi) have been the two primary candidate liquid-metal target materials for the production of spallation neutrons. Selection of a container material for the liquid-metal target will greatly affect the lifetime and safety of the target subsystem. For the lead target, niobium-1 (wt%) zirconium (Nb-1Zr) is a candidate containment material for liquid lead, but its poor oxidation resistance has been a major concern. The oxidation rate of Nb-1Zr was studied based on the calculations of thickness loss due to oxidation. According to these calculations, it appeared that uncoated Nb-1Zr may be used for a one-year operation at 900 C at PO2 = 1 x 10-6 torr, but the same material may not be used in argon with 5-ppm oxygen. Coating technologies to reduce the oxidation of Nb-1Zr are reviewed, as are other candidate refractory metals such as molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. For the Pb-Bi target, three candidate containment materials are suggested based on a literature survey of the materials compatibility and proton irradiation tests: Croloy 2-1/4, modified 9Cr-1Mo, and 12Cr-1Mo (HT-9) steel. These materials seem to be used only if the lead-bismuth is thoroughly deoxidized and treated with zirconium and magnesium

  14. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  15. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ''excess'' nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist

  16. Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lefu ZHANG; Fawen ZHU; Rui TANG

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the selection of nuclear fuel cladding and other structural materials, such as water rod. Survey of literature and experimental results reveal that the general corrosion mechanism of those candidate materials exhibits quite complicated mechanism in high-temperature and high-pressure supercritical water. Formation of a stable protective oxide film is the key to the best corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper focuses on the mechanism of corrosion oxide film breakdown for SCWR candidate materials.

  17. Pegylated polyelectrolyte nanoparticles containing paclitaxel as a promising candidate for drug carriers for passive targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Bzowska, Monika; Kruk, Tomasz; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna; Warszynski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Targeted drug delivery systems are of special importance in cancer therapies, since serious side effects resulting from unspecific accumulation of highly toxic chemotherapeutics in healthy tissues can restrict effectiveness of the therapy. In this work we present the method of preparing biocompatible, polyelectrolyte nanoparticles containing the anticancer drug that may serve as a vehicle for passive tumor targeting. The nanoparticles were prepared via direct encapsulation of emulsion droplets in a polyelectrolyte multilayer shell. The oil cores that contained paclitaxel were stabilized by docusate sodium salt/poly-l-lysine surface complex (AOT/PLL) and were encapsulated in shells formed by the LbL adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes, poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) and PLL up to 5 or 6 layers. The surface of the nanoparticles was pegylated through the adsorption of the pegylated polyelectrolyte (PGA-g-PEG) as the outer layer to prolong the persistence of the nanocarriers in the circulation. The synthesized nanoparticles were stable in cell culture medium containing serum and their average size was 100nm, which makes them promising candidates for passive targeted drug delivery. This notion was further confirmed by the results of studying the biological effects of nanoformulations on two tumor cell lines: mouse colon carcinoma cell line CT26-CEA and the mouse mammary carcinoma cell line 4T1. The empty polyelectrolyte nanoparticles did not affect the viability of the tested cells, whereas encapsulated paclitaxel retained its strong cytotoxic/cytostatic activity. PMID:27037784

  18. Sputtering Yield Calculation of Some Candidate PFC Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng; HUANGJinhua

    2001-01-01

    In order to estimate the erosion rates of some plasma facing component materials, the sputtering yields of Mo, W and Li bombarded by charged particles H+, D+, T+ and He+ are calculated by application of sputtering theory based on bipartition model of ion transport. The comparisons with Monte-Carlo calculation results are made. These data might be useful to estimate the lifetime of plasma facing components and to analyze the impurity level in core plasma of fusion reactors.

  19. Graphene oxide as an optimal candidate material for methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-07-01

    Methane, the primary constituent of natural gas, binds too weakly to nanostructured carbons to meet the targets set for on-board vehicular storage to be viable. We show, using density functional theory calculations, that replacing graphene by graphene oxide increases the adsorption energy of methane by 50%. This enhancement is sufficient to achieve the optimal binding strength. In order to gain insight into the sources of this increased binding, that could also be used to formulate design principles for novel storage materials, we consider a sequence of model systems that progressively take us from graphene to graphene oxide. A careful analysis of the various contributions to the weak binding between the methane molecule and the graphene oxide shows that the enhancement has important contributions from London dispersion interactions as well as electrostatic interactions such as Debye interactions, aided by geometric curvature induced primarily by the presence of epoxy groups.

  20. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  1. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  2. Conjugated organometallic materials containing tungsten centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marya

    Our group is interested in the optical and electronic properties of organometallic analogues of conjugated organic compounds. Specifically, in this thesis we will discuss the properties of complexes in which W≡C moieties replace C≡C fragments within the framework of oligo(phenyleneethynylenes) and a C4-polyyne. A family of derivatives of the type Ph(C≡CC6H4 )m(L)4W≡C(C6H 4C≡C)nPh (m = 0, 1; n = 0, 1, 2) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, electronic-absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. This substitution has allowed us to directly compare the electronic and optical properties of these organometallic complexes with those of their organic analogues. We found that while these systems exhibit redox and spectroscopic properties similar to those of their organic counterparts they also exhibit new characteristics that are due to the incorporation of the metal center. The design of these compounds has also allowed us to address how the position of the metal within the backbone affects the electronic and optical properties of these compounds. We found that the position of the metal is important in controlling the electronic structure of the material, thus suggesting that the properties of these compounds can be further tuned by changing the position of the metal within the conjugated carbon chain. In addition, we have appended sulfur and isocyanide functionalities to oligo(phenyleneethynylene) analogues. A family of compounds of the type Cl(dppe) 2W(≡CC6H4-4-(C≡CC6H 4)m-4'-R) (m = l, 2; R = N≡C, SCH2CH 2Si(CH3)3) have been prepared and characterized by electronic-absorption spectroscopy and electrochemistry. Differences between the sulfur and isocyanide functionalities are examined, along with the effects of extending conjugation along the arylidyne chain. Evidence that the sulfur-containing arylidyne complexes form self-assembled monolayers on Au and Pt electrodes is presented. In addition, the electron-transfer rates for

  3. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W

    2002-01-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB sub 2 (a superconductor with T sub c = 39 K), B sub 6 Si, B sub 4 C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li sub 1 sub 2 Si sub 7 , and Li sub 7 Sn sub 2. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 6 Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lith...

  4. Fissile material containment efforts: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)) are the fundamental ingredients of all nuclear weapons and they also happen to be the most difficult and expensive part of a nuclear warhead to produce. For a comprehensive nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime to be established, it becomes essential that there is a global, verified ban on the production of fissile materials for nuclear explosives

  5. Effect of environmental variables on localized corrosion of high-performance container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) experiments were performed on several candidate high-performance waste package container materials to evaluate their susceptibility to localized corrosion in aqueous environments relevant to the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. This paper presents the results of this study showing the effects of chloride ion (Cl) concentrations, pH, temperature, and electrochemical potential scan rate on the pitting corrosion behavior of these materials

  6. Biodegradable containers from green waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Schettini, Evelia; Pandini, Stefano; Bignotti, Fabio; Vox, Giuliano; D'Amore, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric materials based on protein hydrolysate (PH), derived from waste products of the leather industry, and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were obtained and their physico-chemical properties and mechanical behaviour were evaluated. Different processing conditions and the introduction of fillers of natural origin, as saw dust and wood flour, were used to tailor the mechanical properties and the environmental durability of the product. The biodegradable products, which are almost completely manufactured from renewable-based raw materials, look promising for several applications, particularly in agriculture for the additional fertilizing action of PH or in packaging.

  7. 30 CFR 56.16004 - Containers for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containers for hazardous materials. 56.16004 Section 56.16004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16004 Containers for hazardous materials. Containers holding hazardous...

  8. 30 CFR 57.16004 - Containers for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containers for hazardous materials. 57.16004 Section 57.16004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16004 Containers for hazardous materials. Containers holding hazardous...

  9. Preliminary cleaning tests on candidate materials for APS beamline and front end UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative cleaning tests have been done on four candidate materials for use in APS beamline and front-end vacuum components. These materials are 304 SS, 304L SS, OFHC copper, and Glidcop* (Cu-Al2O3)- Samples of each material were prepared and cleaned using two different methods. After cleaning, the sample surfaces were analyzed using ESCA (Electron Spectography for Chemical Analysis). Uncleaned samples were used as a reference. The cleaning methods and surface analysis results are further discussed

  10. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  11. Drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: It is important for the safety of the radioactive material containers during transportation. Purpose: In the procedure of reviewing radioactive material containers transportation, it is very important factor to carry a drop impact analysis of container. Methods: This paper presents a drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container. First, do the calculation of several drop cases of the container such as horizontal drop, vertical drip and gradient drop with the famous transient dynamic analysis program LS-DYNA. Second, do the stress evaluation according to the rules in the ASME Section Ⅲ Division I Appendices which are about the fatigue analysis. Results: With this method, we can do the judgment that whether the container's strength is good enough or not. Conclusions: The radioactive material container's strength is good enough by analysis. (authors)

  12. Mechanical Properties of Candidate Materials for Hot Gas Duct of VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot gas duct of VHTR is operated at 950 .deg.. Ni based superalloys, such as Hastelloy XR, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, for hot gas duct have been candidate material because of good strength and corrosion properties at high temperature. Mechanical properties of these alloys are tested at high temperature to apply to hot gas duct of VHTR

  13. Synthesis of carbon-containing composite materials in burning mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Abdulkarimova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining multicomponent refractory composition materials on the basis of quarts containing raw material by SHS method was studied. It is shown that a complex use of preliminary mechanochemicala ctivatin (MA and modification of the charge mixture with carbon containing additives contributes to formation of carbide and nitride phases in synthesis products.

  14. New materials for the containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos-cement is a new material that can be used in the containment or storage of radioactive waste, because it can act as intermediate storage for high activity waste dispersed in this material or else be used in the shape of definitive storage containers

  15. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for which preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR is claimed, will be disregarded in determining whether all non-originating materials used in...

  16. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of high level radioactive waste in geological formations, based on the multibarrier concept, may include the use of a container as one of the engineered barriers. In this report the requirements imposed on this container and the possible degradation processes are reviewed. Further on an overview is given of the research being carried out by various research centres in the European Community on the assessment of the corrosion behaviour of candidate container materials. The results obtained on a number of materials under various testing conditions are summarized and evaluated. As a result, three promising materials have been selected for a detailed joint testing programme. It concerns two highly corrosion resistant alloys, resp. Ti-Pd (0.2 Pd%) and Hastelloy C4 and one consumable material namely a low carbon steel. Finally the possibilities of modelling the corrosion phenomena are discussed

  17. Element content and particle size characterization of a mussel candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas; Santos, Rafaela G. dos; Martinelli, Jose R., E-mail: jroberto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The use of certified reference materials is an important tool in the quality assurance of analytical measurements. To assure reliability on recently prepared powder reference materials, not only the characterization of the property values of interest and their corresponding uncertainties, but also physical properties such as the particle size distribution must be well evaluated. Narrow particle size distributions are preferable than larger ones; as different size particles may have different analyte content. Due to this fact, the segregation of the coarse and the fine particles in a bottle may lead to inhomogeneity of the reference material, which should be avoided. In this study the element content as well as the particle size distribution of a mussel candidate reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP was investigated. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to the determination of 15 elements in seven fractions of the material with different particle size distributions. Subsamples of the materials were irradiated simultaneously with elemental standards at the IEA-R1 research nuclear reactor and the induced gamma ray energies were measured in a hyperpure germanium detector. Three vials of the candidate reference material and three coarser fractions, collected during the preparation, were analyzed by Laser Diffraction Particle Analysis to determine the particle size distribution. Differences on element content were detected for fractions with different particle size distribution, indicating the importance of particle size control for biological reference materials. From the particle size analysis, Gaussian particle size distribution was observed for the candidate reference material with mean particle size {mu} = 94.6 {+-} 0.8 {mu}m. (author)

  18. Holographic imaging of natural-fiber-containing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Kyle J [Richland, WA; Tucker, Brian J [Pasco, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Griffin, Jeffrey W [Kennewick, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2010-12-21

    The present invention includes methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials. In particular, the images can provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. Embodiments of the invention utilize an array of antennas and at least one transceiver to collect amplitude and phase data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz. A conveyance system passes the natural-fiber-containing materials through a field of view of the array of antennas. A computing device is configured to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm to construct a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials that provides a quantified measure of localized moisture content. The image and the quantified measure are both based on the amplitude data, the phase data, or both.

  19. Global blending optimization of laminated composites with discrete material candidate selection and thickness variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren N.; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    but is, however, convex in the original mixed binary nested form. Convexity is the foremost important property of optimization problems, and the proposed method can guarantee the global or near-global optimal solution; unlike most topology optimization methods. The material selection is limited...... to a distinct choice among predefined numbers of candidates. The laminate thickness is variable but the number of plies must be integer. We solve the convex mixed binary non-linear programming problem by an outer approximation cutting-plane method augmented with a few heuristics to accelerate the convergence...... for popular topology optimization methods and heuristics based on solving sequences of non-convex problems. The results will among others demonstrate that the difficulty of the posed problem is highly dependent upon the composition of the constitutive properties of the material candidates....

  20. Inner material requirements and candidates screening for spent fuel disposal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the present Spanish 'once-through' nuclear fuel cycle, the need arises to complete the geological repository reference concept with a spent fuel canister final design. One of the main issues in its design is selecting the inner material to be placed inside the canister, between the steel walls and the spent fuel assemblies. The primary purpose of this material will be to avoid the possibility of a criticality event once the canister walls have been finally breached by corrosion and the spent fuel is flooded with groundwater. That is an important role because the increase in heat generation from such an event would act against spent fuel stability and compromise bentonite barrier functions, negatively affecting overall repository performance. To prevent this possibility a detailed set of requirements for a material to fulfil this role in the repository environment have been devised and presented in this paper. With these requirements in view, eight potentially interesting candidates were selected and evaluated: cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, haematite, phosphates, and olivine. Among these, the first four materials or material families are found promising for this application. In addition, other relevant non-performance-related aspects of candidate materials, which could help on decision making, are also considered and evaluated. (authors)

  1. Cyclodextrin-Containing Polymers: Versatile Platforms of Drug Delivery Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Heidel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are being widely explored as potential therapeutics for numerous applications in medicine and have been shown to significantly improve the circulation, biodistribution, efficacy, and safety profiles of multiple classes of drugs. One leading class of nanoparticles involves the use of linear, cyclodextrin-containing polymers (CDPs. As is discussed in this paper, CDPs can incorporate therapeutic payloads into nanoparticles via covalent attachment of prodrug/drug molecules to the polymer (the basis of the Cyclosert platform or by noncovalent inclusion of cationic CDPs to anionic, nucleic acid payloads (the basis of the RONDEL platform. For each of these two approaches, we review the relevant molecular architecture and its rationale, discuss the physicochemical and biological properties of these nanoparticles, and detail the progress of leading drug candidates for each that have achieved clinical evaluation. Finally, we look ahead to potential future directions of investigation and product candidates based upon this technology.

  2. In-situ hot corrosion testing of candidate materials for exhaust valve spindles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Hoeg, Harro A.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter;

    2011-01-01

    used, exhaust valve spindles in marine diesel engines are subjected to high temperatures and stresses as well as molten salt induced corrosion. To investigate candidate materials for future designs which will involve the HIP process, a spindle with Ni superalloy material samples inserted in a HIPd Ni49......The two stroke diesel engine has been continually optimized since its invention more than a century ago. One of the ways to increase fuel efficiency further is to increase the compression ratio, and thereby the temperature in the combustion chamber. Because of this, and the composition of the fuel...

  3. Effects of surface condition on the corrosion of candidate structural materials in a simulated HTGR-GT environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) helium environment was used to study the effects of surface finish conditions on the subsequent elevated-temperature corrosion behavior of key candidate structural materials. The environment contained helium with 500 μatm H2/50 μatm CO/50 μatm CH4/2O at 9000C with total test exposure durations of 3000 hours. Specimens with lapped, grit-blasted, pickled, and preoxidized surface conditions were studied. Materials tested included two cast superalloys, IN 100 and IN 713LC; one centrifugally cast high-temperature alloy, HK 40 one oxice-dispersion-strengthened alloy, Inconel MA 754; and three wrought high-temperature alloys, Hastelloy Alloy X, Inconel Alloy 617, and Alloy 800H

  4. Value determination of ZrO2 in-house reference material (RM) candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value determination of zirconium oxide in-house reference materials (RM) candidate has been done by referring to ISO:35-2006 standard. The raw material of RM was 4 kg of ZrO2, Merck, that was dried at 90°C for 2×6 hours in a closed room. The samples were crushed with stainless steel (SS) pestle to pass ≤ 200 mesh sieve, homogenized in a homogenizer for 3×6 hours to obtain the powdered, dried and homogenous samples. The gravimetric method was performed to test the moisture content, while XRF and AAS methods were used to test the homogeneity and stability of samples candidates. Reference material (RM) candidates of ZrO2 powder were put into polyethylene bottles, each weighing 100 g. Samples were distributed to 10 testing laboratories that have been accredited for testing the composition of the oxide contents and loss of ignition (LOI) using variety of analytical methods that have been validated such as AAS, XRF, NAA, and UV-Vis. The testing results of oxide content and loss of ignition parameters from various laboratories were analyzed using statistical methods. The testing data of oxide concentration in zirconium oxide RM candidates obtained from various laboratories were ZrO2: 97.7334 ± 0.0016%, HfO2: 1.7329 ± 0.0024%, SiO2: 30.1224 ± 0.0053%, Al2O3: 0.0245 ± 0.0015%, TiO2: 0.0153 ± 0.0006%, Fe2O3: 0.0068 ± 0.0005%, CdO: 3.1798 ± 0.00006 ppm, and the LOI results was = 0.0217 ± 0.00022%. (author)

  5. Effect of chloride concentration and pH on pitting corrosion of waste package container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization experiments were performed on several candidate waste package container materials to evaluate their susceptibility to pitting corrosion at 90 degrees C in aqueous environments relevant to the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Results indicate that of all the materials tested, Alloy C-22 and Ti Grade-12 exhibited the maximum corrosion resistance, showing no pitting or observable corrosion in any environment tested. Efforts were also made to study the effect of chloride ion concentration and pH on the measured corrosion potential (Ecorr), critical pitting and protection potential values

  6. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. PMID:27216677

  7. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bajare, Diana; Janis KAZJONOVS; Aleksandrs KORJAKINS

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM) containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another adva...

  8. Provisional Assessment of Candidate High-Temperature Thermal Conductivity Reference Materials in the EMRP “Thermo” Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J.; Morrell, R; T. Fry; Gnaniah, S.; Gohil, D.; Dawson, A.; Hameury, J.; Koenen, Alain; Hammerschmidt, U.; Turzó-András, E.; Strnad, R.; Blahut, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the provisional assessment of a short list of four candidate high-temperature thermal conductivity reference materials in a European research project, “Thermo.” These four candidate materials are low-density calcium silicate, amorphous silica, high-density calcium silicate, and exfoliated vermiculite. Based on initial tests on material composition and microstructure changes, dimensional stability, mechanical stability, chemical stability and uniformity, the best two can...

  9. A simplified in vivo approach for evaluating the bioabsorbable behavior of candidate stent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Daniel; Edick, Jacob; Tauscher, Aaron; Pokorney, Ellen; Bowen, Patrick; Gelbaugh, Jesse; Stinson, Jon; Getty, Heather; Lee, Chee Huei; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Goldman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Metal stents are commonly used to revascularize occluded arteries. A bioabsorbable metal stent that harmlessly erodes away over time may minimize the normal chronic risks associated with permanent implants. However, there is no simple, low-cost method of introducing candidate materials into the arterial environment. Here, we developed a novel experimental model where a biomaterial wire is implanted into a rat artery lumen (simulating bioabsorbable stent blood contact) or artery wall (simulating bioabsorbable stent matrix contact). We use this model to clarify the corrosion mechanism of iron (≥99.5 wt %), which is a candidate bioabsorbable stent material due to its biocompatibility and mechanical strength. We found that iron wire encapsulation within the arterial wall extracellular matrix resulted in substantial biocorrosion by 22 days, with a voluminous corrosion product retained within the vessel wall at 9 months. In contrast, the blood-contacting luminal implant experienced minimal biocorrosion at 9 months. The importance of arterial blood versus arterial wall contact for regulating biocorrosion was confirmed with magnesium wires. We found that magnesium was highly corroded when placed in the arterial wall but was not corroded when exposed to blood in the arterial lumen for 3 weeks. The results demonstrate the capability of the vascular implantation model to conduct rapid in vivo assessments of vascular biomaterial corrosion behavior and to predict long-term biocorrosion behavior from material analyses. The results also highlight the critical role of the arterial environment (blood vs. matrix contact) in directing the corrosion behavior of biodegradable metals.

  10. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY15 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the previous report of this series, a literature review was performed to assess the potential for substantial corrosion issues associated with the proposed SHINE process conditions to produce 99Mo. Following the initial review, substantial laboratory corrosion testing was performed emphasizing immersion and vapor-phase exposure of candidate alloys in a wide variety of solution chemistries and temperatures representative of potential exposure conditions. Stress corrosion cracking was not identified in any of the exposures up to 10 days at 80°C and 10 additional days at 93°C. Mechanical properties and specimen fracture face features resulting from slow-strain rate tests further supported a lack of sensitivity of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking. Fluid velocity was found not to be an important variable (0 to ~3 m/s) in the corrosion of candidate alloys at room temperature and 50°C. Uranium in solution was not found to adversely influence potential erosion-corrosion. Potentially intense radiolysis conditions slightly accelerated the general corrosion of candidate alloys, but no materials were observed to exhibit an annualized rate above 10 μm/y.

  11. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., 'calibration' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  12. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Norman, Daren R.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Sterbentz, James W.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Zabriskie, John M.; Bennett, Brion D.; Watson, Richard W.; Moss, Cavin E.; Frank Harmon, J.

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration.

  13. Application of electron irradiation to food containers and packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems caused by microbial contamination and hazardous chemicals have attracted much attention in the food industry. The number of systems such as hygienic management systems and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems adopted in the manufacturing process is increasing. As manufacturing process control has become stricter, stricter control is also required for microbial control for containers and packaging materials (from disinfection to sterilization). Since safe and reliable methods for sterilizing food containers and packaging materials that leave no residue are required, electron beam sterilization used for medical equipment has attracted attention from the food industry. This paper describes an electron irradiation facility, methods for applying electron beams to food containers and packaging materials, and products irradiated with electron beams. (author)

  14. Experimental results of angular neutron flux spectra leaking from slabs of fusion reactor candidate materials, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes experimental data of angular neutron flux spectra measured on the slab assemblies of fusion reactor candidate materials using the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) method. These experiments have been performed for graphite (carbon), beryllium and lithium-oxide. The obtained data are very suitable for the benchmark tests to check the nuclear data and calculational code systems. For use of that purpose, the experimental conditions, definitions of key terms and results obtained are compiled in figures and numerical tables. (author)

  15. Corrosion-Resistant Container for Molten-Material Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.; McNaul, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In a carbothermal process, gaseous methane is passed over molten regolith, which is heated past its melting point to a temperature in excess of 1,625 C. At this temperature, materials in contact with the molten regolith (or regolith simulant) corrode and lose their structural properties. As a result, fabricating a crucible to hold the molten material and providing a method of contact heating have been problematic. Alternative containment approaches use a large crucible and limit the heat zone of the material being processed, which is inefficient because of volume and mass constraints. Alternative heating approaches use non-contact heating, such as by laser or concentrated solar energy, which can be inefficient in transferring heat and thus require higher power heat sources to accomplish processing. The innovation is a combination of materials, with a substrate material having high structural strength and stiffness and high-temperature capability, and a coating material with a high corrosion resistance and high-temperature capability. The material developed is a molybdenum substrate with an iridium coating. Creating the containment crucible or heater jacket using this material combination requires only that the molybdenum, which is easily processed by conventional methods such as milling, electric discharge machining, or forming and brazing, be fabricated into an appropriate shape, and that the iridium coating be applied to any surfaces that may come in contact with the corrosive molten material. In one engineering application, the molybdenum was fashioned into a container for a heat pipe. Since only the end of the heat pipe is used to heat the regolith, the container has a narrowing end with a nipple in which the heat pipe is snugly fit, and the external area of this nipple, which contacts the regolith to transfer heat into it, is coated with iridium. At the time of this reporting, no single material has been found that can perform the functions of this combination

  16. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) as a candidate phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuecuekaltun, Engin [Advansa Sasa Polyester San, A.S., Adana (Turkey); Paksoy, Halime; Bilgin, Ramazan; Yuecebilgic, Guezide [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey). Chemistry Dept.; Evliya, Hunay [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey). Center for Environmental Research

    2010-07-01

    Thermal energy storage at elevated temperatures, particularly in the range of 120-250 C is of interest with a significant potential for industrial applications that use process steam at low or intermediate pressures. At given temperature range there are few studies on thermal energy storage materials and most of them are dedicated to sensible heat. In this study, Dimethyl Terephthalate - DMT (CAS No: 120-61-6) is investigated as a candidate phase change material (PCM) for high temperature thermal energy storage. DMT is a monomer commonly used in Polyethylene terephtalate industry and has reasonable cost and availability. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis and heating cooling curves show that DMT melts at 140-146 C within a narrow window. Supercooling that was detected in DSC results was not observed in the cooling curve measurements made with a larger sample. With a latent heat of 193 J/g, DMT is a candidate PCM for high temperature storage. Potential limitations such as, low thermal conductivity and sublimation needs further investigation. (orig.)

  17. Erosion corrosion of ferrous materials in solids containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow loop with a pipe and a pipe contraction is used for erosion corrosion on iron materials. The paper consists a) of a parameter study of a 13% chromium steel in sand containing formation water from oil and gas winning for evaluation of the effect of flow velocity, flow geometry, particle size and particle concentration and b) the investigation of pump, aramature and process equipment materials behaviour under standardized test conditions. The results are discussed from the point of view of materials technology, flow mechanics and erosion corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of Mutagenicity of Three Eugenol-Containing Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Narlan Sumawinata

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol containing materials are still widely used, both by the lay people or by the dentist. Professionally it is used to relieve dental pain by placing it in the cavity, or as a mixture for temporary filling, temporary cementation, and root canal sealer. Eugenol, however, is also known to be toxic to the tissue, and aflatoxin, a substance known to be mutagenic, has been found in material labeled as clove oil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of these materials, in par...

  19. A compatibility study of containment materials in FEFO, bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Moddeman, W.E.; Foster, P.

    1995-02-01

    We report on a program to evaluate the compatibility of energetic fluids with candidate containment materials. The energetic fluids are constituents of various extrudable explosives developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These paste-like explosives consist of explosive particulates (HMX, TATB for example) suspended in mixtures of energetic liquids and are designed to remain extrudable over a wide temperature range for many years. It is important to preclude or minimize interactions between the constituents of the paste and the containment materials since such interactions could result in decreased reliability or failure of the containment vessel as well as intrinsic changes in the flow or explosive characteristics of the paste. In this report we focus on one specific paste formulation: RX-52-AE (Transferable Insensitive Explosive, TIE), composed principally of the solid explosive TATB and the energetic liquid, FEFO. Compatibility between a number of organic and metallic materials with neat FEFO has been evaluated. The 300 series stainless steels, Al 6061-T6, and Monel 400 showed evidence of surface attack (oxidation or pitting). Polished gold coupons became discolored and XPS analysis revealed the formation gold cyanide. Platinum, iridium, titanium, tantalum and Ta-10% W showed little evidence of reaction. Among the organic materials, the per-fluorinated materials showed only slight interaction with the FEFO while the polyethylene, polyester and Aclar{reg_sign} materials were attacked by the liquid. These interactions were manifested in changes in color, net weight gain and mechanical properties. The changes were exaggerated by higher temperatures.

  20. An assessment of materials for nuclear fuel immobilization containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of engineering metals and alloys was assessed for their suitability as container materials for irradiated nuclear fuel intended for permanent disposal in a deep, underground hard-rock vault. The container must last at least 500 years without being breached. Materials were assessed for their physical and mechanical metallurgy, weldability, potential embrittlement mechanisms, and economics. A study of the possible mechanisms of metallic corrosion for the various engineering alloys and the expected range of environmental conditons in the vault showed that localized corrosion and delayed fracture processes are the most likely to limit container lifetime. Thus such processes either must be absent or proceed at an insignificant rate. Three groups of alloys are recommended for further study: AISI 300 series austenitic stainless steels, high nickel-base alloys and very dilute titanium-base alloys. Specific alloys from each group are indicated as having the optimum combination of required properties, including cost. For container designs where the outer container shell does not independently support the service loads, copper should also be considered. The final material selection will depend primarily on the environmental conditions in the vault

  1. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  2. Evaluation of Mutagenicity of Three Eugenol-Containing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlan Sumawinata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Eugenol containing materials are still widely used, both by the lay people or by the dentist. Professionally it is used to relieve dental pain by placing it in the cavity, or as a mixture for temporary filling, temporary cementation, and root canal sealer. Eugenol, however, is also known to be toxic to the tissue, and aflatoxin, a substance known to be mutagenic, has been found in material labeled as clove oil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of these materials, in particular the mutagenicity. The materials tested were imported eugenol material (95.8% eugenol and local eugenol material (99.5%, both used by dentists and clove-oil material (6.8% eugenol used by the lay people. These materials were assayed in Ames test using Salmonella typhimarium TA 1535 and TA 1537 strain without S-9 mixture. It was shown that all revertants were below the negative control of the test. It was concluded that neither the eugenol used by the dentist nor the clove oil used for suppressing the dental pain by the lay people showed mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 and TA 1537 strain.

  3. Mechanical properties of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High performance aluminosilicate based cementitious materials were produced using calcined gangue as one of the major raw materials.The gangue was calcined at 500℃.The main constituent was calcined gangue, fly ash and slag, while alkali-silicate solutions were used as the diagenetic agent.The structure of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials was studied by the methods of IR, NMR and SEM.The results show that the mechanical properties are affected by the mass ratio between the gangue, slag and fly ash, the kind of activator and additional salt.For 28-day curing time, the compressive strength of the sample with a mass proportion of 2:1:1 (gangue: slag: fly ash) is 58.9 MPa, while the compressive strength of the sample containing 80wt%gangue can still be up to 52.3 MPa.The larger K+ favors the formation of large silicate oligomers with which Al(OH)4- prefers to bind.Therefore, in Na-K compounding activator solutions more oligomers exist which result in a stronger compressive strength of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials than in the case of Na-containing activator.The reasons for this were found through IR and NMR analysis.Glauber's salt reduces the 3-day compressive strength of the paste, but increases its 7-day and 28-day compressive strengths.

  4. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg2+-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg2+ interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg2+ content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package

  5. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  7. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  8. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan (1) has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  9. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S., E-mail: almir@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adelaide@ird.gov.br, E-mail: vanessa@ird.gov.br, E-mail: maura@ird.gov.br, E-mail: poliana@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  10. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  11. ERG review of waste package container materials selection and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The October 1984 meeting of the ERG reviewed the waste package container materials selection and corrosion. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  12. Laboratory Mix Design of Asphalt Mixture Containing Reclaimed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lo Presti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT were used to investigate the change in properties within the specimens and to validate the selected methodology. The study concluded that gyratory compaction is suitable to produce homogeneous test specimens also for mixtures containing high amount of reclaimed asphalt. Nevertheless, preliminary trials for each material are mandatory, as well as final coring and trimming of the specimens due to side effects.

  13. Fireside corrosion of superheater materials in chlorine containing flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T.

    2001-10-01

    Corrosion resistance of three types of candidate materials for superheater sections under simulated waste incineration conditions was evaluated. A 9Cr1Mo steel, an AISI 310SS, and the Ni-based alloy Sanicro 28 were tested on a laboratory and on a pilot scale with different flue gas compositions (up to 2500 mg/Nm3 of HCl and 1500 mg/Nm3 of fly ash). Laboratory tests were carried out in a furnace up to 200 h. Metal and gas temperature were kept constant at 500 °C. Pilot scale tests were carried out by using a 0.3 × 0.3 m cross-sectional combustor, with flue gas velocity of 5 m/s. Air-cooled probes, designed to operate at a metal temperature of 500 °C and facing gas temperatures as high as 600 °C, were used for 200 h as maximum test time. Qualitative correspondence was found between results obtained by the two sets of experimental tests, but quantitative values were not comparable. Metallographic evaluations, metal loss measurements, and weight loss analysis evidenced as the most suitable alloy Sanicro28. Maximum metal loss observed was 240, 182, and 107 µm, respectively, for 9Cr1Mo, AISI310SS, and Sanicro 28 under the most aggressive conditions. Intergranular corrosion attack was evidenced for AISI310SS, limiting the choice of materials to 9Cr1Mo and Sanicro 28, depending upon the lifetime expected at the design stage.

  14. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY14 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory corrosion testing of candidate alloys—including Zr-4 and Zr-2.5Nb representing the target solution vessel, and 316L, 2304, 304L, and 17-4 PH stainless steels representing process piping and balance-of-plant components—was performed in support of the proposed SHINE process to produce 99Mo from low-enriched uranium. The test solutions used depleted uranyl sulfate in various concentrations and incorporated a range of temperatures, excess sulfuric acid concentrations, nitric acid additions (to simulate radiolysis product generation), and iodine additions. Testing involved static immersion of coupons in solution and in the vapor above the solution, and was extended to include planned-interval tests to examine details associated with stainless steel corrosion in environments containing iodine species. A large number of galvanic tests featuring couples between a stainless steel and a zirconium-based alloy were performed, and limited vibratory horn testing was incorporated to explore potential erosion/corrosion features of compatibility. In all cases, corrosion of the zirconium alloys was observed to be minimal, with corrosion rates based on weight loss calculated to be less than 0.1 mil/year with no change in surface roughness. The resulting passive film appeared to be ZrO2 with variations in thickness that influence apparent coloration (toward light brown for thicker films). Galvanic coupling with various stainless steels in selected exposures had no discernable effect on appearance, surface roughness, or corrosion rate. Erosion/corrosion behavior was the same for zirconium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions and in sodium sulfate solutions adjusted to a similar pH, suggesting there was no negative effect of uranium resulting from fluid dynamic conditions aggressive to the passive film. Corrosion of the candidate stainless steels was similarly modest across the entire range of exposures. However, some sensitivity to corrosion of the stainless steels was

  16. Assessment of commutability for candidate certified reference material ERM-BB130 "chloramphenicol in pork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Emteborg, Håkan; Schimmel, Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), an effective antibiotic against many microorganisms, is meanwhile banned in the EU for treatment of food-producing animals due to adverse health effects. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) is currently developing a certified reference material (CRM) for CAP in pork, intended for validation and method performance verifications of analytical methods. The material will be certified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods and has a target CAP level around the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 microg/kg. To prove that the material can be applied as a quality control tool for screening methods, a commutability study was conducted, involving five commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and one biosensor assay (BiaCore kit). Meat homogenates (cryo-milled wet tissue) with CAP concentrations around the MRPL and the candidate CRM (lyophilised powder) were measured by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as well as the six screening methods. Pairwise method comparisons of results obtained for the two sample types showed that the CRM can successfully be applied as quality control (QC) sample to all six screening methods. The study suggests that ERM-BB130 is sufficiently commutable with the investigated assays and that laboratories applying one of the investigated kits therefore benefit from using ERM-BB130 to demonstrate the correctness of their results. However, differences among the assays were observed, either in the abundance of bias between screening and confirmatory LC and GC methods, the repeatability of test results, or goodness of fit between the methods. PMID:20665007

  17. Dose and temperature distribution in spent fuel containing material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viererbl Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent fuel containing material (SFCM can arise during severe nuclear reactor accident by melting of a reactor core and surrounding material (corium or during accident in spent fuel storage. It consists of nuclear fuel, fission products, activation products and materials from fuel cladding, concrete, etc. The paper deals with dose and temperature characteristics inside the SFCM after transition of the molten mixture to solid state. Calculations were made on simplified spherical models, without connection to some specific nuclear accident. The dose rate was estimated for alpha, beta and gamma radiation in times over the course of 30 years from the end of the fission chain reaction. Concentration of helium generated in the material by alpha decay was calculated. For the dose rate values estimation, computation code ORIGEN 2.2 with dosimetric library ENDF/B-IV were used. Temperature distribution inside the solid SFCM was calculated by FLUENT code. As source of heating, energy of radioactive decays was taken. Estimated dose and temperature characteristics can be used, e.g. for evaluation of radiation damage and temperature behaviour of SFCM or for radiation test design of corium simulating materials.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel m-carborane-containing estrogen receptor partial agonists as SERM candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kiminori; Ogawa, Takumi; Kaise, Asako; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-15

    We designed and synthesized novel m-carborane-containing selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) candidates using previously reported m-carborane-containing ER partial agonist 1 as the lead compound. Biological activities were evaluated by means of ERα competitive binding assay and MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. Re-positioning the N,N-dimethylaminoethyloxy group at the para position of 1 to the meta position enhanced the ERα-binding affinity, and 4c showed the highest relative binding affinity (RBA: 83 vs 17β-estradiol = 100) among the tested compounds. Compound 4b showed the most potent ER-agonist activity (EC50: 1.4 nM) and the lowest maximal efficacy (Emax: 50%) in MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. Inhibition of 0.1 nM 17β-estradiol-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation by 4b (IC50: 0.4 μM) was at least 10 times more potent than that of the lead compound 1. PMID:26077489

  19. Influence of container base material (Fe) on SIMFUEL leaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical stability of spent fuel will be greatly influenced by the redox potential of the near field. Presence of reductants such as iron is likely to be an important factor to maintain the original integrity of spent fuel. In this work experimental data about the influence of metallic iron (container base material) on SIMFUEL leaching behavior under simulated granite and saline repository conditions is presented. In the presence of iron uranium concentration undergoes a sharp decrease. This is much more noticeable in the experiments performed under initial oxic conditions. The effect of iron on simulated fission products of SIMFUEL is very important for the elements with high redox sensitivity such as molybdenum. On the contrary, strontium remains stable during the entire tests and it seems not be affected by changes in redox potential. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  20. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  1. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Newark, DE (United States); Whang, J.M. [DuPont Specialty Chemicals, Deepwater, NJ (United States); McDevitt, M.F. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs.

  2. Multidimensional potential of boron-containing molecules in functional materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wolfgang Kaim; Narayan S Hosmane

    2010-01-01

    Boron-containing molecular systems have received much attention under theoretical aspects and from the side of synthetic organic chemistry. However, their potential for further applications such as optically interesting effects such as Non-Linear Optics (NLO), medical uses for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), or magnetism has been recognised only fairly recently. Molecular systems containing boron offer particular mechanisms to accommodate unpaired electrons which may result in stable radicals as spin-bearing materials. Among such materials are organoboron compounds in which the prototypical electron deficient (10B, 11B) boron vs. carbon centers can accept and help to delocalise added electrons in a 2-dimensionally conjugated system. Alternatively, oligoboron clusters B$_{n}$X$_{n}^{k}$ and the related carboranes or metallacarboranes are capable of adding or losing single electrons to form paramagnetic clusters with 3-dimensionally delocalised spin, according to combined experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. The unique nuclear properties of 10B are of therapeutic value if their selective transport via appended carbon nanotubes, boron nanotubes, or magnetic nanoparticles can be effected.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of candidate structural materials in supercritical pressurized water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je, Hwanil, E-mail: hwanil.je@gmail.com; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-12-15

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in supercritical pressurized water (SCPW) was investigated for the candidate structural steels of advanced fusion and fission nuclear system, which are SUS316L austenitic steel, F82H ferritic–martensitic steel and SOC-16 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel. In order to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC with those materials, slow strain rate test (SSRT) was carried out at 773 K, under a pressure of 25 MPa of SCPW with deaerated condition. High temperature tensile test in vacuum at 773 K was also performed to compare the deformation and fracture behavior between corrosive environment of SCPW and non-corrosive environment. Although SUS316L showed a change in the fracture mode in the deaerated SCPW from an entire ductile fracture at higher strain rate to a mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture at lower one, the fracture mode of ODS steel and F82H was not changed in the tested strain rate range. Both the IGSCC and TGSCC were observed in SUS316L. And F82H steel suffered from much severer oxidation than SUS316L and SOC-16.

  4. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A cypermethrin CRM in green tea was developed. ► Using two isotope dilution mass spectrometry techniques for characterization. ► Certified value of 148 μg kg−1 with expanded uncertainty of ±9.2%. ► Support quality assurance of pesticide residue analysis in tea to testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC–HRMS) and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC–HRIDMS and GC–IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg−1 and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14 μg kg−1. The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation.

  5. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  6. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination VIII: Identification of crystalline material in two interstellar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsforth, Zack; Brenker, Frank E.; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Schmitz, Sylvia; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Cloetens, Peter; Lemelle, Laurence; Tresserras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Solé, Vicente A.; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Westphal, Andrew J.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Changela, Hitesh; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Srama, Ralf; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; von Korff, Joshua; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction measurements, we identified crystalline material in two particles of extraterrestrial origin extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. The first particle, I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook), consisted of a mosaiced olivine grain approximately 1 µm in size with internal strain fields up to 0.3%. The unit cell dimensions were a = 4.85 ± 0.08 Å, b = 10.34 ± 0.16 Å, c = 6.08 ± 0.13 Å (2σ). The second particle, I1043,1,30 (Orion), contained an olivine grain ≈ 2 µm in length and >500 nm in width. It was polycrystalline with both mosaiced domains varying over ≈ 20° and additional unoriented domains, and contained internal strain fields Fo65 (2σ). Orion also contained abundant spinel nanocrystals of unknown composition, but unit cell dimension a = 8.06 ± 0.08 Å (2σ). Two additional crystalline phases were present and remained unidentified. An amorphous component appeared to be present in both these particles based on STXM and XRF results reported elsewhere.

  7. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  8. SULFONATED POLYIMIDES CONTAINING PYRIDINE GROUPS AS PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Lei; Chuan-qing Kang; Yun-jie Huang; Xue-peng Qiu; Xiang-ling Ji; Wei Xing; Lian-xun Gao

    2011-01-01

    A series of sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) containing pyridine groups were prepared by direct polycondensation from 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA),4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2′-disulfonic acid (ODADS) and 4-(4-methoxy)phenyl-2,6-bis(4-aminophenyl)pyridine (DAM).The resulting copolymers displayed good solubility in common organic solvents.Flexible,transparent,tough membranes were obtained via solution casting.All the films showed high thermal stability with desulfonation temperature over 300℃.They exhibited prominent mechanical properties with Young's modulus around 2.0 GPa.High proton conductivity (0.23 S/em at 100% RH) was also observed.More importantly,the new materials exhibited low water uptake (30 wt%-75 wt% at 80℃) and improved water stability,which were attributed to the acid-base interaction between sulfonic acid and pyridine functional groups.

  9. Organic Electrofluorescent Materials Using Pyridine-Containing Macrocyclic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingxi LI; Long FU; Wenwen YU; Renhe HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Novel pyridine-containing macrocyclic compounds, such as 6,12,19,25-tetramethyl-7,11,20,24-dinitrilo-dibenzo[b,m]l,4,12,15-tetra-azacyclodoc osine (TMCD), were synthesized and used as electron transport layer in organic electroluminescent devices. Devices with a structure of glass/indium-tin oxide/arylamine derivative/tris(quinolinolato)aluminum(Ⅲ) (AIq)/TMCD/LiF/AI exhibited green emission from the Alq layer with external quantum efficiency of 0.84% and luminous efficiency of 1.3 lm/W. The derivatives of TMCD were synthesized and characterized as well. These compounds were also found to be useful as the electron-transporting materials in organic electroluminescent devices.

  10. ADVERSE REACTION TO LATEX CONTAINING MATERIALS IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Pouryaghoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Latex allergy has become an occupational hazard among healthcare workers. Atopy, intensity and duration of exposure have been recognized as predisposing factors for latex sensitization. Frequency of sensitization varies among countries. So we decided to investigate the prevalence of latex sensitization and potential risk factors among healthcare workers in a general hospital. In a cross sectional study by distributing a questionnaire among 876 employees of a general hospital, we investigated the prevalence of latex allergy and the potential risk factors for latex sensitization. We collected information about occupational history, including specific tasks performed, time of first exposure to latex, number of pairs of gloves used, and duration of weekly exposure. We also investigated the interval between first exposure and onset of symptoms. We asked about pre-existing rhinoconjuctivitis, asthma, atopic and contact dermatitis, hay fever, autoimmune diseases, and food allergies. This survey documented a high prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials (52.5%. 37.7% of responder had adverse reaction to latex gloves. The highest prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials was found in the surgical operating room, followed by emergency unit and internal medicine wards. According to this study, frequency of adverse reaction to latex was high among health care workers. This may be due to relatively low response rate, low quality of latex products in Iran, and the method of measurement. Whenever, the need for implementing prevention program, using latex-free methods and training of employees to reduce adverse reaction to latex is apparent.

  11. Structural Properties of Concrete Materials Containing RoadCem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Holmes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a preliminary study to assess the structural and material properties of a nonstandard, concrete type mix containing RoadCem, a traditional soil stabilising additive. Two different mixes determined the effect of adding RoadCem in terms of compressive and flexural strengths, breaking strain, thermal expansion and contraction behaviour, permeability using a falling head, and Young’s modulus. RoadCem is a fine powder containing alkali metals and synthetic zeolites which are complemented with a complex activator. RoadCem modifies the dynamics and chemistry of cement hydration by enhancing the crystallisation process and forming longer needle crystalline structures. It reduces the heat of hydration with an early strength development. Varying the volume in the mix varies the viscosity and alters curing times while maintaining the water cement ratio. The results from this study have shown a modest increase in compressive strength and Young’s modulus with improvements in thermal performance, particularly at low temperatures. The flexural strength of the two mixes was similar with a much reduced permeability in the RoadCem mix. The results demonstrate the improved performance of concrete incorporating RoadCem but further improvements are possible by using a better graded aggregate and controlling the maximum dry density and moisture contents.

  12. Analysis of wallboard containing a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Heberle, D. P.

    Phase change materials (PCMs) used on the interior of buildings hold the promise for improved thermal performance by reducing the energy requirements for space conditioning and by improving thermal comfort by reducing temperature swings inside the building. Efforts are underway to develop a gypsum wallboard containing a hydrocarbon PCM. With a phase change temperature in the room temperature range, the PCM wallboard adds substantially to the thermal mass of the building while serving the same architectural function as conventional wallboard. To determine the thermal and economic performance of this PCM wallboard, the Transient Systems Simulation Program (TRNSYS) was modified to accommodate walls that are covered with PCM plasterboard, and to apportion the direct beam solar radiation to interior surfaces of a building. The modified code was used to simulate the performance of conventional and direct-gain passive solar residential-sized buildings with and without PCM wallboard. Space heating energy savings were determined as a function of PCM wallboard characteristics. Thermal comfort improvements in buildings containing the PCM were qualified in terms of energy savings. The report concludes with a present worth economic analysis of these energy savings and arrives at system costs and economic payback based on current costs of PCMs under study for the wallboard application.

  13. The interaction of iodine with organic material in containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, J.C.; Ball, J.M.; Glown, G.A.; Portmann, R.; Sanipelli, G.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic containment materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. A research program has been designed to determine the impact of organic impurities on iodine volatility under accident conditions. The program consists of experimental, literature and modelling studies on the radiolysis or organic compounds in the aqueous phase, thermal and radiolytic formation and decomposition of organic iodides, dissolution of organic solvents from various painted surfaces into the aqueous phase, and iodine deposition on painted surfaces. The experimental studies consist of bench-scale `separate effects` tests as well as intermediate-scale `integrated effects` in the Radioiodine Test facility. The studies have shown that organic impurities will be found in containment water, arising from the dissolution of organic compounds from various surface paints and that these compounds can potentially have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. The main impact of surface paints will occur through aqueous-phase reactions of the organic compounds that they release to the aqueous phase. Under the radiation conditions expected during an accident, these compounds will react to reduce the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, consequently increasing the formation of I{sub 2} from I{sup -} that is present in the sump. It appears that the rates of these processes may be controlled by the dissolution kinetics of the organic compounds from the surface coatings. Moreover, the organic compounds may also react thermally and radiolytically with I{sub 2} to form organic iodides in the aqueous phase. Our studies have shown that the formation of organic iodides from soluble organics such as ketones, alcohols and phenols may have more impact on the total iodine volatility than the formation of CH{sub 3}I. (author) 13 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs.

  14. Scale model experiments of energy material shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ongoing program is being conducted by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories as an integral part of an overall ECT program to overview and assess the adequacy of the public safety and environmental protection provided by containers used in the shipment of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other DOE energy materials. The efforts of this program are directed toward development of improved techniques for assessment of cask response to specific dynamic impact conditions. Initial phases of the program were directed to verify the applicability of scale modeling techniques utilizing lead shielded/stainless steel cask models. Cask models 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 linear scale of a typical truck cask were tested. The results indicated that the elastic and plastic response of lead shielded casks can be predicted by tests of replica cask models. Tests conducted to produce only elastic strains in 1/8- and 1/4-scale models revealed that axial strains at four different locations agree with predictions from scaling theory within 20%; circumferential strains agreed within 40%. For tests of 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 scale models in which plastic strains were produced, strains generally agreed with scaling theory. These tests also revealed the influence of other conditions such as impact angle, temperature, material properties, and impact target on the response of the cask models. These data are being used by LASL in computer code development for analytically predicting cask response

  15. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, nu). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  16. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase containing virus-like particles produced in HEK-293 suspension culture: An effective influenza vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Gilbert, Renald; Simoneau, Melanie; Caron, Antoine; Chahal, Parminder; Chen, Wangxue; Ansorge, Sven; Li, Xuguang; Henry, Olivier; Kamen, Amine

    2016-06-17

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute a promising alternative as influenza vaccine. They are non-replicative particles that mimic the morphology of native viruses which make them more immunogenic than classical subunit vaccines. In this study, we propose HEK-293 cells in suspension culture in serum-free medium as an efficient platform to produce large quantities of VLPs. For this purpose, a stable cell line expressing the main influenza viral antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) (subtype H1N1) under the regulation of a cumate inducible promoter was developed (293HA-NA cells). The production of VLPs was evaluated by transient transfection of plasmids encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag or M1 influenza matrix protein. To facilitate the monitoring of VLPs production, Gag was fused to the green fluorescence protein (GFP). The transient transfection of the gag containing plasmid in 293HA-NA cells increased the release of HA and NA seven times more than its counterpart transfected with the M1 encoding plasmid. Consequently, the production of HA-NA containing VLPs using Gag as scaffold was evaluated in a 3-L controlled stirred tank bioreactor. The VLPs secreted in the culture medium were recovered by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose cushion and ultrafiltered by tangential flow filtration. Transmission electron micrographs of final sample revealed the presence of particles with the average typical size (150-200nm) and morphology of HIV-1 immature particles. The concentration of the influenza glycoproteins on the Gag-VLPs was estimated by single radial immunodiffusion and hemagglutination assay for HA and by Dot-Blot for HA and NA. More significantly, intranasal immunization of mice with influenza Gag-VLPs induced strong antigen-specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses and provided full protection against a lethal intranasal challenge with the homologous virus strain. These data suggest that, with further optimization and characterization

  17. Review of liquid metal corrosion issues for potential containment materials for liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic spallation targets as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (44Pb-56Bi) have been the two primary candidate liquid metal target materials for the production of spallation neutrons. Selection of a container material for the liquid metal target will greatly affect the lifetime and safety of the target subsystem. For the liquid lead target, niobium-1 wt% zirconium (Nb-1Zr) is a candidate containment material for liquid lead, but its poor oxidation resistance has been a major concern. In this paper, the oxidation rate of Nb-1Zr was studied based on the calculations of thickness loss resulting from oxidation. According to these calculations, it appeared that uncoated Nb-1Zr may be used for a 1-year operation at 900 C at PO2=1 x 10-6 Torr, but the same material may not be used in argon with 5-ppm oxygen. Coating technologies to reduce the oxidation of Nb-1Zr are reviewed, as are other candidate refractory metals such as molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. For the liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target, three candidate containment materials are suggested, based on a literature survey of the materials' compatibility and proton irradiation tests: Croloy 2-1/4, modified 9Cr-1Mo, and 12Cr-1Mo (HT-9) steel. These materials seem to be used only if the lead-bismuth is thoroughly deoxidized and treated with zirconium and magnesium. (orig.)

  18. Oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steels as fuel cladding candidate materials for SCWR in superheated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of cold work on oxidation kinetics was clearly observed for 15Cr–20Ni SS. • The tube-shaped 15Cr–20Ni SS showed very good oxidation resistance. • The machined layer by cold drawing has a significant role to mitigate oxidation. - Abstract: Oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steels as fuel cladding candidate materials for supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR), including three types of 15Cr–20Ni stainless steels (1520 SSs), in the temperature range of 700–780 °C superheated steam have been investigated. Effect of temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), degree of cold work (CW), and machined layer by cold drawing process on the oxidation kinetics assuming power-law kinetics are discussed. Characteristics of oxide layers and its relation to oxidation behaviors are also discussed. The effect of DO on the weight gain behavior in superheated steam at 700 °C was minor for all specimens at least up to 200 ppb DO. The tube-shaped specimens of 1520 SSs showed very good oxidation resistance at 700–780 °C. There was no clear difference in the oxidation kinetics among the three investigated types of 1520 SSs. The machined layer formed at the tube surface has a significant role to mitigate oxidation in superheated steam. A fine-grained microstructure near the surface due to recrystallization by cold drawing process is effective to form the protective Cr2O3 layer. It has been suggested that since Cr diffusion in the outside surface of tubes is accelerated as a result of an increased dislocation density and/or grain refinement by cold drawing, tube specimens show very slow oxidation kinetics. Breakdown of the protective Cr2O3 layer and nodule oxide formation were partly observed on the tube-shaped specimens of 15Cr–20Ni SSs. The reliability of Cr2O3 layer has to be carefully examined to predict the oxidation kinetics after long-term exposure

  19. Nuclear characterizations and applications of boron-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials either doped with traces of boron or containing this element as a matrix component have important technological and research applications. For most applications in technology, semiconductor doping, chemical vapor deposition of glass films, and optical waveguide fiber manufacture, boron levels or distribution must be controlled precisely. Thus, methods for quantitation of boron are needed, and its analytical chemistry still receives considerable study. Several nondestructive nuclear methods are described in this paper that have unique capabilities for quantitative analyses of boron at the trace and macro levels. Excellent high-sensitivity determinations are based on alpha track counting. For micro- and macroanalyses, the nuclear track technique using the 10B(n,α)7 Li reaction has been applied to map qualitatively the distribution of boron in borosilicate glass and in optical waveguide glass and fibers. Boron in the 1.59 to 7.75% range is determinable in silicate glasses. Similar information has also been obtained by prompt gamma neutron activation. Neuron depth profiling of boron in glass has been performed also. Results for several of these methods are reported

  20. Corrosion studies on containment materials for vitrified heat generating waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mean corrosion rates of carbon steels, monitored by Rsub(p) measurements on specimens in on-going long term immersion tests, are presented. True corrosion rates measured on specimens from two dismantled tests after > 2 years exposure were about 25 μm yr-1 for both cast and forged steel buried in granite at 90 C but only approx. 3 and 7 μm yr-1 for the same materials, respectively, in bentonite. Extreme value statistical analysis of maximum pit penetrations observed in experimental studies, to compensate for the small area of test specimens compared with a container, indicates that after 1000 years the maximum pit depth could be 200 mm. Overall, tests with γ-radiation on carbon steel specimens immersed in deaerated seawater at 90 C show that there is an acceleration of corrosion rate with continued exposure at the three radiation dose rates used. However in deaerated groundwater at 90 C the general corrosion rate of forged 0.2% carbon steel is -1 at a dose rate of 105 Rads h-1. Threshold stresses for the initiation of stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel parent and weld metal have been estimated. Preliminary experiments have been initiated to investigate the effect of sulphate reducing bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel buried in bentonite. (author)

  1. Corrosion studies on containment materials for vitrified high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on a research programme designed to identify containment materials that could be used to isolate nuclear waste for 500 to 1000 years after disposal. The main emphasis in this reporting period has been on the general corrosion of carbon steels selected as candidates for corrosion allowance containers. Carbon steel coupons embedded in crushed granite under aerated synthetic granite ground water at 90 deg C for six months exhibited a general corrosion rate of about 20 μm yr-1. Eighteen additional long term tank immersion tests are in progress to investigate the corrosion behaviour of plain and welded carbon steel samples under a range of experimental conditions. Experiments with carbon steel exposed for 7500 hours to deaerated seawater at 90 deg C demonstrated that the maximum general corrosion rate was -1 in the absence of oxygen. Preliminary results from identical experiments conducted in a low dose rate cobalt-60 radiation cell indicate that this rate of corrosion was unaffected by a radiation dose of 285 Rh-1. A mathematical model has been formulated to describe the general corrosion behaviour of carbon steel containers buried in an environment typical of a waste repository. This has indicated that the long term general corrosion rate will settle at approx. 3.5 μm yr-1. (author)

  2. Haynes 230 Mini-Can Welding to Support Planned irradiation Testing of Candidate Space Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Space MICE-3B irradiation testing was to test uranium dioxide (UO2) and uranium nitride (UN) fuel pellets under conditions anticipated in a prototypic space reactor application. One goal of the test program was to optimize the accuracy of UN and UO2 fuel sample temperature measurement during testing. The fuel samples were required to be canned to (1) prevent sample dissociation, (2) prevent release of fission products in excess of test reactor emission thresholds, and (3) prevent chemical interaction with impurities in the helium-neon gas stream [A]. Haynes 230, a nickel-chromium-tungsten (Ni-Cr-W) high creep strength structural alloy was selected as the encapsulation material that could be easily hermetically sealed and meet material property requirements at 1550 F (1116 K), the maximum design temperature of the mini-can. Laser welding was pursued to minimize weld distortion and meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code weld qualification standards [2]. The mini-can design contained a 0.050 inch (1.3 mm) thick can lid that was to be welded to a 0.050 inch thick lip on the base can such that the lid overlapped the base lip as a lap joint (Figure la). The circumferential flat lap joint weld required a minimum depth of penetration of 0.050 inches (1.3 mm). Initially, a maximum diametrical distortion of 0.002-0.003 inches (50-75 microns) of the outside diameter of the can after welding was specified to allow for close proximity of a thermocouple near the external wall of the mini-can containing UN samples and result in improved fuel sample temperature measurement accuracy during testing. For the encapsulation of UO2 specimens a 0.01 0 inch (250 micron) diametrical distortion was allowed due to lower heat generation expected within the capsule and greater flexibility on thermocouple location. Manual gas tungsten arc welding was then developed with a V-groove weld lap joint design (Figures 1b). All welding was done in a high purity helium cover gas

  3. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  4. Preparation and Application of Active Composite Antibacterial Material Containing Ag + and Zn2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A kind of active composite antibacterial material was prepared with CaHPO4 as the container,Ag + and Zn2+ were adsorbed through ion-exchange, then it was doped with small scale of rare earth and photocatalyst, and was finally calcined at a certain temperature. The properties and application of the composite material antibacterial were investigated. Some tests show that the as-prepared antibacterial powders modified by opaque agents such as SnO2 and ZrO2 , possess beautiful white and excellent climate resistance at normal temperatures and are promising candidate materials for antibacterial plastics and dope. The result of the application in glaze indicates that Ag + can still exist stably, with no color change for the glaze, even being sintered at 1 200 ℃.SEM, EDS, antibacterial activity analyses and contrast tests reveal that the as-prepared antibacterial powders and the antibacterial glaze both have excellent antibacterial activities, without color change, in the case of dark or brightness.

  5. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Bismuth Chalcohalides: Candidate Photovoltaic Materials with Easily, Continuously Controllable Band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioku, Hironobu; Higashi, Masanobu; Abe, Ryu

    2016-09-01

    Although bismuth chalcohalides, such as BiSI and BiSeI, have been recently attracting considerable attention as photovoltaic materials, the methods available to synthesize them are quite limited thus far. In this study, a novel, facile method to synthesize these chalcohalides, including BiSBr1-xIx solid solutions, at low temperatures was developed via the substitution of anions from O2- to S2- (or Se2-) using bismuth oxyhalide precursors. Complete phase transition was readily observed upon treatment of BiOI particles with H2S or H2Se at surprisingly low temperatures of less than 150 °C and short reaction times of less than 1 h, producing BiSI and BiSeI particles, respectively. This method was also applied for synthesizing BiSBr1-xIx, where continuous changes in their band gaps were observed depending on the ratio between iodine and bromine. The composition of all elements (except oxygen) in the chalcohalides thus produced was almost identical to that of the oxyhalide precursors, attributed to the suppressed volatilization of halogens at such low temperatures. All chalcohalides loaded on FTO clearly exhibited an anodic photocurrent in an acetonitrile solution containing I-, attributed to their n-type nature, e.g., the BiSI electrode exhibited high IPCE (64% at 700 nm, +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl).

  6. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Bismuth Chalcohalides: Candidate Photovoltaic Materials with Easily, Continuously Controllable Band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioku, Hironobu; Higashi, Masanobu; Abe, Ryu

    2016-09-01

    Although bismuth chalcohalides, such as BiSI and BiSeI, have been recently attracting considerable attention as photovoltaic materials, the methods available to synthesize them are quite limited thus far. In this study, a novel, facile method to synthesize these chalcohalides, including BiSBr1‑xIx solid solutions, at low temperatures was developed via the substitution of anions from O2‑ to S2‑ (or Se2‑) using bismuth oxyhalide precursors. Complete phase transition was readily observed upon treatment of BiOI particles with H2S or H2Se at surprisingly low temperatures of less than 150 °C and short reaction times of less than 1 h, producing BiSI and BiSeI particles, respectively. This method was also applied for synthesizing BiSBr1‑xIx, where continuous changes in their band gaps were observed depending on the ratio between iodine and bromine. The composition of all elements (except oxygen) in the chalcohalides thus produced was almost identical to that of the oxyhalide precursors, attributed to the suppressed volatilization of halogens at such low temperatures. All chalcohalides loaded on FTO clearly exhibited an anodic photocurrent in an acetonitrile solution containing I‑, attributed to their n-type nature, e.g., the BiSI electrode exhibited high IPCE (64% at 700 nm, +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl).

  7. Development of miniaturized specimens for the study of neutron irradiation/plasma exposure synergistic effects on candidate fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to choose a miniaturized specimen version relevant for testing candidate fusion reactor materials including mechanical testing after combined neutron irradiation/plasma exposure in a fission reactor. The material examined was reactor pressure vessel type steel in irradiated and aged (unirradiated) conditions. Comparative standard impact, three point bend and small punch tests were conducted. It is established that there is a possibility of miniaturization of irradiated steel experimental specimens by means of proper specimens type choice with mass reducing from ∼40 (Charpy) to 0.4 g (small plates). (orig.)

  8. Joining Characteristics of Intermediate Heat Exchanger Candidate Materials in Very High Temperature Reactor(VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide studies have shown an increasing need for energy with the use of all energy sources, ranging from renewable sources through nuclear power, gas, to a limited extent oil and finally to the most prolific fossil fuel, coal. Although this increased need for generation capacity can met with different fuel sources, maybe the main fuel worldwide for next generation is hydrogen. The very high temperature reactor(VHTR) can produce hydrogen from only heat and water by using thermochemical iodine-sulfur(I-S) process or from heat, water, and natural gas by applying the steam reformer technology to core outlet temperatures greater than about 950 .deg. C. An intermediate heat exchanger(IHX) is the component in which the heat from the primary circuit helium is transferred to the secondary circuit helium(about 950 .deg. at 1000psi), thus keeping the secondary circuit free of radioactive contamination. The IHX will be located with a pressure vessel within the reactor containment that will be attached to the reactor pressure vessel by the cross-vessel. Therefore, an intermediate heat exchanger(IHX) especially is a key component in a VHTR. The Status of the IHX design will probably be a compact, counter-flow heat exchanger design consisting of metallic plate construction with small channels etched into each plate and assembled into a module. This heat exchanger design is refereed to as a 'printed circuit heat exchanger'. Printed circuit type heat exchanger are constructed from flat metal plates into which fluid flow channels are chemically milled. The milled plates are stacked and diffusion bonded together. In this study, the effects of the brazing temperature and homogenizing time for brazed specimens on the joint and base material microstructures, elemental distribution within the microstructures and the resulting joint tensile strength and micro hardness of Ni-based superalloy such as Haynes 230 were investigated

  9. Static Elastic Properties of Composite Materials Containing Microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, G. W.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to model the uniaxial deformation of a class of materials consisting of microscopic spherical shells embedded in a rubber matrix. These shells are assumed to buckle as the stress on the material increases. To motivate the analysis we consider the paradigm problem of the debonding of a distribution of cylindrical inclusions in an elastic material undergoing antiplane shear, with bonded and debonded inclusions playing the role of unbuckled and buckled shells respectively. ...

  10. Method of producing fugitive binder-containing nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel material green body of density from about 30 to 70% of theoretical density having tensile strength and plasticity adequate to maintain the integrity of the body during processing leading to ultimate sintered condition is produced by adding an amine carbonate or carbamate or mixture thereof to a particulate mass of the nuclear fuel material under conditions resulting in reaction with the amine compound to form a water-soluble compound effective as a binder for the particulate material

  11. A compatibility study of FEFO with various containment materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, P. [Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Compatibility between FEFO (bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal) and a number of organic and metallic materials was evaluated at 22 and 74 C for up to 8 months. The metals included common structural alloys and elemental metals that the extrudable explosive might contact in its service life. The organic materials included flexible materials for use as collapsible extrusion membranes or permeation barriers, rigid engineering resins (matrices for composite vessels), and polymer viscosity modifiers.

  12. Adaptable Holders for Arc-Jet Screening Candidate Thermal Protection System Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Joe; Milhoan, Jim D.

    2010-01-01

    Reusable holders have been devised for evaluating high-temperature, plasma-resistant re-entry materials, especially fabrics. Typical material samples tested support thermal-protection-system damage repair requiring evaluation prior to re-entry into terrestrial atmosphere. These tests allow evaluation of each material to withstand the most severe predicted re-entry conditions.

  13. Tantalum-base materials for molten plutonium containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating conditions for the pyrochemical processing of plutonium severely restricts materials choices for process components. Pure tantalum has many desirable properties as a construction material; it has a high melting point and low solubility in molten plutonium at processing temperatures. However it has limitations because it is susceptible to intergranular attack and is wetted by molten plutonium. Tantalum-carbon base materials have been developed to overcome the limitations of pure tantalum. Different materials are used depending on the requirements of the operating conditions. Carbide coated tantalum is used for components, such as stirrers, that do not remain in contact with significant amounts of solidifying material. A tantalum-carbon base alloy has been developed for components, such as crucibles, that are in contact with solidifying plutonium

  14. Tantalum-base materials for molten plutonium containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating conditions for the pyrochemical processing of plutonium severely restricts the materials choices for the process components. Pure tantalum has many desirable properties as a construction material; it has a high melting point and low solubility in molten plutonium at processing temperatures. However, it has limitations because it is susceptible to intergranular attack and is wetted by molten plutonium. Tantalum-carbon base materials have been developed to overcome the limitations of pure tantalum. Different materials are used depending on the requirements of the operating conditions. Carbide coated tantalum is used for components, such as stirrers, that do not remain in contact with significant amounts of solidifying material. A tantalum-carbon base alloy has been developed for components, such as crucibles, that are in contact with solidifying plutonium

  15. Laboratory mix design of asphalt mixture containing reclaimed material

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Lo Presti; Rawid Khan; Norhidayah Abdul Hassan; Gordon Airey; Andrew Collop

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT) were used to inve...

  16. Characterisation of bentonites from Kutch, India and Milos, Greece - some candidate tunnel back-fill materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decades comprehensive investigations have been made on bentonite clays in order to find optimal components of the multi-barrier system of repositories for radioactive waste. The present study gives a mineralogical characterisation of some selected bentonites, in order to supply some of the necessary background data on the bentonites for evaluating their potential as tunnel back-fill materials. Two bentonites from the island of Milos, Greece (Milos BF 04 and BF 08), and two bentonites from Kutch, India (Kutch BF 04 and BF 08) were analysed for their grain size distribution, cation exchange properties and chemical composition. The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and evaluated quantitatively by use of the Siroquant software. Both the bulk bentonite and the 63 μm. The bentonite is distinguished by a high content of dolomite and calcite, which make up almost 25% of the bulk sample. The major accessory minerals are K-feldspars and plagioclase, whereas the content of sulphur-bearing minerals is very low (0.06% total S). Smectite makes up around 60% of the bulk sample, which has a CEC value of 73 meq/100 g. The pool of interlayer cations has a composition Mg>Ca>>Na>>K. The X-ray diffraction characteristics and the high potassium content (1.03% K2O) of the Na>Mg>>K. The 2O) which indicates that also this smectite may be interstratified with a few percent illitic layers. Based on the charge distribution the smectite should be classified as montmorillonite but in this case Fe predominates over Mg in the octahedral sheet. The structural formula suggests that this smectite has the lowest total layer charge of the smectites examined. Kutch BF 04 contains essentially no particles >63 μm. The bentonite has a high content of titanium and iron-rich accessory minerals, such as anatase, magnetite, hematite and goethite. Other accessory minerals of significance are feldspars and quartz, whereas the content of sulphur

  17. Thermal Analysis and Testing of Candidate Materials for PAIDAE Inflatable Aeroshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Liles, Kaitlin A.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The Program to Advance Inflatable-Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is a NASA project tasked with developing and evaluating viable inflatable-decelerator aeroshell geometries and materials. Thermal analysis of material layups supporting an inflatable aeroshell was completed in order to identify expected material response, failure times, and to establish an experimental test matrix to keep barrier layer materials from reaching critical temperature limits during thermal soak. Material layups were then tested in the 8- foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT), where they were subjected to hypersonic aerothermal heating conditions, similar to those expected for a Mars entry. This paper presents a broad overview of the thermal analysis supporting multiple materials, and layup configurations tested in the 8'HTT at flight conditions similar to those that would be experienced during Mars entry trajectories. Direct comparison of TPS samples tested in the 8'HTT verify that the thermal model accurately predicted temperature profiles when there are up to four materials in the test layup. As the number of material layers in each test layup increase (greater than 4), the accuracy of the prediction decreases significantly. The inaccuracy of the model predictions for layups with more than four material layers is believed to be a result of the contact resistance values used throughout the model being inaccurate. In addition, the harsh environment of the 8'HTT, including hot gas penetrating through the material layers, could also be a contributing factor.

  18. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Edward T Mee; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; ,; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtai...

  19. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials FY 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Xie, YuLong; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Campbell, Luke W.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    This annual report presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Dr. Fei Gao. This project is divided into three tasks, namely (1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; (2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and (3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonlinearity, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the findings and insights obtained in each of these three tasks are provided in this report. Additionally, papers published this fiscal year or currently in review are included in Appendix together with presentations given this fiscal year.

  20. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  1. Development and evaluation of two subunit vaccine candidates containing antigens of hepatitis E virus, rotavirus, and astrovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming; Wei, Chao; Wang, Leyi; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and astrovirus (AstV) are important pathogens that transmit through a common fecal-oral route, causing hepatitis (HEV) and gastroenteritis (RV and AstV) respectively in humans. In this study, we developed and evaluated two subunit vaccine candidates that consisted of the same protruding or spike protein antigens of the three viruses in two formats, a fusion of the three antigens into one molecule (fused vaccine) vs. a mixture of the three free antigens together (mixed vaccine). Both vaccines were easily made via E. coli expression system. Mouse immunization experiments showed that the fused vaccine elicited significantly higher antibody responses against the three viral antigens than those induced by the mixed vaccine. In addition, the mouse post-immune antisera of the fused vaccine revealed significantly higher neutralizing titers against HEV infection in cell culture, as well as significantly higher 50% blocking titers (BT50) against RV VP8-HBGA receptor interactions than those of the post-immune antisera after immunization of the mixed vaccine. Thus, the fused vaccine is a promising trivalent vaccine candidate against HEV, RV, and AstV, which is worth for further development. PMID:27194006

  2. Development and evaluation of two subunit vaccine candidates containing antigens of hepatitis E virus, rotavirus, and astrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming; Wei, Chao; Wang, Leyi; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and astrovirus (AstV) are important pathogens that transmit through a common fecal-oral route, causing hepatitis (HEV) and gastroenteritis (RV and AstV) respectively in humans. In this study, we developed and evaluated two subunit vaccine candidates that consisted of the same protruding or spike protein antigens of the three viruses in two formats, a fusion of the three antigens into one molecule (fused vaccine) vs. a mixture of the three free antigens together (mixed vaccine). Both vaccines were easily made via E. coli expression system. Mouse immunization experiments showed that the fused vaccine elicited significantly higher antibody responses against the three viral antigens than those induced by the mixed vaccine. In addition, the mouse post-immune antisera of the fused vaccine revealed significantly higher neutralizing titers against HEV infection in cell culture, as well as significantly higher 50% blocking titers (BT50) against RV VP8-HBGA receptor interactions than those of the post-immune antisera after immunization of the mixed vaccine. Thus, the fused vaccine is a promising trivalent vaccine candidate against HEV, RV, and AstV, which is worth for further development. PMID:27194006

  3. Polyurethane nanofibers containing copper nanoparticles as future materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Saran, Saurabh;

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to represent a novel approach to fabricate polyurethane nanofibers containing copper nanoparticles (NPs) by simple electrospinning process. A simple method, not depending on additional foreign chemicals, has been employed to utilize prepared copper NPs in polyurethane...

  4. Humidity Sensitive Properties of a Silicone-containing Polyelectrolyte Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jie YANG; Zong Wu YAO; You Si CHEN; Yang LI

    2006-01-01

    Resistive-type film humidity sensors were prepared with a silicone-containing polyelectrolyte (Si-PE) and their humidity sensitive properties have been investigated. The sensors so obtained show high sensitivity to humidity variation over a wide range of RH (20-96%).In addition, they exhibit high reversibility, quick response and well long-term stability.

  5. Search for a circum-planetary material and orbital period variations of short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Z; Budaj, J; Stellingwerf, R F

    2014-01-01

    A unique short-period Mercury-size Kepler exoplanet candidate KIC012557548b has been discovered recently by Rappaport et al. (2012). This object is a transiting disintegrating exoplanet with a circum-planetary material - comet-like tail. Close-in exoplanets, like KIC012557548b, are subjected to the greatest planet-star interactions. This interaction may have various forms. In certain cases it may cause formation of the comet-like tail. Strong interaction with the host star, and/or presence of an additional planet may lead to variations in the orbital period of the planet. Our main aim is to search for comet-like tails similar to KIC012557548b and for long-term orbital period variations. We are curious about frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates. We concentrate on a sample of 20 close-in candidates with a period similar to KIC012557548b from the Kepler mission.

  6. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  7. The electrical conductivities of candidate beam-waveguide antenna shroud materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The shroud on the beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna at DSS 13 is made from highly magnetic American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A36 steel. Measurements at 8.42 GHz showed that this material (with paint) has a very poor electrical conductivity that is 600 times worse than aluminum. In cases where the BWG mirrors might be slightly misaligned, unintentional illumination and poor electrical conductivity of the shroud walls can cause system noise temperature to be increased significantly. This potential increase of noise temperature contribution can be reduced through the use of better conductivity materials for the shroud walls. An alternative is to attempt to improve the conductivity of the currently used ASTM A36 steel by means of some type of plating, surface treatment, or high-conductivity paints. This article presents the results of a study made to find improved materials for future shrouds and mirror supports.

  8. Report on Reactor Physics Assessment of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, Nathan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Maldonado, G. Ivan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-28

    This work focuses on ATF concepts being researched at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), expanding on previous studies of using alternate cladding materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The neutronic performance of two leading alternate cladding materials were assessed in boiling water reactors (BWRs): iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) cladding, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based composite cladding. This report fulfills ORNL Milestone M3FT-15OR0202332 within the fiscal year 2015 (FY15)

  9. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY) VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, P; Melo, C H F; Torres, C A O; Sterzik, M F; Quast, G R; Montes, D; Brahm, R

    2016-01-01

    The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity ($<$200 pc) and age ($\\approx$5-150 Myr). However, many previous works have been limited to identifying the brighter, more active members ($\\approx$1 M$_\\odot$) owing to photometric survey sensitivities limiting the detections of lower mass objects. We search the field of view of 542 previously identified members of the young associations to identify wide or extremely wide (1000-100,000 au in physical separation) companions. We combined 2MASS near-infrared photometry ($J$, $H$, $K$) with proper motion values (from UCAC4, PPMXL, NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficienc...

  10. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... flammable liquid or gas is stowed. Any heating or air conditioning equipment having a fuel tank containing a... only be transported on board a vessel subject to the following conditions and limitations: (1) The... § 176.76, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...

  11. Evaluation Of Shielding Efficacy Of A Ferrite Containing Ceramic Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verst, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-12

    The shielding evaluation of the ferrite based Mitsuishi ceramic material has produced for several radiation sources and possible shielding sizes comparative dose attenuation measurements and simulated projections. High resolution gamma spectroscopy provided uncollided and scattered photon spectra at three energies, confirming theoretical estimates of the ceramic’s mass attenuation coefficient, μ/ρ. High level irradiation experiments were performed using Co-60, Cs-137, and Cf-252 sources to measure penetrating dose rates through steel, lead, concrete, and the provided ceramic slabs. The results were used to validate the radiation transport code MCNP6 which was then used to generate dose rate attenuation curves as a function of shielding material, thickness, and mass for photons and neutrons ranging in energy from 200 keV to 2 MeV.

  12. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  13. Spectral emissivity measurements of candidate materials for very high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat dissipation by radiation is an important consideration in VHTR components, particularly the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), because of the fourth power temperature dependence of radiated heat. Since emissivity is the material property that dictates the ability to radiate heat, measurements of emissivities of materials that are being specifically considered for the construction of VHTR become important. Emissivity is a surface phenomenon and therefore compositional, structural, and topographical changes that occur at the surfaces of these materials as a result of their interactions with the environment at high temperatures will alter their emissivities. With this background, an experimental system for the measurement of spectral emissivity has been designed and constructed. The system has been calibrated in conformance with U.S. DoE quality assurance standards using inert ceramic materials, boron nitride, silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide. The results of high temperature emissivity measurements of potential VHTR materials such as ferritic steels SA 508, T22, T91 and austenitic alloys IN 800H, Haynes 230, IN 617, and 316 stainless steel have been presented.

  14. Spectral emissivity measurements of candidate materials for very high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G.; Weber, S.J.; Martin, S.O.; Anderson, M.H. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, K., E-mail: kumars@cae.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, T.R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Heat dissipation by radiation is an important consideration in VHTR components, particularly the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), because of the fourth power temperature dependence of radiated heat. Since emissivity is the material property that dictates the ability to radiate heat, measurements of emissivities of materials that are being specifically considered for the construction of VHTR become important. Emissivity is a surface phenomenon and therefore compositional, structural, and topographical changes that occur at the surfaces of these materials as a result of their interactions with the environment at high temperatures will alter their emissivities. With this background, an experimental system for the measurement of spectral emissivity has been designed and constructed. The system has been calibrated in conformance with U.S. DoE quality assurance standards using inert ceramic materials, boron nitride, silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide. The results of high temperature emissivity measurements of potential VHTR materials such as ferritic steels SA 508, T22, T91 and austenitic alloys IN 800H, Haynes 230, IN 617, and 316 stainless steel have been presented.

  15. Phosphorescent columnar hybrid materials containing polyionic inorganic nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S K; Amela-Cortes, M; Neidhardt, M M; Beardsworth, S; Kirres, J; Mansueto, M; Cordier, S; Laschat, S; Molard, Y

    2016-02-21

    The ternary polyionic inorganic compound Cs2Mo6Br14 and 18-crown-6 ethers bearing two o-terphenyl units have been combined to design phosphorescent columnar liquid crystalline hybrid materials. The obtained host-guest complexes are very stable even at high temperatures. Depending on their surrounding atmosphere, these hybrids switch reversibly from a high-to-low luminescence state and show a very stable emission intensity up to 140 °C. PMID:26806469

  16. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials: FY 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.

    2014-10-01

    This annual reports presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project is divided into three tasks: 1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; 2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and 3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonproportionality, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the three tasks is provided in this Annual Report. Furthermore, peer-reviewed articles published this FY or currently under review and presentations given this FY are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  17. Relativistic electron gas: A candidate for nature's left-handed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities for a relativistic electron gas are calculated from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature and density as functions of temperature, chemical potential, frequency, and wave vector. The polarization and the magnetization depend linearly on both electric and magnetic fields, and are the sum of a zero-temperature and zero-density vacuum part with a temperature- and chemical-potential-dependent medium part. Analytic calculations lead to generalized expressions that depend on three scalar functions. In the nonrelativistic limit, results reproduce the Lindhard formula. In the relativistic case, and in the long wavelength limit, we obtain the following: (i) for ω =0 , generalized susceptibilities that reduce to known nonrelativistic limits; (ii) for ω ≠0 , Drude-type responses at zero temperature. The latter implies that both the electric permittivity ɛ and the magnetic permeability μ may be simultaneously negative, a behavior characteristic of metamaterials. This unambiguously indicates that the relativistic electron gas is one of nature's candidates for the realization of a negative index of refraction system. Moreover, Maxwell's equations in the medium yield the dispersion relation and the index of refraction of the electron gas. Present results should be relevant for plasma physics, astrophysical observations, synchrotrons, and other environments with fast-moving electrons.

  18. Testing the homogeneity of candidate reference materials by solid sampling - AAS and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to quantify a natural material's homogeneity with respect to its elemental distribution prior to chemical analysis of a given aliquot is emphasised. Available instruments and methods to obtain the relevant information are described. Additionally the calculation of element specific, relative homogeneity factors, HE, and of a minimum sample mass M5% to achieve 5% precision on a 95% confidence level is given. Especially, in the production and certification of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) this characteristic information should be determined in order to provide the user with additional inherent properties of the CRM to enable more economical use of the expensive material and to evaluate further systematic bias of the applied analytical technique. (author)

  19. Quality assessment of organic coffee beans for the preparation of a candidate reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A random sampling was carried out in the coffee beans collected for the preparation of the organic green coffee reference material in view of assessing the homogeneity and the presence of soil as impurity. Fifteen samples were taken for the between-sample homogeneity evaluation. One of the samples was selected and 10 test portions withdrawn for the within-sample homogeneity evaluation. Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The F-test demonstrated that the material is homogeneous for Ca, Co, Cs, K and Sc, but not homogeneous for Br, Fe, Na, Rb and Zn. Results of terrigenous elements suggested negligible soil contamination in the raw material. (author)

  20. Fe-Au and Fe-Ag composites as candidates for biodegradable stent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Cheng, Jian; Bian, Dong; Zheng, Yufeng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Fe-Ag and Fe-Au composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy using spark plasma sintering. Their microstructures, mechanical properties, and biocorrosion behavior were investigated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, environment scanning electronic microscopy, compressive test, electrochemical measurements, and immersion tests. Microstructure characterization indicated that the as-sintered iron-based materials obtained much finer grains than that of as-cast pure iron. Phase analysis showed that the Fe-Ag composites were composed of α-Fe and pure Ag phases, and Fe-Au composites consisted of α-Fe and Au phases. Compressive test showed that the improved mechanical strengths were obtained in as-sintered iron-based materials, among which the Fe-5 wt %Ag exhibited the best mechanical properties. The electrochemical and immersion tests revealed that the addition of Ag and Au could increase the corrosion rate of the iron matrix and change the corrosion mode into more uniform one. Based on the results of cytotoxicity evaluation, it was found that all the experimental material extracts performed no significant toxicity on the L-929 cells and EA. hy-926 cells, whereas a considerable inhibition on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells was observed. The hemocompatibility tests showed that the hemolysis of all the experimental materials was within the range of 5%, which is the criteria value of biomaterials with good hemocomaptibility. The amount of platelet adhered on the surface of as-sintered iron-based materials was lower than that of as-cast pure iron, and the morphology of platelets kept smoothly spherical on the surface of all the experimental materials. PMID:25727071

  1. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  2. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  3. A new candidate as the cathode material for intermediate and low temperature SOFCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; SUN Xueli; WEN Zhongsheng; SUN Juncai

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop the new cathode materials suitable for intermediate and low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT/LTSOFCs), LaNi1-xFexO3(x=0.4-0.8) (LNF) materials were synthesized using coprecipitation method. Their structures and morphologies were investigated by XRD and SEM, and their electronic conductivities at different temperatures were measured by dc four terminal method. Fuel cells were fabricated to evaluate the electrochemical properties of the LNF materials as cathodes at different temperatures. The performance of 450-497 mW·cm-2 was obtained in the temperature region of 580-650 ℃ for the LaNi0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode, and of 209-227 mW·cm-2 at 400-500 ℃ for the LaNi0.4Fe0.6O3. The excellent fuel cell performances indicate that the LNF materials are good cathodes for IT/LTSOFCs.

  4. Determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in a candidate reference materials using isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing demands placed on analytical laboratories to ensure the reliability of their results, due to the introduction of systems of quality and to the increasing use of metrology in chemical measurements has led most laboratories to validate their methodologies and to control them statistically. One of the techniques used most often for these purposes is based on the use of reference materials. The proper use of these materials means that laboratory results may be traced to the International System of Units, analytical methodologies can be validated, instruments calibrated and chemical measurements harmonized. One of the biggest challenges in developing reference materials is that of certifying their properties, a process that has been defined as assigning a concentration value that is as close as possible to the true value together with its uncertainty. Organizations that produce reference materials use several options for their certification process, and among these is the use of a primary method. Among the primary methods recognized by the International Office of Weights and Measures is the Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry technique. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, through its Reference Materials Program, has prepared a reference material of clam tissue, which has been chemically defined by different analytical methodologies applied in different national and international laboratories. This work describes the methodology developed with the CIEMAT for determining the elements lead, cadmium and zinc in the clam tissue reference material using the primary technique of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry. The calculation is described for obtaining the spike amounts to be added to the sample and the procedure is explained for carrying out the isotopic exchange. The isotopic relationships 204Pb/205Pb, 111Cd/114Cd and 66Zn/67Zn were determined in an atomic emission spectrometer with a plasma source with the following characteristics: plasma ionization

  5. Properties of Cement Based Materials Containing Copper Tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Onuaguluchi, Obinna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Increasing demands for copper and copper allied products have made the processing of low grade ores with high volume waste output unavoidable. Presently, billions of tons of copper tailings can be found in major copper producing countries. This study explored the possibility of using these copper tailings either as a cement replacement or additive material in pastes, mortars and concretes of 0.65, 0.57 and 0.50 w/b ratios. Fresh properties of mixtures such as paste consistencies an...

  6. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M. F.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.; Brahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity (physical separation) companions. Methods: We combined 2MASS near-infrared photometry (J, H, K) with proper motion values (from UCAC4, PPMXL, NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficiency of our method. Results: We identified 84 targets (45: 0.2-1.3 M⊙, 17: 0.08-0.2 M⊙, 22: <0.08 M⊙) in our analysis, ten of which have been identified from spectroscopic analysis in previous young association works. For 33 of these 84, we were able to further assess their membership using a variety of properties (X-ray emission, UV excess, Hα, lithium and K I equivalent widths, radial velocities, and CaH indices). We derive a success rate of 76-88% for this technique based on the consistency of these properties. Conclusions: Once confirmed, the targets identified in this work would significantly improve our knowledge of the lower mass end of the young associations. Additionally, these targets would make an ideal new sample for the identification and study of planets around nearby young stars. Given the predicted substellar mass of the majority of these new candidate members and their proximity, high-contrast imaging techniques would facilitate the search for new low-mass planets. Based on FEROS observations obtained during CNTAC programme CN2015B-9 and observations made with the HERMES spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Mercator Telescope at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Full Table 4 (Appendix E) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  7. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M. F.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.; Brahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity (NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficiency of our method. Results: We identified 84 targets (45: 0.2-1.3 M⊙, 17: 0.08-0.2 M⊙, 22: <0.08 M⊙) in our analysis, ten of which have been identified from spectroscopic analysis in previous young association works. For 33 of these 84, we were able to further assess their membership using a variety of properties (X-ray emission, UV excess, Hα, lithium and K I equivalent widths, radial velocities, and CaH indices). We derive a success rate of 76-88% for this technique based on the consistency of these properties. Conclusions: Once confirmed, the targets identified in this work would significantly improve our knowledge of the lower mass end of the young associations. Additionally, these targets would make an ideal new sample for the identification and study of planets around nearby young stars. Given the predicted substellar mass of the majority of these new candidate members and their proximity, high-contrast imaging techniques would facilitate the search for new low-mass planets. Based on FEROS observations obtained during CNTAC programme CN2015B-9 and observations made with the HERMES spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Mercator Telescope at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Full Table 4 (Appendix E) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A13

  8. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site's suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling

  9. Stabilizing Plutonium oxide material containing Chloride salts at PFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PFP had over 900 items, weighing more than 1100 kg consisting of impure plutonium oxides referred to as high chloride content plutonium oxides. Tests were conducted to examine items for physical characteristics. After 17 years of storage, the inner food-pack cans maintained integrity with very little evidence of corrosion. Items were washed with water to remove chloride salts. Chloride was readily soluble with plutonium concentrations less than 0.05 g/L in wash solution from all but one of seven items. Washed material was calcined at 1000 C. The calcined material passed the storage test for less than 0.5% water. Unopened items were examined using gamma energy analysis to determine if a prompt gamma (n, x) interaction could be used to screen out items with low chloride concentrations. The prompt gamma was not measurable. A 2168 keV gamma from the (α, x) interaction with chloride correlated within 10% of the chloride concentration measured from washing the item with water

  10. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Heteroacenes Containing Pyrrole and Thiazine Rings as Promising n-Type Organic Semiconductor Candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG,Wei; WEI,Zhongming; XU,Wei; WANG,Quanrui; ZHU,Daoben

    2009-01-01

    PBBTZ (6H-pyrrolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']bis[1,4]benzothiazine) was a p-type semiconductor with high field-effect transistor (FET) performance that we have just reported.Two trifluoromethyl substituted PBBTZ derivatives 3a and 3b were synthesized from facile one-pot condensation.They were characterized by means of 1H NMR,IR,HRMS (EI-TOF) and elemental analysis,furthermore,the crystal structure of 3b was described and discussed.Their optical properties were studied by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy,electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV),and thermal properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).The energy gaps of 3a and 3b,taken directly from spectroscopic measurements,are as broad as 2.45 and 2.48 eV,leading to bluish green and green photoluminescence.The LUMO and HOMO energy levels are -5.73 and -3.28 eV for 3a,-5.67 and -3.19 eV for 3b,respectively.The low energy levels render them well air-stable,and to be promising n-type semiconductor candidates for use in organic electronics.

  12. Homogeneity study on biological candidate reference materials: the role of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel P.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: dsilva.pereira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) is a mature nuclear analytical technique able to accurately determine chemical elements without the need of sample digestion and, hence, without the associated problems of analyte loss or contamination. This feature, along with its potentiality use as a primary method of analysis, makes it an important tool for the characterization of new references materials and in the assessment of their homogeneity status. In this study, the ability of the comparative method of INAA for the within-bottle homogeneity of K, Mg, Mn and V in a mussel reference material was investigated. Method parameters, such as irradiation time, sample decay time and distance from sample to the detector were varied in order to allow element determination in subsamples of different sample masses in duplicate. Sample masses were in the range of 1 to 250 mg and the limitations of the detection limit for small sample masses and dead time distortions for large sample masses were investigated. (author)

  13. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  14. Process for obtaining tritium as solid oxide material containing lithium by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process consists of: a) using a glass containing Li2O or a glass ceramic containing Li2O as breeder material, b) irradiating the breeder material in filled perforated pipes, c) having the breeder material in direct contact with the cooling gas accepting and transporting the reaction products resulting from irradiation, d) separating the forms of tritium with the cooling gas continuously from the breeding material. (orig./PW)

  15. Albedo calculations for candidate fusion reactor materials used in the inboard side of a compact tokamak reactor and the effects of using such materials on the tritium breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the total neutron albedo and associated energy distributions for 10 candidate fusion reactor materials have been calculated. The angular distributions of reflected neutrons for monodirectional 14.1 MeV neutrons incident on slabs of Pb, Be, and W are presented and the dependence of albedo on neutron energy and incident angle has been investigated. Finally, the impact on the tritium breeding of the outboard blanket of the choice of material used in the inboard side of the reactor has been assessed. Tritium breeding ratio (TBR) calculations have shown the inadequacy of the neutron albedo concept in predicting the impact of inboard materials on the TBR of the reactor. (author)

  16. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: Engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behavior of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armors exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from being complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper the authors elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known database for design purposes. Due to their strong anticipated implications on the design, attention is focused mainly on codeposition and neutron damage effects. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modeling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e., amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified

  17. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behaviour of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armours exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper we elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next-step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known data bases for design purposes. Owing to their strong anticipated implications on tritium uptake and release, attention is focused mainly on the interaction of tritium with neutron damage induced defects, on tritium codeposition with eroded carbon and on the effects of oxide and surface contaminants. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modelling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e. amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified. (orig.)

  18. Fullerenol-containing Materials Derived by Sol-gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiping XIA; Zhaoyang JIANG; Jianli ZHANG; Jinhao WANG; Yuepin ZHANG; Qiuhua NIE

    2004-01-01

    Water soluble fullerenols were synthesized and incorporated in SiO2, SiO2-TiO2, GPTMS-SiO2, GPTMS-ATPS inorganic and organic-inorganic materials by sol-gel processes. The maximum concentrations of C60(OH)n and C7o(OH)n in the obtained SiO2 gels were estimated to be about 0.6% and 1.5% in weight, respectively. The characteristics of the UV/visible spectra of fullerenols in H2O and various gels were measured and compared. The thermal stability of fullerenols in gels was investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results indicate that the absorption features of fullerenols in solid gels are similar to those in H2O and the fullerenols in SiO2 are stable at 400℃. The optical limiting effect of the fullerenols was investigated preliminarily.

  19. Studies on a Heat Storage Container with Phase Change Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Naoki; Watanabe, Koji; Watanabe, Mituo; Yanadori, Michio

    This paper deals with the heat transfer characteristics when a phase change medium discharges the storing energy to a finned tube in a heat storage container. In this experiments, the phase change medium is Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate (CaCl26H2O)with fusion temperature 28°C. The following results are obtained. 1. In solidification process of the medium, the heat discharge quantity to a finned tube is greater than that to a single tube, However, the heat dischage quantity of the finned tube does not increase inproportion to the surface area of the fin. 2. The fin effect of the finned tube decreases as the increase of the accumulative heat discharge quantity rate. 3. This reason lies in the fact that the thermal resistance of the finned tube is greater than that of the single tube. Especially, in the range of the large values of the accumulative heat discharge quantity rate, it is consiberable that the themal resistanse increases so that the ratio of the dead space of the heat transfer area increases at the contact parts of the fins and the tube.

  20. Angular Scattering Reflectance and Polarization Measurements of Candidate Regolith Materials Measured in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark D.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Vandervoort, Kurt; Vides, Christina L.

    2016-10-01

    The reflectance and polarization of light reflected from a solar system object indicates the chemical and textural state of the regolith. Remote sensing data are compared to laboratory angular scattering measurements and surface properties are determined.We use a Goniometric Photopolarimeter (GPP) to make angular reflectance and polarization measurements of particulate materials that simulate planetary regoliths. The GPP employs the Helmholtz Reciprocity Principle ( 2, 1) – the incident light is linearly polarized - the intensity of the reflected component is measured. The light encounters fewer optical surfaces improving signal to noise. The lab data are physically equivalent to the astronomical data.Our reflectance and polarization phase curves of highly reflective, fine grained, media simulate the regolith of Jupiter's satellite Europa. Our lab data exhibit polarization phase curves that are very similar to reports by experienced astronomers (4). Our previous reflectance phase curve data of the same materials agree with the same astronomical observers (5). We find these materials exhibit an increase in circular polarization ratio with decreasing phase angle (3). This suggests coherent backscattering (CB) of photons in the regolith (3). Shkuratov et al.(3) report that the polarization properties of these particulate media are also consistent with the CB enhancement process (5). Our results replicate the astronomical data indicating Europa's regolith is fine-grained, high porous with void space exceeding 90%.1. Hapke, B. W. (2012). ISBN 978-0-521-88349-82. Minnaert, M. (1941).Asrophys. J., 93, 403-410.3. Nelson, R. M. et al. (1998). Icarus, 131, 223-230.4. Rosenbush, V. et al. (2015). ISBN 978-1-107-04390-9, pp 340-359.5. Shkuratov, Yu. et al. (2002) Icarus 159, 396–416.

  1. Optimization on electrochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 as candidate catalytic material for Green diesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. W.; Nugraha, R. E.; Winarni, I. D.; Adreane, M.; Rahmawati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the effort to support the discovery of new renewable energy sources in Indonesia, biofuel is one of promising options. The conversion of vegetable oil into ready-biofuel, especially green diesel, needs several steps, one of which is a hydrogenation or hydro-deoxygenation reaction. In this case, the catalyst plays a very important role regarding to its activity and selectivity, and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) becoming a new generation of heterogeneous catalyst in this area. In this research, a preliminary study to optimize electrochemical synthesis of the catalytic material based on MOFs, namely HKUST-1 [Cu3(BTC)2], has been conducted. Some electrochemical reaction parameters were tested, for example by modifying the electrochemical synthetic conditions, i.e. by performing variation of voltages (12, 13, 14, and 15 Volt), temperatures (RT, 40, 60, and 80 °C) and solvents (ethanol, water, methanol and dimethyl-formamide (DMF)). Material characterization was carried out by XRD, SEM, FTIR, DTA/TG and SAA. The results showed that the optimum synthetic conditions of HKUST-1 are performed at room temperature in a solvent combination of water: ethanol (1: 1) and a voltage of 15 Volt for 2 hours. The XRD-analysis revealed that the resulted peaks are identical to the simulated powder pattern generated from single crystal data and comparable to the peaks of solvothermal method. However, the porosity of the resulting material through electrochemical method is still in the range of micro-pore according to IUPAC and 50% smaller than the porosity resulted from solvothermal synthesis. The corresponding compounds are thermally stable until 300 °C according to TG/DTA.

  2. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  3. The radiation chemistry of advanced polymeric materials containing fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, J.S.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry; Logothetis, A.L. [Du Pont, Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: TFE/PMVE (tetrafluoroethylene/perfluoromethylvinyl ether) is a commercial perfluoroelastomer marketed by the Du Pont Company under the trade-name Kalrez. Very little is known about the radiation chemistry of this fluoropolymer which in general is consistent with all fluoropolymers. In 1984, Uschold, while attempting to graft vinyl monomers onto irradiated TFE/PMVE, found that the fluoroelastomer crosslinked forming and insoluble network. Unfortunately, Uschold found that the mechanical properties of irradiated TFE/PMVE were inferior when compared to the chemically crosslinked analogues because of the simultaneous radiation scissioning of the polymer chain. This chemical curing is described elsewhere. The radiation crosslinking of TFE/PMVE was also briefly studied by Luo et al. and later by Sun et al. but they exclusively looked at the sol/gel behaviour. Recently Lyons reviewed the radiation chemistry of fluoropolymers and showed that most research solely focused on the physical properties of the cured material and little attention placed on the development of mechanisms of radiation chemistry. In this study, we have employed both physical and chemical techniques such as tensile tests and {sup 19}F NMR to formulate a radiation mechanism describing both chain scission and crosslinking processes. {sup 19}F NMR identified and quantified new functionalities such as carboxylic acid and saturated chain ends. The crosslinking reaction has been tentatively postulated for the first time. Factors affecting the radiation chemistry such as the presence of oxygen and irradiation temperature will be briefly discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Hydrofluoride decomposition of natural materials including zirconium-containing minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptash, N.; Maslennikova, I.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, interest in ammonium hydrogen difluoride (NH4HF2) as a versatile fluorinating agent for the decomposition of natural materials resumed. It is considered to be a new and more efficient than hydrofluoric acid (HF) reagent in analytical chemistry. Thermodynamically possible fluorination reactions with NH4HF2 are exothermic and proceed even at room temperature with the entropy reserve. The fluorination products are of high symmetry phases (tetragonal or cubic) with partial substitution of fluoride ion for oxide (or hydroxide). The fluorination of refractory silicate zircon (ZrSiO4) is kinetically hindered, and its complete decomposition requires the use of a Teflon autoclave at 200oC. The fluorination products are cubic (NH4)3Zr(OH)xF7-x (x ≤ 0.3) and tetragonal double salt (NH4)3SiF7, which can be separated due to incongruent sublimation of (NH4)2SiF6. The mechanism of the latter process is proposed.

  5. Modeling the thermal characteristics of masonry mortar containing recycled materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Morgan Gretchen

    As the building industry in the United States rapidly expands, the reuse of recycled demolition waste aggregates is becoming increasingly more important. Currently, the building industry is the largest consumer of natural resources. The constant use of raw virgin aggregate is resulting in depleting resources, lack of space for landfills, increasing costs, and heightened levels of pollution. The use of these recycled aggregates in building envelopes and the study of thermal properties are becoming a popular area of research in order to improve building energy usage. The construction of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) is encouraged by the United States government as a result of the unresolved finite resources and environmental pollution. The focus of this research is on the impact of using recycled demolition waste aggregates on thermal properties, including specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity, in masonry mortar applications. The new forms of aggregate were analyzed for efficiency and practical utilization in construction in seven locations across the United States by embedding the new material into the building envelope of a strip mall mercantile build model from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program (BESP). It was determined that the recycled aggregate mortar mixtures performed as well as or better than the traditional mortar mix. Opportunities for future research in recycled aggregate mortar mixtures exist in a regional analysis, a regional recycled aggregate cost analysis, and a life cycled cost analysis (LCCA).

  6. New π-Conjugated Materials Based on Furylenevinylene Candidate for Organic Solar Cells Application: A DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Alamy Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific properties of organic-conjugated molecules and polymers are of great importance since they have become the most promising materials for the optoelectronic device technology such as solar cells. The use of low band gap materials is a viable method for better harvesting of the solar spectrum and increasing its efficiency. The control of the parameters of these materials is a research issue of ongoing interest. In this work, a quantum chemical investigation was performed to explore the optical and electronic properties of a series of different compounds based on furylenevinylene. Different electron side groups were introduced to investigate their effects on the electronic structure. The theoretical knowledge of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels of the components is basic in studying organic solar cells; so the HOMO, LUMO, Gap energy and open circuit voltage (Voc of the studied compounds have been calculated and reported. These properties suggest that these materials behave as good candidate for organic solar cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.763 

  7. B4CN3 and B3CN4 monolayers as the promising candidates for metal-free spintronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongzhe; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Tang, Nujiang; Du, Youwei

    2016-09-01

    The search for candidates of spintronic materials, especially among the two-dimensional (2D) materials, has attracted tremendous attentions over the past decades. By using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations, two kinds of boron carbonitride monolayer structures (B4CN3 and B3CN4) are proposed and confirmed to be dynamically and kinetically stable. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that the magnetic ground states of the two B x C y N z systems are ferromagnetic ordering with a high Curie temperature of respectively 337 K for B4CN3 and 309 K for B3CN4. Furthermore, based on their respective band structures, the B4CN3 is found to be a bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), while the B3CN4 is identified to be a type of spin gapless semiconductor (SGS), both of which are potential spintronic materials. In particular, carrier doping in the B4CN3 can induce a transition from BMS to half-metal, and its spin polarization direction is switchable depending on the doped carrier type. The BMS property of B4CN3 is very robust under an external strain or even a strong electric field. By contrast, as a SGS, the electronic structure of B3CN4 is relatively sensitive to external influences. Our findings successfully disclose two promising materials toward 2D metal-free spintronic applications.

  8. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of nuclear fuel candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most reliable material for the research and test reactor fuel is found to be U3Si2 so far. Aluminum can be added to improve the corrosion resistance when the fuel is designed in rod shape and the fuel is restrained in compressive stress. It is proposed that further development should be put forward to the study of U3Six alloy with small addition of Cu. Thus, Seven different alloys were made and fabricated in our laboratory, and the fundamental techniques related to the variation of fabrication parameters were developed in this study. Results from the heat treatment, density measurement, hardness tests and the observation of the microstructures have shown to be very close to those of other countries. These data shall be applied as a fundamental to the development of the fabrication technology for the domestic supply of KMRR nuclear fuel. (Author)

  9. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  10. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose......-containing material by enzymatically sulfating the phenolic inhibitors and toxins using aryl sulfotranseferases....

  11. Researches of real observation geometry in monitoring fuel-containing materials' subcriticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of fuel-containing materials monitoring is discussed in the part related to the feasibilities of researches and realization of optimal geometry (detectors - source) of survey of neutron activity dynamics in nuclearly hazardous areas with clusters of fuel-containing materials concentrated in the premises 305/2

  12. Polarization-sensitive effects of solgel materials containing various chiral media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-dong; Bai, Gui-ru; Lu, Zu-kang

    2004-04-15

    The polarization-sensitive effects of solgel materials containing various chiral media were measured experimentally. The results show that the solgel material displays optical activity when it contains organic chiral molecules and manifests depolarization when it contains inorganic chiral microcrystals with a particle size of 70 microm. Solgel material containing glass powder that also has a particle size of 70 microm displays a polarization held characteristic (i.e., the polarization of the output light is the same as that of the input light). PMID:15119408

  13. Effect of Carbon Containing Materials on Pure Carbon Reaction-bonded SiC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiaoli; WEI Lei; SUN Feng

    2008-01-01

    Petroleum coke, graphite, gas carbon and lower sulfur carbon black were used to prepare reaction-bonded silicon carbide. The influences of different carbon containing materials on properties of carbonaceous precursors, sintering process, and microstructure of the prepared SiC were researched. The results show that:(1)With the density of carbon containing materials increasing, the porosity of carbonaceous precursors decreases and the infiltrating process of liquid silicon is more difficult.(2)The reaction between carbon containing materials and liquid silicon, the volume effect is more obvious with the density of carbon containing materials increasing.(3)As the carbon containing materials density decreasing, residual carbon in reaction bonded SiC also decreases.

  14. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  15. Application of solid waste containing lead for gamma ray shielding material

    OpenAIRE

    SARAEE, Rezaee Ebrahim; POURAJAM BAFERANI, S.; TAHMASEBI, O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The basic strategies to decrease solid waste disposal problems have focused on the reduction of waste production and recovery of usable materials using waste and making raw materials. Generally, various materials have been used for radiation shielding in different areas and situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead has been analyzed in order to make a shielding material against gamma radiation. The photon total mass...

  16. Transient Scuffing of Candidate Diesel Engine Materials at Temperatures up to 600oC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.

    2003-06-20

    This milestone report summarizes the general characteristics of scuffing damage to solid surfaces, then describes transient effects on scuffing observed during oscillating sliding wear tests of candidate material pairs for high-temperature diesel engine applications, like waste-gate bushings in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. It is shown that oxidation and the formation of wear particle layers influence the friction of such components. In the case of metallic materials in cylindrical contacts where there is a generous clearance, debris layers can form which reduce the torque over time. For ceramic combinations, the opposite effect is observed. Here, the accumulation of wear debris leads to an increase in the turning torque. High-temperature transient scuffing behavior is considered in terms of a series of stages in which the composition and morphology of the contact is changing. These changes are used to explain the behavior of 11 material pairs consisting of stainless steels, Ni-based alloys, Co-based alloys, and structural ceramics.

  17. Thermal emittance measurements on candidate refractory materials for application in nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a highly efficient General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) space power system requires that all of the available thermal energy from the GPHS modules be utilized in the most thermally efficient manner. This includes defining the heat transfer/thermal gradient profile between the surface of the GPHS's and the surface of the energy converter's hot end whose geometry is dependent on the converter technology selected. Control of the radiant heat transfer between these two surfaces is done by regulating how efficiently the selected converter's hot end surface can reject heat compared to a perfect blackbody, i.e. its infrared emittance. Several refractory materials of interest including niobium-1% zirconium, molybdenum-44.5% rhenium and L-605 (a cobalt-based alloy) were subjected to various surface treatments (grit blasting with either SiC or WC particulates) and heat treatments (up to 1198 K for up to 3000 hours). Room temperature infrared emittance values were then obtained using two different infrared reflectometers. Grit blasting with either SiC or WC tended to increase the emittance of flat or curved L-605 coupons by ∼0.2-0.3 independent of heat treatment. Heat treating L-605 coupons under 773 K for up to 2000 hours had only a slight effect on their emittance, while heat treating L-605 coupons at 973 K for over 150 hours appeared to significantly increase their emittance. For the temperatures and times studied here, the emittance values obtained on niobium-1% zirconium and molybdenum-44.5% rhenium coupons were independent of heat treat times and temperatures (except for the niobium-1% zirconium coupon that was heat treated at 1198 K for 150 hours)

  18. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on at... the packaging for transportation that the material is properly described, classed, packaged, marked... of the material. The ORM designation must be placed within a rectangle that is approximately 6.3...

  19. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  20. Photoelectron Yield and Photon Reflectivity from Candidate LHC Vacuum Chamber Materials with Implications to the Vacuum Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Gröbner, Oswald

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the photoelectron yield and photon reflectivity at grazing incidence (11 mrad) from candidate LHC vacuum chamber materials have been made on a dedicated beam line on the Electron Positron A ccumulator (EPA) ring at CERN. These measurements provide realistic input toward a better understanding of the electron cloud phenomena expected in the LHC. The measurements were made using synchrotro n radiation with critical photon energies of 194 eV and 45 eV; the latter corresponding to that of the LHC at the design energy of 7 TeV. The test materials are mainly copper, either, i) coated by co- lamination or by electroplating onto stainless steel, or ii) bulk copper prepared by special machining. The key parameters explored were the effect of surface roughness on the reflectivity and the pho toelectron yield at grazing photon incidence, and the effect of magnetic field direction on the yields measured at normal photon incidence. The implications of the results on the electron cloud phenom ena, and thus the L...

  1. High-strength reaction-sintered SiC: a new candidate material for large spaceborne telescope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Yukari Y.; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Tange, Yoshio

    2004-11-01

    The high-strength reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) developed and manufactured by Toshiba and NEC-Toshiba Space Systems, NT-SiC, is one of the most promising, excellent and feasible candidates for light-weighted large-diameter space-borne optics that are applied to geostationary earth observations and astronomical observations. Small NT-SiC sample mirrors were manufactured to study basic physical parameters and features, and optical performances of the material, such as the surface conditions of polished NT-SiC, the condition of inner crystal grains, the correlation between the surface roughness and polishing, scattering characteristics, absorbance of solar light and infrared emissivity, and adhesiveness of metal coating. The current state of the art of the development of the NT-SiC mirror and the feasibility of light-weighted large-diameter NT-SiC mirrors for space-borne optics are described. Although technical challenges to achieve the surface roughness that is applicable to ultraviolet mirrors still remain, the optical performance and the physical properties of the present NT-SiC show that it is one of the most excellent mirror material in optical-infrared wavelength region.

  2. The Mechanism of Silicon and Silicon Carbide Making Carbon—containing Materials Antioxidize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANShouxin; SimThiamChee; 等

    1996-01-01

    The paper analyses redox reactions of an-tioxidants Si and SiC ete at different positions in the course of oxidation of carbon-containing materials,It is pointed out that redox reaction of antioxidants in oxidized-zone plays a very important part in antioxidation of carbon-con-taining materials,The reason why SiC can make carbon-containing material antioxide at thermodynamic temperature has been ex-plained,Experiment proves that antioxidants in oxidized zone can make carbon-containing materils antioxidize.

  3. Estimation of the minimum uncertainty of DNA concentration in a genetically modified maize sample candidate certified reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokisch, J; Zeleny, R; Trapmann, S; Le Guern, L; Schimmel, H; Kramer, G N; Pauwels, J

    2001-08-01

    Homogeneity testing and the determination of minimum sample mass are an important part of the certification of reference materials. The smallest theoretically achievable uncertainty of certified concentration values is limited by the concentration distribution of analyte in the different particle size fractions of powdered biological samples. This might be of special importance if the reference material is prepared by dry mixing, a dilution technique which is used for the production of the new and third generation of genetically modified (GMO) plant certified reference materials. For the production of dry mixed PMON 810 maize reference material a computer program was developed to calculate the theoretically smallest uncertainty for a selected sample intake. This model was used to compare three differently milled maize samples, and the effect of dilution on the uncertainty of the DNA content of GMO maize was estimated as well. In the case of a 50-mg sample mass the lowest achievable standard deviation was 2% for the sample containing 0.1% GMO and the minimum deviation was less than 0.5% for the sample containing 5% GMO. PMID:11569879

  4. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  5. Titanium-Containing Mesoporous Materials: Synthesis and Application in Selective Catalytic Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Chunhui Zhou; Huali Xie; Zhonghua Ge; Liangcai Yuan; Xiaonian Li

    2006-01-01

    Titanium-containing mesoporous molecular sieves are of great significance in selective catalytic oxidation processes with bulky molecules. Recent researches and developments on the designing and synthesis of Ti-containing mesoporous materials have been reviewed. Various strategies for the preparation of Ti-containing mesoporous materials, such as direct synthesis and post-synthesis, are described. Modifications of Ti-containing mesoporous materials by surface-grafting and atom-planting are also discussed. All approaches aimed mainly at the improving of the stability, the hydrophobicity, and mostly the catalytic activity. Structural and mechanistic features of various synthetic systems are discussed. Ticontaining mesoporous materials in liquid phase catalytic oxidation of organic compounds with H2O2 as an oxidant is briefly summarized, showing their broad utilities for green synthesis of fine chemicals by catalytic oxidative reactions.

  6. Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-02-05

    A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

  7. Application of Bruggeman and Maxwell Garnett homogenization formalisms to random composite materials containing dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    The homogenization of a composite material comprising three isotropic dielectric materials was investigated. The component materials were randomly distributed as spherical particles, with the particles of two of the component materials being coupled to form dimers. The Bruggeman and Maxwell Garnett formalisms were developed to estimate the permittivity dyadic of the homogenized composite material (HCM), under the quasi-electrostatic approximation. Both randomly oriented and identically oriented dimers were accommodated; in the former case the HCM is isotropic, whereas in the latter case the HCM is uniaxial. Representative numerical results for composite materials containing dielectric--dielectric dimers demonstrate close agreement between the estimates delivered by the Bruggeman and Maxwell Garnett formalisms. For composite materials containing metal--dielectric dimers with moderate degrees of dissipation, the estimates of the two formalisms are in broad agreement, provided that the dimer volume fractions are...

  8. A novel shielding material prepared from solid waste containing lead for gamma ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mehmet; Baykara, Oktay; Doğru, Mahmut; Kuluöztürk, Fatih

    2010-09-01

    Human beings are continuously exposed to cosmogenic radiation and its products in the atmosphere from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) within Earth, their bodies, houses and foods. Especially, for the radiation protection environments where high ionizing radiation levels appear should be shielded. Generally, different materials are used for the radiation shielding in different areas and for different situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead was analyzed as shielding material for gamma radiation. The photon total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) were measured and calculated using WinXCom computer code for the novel shielding material, concrete and lead. Theoretical and experimental values of total mass attenuation coefficient of the each studied sample were compared. Consequently, a new shielding material prepared from the solid waste containing lead could be preferred for buildings as shielding materials against gamma radiation.

  9. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....405 Section 835.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of...) Measurements of the radiation levels, if the package contains a Type B quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) of... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4)...

  10. 19 CFR 10.602 - Packing materials and containers for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the applicable change in tariff classification even if they are non-originating. (b) Effect on... containers for shipment. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packing materials and containers for shipment, as defined in § 10.593(m) of this subpart, are to be disregarded in determining whether the...

  11. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  12. Narrow gap HST welding process and its application to candidate pipe material for 700 C USC boiler component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuji [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Lab.; Mitsuhata, Koichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing steam temperature and pressure conditions of 700 C USC (Ultra Super Critical) power plants under consideration require the adoption of Ni-based alloys. One of the most crucial issues for the application of 700 C USC power plants is the establishment of welding technology for the thick-walled components. This paper reports the research results on the practicability of candidate material for the thickwalled components. The weld test was conducted on Ni-based Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr- 13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) by using the narrow gap HST (Hot wire Switching TIG) welding process developed by Babcock-Hitachi K.K with the matching filler wire of Alloy617. The weldability and strength properties of weld joint were examined. The sound weld joint was achieved. The advantages of narrow gap HST welding process for the thick-walled components of Ni-based alloy were discussed from the viewpoints of weld metal chemical composition and creep rupture strength. Due to the good shielding effect, the melting loss of alloy elements in the weld consumable during the narrow gap HST welding procedure was suppressed successfully. The narrow gap HST weld joint showed comparable strength with the parent metal. (orig.)

  13. Containers for short-term storage of nuclear materials at the Los Alamos plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for the past 18 yr has stored nuclear samples for archiving and in support of nuclear materials research and processing programs. In the past several years, a small number of storage containers have been found in a deteriorated condition. A failed plutonium container can cause personnel contamination exposure and expensive physical area decontamination. Containers are stored in a physically secure radiation area vault, making close inspection costly in the form of personnel radiation exposure and work time. A moderate number of these containers are used in support of plutonium processing and must withstand daily handling abuse. A 2-yr evaluation of failed containers and those that have shown no deterioration has been conducted. Based on that study, a program was established to formalize our packing methods and materials and standardize the size and shape of containers that are used for short-term use. A standardized set of containers was designed, evaluated, tested, and procured for use in the facility. This paper reviews our vault storage problems, shows some failed containers, and presents our planned solutions to provide safe and secure containment of nuclear materials

  14. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  15. A survey of imaging systems for materials and objects in containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier P.; Dioszegi, Istvan; Ziock, Klaus; Hausladen, Paul, and Blackston, Matthew

    2015-12-07

    Radiation imaging can be useful to evaluate the contents of containers; Passive imaging i.e., gamma sources, neutron sources, hydrogen near to a neutron source. Active imaging i.e., Transmission radiography shows high density material; Neutron coincidences indicate fissionable material; Time of Flight and die-away time are important. These technologies may be most useful in confirming ABSENCE of an item.

  16. Standard Guide for Unrestricted Disposition of Bulk Materials Containing Residual Amounts of Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the techniques for obtaining approval for release of materials encountered in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) from restricted use. This would be addressed in the decommissioning plan (E 1281). It applies to materials that do not meet any of the requirements for regulatory control because of radioactivity content. Fig. 1 shows the logic diagram for determining the materials that could be considered for release. Materials that negotiate this logic tree are referred to as “candidate for release based on dose.” 1.2 The objective of this guide is to provide a methodology for distinguishing between material that must be carefully isolated to prevent human contact from that that can be recycled or otherwise disposed of. It applies to material in which the radioactivity is dispersed more or less uniformly throughout the volume of the material (termed residual in bulk form) as opposed to surface contaminated objects. 1.3 Surface contaminated objects are materials externally co...

  17. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material

  18. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  19. Interaction between adsorbed hydrogen and potassium on a carbon nanocone containing material as studied by photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaofeng [Nesna University College, 8700 Nesna (Norway); Raaen, Steinar, E-mail: sraaen@ntnu.no [Physics Department, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-09-14

    Hydrogen adsorption on a potassium doped carbon nanocone containing material was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and work function measurement. The valence band spectra indicate that there is charge transfer from potassium to carbon. Upon deposition on carbon potassium is in its ionic state for lower doping and shows both ionic and metallic behavior at higher doping. Adsorption of hydrogen facilitates diffusion of potassium on the carbon material as seen by changes in the K{sub 2p} core level spectrum. Variations in the measured sample work function indicate that hydrogen initially adsorb on the K dopants and subsequently adsorb on the carbon cone containing material.

  20. Detecting special nuclear materials in containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2007-10-02

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a container. The system and its method include irradiating the container with an energetic beam, so as to induce a fission in the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  1. A study of compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mužíková, Jitka; Kubíčková, Alena

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluates and compares the compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials for the preparation of hydrophilic gel matrix tablets containing tramadol hydrochloride and the coprocessed dry binders Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Disintequik™ MCC 25. The selected types of hypromellose are Methocel™ Premium K4M and Methocel™ Premium K100M in 30 and 50 % concentrations, the lubricant being magnesium stearate in a 1 % concentration. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process and compactibility by the tensile strength of tablets. The values of total energy of compression and plasticity were higher in the tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 than in those containing Disintequik™ MCC 25. Tramadol slightly decreased the values of total energy of compression and plasticity. Tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 yielded stronger tablets. Tramadol decreased the strength of tablets from both coprocessed dry binders.

  2. A study of compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing tramadol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mužíková Jitka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates and compares the compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials for the preparation of hydrophilic gel matrix tablets containing tramadol hydrochloride and the coprocessed dry binders Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Disintequik™ MCC 25. The selected types of hypromellose are Methocel™ Premium K4M and Methocel™ Premium K100M in 30 and 50 % concentrations, the lubricant being magnesium stearate in a 1 % concentration. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process and compactibility by the tensile strength of tablets. The values of total energy of compression and plasticity were higher in the tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 than in those containing Disintequik™ MCC 25. Tramadol slightly decreased the values of total energy of compression and plasticity. Tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 yielded stronger tablets. Tramadol decreased the strength of tablets from both coprocessed dry binders.

  3. A study of compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mužíková, Jitka; Kubíčková, Alena

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluates and compares the compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials for the preparation of hydrophilic gel matrix tablets containing tramadol hydrochloride and the coprocessed dry binders Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Disintequik™ MCC 25. The selected types of hypromellose are Methocel™ Premium K4M and Methocel™ Premium K100M in 30 and 50 % concentrations, the lubricant being magnesium stearate in a 1 % concentration. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process and compactibility by the tensile strength of tablets. The values of total energy of compression and plasticity were higher in the tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 than in those containing Disintequik™ MCC 25. Tramadol slightly decreased the values of total energy of compression and plasticity. Tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 yielded stronger tablets. Tramadol decreased the strength of tablets from both coprocessed dry binders. PMID:27383891

  4. Holographic imaging based on time-domain data of natural-fiber-containing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-09-04

    Methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials can utilize time-domain data. In particular, images can be constructed that provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. For example, one or more antennas and at least one transceiver can be configured to collect time-domain data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz, according to a time-domain impulse function. A computing device is configured to transform the time-domain data to frequency-domain data, to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm for constructing a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials, and to provide a quantified measure of localized moisture content based on a pre-determined correlation of moisture content to frequency-domain data.

  5. Effects of a range of machined and ground surface finishes on the simulated reactor helium corrosion of several candidate structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the corrosion behavior of several candidate reactor structural alloys in a simulated advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) environment over a range of lathe-machined and centerless-ground surface finishes. The helium environment contained 50 Pa H2/5 Pa CO/5 Pa CH4/2O (500 μatm H2/50 μatm CO/50 μatm CH4/2O) at 9000C for a total exposure of 3000 h. The test alloys included two vacuum-cast superalloys (IN 100 and IN 713LC); a centrifugally cast austenitic alloy (HK 40); three wrought high-temperature alloys (Alloy 800H, Hastelloy X, and Inconel 617); and a nickel-base oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy (Inconel MA 754). Surface finish variations did not affect the simulated advanced-HTGR corrosion behavior of these materials. Under these conditions, the availability of reactant gaseous impurities controls the kinetics of the observed gas-metal interactions. Variations in the near-surface activities and mobilities of reactive solute elements, such as chromium, which might be expected to be affected by changes in surface finish, do not seem to greatly influence corrosion in this simulated advanced HTGR environment. 18 figures, 4 tables

  6. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute α grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase (α and β) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase α and near-α (Ti Gr 12) alloys

  7. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  8. The Effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design Course to Teacher Candidates' Gaining of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkoparam, Süleyman Burak; Kiliç, Muhammet Emre; Usta, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Competencies of teacher candidates in Turkish Teaching department of Mevlana (Rumi) University and the effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design (ITMD) Course on TPACK. The study is a study of quantitative type and single-group pretest-posttest…

  9. Evaluation for cell affinity of the composite material containing carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Shizhao; WAN Yuqing; YAN Huijuan; BEI Jianzhong; WANG Chen; WANG Shenguo; WANG Chunru; WAN Lijun; BAI Chunli

    2004-01-01

    The composite material of poly-(L-lactide) (PLLA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared. Its surface morphologies and property were worked out by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement. Moreover, the prime cytocompatibility was used to investigate the biocompatibility of the composite material containing CNTs and the effects of CNTs on one aspect of cell function, cell affinity. The results obtained indicate that the composite material of PLLA and CNTs possesses good biocompatibility for both the 3T3 fibroblasts and Oct-1 osteoblast-like cells. The addition of CNTs will greatly affect cell affinity of the material, which may be disadvantage for the cell adhesion.

  10. New nitrogen-containing materials for hydrogen storage and their characterization by high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    or liquid form, technologies that are well developed and usable, but not energy efficient. Certain metals and alloys are able to contain hydrogen within practical pressure and temperature ranges very efficient volume-wise, but they are too heavy for use in cars. Recently, attention has turned to the so......-called complex hydrides, which contain hydrogen bound covalently often in very light materials involving elements such as lithium, sodium, nitrogen and aluminum. While these materials typically have high decomposition temperatures, the combination with other compounds helps to destabilize the material resulting...... in lowered effective dehydrogenation temperatures. From the discovery in 1996 by Borislav Bogdanović and his group that catalyzed sodium alanate, NaAlH4, can release hydrogen reversibly below 200 °C relatively fast, hydrogen storage in nitrogen-containing compounds beginning with lithium nitride, Li3N...

  11. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels

  12. Rhenium distribution at high temperature processing of some kinds of carbon-containing raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium distribution at high temperature processing of some kinds of non-conventional potential carbon-containing raw materials (such as shale oil, shungite-containing rocks, high viscosity oil and natural bitumen) is studied. Rhenium concentrating products in semicoking, oxidizing pyrolysis, bertinization and plasma chemical processing of Middle Asian shale oil are revealed. It is established that during semicoking of shale oil, rhenium is concentrating in a solid product (semicoke); during bertinization, oxidizing pyrolysis and plasma chemical processing - in bertinate pyrolysis coke, coke and adsorber nozzle material correspondingly

  13. Alkaline degradation of organic materials contained in TRU wastes under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline degradation tests for 9 organic materials were conducted under the conditions of TRU waste disposal: anaerobic alkaline conditions. The tests were carried out at 90degC for 91 days. The sample materials for the tests were selected from the standpoint of constituent organic materials of TRU wastes. It has been found that cellulose and plastic solidified products are degraded relatively easily and that rubbers are difficult to degrade. It could be presumed that the alkaline degradation of organic materials occurs starting from the functional group in the material. Therefore, the degree of degradation difficulty is expected to be dependent on the kinds of functional group contained in the organic material. (author)

  14. Silicon-Containing Spin-on Underlayer Material for Step and Flash Nanoimprint Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Ogawa, Tsuyoshi; Deschner, Ryan; Jen, Kane; Nihira, Takayasu; Hanabata, Makoto; Willson, C. Grant

    2010-07-01

    Nanoimprint lithography is a newly developed patterning method that employs a hard template for the patterning of structures at micro- and nanometer scales. This technique has many advantages such as cost reduction, high resolution, low line edge roughness (LER), and easy operation. However, resist peeling, defects, low degree of planarization, and low throughput issues present challenges that must be resolved in order to mass produce advanced nanometer-scale devices. In this study, the new approach of using a silicon-containing spin-on hard mask underlayer material with high adhesion by reacting methacrylate groups of the underlayer to the acrylate groups of resist material during ultraviolet irradiation was demonstrated to obtain the excellent patterning dimensional accuracy and increase the process latitudes. The performance of this process is evaluated by using step and flash imprint lithography. The obtained high adhesion between the underlayer and resist material was found to lead a silicon-containing underlayer material to excellent patterning dimensional accuracy and 80 nm straight profiles. We expect that the silicon-containing a spin-on hard mask material under organic resist will be one of the most promising materials in the next generation of nanoimprint lithography.

  15. Magnesium-containing layered double hydroxides as orthopaedic implant coating materials--An in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizbauer, Andreas; Kieke, Marc; Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Angrisani, Gian Luigi; Willbold, Elmar; Diekmann, Julia; Flörkemeier, Thilo; Windhagen, Henning; Müller, Peter Paul; Behrens, Peter; Budde, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The total hip arthroplasty is one of the most common artificial joint replacement procedures. Several different surface coatings have been shown to improve implant fixation by facilitating bone ingrowth and consequently enhancing the longevity of uncemented orthopaedic hip prostheses. In the present study, two different layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg-Fe- and Mg-Al-LDH, were investigated as potential magnesium (Mg)-containing coating materials for orthopaedic applications in comparison to Mg hydroxide (Mg(OH)2). In vitro direct cell compatibility tests were carried out using the murine fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 and the mouse osteosarcoma cell line MG 63. The host response of bone tissue was evaluated in in vivo experiments with nine rabbits. Two cylindrical pellets (3 × 3 mm) were implanted into each femoral condyle of the left hind leg. The samples were analyzed histologically and with μ-computed tomography (μ-CT) 6 weeks after surgery. An in vitro cytotoxicity test determined that more cells grew on the LDH pellets than on the Mg(OH)2-pellets. The pH value and the Mg(2+) content of the cell culture media were increased after incubation of the cells on the degradable samples. The in vivo tests demonstrated the formation of fibrous capsules around Mg(OH)2 and Mg-Fe-LDH. In contrast, the host response of the Mg-Al-LDH samples indicated that this Mg-containing biomaterial is a potential candidate for implant coating. PMID:25939995

  16. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Asbestos-Containing Materials from Surveillance Maintenance and Transition Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis instruction is to define the waste characterization requirements for disposition of asbestos-containing material in the form of thermal system insulation and transite cement asbestos board found in or near the Hanford Site facilities

  17. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  18. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with the states to develop a program for accurate information and guidance to deal with the problem of school buildings constructed with asbestos-containing materials. This is the first of two guidance manuals that are a major part of this program and are being mailed to all public school…

  19. Evolution of volatile sulfur compounds from soils treated with sulfur-containing organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banwart, W.L.; Bremner, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Release of volatile S compounds from soils treated with S-containing organic materials was studied. Methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide were identified as gaseous products of decomposition of animal manures, sewage sludges and plant materials in soils under aerobic or waterlogged conditions. No release of hydrogen sulfide was detected. Most of the S volatilized from soils treated with sludges was in the form of dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide, whereas most of the S volatilized from soils treated with manures and plant materials was in the form of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide. More S compounds were released, and more S was volatilized, by decomposition of manures, sludges or plant materials in soils under waterlogged conditions than by decomposition under aerobic conditions. When calculated as a percentage of the S added as organic material, the average amount of S volatilized under aerobic or waterlogged conditions was < 0.2%, < 0.5% and < 3.4% for the sludges, manures and plant materials, respectively. The five volatile S compounds produced by decomposition of manures, sludges and plant materials in soils under aerobic and waterlogged conditions also were produced by decomposition of plant proteins (zein, gluten and gliadin). It is concluded that the volatile S compounds released by decomposition of the above organic materials in soils are largely, if not entirely, produced by microbial degradation of methionine and cystine in these materials. 17 references, 5 tables.

  20. A study of the photocatalytic effects of aqueous suspensions of platinized semiconductor materials on the reaction rates of candidate redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of powdered semiconductor materials in photocatalyzing candidate redox reactions was investigated. The rate of the photocatalyzed oxidation of cyanide at platinized TiO2 was studied. The extent of the cyanide reaction was followed directly using an electroanalytical method (i.e. differential pulse polarography). Experiments were performed in natural or artificial light. A comparison was made of kinetic data obtained for photocatalysis at platinized powders with rate data for nonplatinized powders.

  1. Ultrasonic Fingerprinting of Structural Materials: Spent Nuclear Fuel Containers Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sednev, D.; Lider, A.; Demyanuk, D.; Kroening, M.; Salchak, Y.

    Nowadays, NDT is mainly focused on safety purposes, but it seems possible to apply those methods to provide national and IAEA safeguards. The containment of spent fuel in storage casks could be dramatically improved in case of development of so-called "smart" spent fuel storage and transfer casks. Such casks would have tamper indicating and monitoring/tracking features integrated directly into the cask design. The microstructure of the containers material as well as of the dedicated weld seam is applied to the lid and the cask body and provides a unique fingerprint of the full container, which can be reproducibly scanned by using an appropriate technique. The echo-sounder technique, which is the most commonly used method for material inspection, was chosen for this project. The main measuring parameter is acoustic noise, reflected from material's artefacts. The purpose is to obtain structural fingerprinting. Reference measurement and additional measurement results were compared. Obtained results have verified the appliance of structural fingerprint and the chosen control method. The successful authentication demonstrates the levels of the feature points' compliance exceeding the given threshold which differs considerably from the percentage of the concurrent points during authentication from other points. Since reproduction or doubling of the proposed unique identification characteristics is impossible at the current state science and technology, application of this technique is considered to identify the interference into the nuclear materials displacement with high accuracy.

  2. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  3. Discrimination of high-Z materials in concrete-filled containers using muon scattering tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, L.; Velthuis, J.; Thomay, C.; Steer, C.

    2016-07-01

    An analysis method of identifying materials using muon scattering tomography is presented, which uses previous knowledge of the position of high-Z objects inside a container and distinguishes them from similar materials. In particular, simulations were performed in order to distinguish a block of Uranium from blocks of Lead and Tungsten of the same size, inside a concrete-filled drum. The results show that, knowing the shape and position from previous analysis, it is possible to distinguish 5 × 5 × 5 cm3 blocks of these materials with about 4h of muon exposure, down to 2 × 2 × 2 cm3 blocks with 70h of data using multivariate analysis (MVA). MVA uses several variables, but it does not benefit the discrimination over a simpler method using only the scatter angles. This indicates that the majority of discrimination is provided by the angular information. Momentum information is shown to provide no benefits in material discrimination.

  4. 10 CFR 32.26 - Gas and aerosol detectors containing byproduct material: Requirements for license to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gas and aerosol detectors containing byproduct material... CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.26 Gas and aerosol detectors containing... application for a specific license to manufacture, process, or produce gas and aerosol detectors...

  5. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Joost de

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe{sup 2+} and the other rich in Fe{sup 3+}, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (T{sub CO} {proportional_to}320K) and ferro magnetism (T{sub N}{proportional_to}240 K) LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The

  6. Raman spectroscopy of boron carbides and related boron-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectra of crystalline boron, boron carbide, boron arsenide (B12As2), and boron phosphide (B12P2) are reported. The spectra are compared with other boron-containing materials containing the boron icosahedron as a structural unit. The spectra exhibit similar features some of which correlate with the structure of the icosahedral units of the crystals. The highest Raman lines appear to be especially sensitive to the B-B distance in the polar triangle of the icosahedron. Such Raman structural markers are potentially useful in efforts to tailor electronic properties of these high temperature semiconductors and thermoelectrics

  7. BAM production control programme for containers for transport and storage of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmer, B.; Kuehn, H.D.; Weidlich, S.; Frenz, H. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    In the process of testing spent fuel casks, BAM is gaining a lot of relevant data regarding the quality level of ductile cast iron (DCI). The basic parameters governing the material behaviour of ferritic and ferritic pearlitic DCI are discussed and the development of container quality over recent years is summarised. The high quality level of German DCI containers is outlined. The effect of microstructure, sample size and loading rate on the fracture toughness of DCI is discussed in the second part of the paper. (author).

  8. Collaborative study on the determination of trace elements in two candidate reference materials: Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of two new polish candidate reference materials is described. The consecutive steps involved collection of appropriately large quantities of Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) respectively, comminution, sieving, homogenization, preliminary homogeneity testing, distribution into containers, final homogeneity testing, and radiation sterilization followed microbiological investigation. methods of determination of moisture content were established and various approaches to the determination of particle size distribution were investigated. Worldwide interlaboratory comparison was organised in which 109 laboratories from 19 countries participated. Laboratory averages from all participants (over 1400 results for each of the materials for over 70 elements) are presented. The method of data evaluation is briefly outlined and preliminary strategy of certification which be the subject of final report(s) published at a later date is announced. (author)

  9. The possibilities of the microwave utilization of wastes on the example of materials containing the asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper introduce some of the results of the investigations in the utilization of the materials containing asbestos in the existingin Wroclaw University of Technology Institute’s of Technology of Machines and the Automation Foundry and Automation Group themicrowave reactor. In the reactor’s heating chamber there is possible to recycle from 3 up to 5 kg of the batch at once. The temperaturewith which is possible to receive in it is approx. 1400 oC. The time of it’s achievement (in dependence from utilized material can take outfrom 25 up to 40 minutes.

  10. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  11. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Joost de

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe{sup 2+} and the other rich in Fe{sup 3+}, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (T{sub CO} {proportional_to}320K) and ferro magnetism (T{sub N}{proportional_to}240 K) LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The

  12. Cosmic-Ray Muon Tomography: Non-Destructive Assay of Illicit Nuclear Material within Shielded Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are increasingly being exploited for the non-destructive assay of shielded containers in a wide range of applications. One such application is the characterization of legacy nuclear waste materials stored within industrial containers. The design, assembly and performance of a prototype muon tomography system developed for this purpose are detailed in this work. This muon tracker comprises four detection modules, each containing orthogonal layers of 2 mm-pitch plastic scintillating fibres. Identification of the two struck fibres per module allows the reconstruction of a space point, and subsequently, the incoming and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. These allow the container content, with respect to the atomic number Z of the scattering material, to be determined through reconstruction of the scattering location and magnitude. On each detection layer, the light emitted by the fibre is detected by a single MAPMT with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to ensure the identification of the struck fibre. The PMT signals are read out to standard charge-to-digital converters and interpreted via custom data acquisition and analysis software. The design and assembly of the detector system are detailed and presented alongside results from performance studies with data collected after construction. Images reconstructed from a test configuration of materials have been obtained using software based on the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization algorithm. The results highlight the high spatial resolution provided by the detector system. Clear discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials assayed is also observed. (author)

  13. A positron 1D-ACAR spectrometer for the study of 60Co containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study some micro-structural changes in irradiated nuclear reactor-pressure vessel steels using a positron annihilation technique, a new three-detector set-up, suitable for a positron 1-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (1D-ACAR) study of 60Co-containing materials, was developed. The design of the equipment as well as results from test measurements are described. (orig.)

  14. First ferrocene-containing low molar mass organosiloxane liquid-crystalline materials

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Harry, J.; Meyer, Sebastien; Lehmann, Petra; Deschenaux, Robert; Jauslin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Two ferrocene-containing low molar mass organosiloxane liquid-crystalline materials have been synthesised and their phase-transition behaviour investigated. The ω-unsaturated ferrocene precursor was hydrosilylated by addition of pentamethyldisiloxane or heptamethyltrisiloxane in the presence of platinum divinyltetramethyldisiloxane complex. The ferrocene precursor presents smectic A and smectic C phases; the disiloxane compound exhibits a smectic C phase; the trisiloxane compound shows a smec...

  15. Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry using prototypic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments have been completed which utilize prototypic core materials. The experiments reported on here are a continuation of the Integral Effects Testing (IET) DCH program. The experiments incorporated a 1/40 scale model of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant containment structures. The model included representations of the primary system volume, RPV lower head, cavity and instrument tunnel, and the lower containment structures. The experiments were steam driven. Iron-alumina thermite with chromium was used as a core melt stimulant in the earlier IET experiments. These earlier IET experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided useful data on the effect of scale on DCH phenomena; however, a significant question concerns the potential experiment distortions introduced by the use of non-prototypic iron/alumina thermite. Therefore, further testing with prototypic materials has been carried out at ANL. Three tests have been completed, DCH-U1A, U1B and U2. DCH-U1A and U1B employed an inerted containment atmosphere and are counterpart to the IET-1RR test with iron/alumina thermite. DCH-U2 employed nominally the same atmosphere composition of its counterpart iron/alumina test, IET-6. All tests, with prototypic material, have produced lower peak containment pressure rises; 45, 111 and 185 kPa in U1A, U1B and U2, compared to 150 and 250 kPa IET-1RR and 6. Hydrogen production, due to metal-steam reactions, was 33% larger in U1B and U2 compared to IET-1RR and IET-6. The pressurization efficiency was consistently lower for the corium tests compared to the IET tests.

  16. Spectral studies on the interaction of acetylacetone with aluminum-containing MCM-41 mesoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to study the interaction of acetylacetone (acac) with the mesoporous aluminum-containing MCM-41 materials. A room temperature synthesis method was used for preparation of purely siliceous MCM-41 and for aluminum-containing MCM-41 materials. Samples with Si/Al ratios of 50, 20, 10 and 5 were synthesized. The synthesized mesoporous materials possess highly ordered structure and high surface area as evidenced from X-ray diffraction and nitrogen physisorption measurements, respectively. The treatment of the as-synthesized aluminum-containing MCM-41 samples with acac shows a distinct band at ∼290 nm. This band is assigned to six coordinated aluminum atoms in the structure which is produced by diffusion of acac molecules through surfactant micelles and their interaction with aluminum atoms. The 290-nm band disappears upon several successive washing of the sample with ethanol. The treatment of the calcined aluminum-containing MCM-41 sample with acac produces the same 290-nm band where its intensity increases with the aluminum content of the sample. The intensity of this band is reduced upon successive ethanol washing, but remains nearly constant after three times washing. This irremovable aluminum species can be assigned to framework aluminum. The measured acidity for our aluminum-containing MCM-41 samples correlates linearly with the intensity of 290-nm band for the ethanol treated samples. This supports the idea that the Bronsted acidity in aluminum-modified MCM-41 samples is a function of the amount of tetrahedral framework aluminum in the structure

  17. Martensitic/ferritic steels as container materials for liquid mercury target of ESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    In the previous report, the suitability of steels as the ESS liquid mercury target container material was discussed on the basis of the existing database on conventional austenitic and martensitic/ferritic steels, especially on their representatives, solution annealed 316 stainless steel (SA 316) and Sandvik HT-9 martensitic steel (HT-9). Compared to solution annealed austenitic stainless steels, martensitic/ferritic steels have superior properties in terms of strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, mercury corrosion resistance, void swelling and irradiation creep resistance. The main limitation for conventional martensitic/ferritic steels (CMFS) is embrittlement after low temperature ({le}380{degrees}C) irradiation. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) can increase as much as 250 to 300{degrees}C and the upper-shelf energy (USE), at the same time, reduce more than 50%. This makes the application temperature range of CMFS is likely between 300{degrees}C to 500{degrees}C. For the present target design concept, the temperature at the container will be likely controlled in a temperature range between 180{degrees}C to 330{degrees}C. Hence, CMFS seem to be difficult to apply. However, solution annealed austenitic stainless steels are also difficult to apply as the maximum stress level at the container will be higher than the design stress. The solution to the problem is very likely to use advanced low-activation martensitic/ferritic steels (LAMS) developed by the fusion materials community though the present database on the materials is still very limited.

  18. Tension in the tie-down chains of a shipping container for hazardous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chains are frequently used to tie the shipping containers of hazardous material to a truck bed. The tie-down system is nonlinear when the container is subjected to a triaxial force during transit. It is nonlinear because chains cannot carry compressive force, and the base of the container may partially lift off from the truck bed. A method was developed to calculate the amount of tension in the chains. This methodology includes three assumptions: (1) No friction exists between the container and the truck bed; (2) The container and the truck bed are rigid; and (3) All chains are properly tightened (i.e., no slacks) during preparation for shipment. The methodology employs an iterative process of a linear tie-down system. This linear system is derived from the nonlinear system with two additional assumptions: (a) All chains can carry compression as well as tension; and (b) There is a point contact between the container and the truck bed. This linear system has a closed-form solution. After the first solution of the linear system is obtained, the unreasonable, or physically impossible, rotational degree of freedom of the container and the chains with compressive force are eliminated in the follow-up iterative calculations using the same linear system. Unreasonable rotation is detected when the results indicate a rotation of the container into the truck bed. Zero rotational value is assigned to this degree of freedom in the follow-up iterations. For chains under compression, the chain length is replaced with a fictitiously large value because a long chain carries essentially no load. This process usually needs only two or three iterations and can easily be carried out in a spread sheet using such programs as Microsoft Excel or LOTUS 123

  19. Porous carbon material containing CaO for acidic gas capture: preparation and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórski, Jacek; Czyżewski, Adam; Pietrzak, Robert; Toyoda, Masahiro; Morawski, Antoni W

    2013-12-15

    A one-step process for the preparation of CaO-containing porous carbons is described. Mixtures of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with natural limestone were pyrolyzed and thus hybrid sorbents could be easily obtained. The polymeric material and the mineral served as a carbon precursor and CaO delivering agent, respectively. We discuss effects of the preparation conditions and the relative amounts of the raw materials used for the preparations on the porosity of the hybrid products. The micropore areas and volumes of the obtained products tended to decrease with increasing CaO contents. Increase in the preparation temperature entailed a decrease in the micropore volume, whereas the mesopore volume increased. The pore creation mechanism is proposed on the basis of thermogravimetric and temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The prepared CaO-containing porous carbons efficiently captured SO2 and CO2 from air. Washing out of CaO from the hybrid materials was confirmed as a suitable method to obtain highly porous carbon materials.

  20. Nanoimprint Resist Material Containing Ultraviolet Reactive Fluorine Surfactant for Defect Reduction in Lithographic Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generated resist based defects on the template in addition to the presence of particles and contaminants is critical for ultraviolet curing of nanoimprint lithographic fabrication. This procedure is proven to be suitable for advanced resist material design under the process conditions. Nanoimprint resist material containing an ultraviolet reactive fluorine surfactant was developed to modify the fundamental surface interactions between resists and the template for defect reduction in nanoimprint patterning replication. The developed acrylate type nanoimprint resist material containing 4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,11,11,11-heptadecafluoro-2-hydroxyundecyl acrylate as an ultraviolet reactive fluorine surfactant, indicated excellent patterning dimensional accuracy by minimizing surface free energy, and having the effect of improving the generated resist based defect numbers on the template, with a 500 nm contact hole and 2 μm line patterns, in the replication of 20 nanoimprint process cycles. This desirable concept using an ultraviolet reactive fluorine surfactant with an acrylate group in the acrylate type nanoimprint resist material is one of the most promising processes ready to be incorporated into mass fabrication in the next generation of electronic devices.

  1. Enhanced Photoactivity of Layered Nanocomposite Materials Containing Rare Earths, Titanium Dioxide and Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The nanocomposite materials containing rare earths, titanium dioxide and clay (RE/TiO2/Clay) were characterized and tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde. The results show that nanocomposite materials prepared by doping appropriate rare earth elements have better photocatalytic properties than that prepared by doping excessive rare earth elements. The photocatalytic mechanism of composite materials was studied by integrating the theory of photocatalysis with experiment results. Because the site of photocatalytic reaction was limited in the interspace of clay, photocatalytic reaction occurred by two steps: firstly, organic molecules dispersed into the interlayers of clay; secondly, organic molecules and photocatalyst of RE/TiO2 occurred photocatalytic reaction, resulting in forming carbon dioxide.

  2. Preparation of bicontinuous mesoporous silica and organosilica materials containing gold nanoparticles by co-synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byunghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, ChonAn, Korea; Zhu, Haoguo [ORNL; Zhang, Zongtao [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic activities of gold strongly depend on its particle size. It is necessary to have homogeneous distributions of small gold nanoparticles with diameters between 2 and 5 nm for excellent catalytic activities. In this study, gold-containing mesoporous silica materials were prepared by a co-synthesis method. The essence of this sol-gel co-synthesis method is to combine together neutral surfactant template synthesis of mesoporous silica materials with the introduction of metal ions via bifunctional silane ligands, so that the formation of mesostructures and metal-ion doping occur simultaneously. The formation of gold nanoparticles with size less than 5 nm inside mesoporous materials (HMS, MSU, and PMO) has been achieved by this co-synthesis sol-gel process. In addition, the effects of post-treatments, such as calcination and reduction, on pore structures and nanoparticle size distributions were also investigated.

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance

  4. Homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage model for ductile failure of materials containing heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Bai, Jie; Paquet, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This paper develops an accurate and computationally efficient homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage (HCPD) model for macroscopic analysis of ductile failure in porous ductile materials containing brittle inclusions. Example of these materials are cast alloys such as aluminum and metal matrix composites. The overall framework of the HCPD model follows the structure of the anisotropic Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) type elasto-plasticity model for porous ductile materials. The HCPD model is assumed to be orthotropic in an evolving material principal coordinate system throughout the deformation history. The GTN model parameters are calibrated from homogenization of evolving variables in representative volume elements (RVE) of the microstructure containing inclusions and voids. Micromechanical analyses for this purpose are conducted by the locally enriched Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) [Hu, C., Ghosh, S., 2008. Locally enhanced Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) for simulating evolving fracture in ductile microstructures containing inclusions. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 76(12), 1955-1992]. The model also introduces a novel void nucleation criterion from micromechanical damage evolution due to combined inclusion and matrix cracking. The paper discusses methods for estimating RVE length scales in microstructures with non-uniform dispersions, as well as macroscopic characteristic length scales for non-local constitutive models. Comparison of results from the anisotropic HCPD model with homogenized micromechanics shows excellent agreement. The HCPD model has a huge efficiency advantage over micromechanics models. Hence, it is a very effective tool in predicting macroscopic damage in structures with direct reference to microstructural composition.

  5. Potential use of densified polymer-pastefill mixture as waste containment barrier materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, M; Célestin, J; Sen, H F

    2010-12-01

    Mining activities generate a large amount of solid waste, such as waste rock and tailings. The surface disposal of such waste can create several environmental and geotechnical problems. Public perception and strict government regulations with regards to the disposal of such waste compel the mining industry to develop new strategies which are environmentally sound and cost effective. In this scenario, recycling of such waste into mining or civil engineering construction materials have become a great challenge for the mining and civil engineering community. Hence, in this study, taking advantage of the inherent low hydraulic conductivity of paste tailings (pastefill), small amounts (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5%) of a super absorbent polymer (SAP) are added to the latter after moisturizing the tailings. The resulting densified polymer-pastefill (PP) materials are compacted and submitted to permeability tests at room temperature and performance tests under cyclic freeze-thaw and wet-dry conditions to evaluate their suitability as a barrier for waste containment facilities. Valuable results are obtained. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of the proposed barrier material (PP) decreases as the amount of SAP increases. Hydraulic conductivity values as low as 1 × 10(-7) and 6 × 10(-9)cm/s are obtained for PPs which contain 0.1-0.5% SAP, respectively. The PP material also shows relatively good resistance to cyclic freeze-thaw and wet-dry stresses. The results show that negligible to acceptable changes in hydraulic conductivity occur after five freeze-thaw and six wet-dry cycles. None of the changes reach one order of magnitude. As a final step, a cost analysis is undertaken to evaluate the economical benefits that could be drawn from such a proposed barrier material. When compared to a conventional compacted sand-bentonite barrier with 12% bentonite concentration, it is found that the benefit realized could be estimated to 98, 96 and 90% when using PP material that

  6. Vaccination of dogs with six different candidate leishmaniasis vaccines composed of a chimerical recombinant protein containing ribosomal and histone protein epitopes in combination with different adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot, J; Janssen, L H M; van Kasteren-Westerneng, T J; van der Heijden-Liefkens, K H A; Schijns, V E J C; Heckeroth, A

    2009-07-16

    Chimerical protein "Q", composed of antigenic ribosomal and histone sequences, in combination with live BCG is a promising canine leishmaniasis vaccine candidate; one of the few vaccine candidates that have been tested successfully in dogs. Unfortunately, live BCG is not an appropriate adjuvant for commercial application due to safety problems in dogs. In order to find a safe adjuvant with similar efficacy to live BCG, muramyl dipeptide, aluminium hydroxide, Matrix C and killed Propionibacterium acnes in combination with either E. coli- or baculovirus-produced recombinant JPCM5_Q protein were tested. Groups of five or seven dogs were vaccinated with six different adjuvant-antigen combinations and challenged with a high dose intravenous injection of Leishmania infantum JPC strain promastigotes. All candidate vaccines proved to be safe, and both humoral and cellular responses to the recombinant proteins were detected at the end of the prime-boost vaccination scheme. However, clinical and parasitological data obtained during the 10 month follow-up period indicated that protection was not induced by either of the six candidate vaccines. Although no direct evidence was obtained, our data suggest that live BCG may have a significant protective effect against challenge with L. infantum in dogs.

  7. Status report on the detection of illicit materials in cargo containers by using neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers has become a key issue in the fight against terrorism. Indeed, shipping of cargo container between seaports represent today one of the more important way of the international trade. After 9/11, the Cargo Security Initiative started setting standards for the cargo containers inspections in the trading between US and other countries, as the ones in the European Union (E U). US are now aiming at 100% scanning of cargo containers shipped towards the American ports. At present time, controls are mainly based on X- or gamma-ray scanners, which provide mainly the shape and density of the transported goods. Fast neutrons can be additionally employed to deduce information about their elemental composition. Neutrons have been selected mainly thanks to their capability of penetrating materials and the availability of different type of neutron sources. Neutron transmission measurements or the detection of characteristic gamma-rays emitted following neutron induced reactions have been proposed to characterize carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, which are major components of explosives or narcotics, with the goal of discriminating illicit from benign materials. Several systems have been validated under laboratory conditions demonstrating that such technologies are capable of providing material specific information and few of them have been fielded. However, the use of neutron based tools depends not only on the intrinsic capability of the method, as explored in laboratory conditions, but also on some major issues: 1) the possibility of solving logistics and licensing problems; 2) the possibility of constructing systems that are operated directly by end-users; 3) the effective integration of the neutron based system in current customs procedures. In this talk, the general capability of neutron sources to be used in a cost effective way to detect illicit materials inside cargo containers will be discussed looking also to the latest technical

  8. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  9. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M K; Velisavljevic, N

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source. PMID:26628148

  10. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, M. K., E-mail: mjacobsen@lanl.gov; Velisavljevic, N. [Shock and Detonation Physics Group (M-9), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  11. Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized

  12. Strength and water permeability of concrete containing various types of fly ashes and filler material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homwuttiwong, Sahalaph [Mahasarakham Univ. (Thailand). Faculty of Engineering; Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Sustainable Infrastructure Research and Development Center and Dept. of Civil Engineering; Jaturapitakkul, Chai [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2012-08-15

    In this study, the strength and water permeability of concretes containing various types of fly ashes and filler material were investigated. Five types of fly ashes with two levels of fineness and ground-river sand were used to partially replace Portland cement at the dosages of 20 and 40% by weight. Results indicated that pulverized coal combustion fly ash produced concrete with good strength and low permeability. Normal fluidized bed combustion fly ashes containing very irregular particles with pores produced concrete with low strength and relatively low permeability. Fly ash from fluidized bed combustion of coal with biomass materials and fly ash with high amount of CaO and SO{sub 3} produced poor concretes with low strength and high permeability. The increase in fly ash fineness helped improve both strength and permeability of concrete due to the increase in the reactivity of fly ash. Filler material could also be used to replace Portland cement at low replacement level of 20% with small effects on strength and water permeability. (orig.)

  13. Metal-containing polymers: building blocks for functional (nano)materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosong; McHale, Ronan

    2010-02-16

    The incorporation of metallic units into polymer chains has emerged as a promising route towards functional metal-containing (nano)materials. The resulting polymers possess rich functions derived from their metallic elements, such as redox, optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. In addition, the directional and dynamic nature of metal coordination interactions provides further variables for the exploration of novel materials with designed nanostructures. These types of polymers can be synthesized through direct metal-ligand coordination or chain polymerization of metal containing monomers. Depending on the polymerization techniques and starting components, the resulting polymers, akin to their organic counterparts, can be produced in the form of insoluble networks, processible chain structures, gels or colloids. Research into this rising multidisciplinary subject has benefited from recent progress in several related areas such as supramolecular chemistry, colloidal chemistry etc., with the combination of the relative merits of each ensuring further developments in each individual discipline. For example, as a result of studies into organometallic block copolymers self-assembly behavior, living supramolecular polymerization has been unprecedentedly realized for the architectural design of micelles (see image on the right). Nevertheless, the field is still in a developmental stage and offers ample opportunities for fundamental research, as well as material exploration. In this Feature Article, we intend to overview the field with a brief survey of recent literature. PMID:21590911

  14. THE NEED FOR A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLOSURE WELDING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions demand a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure welding technology (fusion welding) is not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. As such, FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, distortion due to weld shrinkage, and residual stress. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) are preserved and not degraded as can occur with 'high-heat' fusion welding processes. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with the fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials

  15. Optimization of fly ash as sand replacement materials (SRM) in cement composites containing coconut fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzri, N. I. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The need of utilizing industrial and agricultural wastes is very important to maintain sustainability. These wastes are often incorporated with cement composites to improve performances in term of physical and mechanical properties. This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of cement composites containing coconut fiber as reinforcement and fly ash use as substitution of sand at different hardening days. Hardening periods of time (7, 14 and 28 days) were selected to study the properties of cement composites. Optimization result showed that 20 wt. % of fly ash (FA) is a suitable material for sand replacement (SRM). Meanwhile 14 days of hardening period gave highest compressive strength (70.12 MPa) from the cement composite containing 9 wt. % of coconut fiber and fly ash. This strength was comparable with the cement without coconut fiber (74.19 MPa) after 28 days of curing.

  16. Influence of Composite Phosphate Inorganic Antibacterial Materials Containing Rare Earth on Activated Water Property of Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金生; 梁广川; 祁洪飞; 吴子钊; 冀志江; 金宗哲

    2004-01-01

    Antibacterial ceramic was prepared by doping enamel slurry with composite phosphate inorganic antibacterial materials containing rare earth (inorganic antibacterial additives), and then the mechanisms for activating water and improving seed germinative property were tested by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the method of testing oxygen dissolved in activated water. Results show that the half peak width of 17O-NMR for tap water activated by the antibacterial ceramic drops from 115.36 to 99.15 Hz, and oxygen concentrations of activated water increase by 20%, germinate rate of horsebean and earthnut seeds increases by 12.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Therefore antibacterial ceramic doped enamel slurry with inorganic antibacterial additives containing rare earth can reduce the volume of clusters of water molecules, improve activation of tap water, and promote plant seeds germinate.

  17. Built-up Effect of Core Material for Microencapsulated Flame Retardant Containing Dimethyl Methyl Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Miao; DONG Kai; YANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    The flame retardants containing organophosphorus compounds have extensively been used inthe flame retarding of polymer materials.Among others,dimethyl methyl phosphate (DMMP) was applied in flame retarding of polyurethane owmg to its so much merit.However,the water-soluble property of DMMP restricted its application in textile fabric.The flame retardtag systemcontainirm DMMP will be microencapsulated to form a novel flame retardant that could be used in textiles.We have studied the builtup effect of DMMP with some inorganic compounds to improve the afterflame and afterglow suppression in the flame retarding system.The experimeatal data indicated that inorganic compounds containing various non-metal elements P,N,B and metal ions Mg2+,Al3+,Ca2+,Zn2+,Cu2+,Mn4+ could be applied in flame retarding systems as additives to effectively suppress afterflame or afterglow.

  18. Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-01-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials under realistic conditions. A commerical 50 mm x 50 mm NiO-YSZ anode supported thin YSZ electrolyte cell with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode was tested to evaluate the stability of candidate materials. The cell was tested in two stages at 800oC: stage I of low (~3% H2O) humidity and stage II of high (~30% H2O) humidity hydrogen fuel at constant voltage or constant current mode. Part I of the work was published earlier with information of the generic test fixture design, materials, cell performance, and optical post-mortem analysis. In part II, detailed microstructure and interfacial characterizations are reported regarding the SOFC candidate materials: (Mn,Co)-spinel conductive coating, alumina coating for sealing area, ferritic stainless steel interconnect, refractory sealing glass, and their interactions with each other. Overall, the (Mn,Co)-spinel coating was very effective in minimizing Cr migration. No Cr was identified in the cathode after 1720h at 800oC. Aluminization of metallic interconnect also proved to be chemically compatible with alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass. The details of interfacial reaction and microstructure development are discussed.

  19. Adsorption and revaporisation studies on iodine oxide aerosols deposited on containment surface materials in LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, S.; Foreman, M.R.StJ.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Tapper, U.; Lamminmaeki, S.; Jokiniemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    During a hypothetical severe nuclear accident, the radiation field will be very high in the nuclear reactor containment building. As a result gaseous radiolysis products will be formed. Elemental iodine can react in the gaseous phase with ozone to form solid iodine oxide aerosol particles (iodine oxide). Within the AIAS (Adsorption of Iodine oxide Aerosols on Surfaces) project the interactions of iodine oxide (IOx) aerosols with common containment surface materials were investigated. Common surface materials in Swedish and Finnish LWRs are Teknopox Aqua V A paint films and metal surfaces such as Cu, Zn, Al and SS, as well as Pt and Pd surfaces from hydrogen recombiners. Non-radioactive and {sup 131}I labelled iodine oxide aerosols were produced with the EXSI CONT facility from elemental iodine and ozone at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The iodine oxide deposits were analysed with microscopic and spectroscopic measurement techniques to identify the kind of iodine oxide formed and if a chemical conversion on the different surface materials occurs. The revaporisation behaviour of the deposited iodine oxide aerosol particles from the different surface materials was studied under the influence of heat, humidity and gamma irradiation at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Studies on the effects of humidity were performed using the FOMICAG facility, while heat and irradiation experiments were performed in a thermostated heating block and with a gammacell 22 having a dose rate of 14 kGy/h. The revaporisation losses were measured using a HPGe detector. The revaporisated {sup 131}I species from the surfaces were chemically tested for elemental iodine formation. The parameter dominating the degradation of the produced iodine oxide aerosols was humidity. Cu and Zn surfaces were found to react with iodine from the iodine oxide aerosols to form iodides, while no metal iodides were detected for Al and SS samples. Most of the iodine oxide aerosols are assumed to

  20. Adsorption and revaporisation studies on iodine oxide aerosols deposited on containment surface materials in LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a hypothetical severe nuclear accident, the radiation field will be very high in the nuclear reactor containment building. As a result gaseous radiolysis products will be formed. Elemental iodine can react in the gaseous phase with ozone to form solid iodine oxide aerosol particles (iodine oxide). Within the AIAS (Adsorption of Iodine oxide Aerosols on Surfaces) project the interactions of iodine oxide (IOx) aerosols with common containment surface materials were investigated. Common surface materials in Swedish and Finnish LWRs are Teknopox Aqua V A paint films and metal surfaces such as Cu, Zn, Al and SS, as well as Pt and Pd surfaces from hydrogen recombiners. Non-radioactive and 131I labelled iodine oxide aerosols were produced with the EXSI CONT facility from elemental iodine and ozone at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The iodine oxide deposits were analysed with microscopic and spectroscopic measurement techniques to identify the kind of iodine oxide formed and if a chemical conversion on the different surface materials occurs. The revaporisation behaviour of the deposited iodine oxide aerosol particles from the different surface materials was studied under the influence of heat, humidity and gamma irradiation at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Studies on the effects of humidity were performed using the FOMICAG facility, while heat and irradiation experiments were performed in a thermostated heating block and with a gammacell 22 having a dose rate of 14 kGy/h. The revaporisation losses were measured using a HPGe detector. The revaporisated 131I species from the surfaces were chemically tested for elemental iodine formation. The parameter dominating the degradation of the produced iodine oxide aerosols was humidity. Cu and Zn surfaces were found to react with iodine from the iodine oxide aerosols to form iodides, while no metal iodides were detected for Al and SS samples. Most of the iodine oxide aerosols are assumed to be degraded

  1. Omnidirectional Gaps of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Containing Single-Negative Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hai-Tao; CHEN Hong; LI Hong-Qiang; ZHANG Ye-Wen

    2005-01-01

    @@ We show that a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing two kinds of single-negative materials can possess an omnidirectional gap whose edges are insensitive to incident angle and polarization, owing to the unusual field configuration in the structure.In contrast to an omnidirectional gap based on a photonic gap that corresponds to zero averaged refractive index, it can be made very wide by varying the ratio of the thicknesses of two media.Moreover, it is independent of polarization under special parameters.These properties may provide a mechanism to design a broadband omnidirectional reflector with fixed bandwidth.

  2. Fugitive binder-containing nuclear fuel material and method of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel material green body of density from about 30 to 70% of theoretical density having tensile strength and plastici adequate to maintain the integrity of the body during processing leading to ultimate sintered condition is produced by adding one or more amines to a particulate mass of the nuclear fuel containing about five percent of ammonium uranyl carbonate under conditions resulting in reaction of the amine with the ammonium uranyl carbonate, liberation of ammonia and formation of a watersoluble uranyl compound more effective as a binder than the ammonium uranyl carbonate

  3. Tunable omnidirectional multichannel filters based on dual-defective photonic crystals containing negative-index materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yihang, E-mail: kallenmail@sina.co [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-04-07

    Multiple defect modes may generate in one-dimensional dual-defective photonic crystals containing negative-index materials. The interference between the two kinds of defect states of the proposed structure is avoided. Therefore, the frequency, frequency interval and number of the defect modes corresponding to different kinds of defects can be tuned independently as desired. These defect modes inside the zero n-bar gap are insensitive to the incident angle. It thus opens a promising way to fabricate omnidirectional multichannel filters with specific channels.

  4. Analytical Electron Microscopy for Characterization of Fluid or Semi-Solid Multiphase Systems Containing Nanoparticulate Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda B. Matsko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of nanomaterials in pharmaceutical or cosmetic preparations is an important aspect both in formulation development and quality control of marketed products. Despite the increased popularity of nanoparticulate compounds especially in dermal preparations such as emulsions, methods and protocols of analysis for the characterization of such systems are scarce. This work combines an original sample preparation procedure along with different methods of analytical electron microscopy for the comprehensive analysis of fluid or semi-solid dermal preparations containing nanoparticulate material. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and high resolution imaging were performed on model emulsions and a marketed product to reveal different structural aspects of both the emulsion bulk phase and incorporated nanosized material. An innovative analytical approach for the determination of the physical stability of the emulsion under investigation is presented. Advantages and limitations of the employed analytical imaging techniques are highlighted.

  5. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin.

  6. A mode matching method for modeling dissipative silencers lined with poroelastic materials and containing mean flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nennig, Benoit; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel; Ben Tahar, Mabrouk

    2010-12-01

    A mode matching method for predicting the transmission loss of a cylindrical shaped dissipative silencer partially filled with a poroelastic foam is developed. The model takes into account the solid phase elasticity of the sound-absorbing material, the mounting conditions of the foam, and the presence of a uniform mean flow in the central airway. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the fact that guided modes of the silencer have a composite nature containing both compressional and shear waves as opposed to classical mode matching methods in which only acoustic pressure waves are present. Results presented demonstrate good agreement with finite element calculations provided a sufficient number of modes are retained. In practice, it is found that the time for computing the transmission loss over a large frequency range takes a few minutes on a personal computer. This makes the present method a reliable tool for tackling dissipative silencers lined with poroelastic materials.

  7. Membrane and Films Based on Novel Crown-Containing Dyes as Promising Chemosensoring Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Yu. Zaitsev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses several works on supramolecular systems such as monolayer and multilayer, polymer films of various crown-containing dyes, surface-active monomers and polymers. Design, production and investigation of the membrane nanostructures based on crown ethers is a rapidly developing field at the “junction” of materials sciences and nanotechnology. These nanostructures can serve as convenient models for studying the self-organization and molecular recognition processes at interfaces that are typical for biomembranes. Based on the results obtained for such structures by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, atomic force and Brewster-angle microscopy, surface pressure and surface potential isotherm measurements, the possibility of developing micro- and nanomaterials possessing a set of specified properties (including chemosensor, photochromic and photorefractive materials is demonstrated.

  8. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin. PMID:25674671

  9. A one-pot reaction to synthesize two types of fluorescent materials containing benzothiazolyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianzhi; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yuling; Chai, Haifang; Fan, Duowang; Ma, Ying; Yao, Shanglei; Li, Wentao

    2013-05-01

    Two different types of fluorescent materials containing benzothiazolyl moiety, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol derivatives and 3-(benzothiazol-2-yl)coumarin derivatives, were synthesized synchronously using ethyl cyanoacetate, appropriate aromatic aldehyde and 2-aminothiophenol as the starting materials under the catalysis of benzoic acid by one-pot reaction. This method has the advantages of mild reaction conditions, easy processing and low waste. All synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR spectra. The structures of 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol derivatives, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol (BTP) and 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)naphthol (BTN), were determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra of all synthesized compounds were investigated. The 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol derivatives exhibit bright green emissions and 3-(benzothiazol-2-yl)coumarin derivatives emit bright blue light in solutions.

  10. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  11. Synthesis and Application of a Zeolite-containing Composite Material Made from Spent FCC Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shuqin; He Lijun; YaoHua; RenShao; YuHongxia; Zhang Jiance

    2015-01-01

    Novel composite material with a wide pore distribution was synthesized by an in situ technique using spent FCC catalyst as raw material. The characterization results indicated that the composite material contained 56.7% of zeolite Y and exhibited a much larger speciifc surface area and pore volume as well as strong hydrothermal stability. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst was prepared based on the composite material. The results indicated that the as-prepared catalyst possessed a unique pore structure that was advantageous to the diffusion-controlled reactions. In addition, the attrition resis-tance, activity and hydrothermal stability of the studied catalyst were superior to those of the reference catalyst. The catalyst also exhibited excellent nickel and vanadium passivation performance, strong bottoms upgrading selectivity, and better gasoline and coke selectivity. In comparison to the reference catalyst, the yields of the gasoline and light oil increased by 1.61 and 1.31 percentage points, respectively, and the coke yield decreased by 0.22 percentage points, and the oleifn content in the produced gasoline reduced by 2.51 percentage points, with the research octane number increased by 0.7 unit.

  12. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of a copper-containing material after thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal immobilization of copper contaminant in a copper-containing solid material collected from local copper smelting and foundry area is investigated in the present work. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are employed for copper speciation. XAS results indicate that cupric hydroxide is the major copper species in the solid material dried at 105 deg. C. After being subjected to a 500 deg. C thermal process, cupric hydroxide still remains as the main copper species, but some Cu(II) is chemically reduced to Cu(I). More cupric hydroxide is progressively converted to Cu(I) as the sample was heated at 1100 deg. C than that heated at 500 deg. C. The sample heated at 500 deg. C is in its original powder form. However, thermal treatment at 1100 deg. C transforms the powder into a hardened granule-like form that is much bigger in size and difficult to be ground into powders. The sample is sintered with the sparingly soluble cuprous oxide and elemental copper being encapsulated inside. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results depict that amount of copper leached from the sample (containing 133,000 mg copper kg-1) heated at 1100 deg. C for 2 h is considerably minor, being 367 mg copper kg-1

  14. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of γ-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  15. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  16. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Community R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (shared cost action), a research activity is aiming at the assessment of the corrosion behaviour of potential container materials for the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste. In a joint programme, three promising reference materials are being tested in environments representative of the three considered geological formations, clay, salt and granite. Samples of the three reference materials, Ti-0.2% Pd, Hastelloy C4 and a low carbon steel were provided by the Commission to the participating laboratories respectively: Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie (SCK/CEN) at Mol (Belgium), Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) at Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France), the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Harwell (United Kingdom) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) at Vitry (France). In this report, the results obtained during the year 1984 are described

  17. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  18. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MM Hall

    2006-01-31

    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing.

  19. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing

  20. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels on root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tavares Borges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries is still the main cause of restoration replacement, especially on the root surface OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the cariostatic effects of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels, on root dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized complete block design was used to test the effects of the restorative systems, fluoride regimes and the interactions among them at different distances from restoration margins. Standardized cavities were prepared on 240 bovine root specimens and randomly assigned to 15 groups of treatments (n=16. Cavities were filled with the following restorative materials: Ketac-Fil (3M-ESPE; Vitremer (3M-ESPE; Dyract/Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply; Charisma/Gluma One Bond (Heraeus Kulzer and the control, Z250/Single Bond (3M-ESPE. The specimens were subjected to a pH-cycling model designed to simulate high-caries activity. During the cycles, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, 2.0% neutral sodium fluoride or deionized/distilled water (control was applied to the specimens for 4 min. The surface Knoop microhardness test was performed before (KHNi and after (KHNf the pH cycles at 100, 200 and 300 mm from the margins. Dentin microhardness loss was represented by the difference in initial and final values (KHNi - KHNf. Data were analyzed by Friedman's and Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%. RESULTS: The interaction of restorative systems and topical treatments was not significant (p=0.102. Dentin microhardness loss was lowest closer to the restoration. Ketac-fil presented the highest cariostatic effect. Vitremer presented a moderate effect, while Dyract and Charisma did not differ from the control, Z250. The effects of neutral and acidulated fluoride gels were similar to each other and higher than the control. CONCLUSION: Conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements as well as neutral and acidulated fluoride gels inhibit the progression of artificial caries

  1. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  2. Improvements in or relating to the production of metal-containing material in particulate form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process described refers mainly to production of the material in the form of very small spheres. It comprises forming a metal compound-containing gel precipitate by mixing a solution or sol of the metal compound with a soluble organic polymer and contacting the mixture with a precipitating reagent to precipitate the metal as an insoluble compound bound with the polymer. The precipitate is then subjected in the liquid phase to a breaking down and dispersing process to produce an intermediate product suitable for spray drying, and the intermediate product is spray dried to form the particulate product. The breaking down and dispersing process may be performed by means of a colloid mill or vibratory stirrer. Examples of application of the process are described. (U.K.)

  3. Lignases and aldo-keto reductases for conversion of lignin-containing materials to fermentable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Michael; Sethi, Amit

    2016-09-13

    Termites have specialized digestive systems that overcome the lignin barrier in wood to release fermentable simple sugars. Using the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its gut symbionts, high-throughput titanium pyrosequencing and proteomics approaches experimentally compared the effects of lignin-containing diets on host-symbiont digestome composition. Proteomic investigations and functional digestive studies with recombinant lignocellulases conducted in parallel provided strong evidence of congruence at the transcription and translational levels and provide enzymatic strategies for overcoming recalcitrant lignin barriers in biofuel feedstocks. Briefly described, therefore, the disclosure provides a system for generating a fermentable product from a lignified plant material, the system comprising a cooperating series of at least two catalytically active polypeptides, where said catalytically active polypeptides are selected from the group consisting of: cellulase Cell-1, .beta.-glu cellulase, an aldo-keto-reductase, a catalase, a laccase, and an endo-xylanase.

  4. Biodegradation of Methane and Halocarbons in Simulated Landfill Biocover Systems Containing Compost Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Costa, G.;

    2009-01-01

    The attenuation potential of methane (CH4) and of selected volatile organic Compounds (VOCs) was compared in four types of compost materials using dynamic flow column experiments over a period of 255 d. Garden waste compost mixed with wood chips showed the highest steady-state CH4 oxidation rate...... (161 g m(-2) d(-1)), followed by a commercial compost product Supermuld (110 g m(-2) d(-1)). In the column containing the highest fraction of compost (compost/sand mixed in 1: 1), CH4 oxidation declined significantly during the period of operation, probably due to clogging by formation of exopolymeric...... substances. After 40 d of operation, CH, production was observed. All the VOCs tested were degraded. CFC-11 (CCl3F) and HCFC-21 (CCl2FH) were anaerobically degraded by reductive dechlonnation, generating HCFC-31 (CClFH2) and HFC-41 (CFH3), which were both aerobically degraded in the oxic portion...

  5. Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sean

    The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

  6. ES-3100: A New Generation Shipping Container for Bulk Highly Enriched Uranium and Other Fissile Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbital, J.G.; Byington, G.A.; Tousley, D.R.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is shipping bulk quantities of surplus fissile materials, primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU), over the next 15 to 20 years for disposition purposes. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 6M container is the package of choice for most of these shipments. However, the 6M does not conform to the Type B packaging requirements in the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10CFR71) and, for that reason, is being phased out for use in the secure transportation system of DOE. BWXT Y-12 is currently developing a package to replace the DOT 6M container for HEU disposition shipping campaigns. The new package is based on state-of-the-art, proven, and patented insulation technologies that have been successfully applied in the design of other packages. The new package, designated the ES-3100, will have a 50% greater capacity for HEU than the 6M and will be easier to use. Engineering analysis on the new package includes detailed dynamic impact finite element analysis (FEA). This analysis gives the ES-3100 a high probability of complying with regulatory requirements.

  7. ES-3100: a new generation shipping container for bulk highly enriched uranium and other fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbital, J.G.; Byington, G.A. [BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tousley, D.R. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is shipping bulk quantities of surplus fissile materials, primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU), over the next 15 to 20 years for disposition purposes. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 6M container is the package of choice for most of these shipments. However, the 6M does not conform to the Type B packaging requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR71{sup 1}) and, for that reason, is being phased out for use in the secure transportation system of DOE. BWXT Y-12 is currently developing a package to replace the DOT 6M container for HEU disposition shipping campaigns. The new package is based on state-of-the-art, proven, and patented insulation technologies that have been successfully applied in the design of other packages. The new package, designated the ES-3100, will have a 50% greater capacity for HEU than the 6M and will be easier to use. Engineering analysis on the new package includes detailed dynamic impact finite element analysis (FEA). This analysis gives the ES-3100 a high probability of complying with regulatory requirements.

  8. Polymer-based composite materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of carbon fibre reinforced PEEK for the fabrication of a spent nuclear fuel storage container was investigated with the irradiation of samples in the mixed radiation field of the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at various temperatures (20oC to 75oC) and doses (up to 1.0 MGy). Mechanical testing showed that the irradiated sample properties rarely deviated from the un-irradiated samples. Chemical testing showed that the irradiated samples exhibited a greater degree of crosslinking and improved mechanical strength. Polypropylene, nylon 6,6, polycarbonate, and polyurethane, all with and without glass fibre reinforcement were also irradiated using the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at doses from 0.5 MGy to 6.0 MGy, followed by chemical and mechanical testing to determine their suitability for low level waste storage containers. Results indicated that the major effect of irradiation was an increase in crosslinking. Simulated groundwater conditions combined with irradiation for glass fibre reinforced polycarbonate and polyurethane included immersion in a 1 M NaOH (pH 1) or a 1 M HC1 (pH 13) solution for a one month period followed by irradiation at doses of 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy in the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor. Flexural testing showed that the combination of chemical exposure and irradiation on these systems resulted in decrease of approximately 10% in flexural yield stress for all pH conditions. Work is ongoing to determine the combined effects of irradiation, immersion, and temperature on Nylon 6,6, polyurethane, and epoxy based composite materials. Mechanical testing results combined with mathematical modeling will lead to the establishment of a system for the determination of a polymer composite's long term performance as a nuclear waste storage container. (author)

  9. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance (ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  10. Leaching studies of heavy concrete material for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching behaviour of a high-density concrete was studied as part of a program to evaluate its potential use as a container material for nuclear fuel waste under conditions of deep geologic disposal. Samples of concrete material were leached in deionized distilled water, Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS), SCSSS plus 20% Na-bentonite, and SCSSS plus granite and 20% Na-bentonite under static conditions at 100 degrees celsius for periods up to 365 days. The results of these leaching experiments suggest that the stability of concrete depends on the possible internal structural changes due to hydration reactions of unhydrated components, leading to the formation of C-S-H gel plus portlandite (Ca(OH)2). The factors controlling the concrete leaching process were the composition of the leachant and the concentration of elements in solution capable of forming precipitates on the concrete surface, e.g., silicon, Mg2+ and Ca2+. The main effect observed during leaching was an increase in groundwater pH (from 7 to 9). However, the addition of Na-bentonite suppressed the normal tendency of the pH of the groundwater in contact with concrete to rise rapidly. It was shown that the solution concentration of elements released from the concrete, particularly potassium, increased in the presence of Na-bentonite

  11. Corrosion studies on containment materials for vitrified heat generating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported of the work undertaken to assess containment materials for the disposal of heat generating nuclear waste under geological disposal conditions. Mean corrosion rates of carbon steels, monitored by Rsub(p) measurements on specimens in on-going long term immersion tests which have been underway from 340 to 500 days, range between 20 to 37 μm/yr at 90 deg C, 9 to 32 μm/yr at 50 deg C and 2 to 10 μm/yr at 25 deg C. AC impedance measurements suggest that true corrosion rates may be a factor of ten lower than those at 90 deg C for the bentonite backfill. Recent tests with γ-radiation have shown that after 5000h in deaerated groundwater at 90 deg C, and at a dose rate of 105 Rads/h, the general corrosion rate of forged 0.2% carbon steel samples < 3 μm/yr. Improved electrochemical kinetic data, required for the mathematical model, is being determined experimentally for temperatures from 20 to 90 deg C and pH values 5 to 10. Preliminary results from studies to assess the effect of γ-radiation on the corrosion of Hastelloy C4 and Ti/0.2 Pd reference materials immersed in groundwater have provided visual evidence for pitting and crevice attack on the Hastelloy sample. (author)

  12. Corrosion kinetics of alloy Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W as structural material in high level nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W (also known as C-22) is one of the candidates to fabricate high level nuclear waste containers. These containers are designed to maintain isolation of the waste for a minimum of 10,000 years. In this period, the material must be resistant to corrosion. If the containers were in contact with water, it is assumed that alloy C-22 may undergo three different corrosion mechanisms: general corrosion, localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. This thesis discusses only the first two types of degradation. Electrochemical techniques such as amperometry, potentiometry, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and non-electrochemical techniques such as microscopic observation, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to study the corrosion behavior of alloy C-22 in 1 M NaCl, 25 C degrees saturated NaF (approximately 1 M) and 0,5 M NaCl + 0,5 M NaF solutions. Effects of temperature, pH and alloy thermal aging were analyzed. The corrosion rates obtained at 90 C degrees were low ranging from 0.04 μm/year to 0.48 μm /year. They increased with temperature and decreased with solution pH. Most of the impedance measurements showed a simply capacitive behavior. A second high-frequency time constant was detected in some cases. It was attributed to the formation of a nickel oxide and/or hydroxide at potentials near the reversible potential for this reaction. The active/passive transition detected in some potentiodynamic polarization curves was attributed to the same process. The corrosion potential showed an important increase after 24 hours of immersion. This increase in the corrosion potential was associated with an improvement of the passive film. The corrosion potential was always lower than the re-passivation potential for the corresponding media. The trans passive behavior of alloy C-22 was mainly influenced by temperature and solution chemistry. A clear trans passive peak

  13. Validation of a liquid chromatographic method for determination of related substances in a candidate certified reference material of captopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the validation of a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method (RP-HPLC with diode array detection (DAD for determination of related substances (impurities from organic synthesis and degradation products of captopril according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia IV. The aim of this study was to guarantee the method accuracy for quantification of related substances, an essential requisite to determine, using the mass balance approach, the captopril content in the first Brazilian certified reference material (CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, developed by Inmetro. The captopril instability in solution is discussed and the captopril content determined by mass balance is compared to the results from titration and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.Este artigo descreve a validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em fase reversa (CLAE-RP com detector de fotodiodos (DAD para determinação de substâncias relacionadas (impurezas orgânicas de síntese e produtos de degradação de captopril segundo Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Este estudo teve como objetivo garantir que o método é capaz de quantificar com exatidão o teor de substâncias relacionadas, um requisito essencial para que o teor de captopril seja determinado por balanço de massa no primeiro material de referência certificado (MRC de fármacos brasileiro, o qual foi desenvolvido pelo Inmetro. A instabilidade do captopril em solução é discutida em detalhes e o teor de captopril determinado por balanço de massa é comparado com aqueles obtidos por titulação e por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC.

  14. Synthesis of a New Family of Green Light Emitting Material Containing Both Hole and Electron Transporting Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new molecules containing oxadiazoles and triphenylamine-stilbene moiety were synthesized. Their luminescent properties were determined, which indicated that they had strong green fluorescent properties. All the two molecules can be used as green organic electrolumine- scence materials.

  15. Structural stability at high pressure, electronic, and magnetic properties of BaFZnAs: A new candidate of host material of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi-Juan, Chen; Zheng, Deng; Xian-Cheng, Wang; Shao-Min, Feng; Zhen, Yuan; Si-Jia, Zhang; Qing-Qing, Liu; Chang-Qing, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The layered semiconductor BaFZnAs with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure has been successfully synthesized. Both the in-situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the high-pressure Raman scattering measurements demonstrate that the structure of BaFZnAs is stable under pressure up to 17.5 GPa at room temperature. The resistivity and the magnetic susceptibility data show that BaFZnAs is a non-magnetic semiconductor. BaFZnAs is recommended as a candidate of the host material of diluted magnetic semiconductor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Project of Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  16. Development of a Equipment to Measure Gas Transport Properties: Application to Study Mixtures of Candidates Buffer Materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.L.; Barcala, J.M.; Oller, J.C.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the design, the construction and a testing of a system set-up for the measurement of gas transport, created at CIEMAT, and its application to study mixtures of candidate buffer materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repertories. The measure of the gas flows is carried on by mass flow meters of several ranges, white the pressure of the applied within the sample is controlled. Two National l Instrument's acquisition system that permits the control and recording of the parameters. A specific application developed for this test, with National Instruments LabWIEW DSC, permits to mange the system. A client interface lets to follow the experiment course from a remote location through Internet. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  18. 40 CFR 262.206 - Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.206 Labeling and management standards... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory. 262.206 Section 262.206 Protection of...

  19. A new method for synthesizing fluid inclusions in fused silica capillaries containing organic and inorganic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Song, Y.; Burruss, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of physicochemical properties of geological fluids and their roles in many geological processes have been achieved by the use of synthetic fluid inclusions. We have developed a new method to synthesize fluid inclusions containing organic and inorganic material in fused silica capillary tubing. We have used both round (0.3 mm OD and 0.05 or 0.1 mm ID) and square cross-section tubing (0.3 ?? 0.3 mm with 0.05 ?? 0.05 mm or 0.1 ?? 0.1 mm cavities). For microthermometric measurements in a USGS-type heating-cooling stage, sample capsules must be less than 25 mm in length. The square-sectioned capsules have the advantage of providing images without optical distortion. However, the maximum internal pressure (P; about 100 MPa at 22 ??C) and temperature (T; about 500 ??C) maintained by the square-sectioned capsules are less than those held by the round-sectioned capsules (about 300 MPa at room T, and T up to 650 ??C). The fused silica capsules can be applied to a wide range of problems of interest in fluid inclusion and hydrothermal research, such as creating standards for the calibration of thermocouples in heating-cooling stages and frequency shifts in Raman spectrometers. The fused silica capsules can also be used as containers for hydrothermal reactions, especially for organic samples, including individual hydrocarbons, crude oils, and gases, such as cracking of C18H38 between 350 and 400 ??C, isotopic exchanges between C18H38 and D2O and between C19D40 and H2O at similar temperatures. Results of these types of studies provide information on the kinetics of oil cracking and the changes of oil composition under thermal stress. When compared with synthesis of fluid inclusions formed by healing fractures in quartz or other minerals or by overgrowth of quartz at elevated P-T conditions, the new fused-silica method has the following advantages: (1) it is simple; (2) fluid inclusions without the presence of water can be formed; (3

  20. Physical and mechanical characterization of gypsum boards containing phase change materials for latent heat storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver-Ramírez, A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the design and manufacture of a gypsum board which, despite its 45 % wt content of phase change materials, meets the minimum physical and mechanical requirements laid down in the legislation on gypsum plasters (Spanish and European standard UNE EN 13279 and Spanish specifications for gypsum acceptance, RY 85. Under this design, a one-metre square, 1.5-cm thick board contains 4.75 kg of PCM, much more than in any prior drylining (the maximum attained to date is 3 kg per m2. The mechanical and physical characteristics of this new composite were previously improved with two joint-action additives: polypropylene fibres and melamine formaldehyde as a dispersing agent. In the 20-30 ºC temperature range, a gypsum board 1.5 cm thick containing this percentage of PCMs can store five times more thermal energy than conventional plasterboard of the same thickness, and the same amount of energy as half-foot hollow brick masonry.

    En esta investigación se ha diseñado y fabricado un panel de escayola que incorpora un 45% en peso de material de cambio de fase, manteniendo las propiedades físicas y mecánicas exigidas en la normativa de aplicación para yesos de construcción (UNE EN 13279 y referencias a la RY 85. Así, un panel de 1,0 m2 y 1,5 cm de espesor, contiene 4,75 kg de PCM, cantidad muy superior a la conseguida hasta la fecha (3 kg/m2. Para ello se ha mejorado previamente sus prestaciones mecánicas y físicas mediante adiciones binarias: fibras de polipropileno y dispersión de melanina formaldehído. Este porcentaje es capaz de almacenar en 1,5 cm de espesor cinco veces la energía térmica de un panel de cartón yeso con el mismo espesor y la misma cantidad que una fábrica de 1/2 pie de ladrillo hueco, en el rango de temperaturas próximas a la de confort (20-30 ºC.

  1. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina eBrudzynski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1 precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2 and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised 3 MRSA, 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 VRE and 5 Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL identified as 1 Proteus mirabilis, 3 Escherichia coli and 1 Escherichia coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differred in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp ESBL and E. coli and up to 33μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling metho...

  3. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2009-01-27

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  4. Assessment of inhalation dose sensitivity by physicochemical properties of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Young; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Won Chul; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Facilities processing raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may give rise to enhanced radiation dose to workers due to chronic inhalation of airborne particulates. Internal radiation dose due to particulate inhalation varies depending on particulate properties, including size, shape, density, and absorption type. The objective of the present study was to assess inhalation dose sensitivity to physicochemical properties of airborne particulates. Committed effective doses to workers resulting from inhalation of airborne particulates were calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection 66 human respiratory tract model. Inhalation dose generally increased with decreasing particulate size. Committed effective doses due to inhalation of 0.01μm sized particulates were higher than doses due to 100μm sized particulates by factors of about 100 and 50 for {sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th, respectively. Inhalation dose increased with decreasing shape factor. Shape factors of 1 and 2 resulted in dose difference by about 18 %. Inhalation dose increased with particulate mass density. Particulate mass densities of 11 g·cm{sup -3} and 0.7 g·cm{sup -3} resulted in dose difference by about 60 %. For {sup 238}U, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of S, M, and F in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type S of {sup 238}U was about 9 times higher than dose for absorption F. For {sup 230}Th, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of F, M, and S in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type F of {sup 230}Th was about 16 times higher than dose for absorption S. Consequently, use of default values for particulate properties without consideration of site specific physiochemical properties may potentially skew radiation dose estimates to unrealistic values up to 1-2 orders of magnitude. For this reason, it is highly recommended to consider site specific working materials and

  5. PERSPECTIVES OF MOLIBDENUM CONTAINING MATERIALS APPLICATION FOR ALLOYING OF IRONCARBON ALLOYS DURING MANUFACTURING OF CRITICAL CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Slutsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor is one of most important part of automobile determine its economical effectiveness of usage. On the other hand, sleeves, pistons and rings are crucible parts as they determine the service life of a motor. These parts are producing in big scale – dozens of millions pieces. Increase of cylinder sleeves physical-mechanical properties results in prolongation of motor service life and improvement of motor’s characteristics. Nowadays low alloyed cast irons with perlite structure are used to manufacture motor’s sleeves. For alloying purposes such traditional elements as Cr, Ni, Cu, and V are applied. But it is interesting to use molybdenum for cast iron alloying. It is known that alloying of alloys allows considerable increasing of consumption properties of castings. But in spite of advantages of alloys alloying the increase of molybdenum containing iron-carbon alloys production is restricted by economical reasons – high cost of alloying additions. Expenditures on alloying additions can be reduced by the application cheap secondary alloys in the charge. So, the present paper is devoted to investigation of alloying peculiarities during the treatment of ferrous alloys with molybdenum applying different initial materials.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION OF NEW SOLID DENTAL FILLING TEMPORARY MATERIALS CONTAINING ZINC. FORMULA DEVELOPMENT STAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytko-Polończyk, Jolanta; Antosik, Agata; Zajac, Magdalena; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Krywult, Agnieszka; Jachowicz, Renata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Caries is the most popular problem affecting teeth and this is the reason why so many temporary dental filling materials are being developed. An example of such filling is zinc oxide paste mixed with eugenol, Thymodentin and Coltosol F®. Zinc-oxide eugenol is used in dentistry because of its multiplied values: it improves heeling of the pulp by dentine bridge formation; has antiseptic properties; is hygroscopic. Because of these advantages compouds of zinc oxide are used as temporary fillings, especially in deep caries lesions when treatment is oriented on support of vital pulp. Temporary dental fillings based on zinc oxide are prepared ex tempone by simple mixing powder (Thymodentin) and eugenol liqiud together or a ready to use paste Coltosol F®. Quantitative composition depends mainly on experience of person who is preparing it, therefore, exact qualitative composition of dental fillings is not replicable. The main goal of the study was to develop appropriate dental fillings in solid form containing set amount of zinc oxide. Within the study, the influence of preparation method on solid dental fillings properties like mechanical properties and zinc ions release were examined. PMID:27476293

  7. Study on Strength and Microstructure of Cement-Based Materials Containing Combination Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of complex binders containing two or three blended mineral admixtures in terms of glass powder (GP, limestone powder (LP, and steel slag powder (SP was determined by a battery solution type compressive testing machine. The morphology and microstructure characteristics of complex binder hydration products were also studied by microscopic analysis methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM. The mechanical properties of the cement-based materials were analyzed to reveal the most appropriate mineral admixture type and content. The early sample strength development with GP was very slow, but it rapidly grew at later stages. The micro aggregate effect and pozzolanic reaction mutually occurred in the mineral admixture. In the early stage, the micro aggregate effect reduced paste porosity and the small particles connected with the cement hydration products to enhance its strength. In the later stage, the pozzolanic reaction of some components in the complex powder occurred and consumed part of the calcium hydroxide to form C-S-H gel, thus improving the hydration environment. Also, the produced C-S-H gel made the structure more compact, which improved the structure’s strength.

  8. Radiation effects on polymers for coatings on copper canisters used for the containment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work proposes applying polyurethane coatings as an additional barrier in the design of Canadian nuclear waste disposal containers. The goal of the present research is to investigate the physico-mechanical integrity of a natural castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) to be used as a coating material in pH-radiation-temperature environments. As the first part to these inquiries, the present paper investigates the effect of a mixed radiation field supplied by a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor on COPUs that differ only by their isocyanate structure. FTIR, DSC, DMA, WAXS, and MALDI are used to characterize the changes that occur as a result of radiation and to relate these changes to polymer structure and composition. The COPUs used in the present work have demonstrated sustained physico-mechanical properties up to accumulated doses of 2.0 MGy and are therefore suitable for end-uses in radiation environments such as those expected in the deep geological repository

  9. Radiation effects on polymers for coatings on copper canisters used for the containment of radioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, Aba; Bonin, H. W.; Bui, V. T.

    2008-05-01

    The present work proposes applying polyurethane coatings as an additional barrier in the design of Canadian nuclear waste disposal containers. The goal of the present research is to investigate the physico-mechanical integrity of a natural castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) to be used as a coating material in pH-radiation-temperature environments. As the first part to these inquiries, the present paper investigates the effect of a mixed radiation field supplied by a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor on COPUs that differ only by their isocyanate structure. FTIR, DSC, DMA, WAXS, and MALDI are used to characterize the changes that occur as a result of radiation and to relate these changes to polymer structure and composition. The COPUs used in the present work have demonstrated sustained physico-mechanical properties up to accumulated doses of 2.0 MGy and are therefore suitable for end-uses in radiation environments such as those expected in the deep geological repository.

  10. Grip force and heart rate responses to manual carrying tasks: effects of material, weight, and base area of the container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien; Tseng, Chia-Yun

    2014-01-01

    This study recruited 16 industrial workers to examine the effects of material, weight, and base area of container on reduction of grip force (ΔGF) and heart rate for a 100-m manual carrying task. This study examined 2 carrying materials (iron and water), 4 carrying weights (4.4, 8.9, 13.3, 17.8 kg), and 2 base areas of container (24 × 24 cm, 35 × 24 cm). This study showed that carrying water significantly increased ΔGF and heart rate as compared with carrying iron. Also, ΔGF and heart rate significantly increased with carrying weight and base area of container. The effects of base area of container on ΔGF and heart rate were greater in carrying water condition than in carrying iron condition. The maximum dynamic effect of water on ΔGF and heart rate occurred when water occupied ~60%-80% of full volume of the container.

  11. A single-source precursor route to anisotropic halogen-doped zinc oxide particles as a promising candidate for new transparent conducting oxide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Daniela; Wagner, Markus R; Flock, Johanna; Reparaz, Julian S; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M; Klaiber, Alexander; Dekorsy, Thomas; Polarz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous applications in optoelectronics require electrically conducting materials with high optical transparency over the entire visible light range. A solid solution of indium oxide and substantial amounts of tin oxide for electronic doping (ITO) is currently the most prominent example for the class of so-called TCOs (transparent conducting oxides). Due to the limited, natural occurrence of indium and its steadily increasing price, it is highly desired to identify materials alternatives containing highly abundant chemical elements. The doping of other metal oxides (e.g., zinc oxide, ZnO) is a promising approach, but two problems can be identified. Phase separation might occur at the required high concentration of the doping element, and for successful electronic modification it is mandatory that the introduced heteroelement occupies a defined position in the lattice of the host material. In the case of ZnO, most attention has been attributed so far to n-doping via substitution of Zn(2+) by other metals (e.g., Al(3+)). Here, we present first steps towards n-doped ZnO-based TCO materials via substitution in the anion lattice (O(2-) versus halogenides). A special approach is presented, using novel single-source precursors containing a potential excerpt of the target lattice 'HalZn·Zn3O3' preorganized on the molecular scale (Hal = I, Br, Cl). We report about the synthesis of the precursors, their transformation into halogene-containing ZnO materials, and finally structural, optical and electronic properties are investigated using a combination of techniques including FT-Raman, low-T photoluminescence, impedance and THz spectroscopies. PMID:26665089

  12. A single-source precursor route to anisotropic halogen-doped zinc oxide particles as a promising candidate for new transparent conducting oxide materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lehr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous applications in optoelectronics require electrically conducting materials with high optical transparency over the entire visible light range. A solid solution of indium oxide and substantial amounts of tin oxide for electronic doping (ITO is currently the most prominent example for the class of so-called TCOs (transparent conducting oxides. Due to the limited, natural occurrence of indium and its steadily increasing price, it is highly desired to identify materials alternatives containing highly abundant chemical elements. The doping of other metal oxides (e.g., zinc oxide, ZnO is a promising approach, but two problems can be identified. Phase separation might occur at the required high concentration of the doping element, and for successful electronic modification it is mandatory that the introduced heteroelement occupies a defined position in the lattice of the host material. In the case of ZnO, most attention has been attributed so far to n-doping via substitution of Zn2+ by other metals (e.g., Al3+. Here, we present first steps towards n-doped ZnO-based TCO materials via substitution in the anion lattice (O2− versus halogenides. A special approach is presented, using novel single-source precursors containing a potential excerpt of the target lattice 'HalZn·Zn3O3' preorganized on the molecular scale (Hal = I, Br, Cl. We report about the synthesis of the precursors, their transformation into halogene-containing ZnO materials, and finally structural, optical and electronic properties are investigated using a combination of techniques including FT-Raman, low-T photoluminescence, impedance and THz spectroscopies.

  13. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, S.; Islam, S. T.; Banthia, N.

    2011-01-01

    Use of any recycled material helps to maintain a greener environment by keeping waste materials out of the landfills. Recycling practices also can decrease the environmental and economical impact of manufacturing the materials from virgin resources, which reduces the overall carbon footprint of industrial materials and processes. This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic mod...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  16. Electrospun nylon-6 spider-net like nanofiber mat containing TiO(2) nanoparticles: a multifunctional nanocomposite textile material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Bajgai, Madhab Prasad; Nam, Ki Taek; Seo, Yun A; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Hong, Seong Tshool; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-01-15

    In this study, electrospun nylon-6 spider-net like nanofiber mats containing TiO(2) nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) were successfully prepared. The nanofiber mats containing TiO(2) NPs were characterized by SEM, FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA and EDX analyses. The results revealed that fibers in two distinct sizes (nano and subnano scale) were obtained with the addition of a small amount of TiO(2) NPs. In low TiO(2) content nanocomposite mats, these nanofiber weaves were found uniformly loaded with TiO(2) NPs on their wall. The presence of a small amount of TiO(2) NPs in nylon-6 solution was found to improve the hydrophilicity (antifouling effect), mechanical strength, antimicrobial and UV protecting ability of electrospun mats. The resultant nylon-6/TiO(2) antimicrobial spider-net like composite mat with antifouling effect may be a potential candidate for future water filter applications, and its improved mechanical strength and UV blocking ability will also make it a potential candidate for protective clothing.

  17. Corrosion studies of container materials for radioactive waste disposal in granite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the research carried out for the assessment of corrosion behaviour of materials selected for the manufacture of containers for disposal of radioactive waste in granite formation. Metals and alloys included in laboratory test program were: titanium and titanium + 0.2% palladium; zircaloy 4; Hastelloy C276; 625 and 825 alloys; 600 and 800 alloys; 316 L and 304 L stainless steels. Test solutions were designed on the basis of a synthetic ground-water, the concentration of some ions (e.g. Cl- and H3O+) being increased. Temperature was 800C. General corrosion rate was evaluated on non-pitted metals and was very low after a 4 month immersion test. Maximal rates are: - zircaloy 4: 0.03 μm/y; - hastelloy C276, titanium and titanium-palladium: 0.15 μm/y; - 625 alloy: 0.40 μm/y. Pitting corrosion is observed on stainless steels and on 600, 800 and 825 alloys. Zircaloy could be susceptible to this type of attack by coupling with more noble metals. Crevice corrosion is a consequence of the increase in Cl- and H3O+ concentration. Increasing resistance order gives the following list: 304L, 316L, 825, 625 and C276. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was assessed by low constant extension rate testing (CERT). Hastelloy C276 and 625 alloys develop S.C.C. in solutions used for crevice corrosion studies. Nevertheless, 825 alloy (eliminated after pitting studies) does not present S.C.C. when tested in the same way. The thermal treatment which can affect the welded zone increased the susceptibility to crevice corrosion of hastelloy C4 and hastelloy C276, but only if concerned areas are cold-worked. The behaviour of C4 is not better than C276 behaviour as far as this type of corrosion is concerned

  18. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the WP. This

  19. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the

  20. Novel ether-linkages containing aliphatic copolyesters of poly(butylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) as promising candidates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigli, Matteo [Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Bologna, Via Terracini 28, 40131 Bologna (Italy); Lotti, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.lotti@unibo.it [Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Bologna, Via Terracini 28, 40131 Bologna (Italy); Vercellino, Marco [Department of Molecular Medicine, UdR of INSTM, Viale Taramelli 3/B, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Visai, Livia [Department of Molecular Medicine, UdR of INSTM, Viale Taramelli 3/B, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Department of Occupational Medicine, Ergonomics and Disability, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Via S. Maugeri 8, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Munari, Andrea [Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Bologna, Via Terracini 28, 40131 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    A new class of biodegradable and biocompatible poly(butylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) based random copolymers are proposed for biomedical applications. The introduction of ether–oxygen containing BDG sequences along the PBCE macromolecular chain is expected to remarkably improve chain flexibility and surface hydrophilicity due to the presence of highly electronegative oxygen atoms. P(BCExBDGy) copolymers were synthesized by polycondensation. The homopolymer PBCE and three copolymers, namely (P(BCE70BDG30), P(BCE55BDG45) and P(BCE40BDG60)) were characterized from the molecular, thermal, structural and mechanical point of view. Hydrolytic degradation studies in the presence and absence of hog-pancreas lipase were performed under physiological conditions. To evaluate the diffusion profile of small molecules through the polymer matrix, the release behaviour of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was investigated. For biocompatibility studies, cell adhesion and proliferation of murine fibroblast (L929) and endocrine pancreatic (INS-1) cells were performed on each polymeric film. Results showed that solid-state properties can be tailored by simply varying copolymers' composition. Crystallinity degree and hydrophobicity significantly decreased with the increase of BDG co-unit mol%. Moreover, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PBCE, both depending on crystallinity degree, were remarkably improved: P(BCE40BDG60) showed an elastomeric behaviour with ε{sub b} over 600% and, as regard to biodegradability, after 98 days it lost over 60% of its initial weight if incubated in the presence of the pancreatic lipase. Lastly, the newly developed biomaterials resulted not cytotoxic with both types of cells and could be properly tailored for biomedical applications varying the content of BDG co-unit mol%. - Highlights: • Ether–oxygen atoms along PBCE chain as winning strategy to improve its properties • Adjustable solid-state properties of copolymers simply

  1. Effects of environment and frequency on the fatigue behavior of the spallation neutron source (SNS) target container material - 316 LN stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongbo

    As the candidate target container material of the new Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) being designed and constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Type 316 low-carbon nitrogen-added (LN) stainless steel (SS) will operate in an aggressive environment, subjected to intense fluxes of high-energy protons and neutrons while exposed to liquid mercury. The current project is oriented toward materials studies regarding the effects of test environment and frequency on the fatigue behavior of 316 LN SS. In order to study the structural applications of this material and improve the fundamental understanding of the fatigue damage mechanisms, fatigue tests were performed in air and mercury environments at various frequencies and R ratios (R = sigma min/sigmamax, sigmamin and sigmamax are the applied minimum and maximum stresses, respectively). Fatigue data were developed for the structural design and engineering applications of this material. Specifically, high-cycle fatigue tests, fatigue crack-propagation tests, and ultrahigh cycle fatigue tests up to 10 9 cycles were conducted in air and mercury with test frequencies from 10 Hz to 700 Hz. Microstructure characterizations were performed using optical microscopy (OM), scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that mercury doesn't seem to have a large impact on the crack-initiation behavior of 316 LN SS. However, the crack-propagation mechanisms in air and mercury are different in some test conditions. Transgranular cracks seem to be the main mechanism in air, and intergranular in mercury. A significant specimen self-heating effect was found during high-cycle faituge. Theoretical calculation was performed to predict temperature responses of the material subjected to cyclic deformation. The predicted cyclic temperature evolution seems to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, Part II: Sealing glass stability, microstructure and interfacial reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2014-03-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing methods under realistic conditions. Part II of the work examined the sealing glass stability, microstructure development, interfacial reaction, and volatility issues of a 3-cell stack with LSM-based cells. After 6000 h of testing, the refractory sealing glass YSO7 showed desirable chemical compatibility with YSZ electrolyte in that no discernable interfacial reaction was identified. In addition, no glass penetration into the thin electrolyte was observed. At the aluminized AISI441 interface, the protective alumina coating appeared to be corroded by the sealing glass. Air side interactions appeared to be more severe than fuel side interactions. Metal species such as Cr, Mn, and Fe were detected in the glass, but were limited to the vicinity of the interface. No alkaline earth chromates were found at the air side. Volatility was also studied in a similar glass and weight loss in a wet reducing environment was determined. Using the steady-state volatility data, the life time weight loss of refractory sealing glass YSO77 was estimated to be less than 0.1 wt%.

  3. Antiradical activity and amount of phenolic compounds in extracts obtained from some plant raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Sroka Zbigniew; Janiak Maria; Dryś Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Am...

  4. Direct-synthesis method towards copper-containing periodic mesoporous organosilicas : detailed investigation of the copper distribution in the material

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Feng; Meng; Kukueva, Elena; Altantzis, Thomas; Mertens, Myrjam; Bals, Sara; Cool, Pegie; Doorslaer, van, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Three-dimensional cubic Fm (3) over barm mesoporous copper-containing ethane-bridged PMO materials have been prepared through a direct-synthesis method at room temperature in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. The obtained materials have been unambiguously characterized in detail by several sophisticated techniques, including XRD, UV-Vis-Dr, TEM, elemental mapping, continuous- wave and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. The results show that at lower copper loading,...

  5. BISULFITE METHOD FOR OBTAINING FIBROUS SEMI-PRODUCTS FROM CELLULOSE-CONTAINING RAW MATERIAL FOR PACKING PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    I. Karpunin; V. Kuzmich; T. Balabanova

    2012-01-01

    The paper reveals that while using magnesium bisulfite pulp cooking of raw material which serves for obtaining a desired product with its further application for packing making it is rather important that the raw material should contain hemicellulose and lignin. In the case when the content of hemicellulose  and lignin is rather high in the desired product its qualitative (physical and mechanical) indices are deteriorating that negatively affects the qualitative values of the obtained packing.

  6. Exemption from Regulatory Control of Goods Containing Small Amounts of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety Guide on Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption and Clearance, No. RS-G-1.7 (2004). Nevertheless, the application of the exemption provisions in the BSS require further guidance, particularly with respect to goods containing small amounts of radioactive material. Although attempts have been made to harmonize the approaches among States and some progress has been achieved, further work needs to be done. For example, in some States such goods may be exempted from regulatory control and, in the case of consumer products, freely available to the public, while in other States their use may be subject to authorization with the consequence that they cannot be made freely available to the public. Other States may even refuse to authorize such goods, effectively resulting in their being banned. Such inconsistencies of approach may be a cause of confusion since the reasons for the different approaches will not be clear to manufacturers and suppliers of goods and the public who might use them. It may even result in questioning of the competence of the regulatory body. Further harmonization of the regulatory approaches in Member States in the application of the exemption provision in the BSS is clearly desirable, if not essential. Such goods may be marketed globally, and lack of harmonization can be a cause of confusion among the public and others regarding the risks posed by such goods. Further harmonization would assist regulatory bodies in the efficient and effective use of their limited resources, leaving them more time to devote to those activities and practices that present more significant radiation risks. Furthermore, it would have benefits for international trade.

  7. Radioactive material release from a containment vessel during a fire accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, S.; Norkus, J.

    2015-02-26

    A methodology is presented to determine the source term for leaks and ruptures of pressurized vessels. The generic methodology is applied to a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) which losses containment due to a hypothesized fire accident. The release due to a vessel rupture is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the release due to a leak.

  8. Calculation of radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide contained in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some results that we used MCNP5 program to calculate radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide in building materials. Since then, the limits of radionuclide content in building materials are discussed. The calculation results by MCNP are compared with those calculated by analytical method. (author)

  9. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 837.3 Published reports, material contained in the public...

  10. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. 10.775 Section 10.775 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.775 Packaging and...

  11. pH-dependent leaching of constituents of potential concern from concrete materials containing coal combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Garrabrants, Andrew C; DeLapp, Rossane; van der Sloot, Hans A

    2014-05-01

    Current concerns about the environmental safety of coal combustion fly ash have motivated this evaluation of the impact of fly ash use as a cement replacement in concrete materials on the leaching of constituents of potential concern. The chemical effects of fly ash on leaching were determined through characterization of liquid-solid partitioning using EPA Method 1313 for four fly ash materials as well as concrete and microconcrete materials containing 0% (control materials), 25% and 45% replacement of portland cement with the fly ash source. All source materials, concrete formulations and replacement levels are representative of US concrete industry practices. Eluate concentrations as a function of pH were compared to a broader range of available testing results for international concretes and mortars for which the leaching characteristics of the component fly ashes were unknown. The chemistry of the hydrated cement fraction was found to dominate the liquid-solid partitioning resulting in reduced leaching concentrations of most trace metals compared to concentrations from fly ash materials alone. Compared to controls, eluate concentrations of Sb, As, B, Cr, Mo, Se, Tl and V from concrete products containing fly ash were essentially the same as the eluate concentrations from control materials produced without fly ash replacement indicating little to no significant impact on aqueous partitioning.

  12. Preparation of n-tetradecane-containing microcapsules with different shell materials by phase separation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qingwu [Department of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2009-10-15

    Microcapsules for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer enhancement have attracted great attention. Microencapsulation of n-tetradecane with different shell materials was carried out by phase separation method in this paper. Acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (AS), acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene copolymer (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as the shell materials. The structures, morphologies and the thermal capacities of the microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ternary phase diagrams showed the potential encapsulation capabilities of the three shell materials. The effects of the shell/core ratio and the molecular weight of the shell material on the encapsulation efficiency and the thermal capacity of the microcapsules were also discussed. Microcapsules with melting enthalpy > 100 J/g, encapsulation efficiency 66-75%, particle size<1 {mu}m were obtained for all three shell materials. (author)

  13. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  14. Reduction of Noise from Disc Brake Systems Using Composite Friction Materials Containing Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohsen; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Nazockdast, Hossein

    2006-09-01

    Attempts have been made for the first time to prepare a friction material with the characteristic of thermal sensitive modulus, by the inclusion of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) as viscoelastic polymeric materials into the formulation in order to the increase the damping behavior of the cured friction material. Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS) and nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (NBR/PVC) blend system were used as TPE materials. In order to evaluate the viscoelastic parameters such as loss factor (tan δ) and storage modulus (E‧) for the friction material, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) were used. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of friction material and brake disc were determined by modal analysis. However, NBR/PVC and SEBS were found to be much more effective in damping behavior. The results from this comparative study suggest that the damping characteristics of commercial friction materials can be strongly affected by the TPE ingredients. This investigation also confirmed that the specimens with high TPE content had low noise propensity.

  15. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  16. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 mW.cm-2 (L4ST) to 161 mW.cm -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦O.cm 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  17. Electromagnetic interference shielding with Portland cement paste containing carbon materials and processed fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Zornoza, E.; Catalá, G.; Jiménez, F.; Andión, L. Gª; Garcés, P.

    2010-01-01

    The study described in this article explored the effect of adding different types of carbon materials (graphite powder and three types of carbon fibre), fly ash (with 5.6%, 15.9% and 24.3% Fe2O3), and a mix of both on electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding in Portland cement pastes. The parameters studied included the type and aspect ratio of the carbonic material, composite material thickness, the frequency of the incident electromagnetic r...

  18. Basic criteria in material selection for equipment of NPPs containing the type WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General principles of materials selection for NPP equipment are reported with due regard for operating conditions. The emphasis is on the selection of materials for equipment elements of water cooled and moderated reactors. Based on a 25 year operating experience a conclusion is made that on reactor materials selection the following properties should be taken into consideration: corrosion resistance, mechanical strength, low cycle fatigue strength and resistance to brittle fracture. Experimental data on the behaviour of a number of carbon, alloy and heat resistant steels under operating conditions are presented

  19. Self-assembled photosynthesis-inspired light harvesting material and solar cells containing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Chinnasamy, Muthiah; Fan, Dazhong

    2009-12-15

    A solar cell is described that comprises: (a) a semiconductor charge separation material; (b) at least one electrode connected to the charge separation material; and (c) a light-harvesting film on the charge separation material, the light-harvesting film comprising non-covalently coupled, self-assembled units of porphyrinic macrocycles. The porphyrinic macrocycles preferably comprise: (i) an intramolecularly coordinated metal; (ii) a first coordinating substituent; and (iii) a second coordinating substituent opposite the first coordinating substituent. The porphyrinic macrocycles can be assembled by repeating intermolecular coordination complexes of the metal, the first coordinating substituent and the second coordinating substituent.

  20. Characterization of a lime-pozzolan plaster containing phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Černý, Robert [Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    A PCM (Phase Change Material) modified lime-pozzolan plaster for improvement of thermal energy storage of building envelopes is studied in the paper. The investigated plaster is composed of lime hydrate, pozzolan admixture based on metakaolin and mudstone, silica sand, water and paraffin wax encapsulated in polymer capsule. The reference plaster without PCM application is studied as well. The analyzed materials are characterized by bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, compressive strength and pore size distribution. The temperature of phase change, heat of fusion and crystallization are studied using DSC (Difference Scanning Calorimetry) analysis performed in air atmosphere. In order to get information on materials hygrothermal performance, determination of thermal and hygric properties is done in laboratory conditions. Experimental data reveal a substantial improvement of heat storage capacity of PCM-modified plaster as compared to the reference material without PCM.

  1. Radiation Shielding Materials Containing Hydrogen, Boron, and Nitrogen: Systematic Computational and Experimental Study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of the proposed research are to develop a space radiation shielding material system that has high efficacy for shielding radiation and also has high...

  2. Palladium-containing graphene-like material: Synthesis and catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuev, M. V.; Arbuzov, A. A.; Magdalinova, N. A.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Tarasov, B. P.

    2016-09-01

    A graphene-like material with surface amine groups is obtained by graphite oxide reduction with ethylenediamine. A catalyst for the hydrogenation of nitrocompounds and unsaturated hydrocarbons is created by depositing Pd nanoparticles on the graphene material. The aliphatic chain is found to prevent agglomeration of the graphene sheets, while the amine groups form the growth centers of palladium nanoparticles, allowing their uniform distribution and small size.

  3. A chromatographic study of carbon monoxide adsorption on a clinoptilolite-containing natural zeolitic material

    OpenAIRE

    Narin, Güler; Yılmaz, Selahattin; Ülkü, Semra

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the equilibrium and kinetic parameters for CO adsorption on clinoptilolite-rich natural zeolitic material were determined by the concentration pulse chromatography technique. Experiments were carried out at different column temperatures (60-120°C) and interstitial carrier gas velocities (3.1-16.3 cm/s) using a clinoptilolite-rich natural zeolitic material packed column. The equilibrium and kinetic parameters were determined by matching the moments of the experimentally obtained...

  4. Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, Part II: sealing glass stability, microstructure and interfacial reactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2014-03-15

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing methods under realistic conditions. Part I of the work addressed the stack fixture, seal system and cell performance of a 3-cell short stack tested at 800oC for 6000h. Commercial NiO-YSZ anode-supported thin YSZ electrolyte cells with LSM cathodes were used for assessment and were tested in constant current mode with dilute (~50% H2) fuel versus air. Part II of the work examined the sealing glass stability, microstructure development, interfacial reactions, and volatility issues. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell degradation. After 6000h of testing, the refractory sealing glass YSO77 (Ba-Sr-Y-B-Si) showed desirable chemical compatibility with YSZ electrolyte in that no discernable interfacial reaction was identified, consistent with thermodynamic calculations. In addition, no glass penetration into the thin electrolyte was observed. At the aluminized AISI441 interface, the protective alumina coating appeared to be corroded by the sealing glass. Air side interactions appeared to be more severe than fuel side interactions. Metal species such as Cr, Mn, and Fe were detected in the glass, but were limited to the vicinity of the interface. No alkaline earth chromates were found at the air side. Volatility was also studied in a similar glass and weight loss in a wet reducing environment was determined. Using the steady-state volatility data, the life time (40,000h) weight loss of refractory sealing glass YSO77 was estimated to be less than 0.1 wt%.

  5. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around fluoride-containing dental materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kinugawa, M.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Satou, T.; Oikawa, S.; Kamiya, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Using PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma Emission) technique at TARRI (Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute), Japan, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around two fluoride-containing materials during caries progression using pH cycling. Class V cavities in extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing materials (i.e. 'Fuji IX' (FN) and 'UniFil flow with MEGA bond' (UF)) and a non-fluoride-containing material (i.e. 'SOLARE with MEGA bond' (SO)). Three 120 {mu}m longitudinal sections including the filling material were obtained from each tooth. In order to simulate daily acid attack occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The F and calcium distributions of the specimens were evaluated using PIGE and PIXE techniques. The F distribution of the specimens clearly showed the F uptake from FN into enamel adjacent to the filling material, while the F uptakes from UF and SO were not detected. For UF, the MEGA bond (non-fluoride-containing) between the tooth and UniFil flow interfered with the F absorption into the tooth. For FN, the amount of F uptake into the subsurface enamel increased during pH cycling. The amount of F uptake in 5-week pH cycling had significantly higher value compared to those in 1- and 3-week pH cycling. For UF and SO, there were no significant differences between the different durations of pH cycling. Among fluoride-containing materials, there were some differences in the F uptake with increased pH cycling, which could possibly lead to obtaining difference in clinical performance. The data obtained using PIGE and PIXE techniques were useful in understanding the benefit of fluorine by means of fluoride-containing material for preventing caries.

  6. Non-destructive evaluation of nuclear material storage container integrity using an acoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.F.; Pechersky, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Raju, P.K. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-07-01

    A non-intrusive method for determining the gas mixture in a sealed container using acoustics has been conceived. Analysis has shown that it is possible to both excite the acoustic resonance of the gas cavity, and detect when resonance occurs from the outside surface of the container. The resonant frequency of the acoustic cavity is dependent on the molecular weight of the gas that fills it. A change in the mixture of gases within the cavity alters the gas molecular weight and can produce a detectable change in the resonant frequency of the cavity. This concept provides a method of monitoring and/or analyzing the gas mixture in a sealed container without taking physical samples. An advantage of this technique is that it eliminates safety and contamination risks associated with breaching a pressure boundary and taking a sample of potentially hazardous gases in order to monitor or analyze the mixture.

  7. Oral Candidal Colonization in the Patients with RPDs by Different Base Materials%RPDs基托材料对口腔念珠菌定植的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜薇; 陈骏; 吴凌莉; 何祥一; 车团结

    2011-01-01

    目的:初步研究可摘局部义齿(RPDs)不同基托材料对口腔念珠菌的定植的影响.方法:临床随机选择RPDs修复患者147例.其中树脂基托义齿(A组)58例,钴铬合金铸造基托义齿(B组)63例,纯钛及钛合金铸造基托义齿(C组)26例.吐唾法取样,用CHROMagar培养基鉴定念珠菌菌种.培养基中念珠菌菌落计数为每个样本的念珠菌检出强度.通过统计学方法,比较3组不同基托材料义齿戴用人群念珠菌检出率和检出强度的差异.结果:147例不同基托材料义齿戴用人群中检出的念珠菌包括白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、克柔念珠菌3个菌种.A、B、C组白色念珠菌和非白色念珠菌检出率无显著差异.白色念珠菌的菌落形成单位数,A组显著高于B、C组(P<0.05);B组显著高于C组(P<0.05).非白色念珠菌间的菌落形成单位数无明显差异.结论:戴不同材料义齿患者口腔除了能检出白色念珠菌,还可检出非白色念珠菌;口腔念珠菌的菌落形成单位数与义齿基托材料密切相关,钛及钛合金基托义齿应为预防义齿性口炎的首选义齿.%Objective: To study of the oral Candidal colonization status with different base-materials denture. Methods: 147 cases who wear RPDs were divided into three groups: group A (resin base denture), group B (Co- Cr alloy base denture) . And group C (Titanium and Titanium alloy base denture). Non- stimulated saliva were collected by standard procedure as before. Salivary samples were inoculated on CHROMagar Candida? To identify Candida strains. The total number of colonies was considered as the detectable intensity of oral Candida. Statistical analysis was used to compare the differences of detection rate and detection intensity between three denture materials. Results; Candida was isolated from 147 cases who wear different base materials denture, such as Candida albi-cans. Candida tropical, Candida krusei. The frequency of Candida

  8. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda; Katsushi, Okuyama; Hiroko, Yamamoto; Hisanori, Komatsu; Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato; Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials ["MS coats F" (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials ("hybrid coats 2" [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8-4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  9. Rate-controlling processes in creep of subgrain containing aluminum materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, Oleg D. [Department Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ruano, Oscar A. [Department Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Av. Gregorio de Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: ruano@cenim.csic.es

    2005-11-25

    The creep behavior of aluminum alloys containing Bi, Zn, Ge, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti has been investigated. Aluminum containing solutes that diffused faster than aluminum has faster creep rates and lower activation energies for creep than observed in pure aluminum. Solutes that diffused slower than aluminum have slower creep rates and higher activation energies for creep than observed in pure aluminum. A dislocation climb model in the subgrain boundary that involves solute atom diffusion as the rate-controlling creep process is proposed to explain the results.

  10. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-10-31

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated. (FS)

  11. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narlesky, Joshua E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillispie, Obie W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  12. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E. [MET-1: ACTINIDE PROCESSING SUPPORT; Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Hydrophobic Composite Materials Containing a Visible-Light-Sensitive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yamauchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional superhydrophobic surface offered by PTFE provides no sterilization performance and is not sufficiently repellent against organic liquids. These limit PTFE's application in the field of disinfection and result a lack of durability. N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst added PTFE composite material was developed to remedy these shortcomings. This paper reports the surface characteristics, and the bactericidal and self-cleaning performance of the newly-developed composite material. The material exhibited a contact angle exceeding 150 degrees consistent with its hydrophobicity despite the inclusion of the hydrophilic N-doped TiO2. The surface free energy obtained for this composite was 5.8 mN/m. Even when exposed to a weak fluorescent light intensity (100 lx for 24 hours, the viable cells of gram-negative E. coli on the 12% N-doped TiO2-PTFE film were reduced 5 logs. The higher bactericidal activity was also confirmed on the gram-positive MRSA. Compared with the N-doped TiO2 coating only, the inactivation rate of the composite material was significantly enhanced. Utilizing the N-doped TiO2 with the PTFE composite coating could successfully remove, by UV illumination, oleic acid adsorbed on its surface. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of the novel N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst hydrophobic composite material for both indoor antibacterial action and outdoor contamination prevention.

  14. Fe-Cr-Al containing oxide semiconductors as potential solar water-splitting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliozberg, Kirill; Stein, Helge S; Khare, Chinmay; Parkinson, Bruce A; Ludwig, Alfred; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    A high-throughput thin film materials library for Fe-Cr-Al-O was obtained by reactive magnetron cosputtering and analyzed with automated EDX and XRD to elucidate compositional and structural properties. An automated optical scanning droplet cell was then used to perform photoelectrochemical measurements of 289 compositions on the library, including electrochemical stability, potentiodynamic photocurrents and photocurrent spectroscopy. The photocurrent onset and open circuit potentials of two semiconductor compositions (n-type semiconducting: Fe51Cr47Al2Ox, p-type semiconducting Fe36.5Cr55.5Al8Ox) are favorable for water splitting. Cathodic photocurrents are observed at 1.0 V vs RHE for the p-type material exhibiting an open circuit potential of 0.85 V vs RHE. The n-type material shows an onset of photocurrents at 0.75 V and an open circuit potential of 0.6 V. The p-type material showed a bandgap of 1.55 eV, while the n-type material showed a bandgap of 1.97 eV.

  15. Materials and Concepts for Full Ceramic SOFCs with Focus on Carbon Containing Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Veltzé, Sune;

    stimulated the development for full ceramic anodes based on strontium titanates. Furthermore, the Ni-cermet is primarily a hydrogen oxidation electrode and efficiency losses might occur when operating on carbon containing fuels. In a recent European project full ceramic cells comprising CGO/Ni infiltrated Nb...

  16. The Al-containing wastes technology of recycling for alumina, coagulants and building materials production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Al-containing wastes are generated by a row of industrial plants as hydroalumocarbonate residuum, underwastes water, foundry slag, mud, catalysts, mineral part of coals and others. These wastes is cycling in technological processes that cause to extra energy costs, processes stages difficulties and negatively affecting to environment.

  17. The Al-containing wastes technology of recycling for alumina, coagulants and building materials production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lainer; U.; A.; Tuzhilin; A.; S.; Perekhoda; S.; P.; Vetchinkina; T.; N.; Samoilov; E.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The Al-containing wastes are generated by a row of industrial plants as hydroalumocarbonate residuum, underwastes water, foundry slag, mud, catalysts, mineral part of coals and others. These wastes is cycling in technological processes that cause to extra energy costs, processes stages difficulties and negatively affecting to environment.……

  18. Container with heat or cold dispensing material comprising hydrogel with crosslinked hydrophilic polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, J.

    2000-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/NL97/00102 Sec. 371 Date Oct. 20, 1998 Sec. 102(e) Date Oct. 20, 1998 PCT Filed Mar. 3, 1997 PCT Pub. No. WO97/33950 PCT Pub. Date Sep. 18, 1997A device for storing and gradually dispensing heat or cold includes a container having a partially heat-conducting wall enclosing a space with m

  19. Thin film solid-state reactions forming carbides as contact materials for carbon-containing semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, W. P.; Detavernier, C.; Van Meirhaeghe, R. L.; Lavoie, C.

    2007-03-01

    Metal carbides are good candidates to contact carbon-based semiconductors (SiC, diamond, and carbon nanotubes). Here, we report on an in situ study of carbide formation during the solid-state reaction between thin films. The solid-state reaction was examined between 11 transition metals (W, Mo, Fe, Cr, V, Nb, Mn, Ti, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and an amorphous carbon layer. Capping layers (C or TiN) of different thicknesses were applied to prevent oxidation. Carbide formation is evidenced for nine metals and the phases formed have been identified (for a temperature ranging from 100to1100°C). W first forms W2C and then WC; Mo forms Mo2C; Fe forms Fe3C; Cr first forms metastable phases Cr2C and Cr3C2-x, and finally forms Cr3C2; V forms VCx; Nb transforms into Nb2C followed by NbC; Ti forms TiC; Ta first forms Ta2C and then TaC; and Hf transforms into HfC. The activation energy for the formation of the various carbide phases has been obtained by in situ x-ray diffraction.

  20. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g−1. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 106 g−1. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10−6 f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials

  1. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takashi, E-mail: tyama@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Kida, Akiko [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Noma, Yukio [Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Womens University, 1-1-1 Kasumigaoka, Higashiku, Fukuoka 813-8529 (Japan); Terazono, Atsushi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Sakai, Shin-ichi [Environmental Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Yoshidahonmachi, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  2. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic modulus were the primary parameters of interest. Results demonstrated that ground tire rubber introduced significant amounts of air into the mix and adversely affected the strength. The introduction of a defoamer was able to successfully remove part of the excess air from the mix, but the proportional strength improvements were not noted implying that air left in the defoamed mixture had undesirable characteristics. Freeze-thaw tests were next performed to understand the nature of air in the defoamed mixtures, and results demonstrated that this air is not helpful in resisting freeze-thaw resistance either. Overall, while lightweight, low-carbon footprint concrete materials seem possible from recycled materials, significant further optimization remains possible.

  3. Simulation study into the identification of nuclear materials in cargo containers using cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon tomography represents a new type of imaging technique that can be used in detecting high-Z materials. Monte Carlo simulations for muon scattering in different types of target materials are presented. The dependence of the detector capability to identify high-Z targets on spatial resolution has been studied. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a basic point of closest approach (PoCA) algorithm. In this article we report the development of a secondary analysis algorithm that is applied to the reconstructed PoCA points. This algorithm efficiently ascertains clusters of voxels with high average scattering angles to identify 'areas of interest' within the inspected volume. Using this approach the effect of other parameters, such as the distance between detectors and the number of detectors per set, on material identification is also presented. Finally, false positive and false negative rates for detecting shielded HEU in realistic scenarios with low-Z clutter are presented

  4. Multipurpose containers for the transport of nuclear material: The example of transport flask CF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper summarizes the design and licensing activity carried out in the frame work of an ENEA working group which was set up with the aim of developing transport flasks for radioactive and non radioactive dangerous materials. In particular the nuclear design of the multipurpose transport flask CF6 is described. The paper was presented at the seminar on 'Nuclear wastes and transport of radioactive materials' held in Bologna on June 4th and 5th 1987 under the aegis of the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna. (author)

  5. Electromagnetic interference shielding with Portland cement paste containing carbon materials and processed fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornoza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this article explored the effect of adding different types of carbon materials (graphite powder and three types of carbon fibre, fly ash (with 5.6%, 15.9% and 24.3% Fe2O3, and a mix of both on electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding in Portland cement pastes. The parameters studied included the type and aspect ratio of the carbonic material, composite material thickness, the frequency of the incident electromagnetic radiation and the percentage of the magnetic fraction in the fly ash. The findings showed that the polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres, which had the highest aspect ratio, provided more effective shielding than any of the other carbon materials studied. Shielding was more effective in thicker specimens and at higher radiation frequencies. Raising the magnetic fraction of the fly ash, in turn, also enhanced paste shielding performance. Finally, adding both carbon fibre and fly ash to the paste resulted in the most effective EMI shielding as a result of the synergies generated.

    En el presente trabajo se investiga la influencia de la adición de diferentes tipos de materiales carbonosos (polvo de grafito y 3 tipos de fibra de carbono, de una ceniza volante con diferentes contenidos de fase magnética (5,6%, 15,9% y 24,3% de Fe2O3 y de una mezcla de ambos, sobre la capacidad de apantallar interferencias electromagnéticas de pastas de cemento Pórtland. Entre los parámetros estudiados se encuentra: el tipo de material carbonoso, la relación de aspecto del material carbonoso, el espesor del material compuesto, la frecuencia de la radiación electromagnética incidente y el porcentaje de fracción magnética en la ceniza volante. Los resultados obtenidos indican que entre los materiales carbonosos estudiados son las fibras de carbono basadas en poliacrilonitrilo con una mayor relación de aspecto las que dan mejores resultados de apantallamiento. Al aumentar

  6. Failure by void coalescence in metallic materials containing primary and secondary voids subject to intense shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    , subject to shear dominated loading. To account for both length scales involved in this study, a continuum model that includes the softening effect of damage evolution in shear is used to represent the matrix material surrounding the primary voids. Here, a recently extended Gurson-type model is used, which...

  7. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Concrete Containing Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    in this article utilizes integration of the concrete and the microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM). PCM has the ability to absorb and release significant amounts of heat at a specific temperature range. As a consequence of admixing PCM to the concrete, new thermal properties like thermal conductivity...

  8. X-ray diffraction study of atomic structure features of amorphous carbon containing materials of nature and synthetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic structure of amorphous carbon-containing materials such as carbon glass, spectroscopically pure carbon, schungite and anthracite is investigated using X ray diffraction analysis and computerized simulation. In computerized simulation of model gratings packing into packets an interlayer distance and a number of layer in a packet varied and a gratings turn is predetermined randomly. The quantity of gratings in a packet is shown to vary between four for anthracite and six for spectroscopically pure coal. The interlayer distance for all amorphous carbonaceous materials is above 3.35 A which is typical for graphite

  9. Development of deterioration models and tests of structural materials for nuclear containment structures(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Byung Hwan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The nuclear containment structures are very important infrastructures which require much cost for construction and maintenance. If these structures lose their functions and do not ensure their safety, great losses of human lives and properties will result. Therefore, the nuclear containment structures should secure appropriate safety and functions during these service lives. The nuclear concrete structures start to experience deterioration due to severe environmental condition, even though the concrete structures exhibit generally superior durability. It is, therefore, necessary to take appropriate actions at each stage of planning, design and construction to secure safety and functionability. Thorough examination of deterioration mechanism and comprehensive tests have been conducted to explore the durability characteristics of nuclear concrete structures. 88 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  10. Method to produce nitrogen-containing powdered coal as electrode material for electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, G.; Richter, G.; Weidlich, E.

    1977-09-01

    Coal of improved catalytic activity and increased consistency by carbonization of nitrogen-containing organic polymers is produced according to the invention in the following manner: the polymer, preferably polyacryl nitrile, is fully dissolved in a concentrated solution of an ammonium, alkali, zinc or iron halide or thiocyanate. The resulting highly viscous liquid is carbonized in the temperature range of 700-1200/sup 0/C. The product obtained is then ground.

  11. Influence of Containment on the Growth of Silicon-Germanium (ICESAGE): A Materials Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Croll, A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of Ge Si crystal growth experiments are planned to be conducted in the Low 1-x x Gradient Furnace (LGF) onboard the International Space Station. The primary objective of the research is to determine the influence of containment on the processing-induced defects and impurity incorporation in germanium-silicon alloy crystals. A comparison will be made between crystals grown by the normal and "detached" Bridgman methods and the ground-based float zone technique. Crystals grown without being in contact with a container have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. "Detached" or "dewetted" Bridgman growth is similar to regular Bridgman growth in that most of the melt is in contact with the crucible wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically of the order of 10-100 microns. Long duration reduced gravity is essential to test the proposed theory of detached growth. Detached growth requires the establishment of a meniscus between the crystal and the ampoule wall. The existence of this meniscus depends on the ratio of the strength of gravity to capillary forces. On Earth, this ratio is large and stable detached growth can only be obtained over limited conditions. Crystals grown detached on the ground exhibited superior structural quality as evidenced by measurements of etch pit density, synchrotron white beam X-ray topography and double axis X-ray diffraction.

  12. Molecular design of nanometric zinc borate-containing polyimide as a route to flame retardant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc borate (Zn2B6O11.3H2O) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by using an emulsion liquid membrane (W/O/W emulsion) to control the size of particles with Na2B4O7.10H2O, boric acid and ZnSO4.7H2O as raw materials. All materials were dispersed with the polyimide (PI) precursor, poly (amic acid). Using a combination of dissolving the poly (amic acid) and mixing fatty acid surfactant-coated zinc borate nanoparticles; we have demonstrated the formation of nanocomposites with uniform nanoparticles dispersion. We report the first deposition of nanocomposite polyimides from solution using spin-coating. The microstructures and morphology of the as-obtained samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  13. Characteristics of the magnetic control of separable ferrous impurities contained in raw construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sandulyak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency of using the method of magnetic control of ferrous impurities for construction materials was noted. Especially it is important because of magnetic separators which are widely used for elimination of these impurities. There were shown the necessity of upgrading the present approach in order to realize the method of magnetic control. For example, it is necessary to take into account not only the rest of ferrous impurities (that is inevitable after limited numbers of operations but also a factor of involving sand particles. The concrete proposal how to develop the existing system of magnetic control of ferrous impurities in construction materials subjected to magnetic separation, is stated. The experimental-calculation model for such control is also shown. The main parameters of such model were estimated on the example of quartz sand and feldspar. The errors of standard methods of magnetic control were revealed for the first time.

  14. Localization of surface modes along a periodic/quasiperiodic structure containing a left-handed material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Solano, M.; Palomino-Ovando, M. A.; Lozada-Morales, R.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of a one-dimensional (1-D) photonic periodic/quasiperiodic structure, designed as photonic crystal (PC)-Fibonacci (FN)-photonic crystal (PC) sections. The structure is composed of alternating layers of a right-handed material (RHM) and a left-handed material (LHM). The RHM dielectric function is frequency independent and the LHM (metamaterial) dielectric function and magnetic susceptibility are described according to the Drude model. Using attenuated total reflectivity geometry, we explore the coupling of light with the plasmons on the surface of the metamaterial layers of the hybrid structure. The excitation of surface modes in different frequency regions are investigated. We observed bands of surface modes with a significant selective spatial localization at which the intensity of the electric field is confined almost totally within one of the PC sections or within the FN one.

  15. Novel silver containing antimicrobial coatings for implant materials. new applications of Ag(I) coordination networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vig Slenters, Tünde

    2009-01-01

    Modern medicine continuously develops new artificial short-term or permanent devices to assist in the performance of physiological functions. Implantation of medical devices represents one of the most important risk factors of all nosocomial infections, when implant materials become infected due to bacterial adhesion and subsequent formation of bio films. The latter are impossible to treat with antibiotics and represent a dramatic complication for the patient, leading to implant replacement, ...

  16. Catalytic behavior of surfactant-containing-MCM-41 mesoporous materials for cycloaddition of 4-nitrophenyl azide

    OpenAIRE

    Boukoussa, Bouhadjar; Zeghada, Sarah; Bentabed-Ababsa, Ghenia; Hamacha, Rachida; Derdour, Aïcha; BENGUEDDACH Abdelkader; Mongin, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Si-MCM-41, Ga-MCM-41 and Al-MCM-41 mesoporous catalysts (with Si/Al = 80 and Si/Ga = 80) were prepared by direct synthesis under hydrothermal crystallization method using sodium aluminate or gallium sulfate and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as aluminum or gallium and silica sources, respectively. The structural features of the materials were determined by various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption at 77 K, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (...

  17. Investigation of Anti-Plane Shear Behavior of a Piezoelectric Material Containing an Impermeable Edge Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Duan; Shuhong Liu; Jin Liu

    2004-01-01

    The problem involving an edge-crack in a rectangular material under the anti-plane mechanical loading and in-plane electric loading is analyzed under the impermeable conditions. By using the series expansion, the general solutions of electromechanical fields are obtained, which satisfied both governing equations and crack sufrace boundary conditions, and the unknown constants in which can be obtained by the boundary collocation method. Numerical results are given to show the effect of electromechanical interaction on energy release rate.

  18. Transmission gaps in one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure containing epsilon-negative materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadi Rahimi; Abdolrahman Namdar; Samad Roshan Entezar; Habib Tajalli

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the transmission properties of one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure consisting of dispersive and lossless epsilon-negative (ENG) materials. It is found that for both TE and TM polarizations with normal and oblique incidences, there exist transmission gaps which are invariant with a change of scale and sensitive to incident angles. Analytical methods based on transfer matrices and effective medium theory have been used to explain the properties of transmission gaps.

  19. Spectral and polarization effects in deterministically nonperiodic multilayers containing optically anisotropic and gyrotropic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukovsky, S. V.; Galynsky, V. M.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of material anisotropy and gyrotropy on optical properties of fractal multilayer nanostructures is theoretically investigated. Gyrotropy is found to uniformly rotate the output polarization for bi-isotropic multilayers of arbitrary geometrical structure without any changes in transmission spectra. When introduced in a polarization splitter based on a birefringent fractal multilayer, isotropic gyrotropy is found to resonantly alter output polarizations without shifting of transmissio...

  20. PVC-based composite material containing recycled non-metallic printed circuit board (PCB) powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjie; Guo, Yuwen; Liu, Jingyang; Qiao, Qi; Liang, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact.

  1. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  2. Influence of Containment on the Growth of Silicon-Germanium (ICESAGE): A Materials Science ISS Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Croll, A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of Ge(1-x)Si(x) crystal growth experiments are planned to be conducted in the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) onboard the International Space Station. The primary objective of the research is to determine the influence of containment on the processinginduced defects and impurity incorporation in germanium-silicon alloy crystals. A comparison will be made between crystals grown by the normal and "detached" Bridgman methods and the ground-based float zone technique. Crystals grown without being in contact with a container have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. "Detached" or "dewetted" Bridgman growth is similar to regular Bridgman growth in that most of the melt is in contact with the crucible wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically of the order of 10-100 microns. Long duration reduced gravity is essential to test the proposed theory of detached growth. Detached growth requires the establishment of a meniscus between the crystal and the ampoule wall. The existence of this meniscus depends on the ratio of the strength of gravity to capillary forces. On Earth, this ratio is large and stable detached growth can only be obtained over limited conditions. Crystals grown detached on the ground exhibited superior structural quality as evidenced by measurements of etch pit density, synchrotron white beam X-ray topography and double axis X-ray diffraction. The plans for the flight experiments will be described.

  3. Influence of Containment on the Growth of Silicon-Germanium: A Materials Science Flight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Croell, A.

    2012-01-01

    A series of Ge(1-x)Si(x) crystal growth experiments are planned to be conducted in the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) onboard the International Space Station. The primary objective of the research is to determine the influence of containment on the processing-induced defects and impurity incorporation in germanium-silicon alloy crystals. A comparison will be made between crystals grown by the normal and "detached" Bridgman methods and the ground-based float zone technique. Crystals grown without being in contact with a container have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. "Detached" or "dewetted" Bridgman growth is similar to regular Bridgman growth in that most of the melt is in contact with the crucible wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically of the order of 10-100 microns. Long duration reduced gravity is essential to test the proposed theory of detached growth. Detached growth requires the establishment of a meniscus between the crystal and the ampoule wall. The existence of this meniscus depends on the ratio of the strength of gravity to capillary forces. On Earth, this ratio is large and stable detached growth can only be obtained over limited conditions. Crystals grown detached on the ground exhibited superior structural quality as evidenced by measurements of etch pit density, synchrotron white beam X-ray topography and double axis X-ray diffraction. The plans for the flight experiments will be described.

  4. Transformation of regioregular organotitanium polymers into group 16 heterole-containing π-conjugated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Hiroki; Kino, Tomoko; Tomita, Ikuyoshi

    2012-04-13

    Regioregular organometallic polymers with titanacyclopentadiene units, obtained from terminal diynes and a low-valent titanium complex, were subjected to reactions with disulfur dichloride and selenium (I) chloride to give π-conjugated polymers with thiophene and selenophene units in the main chain in 63% and 86% yields. Their number-average molecular weights were estimated as 4300 and 5700, respectively. Both polymers were found to be fully π-conjugated and their HOMO energy levels were remarkably high (-5.3 eV and -5.0 eV for thiophene- and selenophene-containing polymers, respectively) as supported by their UV-vis absorption spectra and CV analyses.

  5. Corrosion investigations on zircaloy-4 and titanium dissolver materials for MOX fuel dissolution in concentrated nitric acid containing fluoride ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, J.; Krishnaveni, P.; Krishna, D. Nanda Gopala; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous reprocessing of plutonium-rich mixed oxide fuels require fluoride as a dissolution catalyst in boiling nitric acid for an effective dissolution of the spent fuel. High corrosion rates were obtained for the candidate dissolver materials zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) and commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti grade 2) in boiling 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF. Complexing the fluoride ions either with Al(NO3)3 or ZrO(NO3)2 aided in decreasing the corrosion rates of Zr-4 and CP-Ti. From the obtained corrosion rates it is concluded that CP-Ti is a better dissolver material than Zr-4 for extended service life in boiling 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF, when complexed with 0.15 M ZrO(NO3)2. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of TiO2 and absence of fluoride on the surface of CP-Ti samples, indicating that effective complexation had occurred in solution leading to passivation of the metal and imparting high corrosion resistance.

  6. Solid Material Characterization of Freeze-Dried Gabexate Mesilate Containing D-Mannitol by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Fukura, Naomi; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to characterize polymorphic forms and intermolecular interactions of freeze-dried pharmaceuticals containing additives by terahertz (THz) spectroscopy as a, process analytical technology tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Freeze-dried gabexate mesilate/D-mannitol products containing 17-75 mol% gabexate mesilate were obtained using a conventional freeze-dryer. Freeze-dried products and physical mixtures of gabexate mesilate and mannitol with various drug contents were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and THz. The XRD and DSC results indicated that freeze-dried mannitol was obtained as a mixture of β and δ forms of mannitol from a plain solution, but the freeze-dried product of the gabexate mesilate/mannitol mixture consisted of crystalline gabexate mesilate and the pure δ form of mannitol. Similar to the results of XRD and DSC, THz before the freeze-drying of gabexate mesilate was almost the same as that after. In contrast, the THz of mannitol before freeze-drying had specific peaks due to the β form, but that after had peaks due to δ and β forms. To clarify the polymorphic forms of the freeze-dried products, the THz were analyzed by least squares regression. The calibration models used to predict the amounts of gabexate mesilate and mannitol had sufficient accuracy and linearity, respectively. Two decomposed THz in FGMs had specific peaks due to the δ form of mannitol or gabexate mesilate.

  7. Copper-Containing Anti-Biofilm Nanofiber Scaffolds as a Wound Dressing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Jayesh J; Hattingh, Melanie; Neveling, Deon P; Dicks, Leon M T

    2016-01-01

    Copper particles were incorporated into nanofibers during the electrospinning of poly-D,L-lactide (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The ability of the nanofibers to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and Staphylococcus aureus (strain Xen 30) to form biofilms was tested. Nanofibers containing copper particles (Cu-F) were thinner (326 ± 149 nm in diameter), compared to nanofibers without copper (CF; 445 ± 93 nm in diameter). The crystalline structure of the copper particles in Cu-F was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Copper crystals were encapsulated, but also attached to the surface of Cu-F, as shown scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The copper particles had no effect on the thermal degradation and thermal behaviour of Cu-F, as shown by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). After 48 h in the presence of Cu-F, biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa PA01 and S. aureus Xen 30 was reduced by 41% and 50%, respectively. Reduction in biofilm formation was ascribed to copper released from the nanofibers. Copper-containing nanofibers may be incorporated into wound dressings.

  8. Electrospun Ultrafine Fiber Composites Containing Fumed Silica: From Solution Rheology to Materials with Tunable Wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufficy, Martin K; Geiger, Mackenzie T; Bonino, Christopher A; Khan, Saad A

    2015-11-17

    Fumed silica (FS) particles with hydrophobic (R805) or hydrophilic (A150) surface functionalities are incorporated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers by electrospinning to produce mats with controlled wettability. Rheological measurements are conducted to elucidate the particle-polymer interactions and characterize the system while microscopic and analytic tools are used to examine FS location within both fibers and films to aid in the fundamental understanding of wetting behavior. Unlike traditional polymers, we find these systems to be gel-like, yet electrospinnable; the fumed silica networks break down into smaller aggregates during the electrospinning process and disperse both within and on the surface of the fibers. Composite nanofiber mats containing R805 FS exhibit an apparent contact angle over 130° and remain hydrophobic over 30 min, while similar mats with A150 display rapid surface-wetting with a static contact angle of ∼30°. Wicking experiments reveal that the water absorption properties can be further manipulated, with R805 FS-impregnated mats taking up only 8% water relative to mat weight in 15 min. In contrast, PAN fibers containing A150 FS absorb 425% of water in the same period, even more than the pure PAN fiber (371%). The vastly different responses to water demonstrate the versatility of FS in surface modification, especially for submicron fibrous mats. The role of fumed silica in controlling wettability is discussed in terms of their surface functionality, placement on nanofibers and induced surface roughness.

  9. Copper-Containing Anti-Biofilm Nanofiber Scaffolds as a Wound Dressing Material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh J Ahire

    Full Text Available Copper particles were incorporated into nanofibers during the electrospinning of poly-D,L-lactide (PDLLA and poly(ethylene oxide (PEO. The ability of the nanofibers to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and Staphylococcus aureus (strain Xen 30 to form biofilms was tested. Nanofibers containing copper particles (Cu-F were thinner (326 ± 149 nm in diameter, compared to nanofibers without copper (CF; 445 ± 93 nm in diameter. The crystalline structure of the copper particles in Cu-F was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Copper crystals were encapsulated, but also attached to the surface of Cu-F, as shown scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, respectively. The copper particles had no effect on the thermal degradation and thermal behaviour of Cu-F, as shown by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. After 48 h in the presence of Cu-F, biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa PA01 and S. aureus Xen 30 was reduced by 41% and 50%, respectively. Reduction in biofilm formation was ascribed to copper released from the nanofibers. Copper-containing nanofibers may be incorporated into wound dressings.

  10. Damping Property of a Cement-Based Material Containing Carbon Nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Li; Wei-Ming Ji; Yi Liu; Feng Xing; Yu-Kai Liu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the damping property of a cement-based material with carbon nanotube (CNT). In the study, the cement composites with different contents of CNT (0 wt%, 0.033 wt%, 0.066 wt%, and 0.1 wt%) were investigated. Logarithmic Decrement method and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) method were utilized to study the damping property of CNT/cement composite. The influences of CNT on pore size distribution and microstructure of composite were analyzed by Mercury Intrusion Porosi...

  11. Photonic band structures in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the band structures of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) composed of Dirac materials and ordinary dielectric media. It is found that there exist an omnidirectional passing band and a kind of special band, which result from the interaction of the evanescent and propagating waves. Due to the interface effect and strong dispersion, the electromagnetic fields inside the special bands are strongly enhanced. It is also shown that the properties of these bands are invariant upon the lattice constant but sensitive to the resonant conditions

  12. A modified method for evaluation of materials containing volatile corrosion inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Hong-jing; HUANG Hong-jun; ZHANG Min; LI Zhi-guang

    2005-01-01

    A systematic research on a modified method that was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of volatile corrosion inhibitor(VCI) materials was carried out. The metal specimen in size of 50 mm×25 mm×2 mm was level mounted on the top of a beaker by transparent adhesive tape and the assembly was placed in a constant temperature water bath and kept at approximately 40 ℃ to accelerate the vaporization of VCI and distilled water, which was placed at the bottom of the beaker at the same time. The experimental results show that the reproducibility of rust appearance and corrosion rate calculated by specimen's mass loss is perfect. The outstanding characteristic of the rust appearance based on different VCI formula is discovered that is very important in studying the mechanism of VCI and the synergism of chemical reagent. The accelerated ratio is increased greatly as compared with the traditional method and the value is approximately 15 as compared with Shijiazhuang atmospheric environment corrosion test. The modified method is suitable for formula screening test and quick effectiveness evaluation of VCI materials.

  13. Microstructural Analysis and Rheological Modeling of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Asphalt Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cannone Falchetto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled materials in pavement construction has seen, over the years, a significant increase closely associated with substantial economic and environmental benefits. During the past decades, many transportation agencies have evaluated the effect of adding Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, and, more recently, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS on the performance of asphalt pavement, while limits were proposed on the amount of recycled materials which can be used. In this paper, the effect of adding RAP and RAS on the microstructural and low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated using digital image processing (DIP and modeling of rheological data obtained with the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR. Detailed information on the internal microstructure of asphalt mixtures is acquired based on digital images of small beam specimens and numerical estimations of spatial correlation functions. It is found that RAP increases the autocorrelation length (ACL of the spatial distribution of aggregates, asphalt mastic and air voids phases, while an opposite trend is observed when RAS is included. Analogical and semi empirical models are used to back-calculate binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest limited or partial blending between new and aged binder.

  14. In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W> Stockman; S. LeStrange

    2000-09-28

    The objective of this calculation is to provide estimates of the amount of fissile material flowing out of the waste package (source term) and the accumulation of fissile elements (U and Pu) in a crushed-tuff invert. These calculations provide input for the analysis of repository impacts of the Pu-ceramic waste forms. In particular, the source term results are used as input to the far-field accumulation calculation reported in Ref. 51, and the in-drift accumulation results are used as inputs for the criticality calculations reported in Ref. 2. The results are also summarized and interpreted in Ref. 52. The scope of this calculation is the waste package (WP) Viability Assessment (VA) design, which consists of an outer corrosion-allowance material (CAM) and an inner corrosion-resistant material (CRM). This design is used in this calculation in order to be consistent with earlier Pu-ceramic degradation calculations (Ref. 15). The impact of the new Enhanced Design Alternative-I1 (EDA-11) design on the results will be addressed in a subsequent report. The design of the invert (a leveling foundation, which creates a level surface of the drift floor and supports the WP mounting structure) is consistent with the EDA-I1 design. The invert will be composed of crushed stone and a steel support structure (Ref. 17). The scope of this calculation is also defined by the nominal degradation scenario, which involves the breach of the WP (Section 10.5.1.2, Ref. 48), followed by the influx of water. Water in the WP may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the ceramic waste forms. Thus, the water in the WP may become laden with dissolved actinides (e.g., Pu and U), and may eventually overflow or leak from the WP. Once the water leaves the WP, it may encounter the invert, in which the actinides may reprecipitate. Several factors could induce reprecipitation; these factors include: the high surface area of the crushed stone, and the presence of

  15. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SPRING ENERGIZED C-RINGS FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS CONTAINING TRITIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the sealing performance testing and results of silver-plated inconel Spring Energized C-Rings used for tritium containment in radioactive shipping packagings. The test methodology used follows requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) summarized in ASME Pressure Vessel Code (B and PVC), Section V, Article 10, Appendix IX (Helium Mass Spectrometer Test - Hood Technique) and recommendations by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) described in ANSI N14.5-1997. The tests parameters bound the predicted structural and thermal responses from conditions defined in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71. The testing includes an evaluation of the effects of pressure, temperature, flange deflection, surface roughness, permeation, closure torque, torque sequencing and re-use on performance of metal C-Ring seals

  16. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  17. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  18. Sawdust Ash as Powder Material for Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Naphthalene Sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine U. Elinwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests are carried out to determine the fluidity of Ashaka Portland cement paste and its compatibility with sawdust ash (SDA as powder material for self-compacting cement (SCC mixtures. Results of the investigation showed that saturation was achieved at w/c ratios of 0.4 and 0.42, at dosages of naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizers of 3.5% and 2%, respectively. The optimum replacement level for the SCC mixture was 10 wt.% of cement by SDA and 2% of the superplasticizer dosage. The achieved spread and flow time were 26 cm and 8 seconds and are within the specified range of 24 cm to 26 cm and 7 to 11 seconds, respectively. Statistical inference showed that the mix, w/c, and the interaction between the mix and w/c ratio are significant.

  19. Fabrication of Gd Containing Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet for Neutron Absorbing Structural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Byung M. [KITECH, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Dongseong [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A duplex stainless steel sheet with 1 wt.% gadolinium was fabricated for a neutron absorbing material with high strength, excellent corrosion resistance, and low cost as well as high neutron absorption capability. The microstructure of the as-cast specimen has typical duplex phases including 31% ferrite and 69% austenite. Main alloy elements like chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and gadolinium (Gd) are relatively uniformly distributed in the matrix. Gadolinium rich precipitates were present in the grains and at the grain boundaries. The solution treatment at 1070 .deg. C for 50 minutes followed by the hot-rolling above 950 .deg. C after keeping the sheet at 1200 .deg. C for 1.5 hours are important points of the optimum condition to produce a 6 mm-thick plate without cracking.

  20. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W. Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  1. Loading, moving, and shipping radioactive waste in reusable radioactive material containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the dismantlement of systems and components at the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant was a monumental task, the loading, movement, temporary storage, and shipping of over 2 1/2 million pounds of contaminated and/or activated material was nearly as difficult. Close coordination and teamwork between such diverse groups as craft labor, health physics, radiation controls, trucking companies and waste volume reducers were crucial elements in performing this work safely, cost effectively, and with particular attention to the station's very aggressive ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goals. This paper discusses the actual work that was involved from the time the contaminated component was removed from its location in the plant through actual shipment offsite

  2. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries

  3. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda, E-mail: matsuda@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Katsushi, Okuyama [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiroko, Yamamoto [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University (Japan); Hisanori, Komatsu [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA (Japan); Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  4. Survey on current status of laboratory test method and experimental consideration for material containing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the joint study between CRIEPI and JAEA, in order to establish laboratory test method of bentonite, literature survey as well as laboratory tests were conducted to find factors affecting the results of laboratory tests for bentonite and to estimate their degree of influence. Countermeasures against the factors are also investigated in this joint study. This report showed hydraulic conductivity tests and swelling pressure tests those are important in the low-level radioactive waste disposal. 1. Hydraulic conductivity. According to the results of literature survey, it is revealed that constant pressure permeability test and consolidation test are currently used for measuring hydraulic conductivity of bentonite and that (1) hydraulic gradient, (2) local seepage flow between lateral surface of the specimen and lateral wall of the container, (3) water pressure which is applied to the specimen, (4) degree of saturation and (5) size of the specimen possibly affect the results of the constant pressure permeability test, (6) friction between lateral surface of the specimen and lateral wall of the container accompanied by deformation of the specimen, (7) consolidation pressure together with factors (8), (9) affect the results of the consolidation test. As a result of investigation, it is concluded that it is currently desirable to use the constant pressure permeability test for compacted bentonite because there seems no major affecting factor which cannot be removed. 2. Swelling pressure. According to the literature survey, confined type testing apparatuses and apparatuses which are similar to the consolidation test apparatuses are used for measuring swelling pressure. Factors affecting results of swelling pressure tests are saturation of the specimen, size of the specimen and difference of apparatus. Saturation of the specimen set in confined type testing apparatus can be raised easily by one-dimensional infiltration of water through the specimen and by applying

  5. Antiradical activity and amount of phenolic compounds in extracts obtained from some plant raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Amounts of phenolic compounds were presented in percentages per mass of extracts and mass of raw materials. Antiradical potential was shown as the number of TAUDPPH units per mg of extracts and g of raw materials. The highest number of antiradical units TAUDPPH as well as the amount of phenolic compounds was calculated for white tea and its extracts and lowest for chocolate. The correlation coefficient between the content of phenolics and antiradical features of raw materials is equal to r=0.994.

  6. Evaluation of nystatin containing chitosan hydrogels as potential dual action bio-active restorative materials: in vitro approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchyonok, V Tamara; Reher, Vanessa; Zhang, Shengmiao; Basson, Nicki; Grobler, Sias

    2014-11-28

    Healing is a specific biological process related to the general phenomenon of growth and tissue regeneration and is a process generally affected by several systemic conditions or as detrimental side-effects of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced inflammation of the oral mucosa. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the novel chitosan based functional drug delivery systems, which can be successfully incorporated into "dual action bioactive restorative materials", capable of inducing in vitro improved wound healing prototype and containing an antibiotic, such as nystatin, krill oil as an antioxidant and hydroxyapatite as a molecular bone scaffold, which is naturally present in bone and is reported to be successfully used in promoting bone integration when implanted as well as promoting healing. The hydrogels were prepared using a protocol as previously reported by us. The physico-chemical features, including surface morphology (SEM), release behaviors, stability of the therapeutic agent-antioxidant-chitosan, were measured and compared to the earlier reported chitosan-antioxidant containing hydrogels. Structural investigations of the reactive surface of the hydrogel are reported. Release of nystatin was investigated for all newly prepared hydrogels. Bio-adhesive studies were performed in order to assess the suitability of these designer materials. Free radical defense capacity of the biomaterials was evaluated using established in vitro model. The bio-adhesive capacity of the materials in the in vitro system was tested and quantified. It was found that the favorable synergistic effect of free radical built-in defense mechanism of the new functional materials increased sustainable bio-adhesion and therefore acted as a functional multi-dimensional restorative material with potential application in wound healing in vitro.

  7. Tunable M-channel filter based on Thue-Morse heterostructures containing meta materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Pashaei Adl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the tunable M-channel filters based on Thue-Morse heterostructures consisting of single -negative materials has been studied. The results showed that the number of resonance modes inside the zero- gap increases as the number of heterogenous interface, M, increases. The number of resonance modes inside the zero- gap is equal to that of heterogenous interface M, and it can be used as M channels filter. This result provides a feasible method to adjust the channel number of multiple-channel filters. When losses are involved, the results showed that the electric fields of the resonance modes decay largely with the increase of the number of heterogenous interface and damping factors. Besides, the relationship between the quality factor of multiple-channel filters and the number of heterogenous interface M is linear, and the quality factor of multiple-channel filters decreases with the increase of the damping factor. These results provide feasible methods to adjust the quality factor of multiple-channel filters

  8. Damping Property of a Cement-Based Material Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the damping property of a cement-based material with carbon nanotube (CNT. In the study, the cement composites with different contents of CNT (0 wt%, 0.033 wt%, 0.066 wt%, and 0.1 wt% were investigated. Logarithmic Decrement method and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA method were utilized to study the damping property of CNT/cement composite. The influences of CNT on pore size distribution and microstructure of composite were analyzed by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, respectively. The experimental results showed that CNT/cement composite presented higher flexural strength index than that of a pure cement paste. Additional CNT could improve the vibration-reduction capacity of cement paste. Furthermore, the experiments proved that CNT could bridge adjacent hydration products and support load transfer within cement matrix, which contributed to the energy dissipation during the loading process.

  9. Rice husk: an alternate and low cost material for treating chromium (VI) containing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the ability of the native rice husk to remove ions of Cr (VI) in simulated water from tanneries in laboratory conditions. The influences of the variables pH, metal concentration, dosage and contact time on adsorption process was evaluated. It was found a removal more than 94% at pH value of 1, dosage of 3 g/L, concentration of 3 mg/L, at a speed of 127 rpm and at a time of 720 min. The results were evaluated with a 95% level of significance using the statistical tool ANOVA. The information regarding the balance process was fitted to the models of Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Raduskevich and Thempkin obtaining a better correlation with the Langmuir isotherm with an adsorption capacity of 1.25 mg/g at a pH value of 1. In order to prove the occurrence of structural changes on the adsorbent material, analysis was performed through the DRIFT technique (diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy) before and after the removal process and as well abromatological analyses to determine any variation in its composition.

  10. Triazole-containing copolymer for use as an electron transport material in multilayer LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Alan W.; Tajbakhsh, Ali R.; Burn, Paul L.; Bradley, Donal D. C.

    1997-12-01

    We report investigations into a poly(1,20-distyrylbenzene- co-1,2-[4-(p-ethylphenyl)]triazole) (TRIDSB) electron transport material and its incorporation into single and multilayer LEDs. Multilayer devices have been investigated with poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and poly(2-methoxy-5- (2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) as hole transport layers (HTLs). The incorporation of the polymer into an ITO/PPV/TRIDSB/Al LED facilitates electron injection into the hole transporting emissive layer and results in a ten fold increase in the external quantum efficiency for electroluminescence (EL) of the PPV layer from 0.008 percent to 0.08-0.1 percent. In an ITO/I-MEHPPV/TRIDSB/Al device the corresponding increase in the quantum efficiency for EL from the 1-MEHPPV is fifty fold, from 0.002 percent to between 0.06-0.11 percent. The polymer has been shown to be thermally stable with no glass transition temperature or melting point detected within the range 25-250 degrees C.

  11. Viet Nam [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Eastern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South Viet Nam, forest covers about 30% of the land area or approximately 6 000 000 ha. Hardwoods comprise about 80% of the timber stock. The total growing stock is not known exactly. Forest inventory is difficult in Viet Nam since some areas are inaccessible in the virgin forest. Overcutting by the population for domestic uses should also be mentioned together with fire damage, destruction by the war, etc. Practically all species of fibrous wood which are common in South- East Asia grow in Viet Nam. Pine trees especially account for about 2% of the forest and bamboo for 1%, and rubber trees, kenaf and jute are abundant. Valuable fibrous materials other than wood are agricultural wastes such as rice straw and bagasse. Table I presents a list of the most common fibrous plants of Viet Nam; their importance, however, cannot be evaluated. In addition, restricted numbers of these plants are consumed by the population of the region where they grow wild. Exploitation is, in fact, purely artisanal and tends merely to meet local needs. Cotton plants (Gossipium herbaceum) grow mainly in Central Viet Nam; the cotton product is not of good quality since the fibres are not very long

  12. Preparation, characterization, and luminescence properties of novel hybrid material containing europium(III) complex covalently bonded to MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid material containing covalently bonded ternary europium complex in mesoporous silica MCM-41 has been successfully prepared by co-condensation of tetrethoxysilane (TEOS) and the modified ligand 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phen-3-(triethoxysilyl)propylcarbamate (PIP-Si) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as template. PIP-Si containing 1,10-phenanthroline covalently grafted to 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate is used not only as a precursor but also as the second ligand for Eu(TTA)3.2H2O (TTA: 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetate) complex to prepare a novel functionalized mesoporous material. The resulted mesoporous composite materials, which demonstrate strong characteristic emission lines of Eu3+5D0-7FJ (J=0, 1, 2, 3, 4), were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), small-angle X-ray diffraction, excited-state decay analysis. Emission intensity of the Eu(III) complex covalently linked to MCM-41 (Eu-MCM-41) increases with the increasing irradiation time, demonstrating better photostability compared with both pure Eu(III) complex and physically incorporated sample.

  13. Seismoelectric couplings in a poroelastic material containing two immiscible fluid phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.

    2015-08-01

    A new approach of seismoelectric imaging has been recently proposed to detect saturation fronts in which seismic waves are focused in the subsurface to scan its heterogeneous nature and determine saturation fronts. Such type of imaging requires however a complete modelling of the seismoelectric properties of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluid phases, one being usually electrically insulating (for instance water and oil). We combine an extension of Biot dynamic theory, valid for porous media containing two immiscible Newtonian fluids, with an extension of the electrokinetic theory based on the notion of effective volumetric charge densities dragged by the flow of each fluid phase. These effective charge densities can be related directly to the permeability and saturation of each fluid phase. The coupled partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method. We also derive analytically the transfer function connecting the macroscopic electrical field to the acceleration of the fast P wave (coseismic electrical field) and we study the influence of the water content on this coupling. We observe that the amplitude of the co-seismic electrical disturbance is very sensitive to the water content with an increase in amplitude with water saturation. We also investigate the seismoelectric conversions (interface effect) occurring at the water table. We show that the conversion response at the water table can be identifiable only when the saturation contrasts between the vadose and saturated zones are sharp enough. A relatively dry vadose zone represents the best condition to identify the water table through seismoelectric measurements. Indeed, in this case, the coseismic electrical disturbances are vanishingly small compared to the seismoelectric interface response.

  14. TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN-CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS FROM THE PRODUCTS OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, secondary resources of vegetable raw materials are widely used in solving the food, environmental and energy issues, as well as an additional source of substances of natural origin. A significant amount of secondary resources is produced during the processing of sunflower seeds - the main oilseed Kuban. Fats industry, while processing seeds, mainly extracts only one component - vegetable oil and is having a huge amount of meal, which is mainly used for agricultural purposes. Valuable property of sunflower meal is that it is high in protein, low cost and lack of toxic and anti-nutrients. Favorable amino acid composition determines the viability of recovering proteins from sunflower meal. Proteins were extracted from sunflower meal with a dispersing agent which may be water, sodium salts, alkalis, acids, or any organic solvent, followed by precipitation of the protein at the isoelectric point with hydrochloric acid. However, this protein has a high content of phenolic compounds, which gives it a dark color. The high concentration of chlorogenic acid in sunflower meal and its ability to form a dark colored complex with proteins limits the use of sunflower proteins in the food industry. All known methods of protein purification products from phenolic compounds, in particular chlorogenic acids, are mainly aimed at reducing the use of solvents and washing using membrane technology. However, in most cases, their use is either inadequate due to removal of phenolic compounds or decreasing the nutritional and biological value of the obtained product due to the toxicity of the solvent used, and an inability to completely remove it from the protein

  15. Sodium montmorillonite/amine-containing drugs complexes: new insights on intercalated drugs arrangement into layered carrier material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo L Bello

    Full Text Available Layered drug delivery carriers are current targets of nanotechnology studies since they are able to accommodate pharmacologically active substances and are effective at modulating drug release. Sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT is a clay that has suitable properties for developing new pharmaceutical materials due to its high degree of surface area and high capacity for cation exchange. Therefore Na-MMT is a versatile material for the preparation of new drug delivery systems, especially for slow release of protonable drugs. Herein, we describe the intercalation of several amine-containing drugs with Na-MMT so we can derive a better understanding of how these drugs molecules interact with and distribute throughout the Na-MMT interlayer space. Therefore, for this purpose nine sodium montmorillonite/amine-containing drugs complexes (Na-MMT/drug were prepared and characterized. In addition, the physicochemical properties of the drugs molecules in combination with different experimental conditions were assessed to determine how these factors influenced experimental outcomes (e.g. increase of the interlayer spacing versus drugs arrangement and orientation. We also performed a molecular modeling study of these amine-containing drugs associated with different Na-MMT/drug complex models to analyze the orientation and arrangement of the drugs molecules in the complexes studied. Six amine-containing drugs (rivastigmine, doxazosin, 5-fluorouracil, chlorhexidine, dapsone, nystatin were found to successfully intercalate Na-MMT. These findings provide important insights on the interlayer aspect of the molecular systems formed and may contribute to produce more efficient drug delivery nanosystems.

  16. Fuel-containing materials of 'Shelter' object today: actual physical properties and facilities for their state prognosis creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of main available data on the physical properties of fuel-containing materials (FCM) of the 'Shelter' object is represented. The FCM properties with time changeability is connected with the radiation damages originated from FCM internal self-irradiation. The final stage of FCM degradation will be their total conversion into the submicronic radioactive dust, which already provides 90 % of inhalation dose rate when working in 'Shelter'. The preliminary prognostic estimation for such a situation development is represented as well; the possible scheme for FCM properties monitoring is also suggested

  17. Five detector set-up for positron 1D-ACAR study of 60Co containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of the five detector set-up, for 1-Dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation (1-ACAR) study of 60Co-containing materials as well as test measurements are described. The equipment is based on simultaneous registration of a starting positron (by detection of gamma-photon with energy 1274 keV) and its annihilation with an electron in the studied material (by detection of two annihilation gamma photons with the energy 511 keV emitted mainly at the 180o-angle). Through this triple coincidence the distributing 60Co-contribution (gamma-photons with energy of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV) can be effectively separated from the annihilation spectra of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel specimens. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  18. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around a fluoride-containing dental material during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)]. E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Murata, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Kijimura, T. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sano, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sakai, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Using PIGE (TIARA, JAPAN) technique, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around a fluoride-containing material during caries progression using pH cycling. Class I cavities in the buccal surfaces of 6 extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing material; a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX(GC)). Three 300 {mu}m sections through the material were obtained from each tooth. Two of these specimens were utilized to measure the F distribution in enamel adjacent to the material. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 {mu}m with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, {sup 19}F(p, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}0, was used to measure the F concentration and the gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Si(Li) detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. After measurement of F uptake, all specimens were polished to a thickness of 120 {mu}m. In order to simulate daily acid challenges occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH6.8-pH4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. The duration that the solution remained below pH 5.5 was 37 min per cycle. The cycles were repeated 6 times per day with 2 h interval between cycles, and the specimens were kept in remineralizing solution for the rest of pH cycle. After pH cycling, F and calcium distribution of each specimen was evaluated using PIGE technique. The F distribution of the specimens before pH cycling clearly showed the F uptake from fluoride-containing material into enamel adjacent to the material. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed by the image of transverse microradiography (TMR). The depth of caries and mineral loss progressed with increasing the

  19. Evaluation of Nystatin Containing Chitosan Hydrogels as Potential Dual Action Bio-Active Restorative Materials: in Vitro Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tamara Perchyonok

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Healing is a specific biological process related to the general phenomenon of growth and tissue regeneration and is a process generally affected by several systemic conditions or as detrimental side-effects of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced inflammation of the oral mucosa. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the novel chitosan based functional drug delivery systems, which can be successfully incorporated into “dual action bioactive restorative materials”, capable of inducing in vitro improved wound healing prototype and containing an antibiotic, such as nystatin, krill oil as an antioxidant and hydroxyapatite as a molecular bone scaffold, which is naturally present in bone and is reported to be successfully used in promoting bone integration when implanted as well as promoting healing. The hydrogels were prepared using a protocol as previously reported by us. The physico-chemical features, including surface morphology (SEM, release behaviors, stability of the therapeutic agent-antioxidant-chitosan, were measured and compared to the earlier reported chitosan-antioxidant containing hydrogels. Structural investigations of the reactive surface of the hydrogel are reported. Release of nystatin was investigated for all newly prepared hydrogels. Bio-adhesive studies were performed in order to assess the suitability of these designer materials. Free radical defense capacity of the biomaterials was evaluated using established in vitro model. The bio-adhesive capacity of the materials in the in vitro system was tested and quantified. It was found that the favorable synergistic effect of free radical built-in defense mechanism of the new functional materials increased sustainable bio-adhesion and therefore acted as a functional multi-dimensional restorative material with potential application in wound healing in vitro.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for the disposal of high-level wastes in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983-84 extensive laboratory-scale experiments (immersion tests) to evaluate the long-term corrosion behaviour of selected materials in salt brines and first in situ experiments were performed. In the laboratory experiments the materials Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4 and hot-rolled low carbon steel (reference materials in the joint European corrosion programme) as well as cast steel, spheoroidal cast iron, Si-cast iron and the Ni-Resists type D2 and D4 were investigated. The investigated parameters were: temperature (900C; 1700C, 2000C), gamma-radiation (105 rad/h) and different compositions of salt brines. The results obtained show that, in addition to Ti 99.8-Pd, also Hastelloy C4 and unalloyed steels are in principle suitable for being used for long-term stable HLW-containers if the gamma dose rate is reduced by suitable shielding. Furthermore, the susceptibility of Hastelloy C4 to crevice corrosion must be taken into account. Further studies will be necessary to provide final evidence of the suitability of the materials examined. These will mainly involve clarification of questions related to hydrogen embrittlement (Ti 99.8-Pd, unalloyed steels) and to the influence of pressure and saline impurities (e.g. antiJ, antiBr) on corrosion

  1. Li-Rich Li-Si Alloy As A Lithium-Containing Negative Electrode Material Towards High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichiroh Iwamura; Hirotomo Nishihara; Yoshitaka Ono; Haruhiko Morito; Hisanori Yamane; Hiroki Nara; Tetsuya Osaka; Takashi Kyotani

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latte...

  2. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO₂eq to 132,141 tonCO₂eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide. PMID:27626433

  3. Prediction of corrosion depth of selected materials for the container of high-level wastes under a repository condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung; Choi, Jong Won; Han, Kyung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The corrosion depth of selected materials for container of high-level wastes in an underground disposal condition was predicted by analyzing the corrosion behaviors and corrosion rates of copper/copper alloys, carbon steel, titanium/titanium alloys, stainless steel and nickel alloys. Their corrosion rates depend on the amount of oxygen and microbes in bentonite at the bore hole, and local corrosion in addition to general corrosion. However, the effect of radiation and the oxygen dissolved in groundwater would be insignificant. To calculate the corrosion depth, it is assumed that the total amount of oxygen contained in the pore and surface of a bentonite block, and in the gaps among container, rock and bentonite block at a borehole is 300 moles. Assuming that all organic compounds in a bentonite block are presumed as lactate, they would produce 2,100 moles of HS-. The corrosion depths were calculated based on the above assumptions and the wall thickness of copper, carbon steel, titanium, stainless steel and nickel alloys of at least 2.6, 25, 1.3, 5 and 0.3 mm would be required for their corrosion allowances that guarantee their desired service life of 1,000 years. 94 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and luminescent properties of MCM-41 and AlMCM-41 mesoporous materials containing Eu(III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured materials such as MCM-41 modified with rare earth ions have been studied due to their potential for a variety of applications. Rare earth trivalent ions in some solid compounds emit light at characteristic wavelengths due to infra 4f or inter 4f-5d transitions. The MCM-41 and AlMCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using cethyltrimethylammonium as template, and then calcined at 500 deg. C in presence of air. The obtained materials were impregnated with Eu(III) ions using europium nitrate solution in ethanol with equivalent concentrations of 5, 10, and 15% in mass, followed by calcination at 500 deg. C under nitrogen atmosphere. The Eu-containing products were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The emission spectra were recorded at room temperature. For the Eu-MCM-41 and EuAl-MCM-41 samples, intense photoluminescence were observed in the visible region, with maximum intensity centered at 620 nm

  5. Development of simple and rapid radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Park, Se Young; Yoon, Seok Won; Ha, Wi Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kook; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is necessary to analyze radioactivity of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products to ensure radiological safety required by Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The pretreatments for the existing analysis methods require high technology and time. Such destructive pretreatments including grinding and dissolution of samples make impossible to reuse products. We developed a rapid and simple procedure of radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing NORM. The developed method requires non-destructive or minimized pretreatment. Radioactivity of the product without pretreatment is initially measured using gamma spectroscopy and then the measured radioactivity is adjusted by considering material composition, mass density, and geometrical shape of the product. The radioactivity adjustment can be made using scaling factors, which is derived by radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation. Necklace, bracelet, male health care product, and tile for health mat were selected as representative products for this study. The products are commonly used by the public and directly contacted with human body and thus resulting in high radiation exposure to the user. The scaling factors were derived using MCNPX code and the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.47. If radioactivity of the products is measured without pretreatment, the thorium series may be overestimated by up to 2.8 times. If scaling factors are applied, the difference in radioactivity estimates are reduced to 3-24%. The developed procedure in this study can be used for other products with various materials and shapes and thus ensuring radiological safety.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high-level waste. Joint annual progress report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Community R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (shared-cost action), a research activity is aiming at the assessment of corrosion behaviour of potential container materials for geological disposal of vitrified high-level wastes. In this report, the results obtained during the year 1983 are described. Research performed at the Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etudes de l'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN) at Mol (B), concerns the corrosion behaviour in clay environments. The behaviour in salt is tested by the Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) at Karlsruhe (D). Corrosion behaviour in granitic environments is being examined by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (F) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Harwell (UK); the first is concentrating on corrosion-resistant materials and the latter on corrosion-allowance materials. Finally, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) at Vitry (F) is examining the formation and behaviour of passive layers on the metal alloys in the various environments

  7. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB1/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB1 contaminated food or feed

  8. An experimental study on fracture mechanical behavior of rock-like materials containing two unparallel fissures under uniaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hua Huang; Sheng-Qi Yang; Wen-Ling Tian; Wei Zeng; Li-Yuan Yu

    2016-01-01

    Strength and deformability characteristics of rock with pre-existing fissures are governed by cracking behavior. To further research the effects of pre-existing fis-sures on the mechanical properties and crack coalescence process, a series of uniaxial compression tests were car-ried out for rock-like material with two unparallel fissures. In the present study, cement, quartz sand, and water were used to fabricate a kind of brittle rock-like material cylindri-cal model specimen. The mechanical properties of rock-like material specimen used in this research were all in good agreement with the brittle rock materials. Two unparallel fissures (a horizontal fissure and an inclined fissure) were cre-ated by inserting steel during molding the model specimen. Then all the pre-fissured rock-like specimens were tested under uniaxial compression by a rock mechanics servo-controlled testing system. The peak strength and Young’s modulus of pre-fissured specimen all first decreased and then increased when the fissure angle increased from 0◦ to 75◦. In order to investigate the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence process, photographic monitoring was adopted to capture images during the entire deformation process. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique was also used to obtain the AE evolution characteristic of pre-fissured specimen. The relationship between axial stress, AE events, and the crack coalescence process was set up:when a new crack was initiated or a crack coalescence occurred, the corresponding axial stress dropped in the axial stress–time curve and a big AE event could be observed simultaneously. Finally, the mechanism of crack propagation under micro-scopic observation was discussed. These experimental results are expected to increase the understanding of the strength fail-ure behavior and the cracking mechanism of rock containing unparallel fissures.

  9. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  10. An experimental study on fracture mechanical behavior of rock-like materials containing two unparallel fissures under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Hua; Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Zeng, Wei; Yu, Li-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Strength and deformability characteristics of rock with pre-existing fissures are governed by cracking behavior. To further research the effects of pre-existing fissures on the mechanical properties and crack coalescence process, a series of uniaxial compression tests were carried out for rock-like material with two unparallel fissures. In the present study, cement, quartz sand, and water were used to fabricate a kind of brittle rock-like material cylindrical model specimen. The mechanical properties of rock-like material specimen used in this research were all in good agreement with the brittle rock materials. Two unparallel fissures (a horizontal fissure and an inclined fissure) were created by inserting steel during molding the model specimen. Then all the pre-fissured rock-like specimens were tested under uniaxial compression by a rock mechanics servo-controlled testing system. The peak strength and Young's modulus of pre-fissured specimen all first decreased and then increased when the fissure angle increased from 0° to 75°. In order to investigate the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence process, photographic monitoring was adopted to capture images during the entire deformation process. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique was also used to obtain the AE evolution characteristic of pre-fissured specimen. The relationship between axial stress, AE events, and the crack coalescence process was set up: when a new crack was initiated or a crack coalescence occurred, the corresponding axial stress dropped in the axial stress-time curve and a big AE event could be observed simultaneously. Finally, the mechanism of crack propagation under microscopic observation was discussed. These experimental results are expected to increase the understanding of the strength failure behavior and the cracking mechanism of rock containing unparallel fissures.

  11. Microscopy and image analysis based approaches for the species-specific identification of bovine and swine bone containing material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ottoboni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of image analysis measurements in combination with the official analytical method for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs, in distinguishing between bovine and swine (bone containing material. Authentic samples of controlled origin containing bovine or swine meat and bone meals were analysed by the microscopic method, in accordance with the official analytical method. Sediment fractions of each sample were observed with a compound microscope at X40. A total of 362 bone fragment lacunae images were recorded and processed through image analysis software, deriving 30 geometric variables for each lacuna. Results indicated that not only were most variables significantly (P<0.001 different between bovine and swine samples, but also that two thirds of the same variables were bigger in bovine than in swine. This information, however, does not seem to be so effective in practice since bovine and swine features and measurements overlapped. It can be concluded that the microscopic method even when combined with image analysis does not fit all the requirements for accurately identifying prohibited ingredients of animal origin. A combined approach with other methods is therefore recommended.

  12. Cracking and Stress-Strain Behavior of Rock-Like Material Containing Two Flaws Under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Zhang, Lianyang; Wang, Weijun; Pu, Chengzhi; Wan, Wen; Tang, Jingzhou

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the cracking and stress-strain behavior, especially the local strain concentration near the flaw tips, of rock-like material containing two flaws. A series of uniaxial compression tests were carried out on rock-like specimens containing two flaws, with strain gauges mounted near the flaw tips to measure the local strain concentration under the uniaxial compressive loading. Four different types of cracks (wing cracks, anti-wing cracks, coplanar shear cracks and oblique shear cracks) and seven patterns of crack coalescences (T1 and T2; S1 and S2; and TS1, TS2 and TS3) are observed in the experiments. The type of crack coalescence is related to the geometry of the flaws. In general, the crack coalescence varies from the S-mode to the TS-mode and then to the T-mode with the increase of the rock bridge ligament angle. The stress-strain curves of the specimens containing two flaws are closely related to the crack development and coalescence process. The strain measurements indicate that the local tensile strain concentration below or above the pre-existing flaw tip causes wing or anti-wing cracks, while the local compressive strain concentration near the flaw tip is related to the shear crack. The measured local tensile strain shows a jump at the initiation of wing- and anti-wing cracks, reflecting the instant opening of the wing- and anti-wing crack propagating through the strain gauge. During the propagation of wing- and anti-wing cracks, the measured local tensile strain gradually increases with few jumps, implying that the opening deformation of wing- and anti-wing cracks occurs in a stable manner. The shear cracks initiate followed by a large and abrupt compressive strain jump and then quickly propagate in an unstable manner resulting in the failure of specimens.

  13. Fluorescent silica hybrid materials containing benzimidazole dyes obtained by sol-gel method and high pressure processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Helena Sofia; Stefani, Valter; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CP 15003 CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Costa, Tania Maria Haas, E-mail: taniaha@iq.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CP 15003 CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Gallas, Marcia Russman [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CP 15051 CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sol-gel technique was used to obtain silica based hybrid materials containing benzimidazole dyes. {yields} The sol-gel catalysts, HF and NaF, produce xerogels with different optical and textural characteristics. {yields} High pressure technique (6.0 GPa) was used to produce fluorescent and transparent silica compacts with the dyes entrapped in closed pores, maintaining their optical properties. {yields} The excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism of benzimidazole dyes was studied by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the monoliths, powders, and compacts. - Abstract: New silica hybrid materials were obtained by incorporation of two benzimidazole dyes in the silica network by sol-gel technique, using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as inorganic precursor. Several syntheses were performed with two catalysts (HF and NaF) producing powders and monoliths with different characteristics. The dye 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-aminophenyl)benzimidazole was dispersed and physically adsorbed in the matrix, and the dye 2'(5'-N-(3-triethoxysilyl)propylurea-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole was silylated, becoming chemically bonded to the silica network. High pressure technique was used to produce fluorescent and transparent silica compacts with the silylated and incorporated dye, at 6.0 GPa and room temperature. The excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism of benzimidazole dyes was studied by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the monoliths, powders, and compacts. The influence of the syntheses conditions was investigated by textural analysis using nitrogen adsorption isotherms.

  14. State of the art of TiO2 containing cementitious materials: self-cleaning properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maury, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the physico-chemical characteristics of cementitious materials the aesthetic quality of these materials tend to decrease easily. On the other hand, the photocatalytic activity produced by TiO2 loaded cementitious materials have recently allowed them to include self-cleaning and air-purifying properties. However, because a better understanding of these properties is still needed, only a limited number of these materials is present in the construction market. As a strategy to improve this situation, non standards tests based on photodegradation of organic dyes have become widely used to evaluate the photocatalytic action of the different materials. Today, a wide spectrum of non easily comparable results have been produced. In order to improve this situation, this paper focuses on the description of the developed laboratory tests as well as on the evaluation of the self-cleaning potential of the first buildings containing TiO2. Finally, future research challenges in this field are identified.

    Debido a las características físico-químicas de los materiales a base de cemento, la calidad estética de estos materiales tiende a disminuir con facilidad. Por otra parte, la actividad fotocatalítica producida por los materiales a base de cemento que contienen TiO2, ha permitido incorporar recientemente en estos materiales propiedades de auto-limpieza y purificación del aire. Sin embargo, actualmente sólo existe en el mercado un número limitado de dichos materiales, dado que aún se necesita conocer mejor las mencionadas propiedades. Para mejorar esta situación, se vienen desarrollando ensayos no estandarizados donde se evalúa la foto-degradación de colorantes orgánicos producida por los diferentes materiales. Por tanto, se han producido una gran cantidad de resultados no fácilmente comparables entre sí. Este artículo presenta una descripción de los diferentes ensayos de laboratorio desarrollados

  15. Oxidation of TaSi2-Containing ZrB2-SiC Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Jim; Levine, Stanley R.; Lorincz, Jonathan; Reigel, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Hot pressed coupons of composition ZrB2-20 v% SiC-5 v% TaSi2 and ZrB2-20 v% SiC-20 v% TaSi2 were oxidized in stagnant air at temperatures of 1627 and 1927C for one, five and ten 10-minute cycles. The oxidation reactions were characterized by weight change kinetics, x-ray diffraction, and SEM/EDS. Detailed WDS/microprobe quantitative analyses of the oxidation products were conducted for the ZrB2-20 v% SiC-20 v% TaSi2 sample oxidized for five 10-minute cycles at 1927C. Oxidation kinetics and product formation were compared to ZrB2-20 v% SiC with no TaSi2 additions. It was found that the 20 v% TaSi2 composition exhibited improved oxidation resistance relative to the material with no TaSi2 additions at 1627C. However, for exposures at 1927C less oxidation resistance and extensive liquid phase formation were observed compared to the material with no TaSi2 additions. Attempts to limit the liquid phase formation by reducing the TaSi2 content to 5 v% were unsuccessful. In addition, the enhanced oxidation resistance at 1627C due to 20 v% TaSi2 additions was not achieved at the 5 v% addition level. The observed oxidation product evolution is discussed in terms of thermodynamics and phase equilibria for the TaSi2-containing ZrB2-SiC material system. TaSi2-additions to ZrB2-SiC at any level are not recommended for ultra-high temperature (>1900C) applications due to excessive liquid phase formation.

  16. Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant Geometry using prototypic core materials, the U2 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-05-01

    A third Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments has been completed which utilizes prototypic core materials. The reactor material tests are a follow on to the Integral Effects Testing (IET) DCH program. The IET series of tests primarily addressed the effect of scale on DCH phenomena. This was accomplished by completing a series of counterpart tests in 1/40 and 1/10th linear scale DCH facilities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), respectively. The IET experiments modeled the Zion Nuclear Power Plant Geometry. The scale models included representations of the primary system volume, RPV lower head, cavity and instrument tunnel, and the lower containment structures. The experiments were steam driven at nominally 6.2 MPa. Iron-alumina thermite with chromium was used as a core melt simulant in the IET experiments. While the IET experiments at ANL and SNL provided useful data on the effect of scale on DCH phenomena, a significant question concerns the potential experiment distortions introduced by the use of non-prototypic iron/alumina thermite. Therefore, further testing with prototypic materials has been carried out at ANL. A prototypic core melt was produced for the experiment by first mixing powders of uranium, zirconium, iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and chromium trioxide (CrO{sub 3}). When ignited the powders react exothermically to produce a molten mixture. The amounts of each powder were selected to produce the anticipated composition for a core melt following a station blackout: 57.8 mass% UO{sub 2} 10.5 mass% ZrO{sub 2} 14.3 mass% Fe, 13.7 mass% Zr, and 3.7 mass% Cr. Development tests measured the initial melt temperature to be in the range of 2600 - 2700 K. The total thermal specific energy content of the melt at 2700 K is 1.2 MJ/kg compared to 2.25 MJ/kg for the iron-alumina simulant at its measured initial temperature of 2500 K.

  17. Preparation of catalyst composition comprising a boron containing crystalline material having the structure of zeolites ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-12, Beta or NU-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, G.H.

    1987-04-28

    A method is described for preparing a catalyst composition for processing high nitrogen-containing oils comprising a boron-containing crystalline material having the structure of zeolite ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-12, Beta or Nu-1. The sequential steps of synthesizing a boron-containing crystalline material having the structure of zeolite ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-12, Beta or Nu-1 are: drying the crystalline material at a temperature of from about ambient to less than about 170/sup 0/C; calcining the dried crystalline material in an oxygen- and water-free environment of anhydrous ammonia, anhydrous nitrogen, other anhydrous inert gases or a mixture thereof at a temperature of from about 200/sup 0/ to about 600/sup 0/C to minimize hydrolysis of boron in the boron-containing crystalline material; adsorbing ammonia on the calcined crystalline material; contacting the crystalline material with an ion-exchange solution at a pH of from about 7 to about 11; compositing the ion-exchange solution contacted crystalline material with an inorganic oxide material; drying the composite at a temperature of from about ambient to less than about 170/sup 0/C and calcining the dried composite at a temperature of from about 200/sup 0/ to about 600/sup 0/C.

  18. Proceedings of a specialist meeting on regulatory approaches for the control of environmental residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in most material. The most common naturally occurring radionuclides in material are those of the uranium and thorium series and potassium-40. This material is commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some material the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides are significantly higher, to the extent that regulatory control may be required for radiation protection purposes. Regulation of NORM presents a range of new challenges for both regulators and operators. Unlike more traditional industries dealing with radionuclides, NORM industries have generally not had any radiological oversight and, for example, are not equipped for radiological monitoring. Some consumer goods containing NORM, which have not traditionally been considered as a radiological problem (such as some fertilizers), may require regulation and this may have social and economic consequences. The transport and disposal of NORM are also a concern, particularly due to the large volumes, which may need to be considered. For the majority of NORM, disposal has been by conventional means in the same way as for non-hazardous waste with no specific attention to radiological aspects. In some cases, there may be a need for intervention into existing NORM disposal sites. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published ICRP No. 82, Protection of the Public in Situations of Prolonged Radiation Exposure in 2000. This document provides guidance on managing residues, such as those arising from NORM industries, with potential impact on the public. However, with NORM residual waste there may be three different situations: residual waste created as the result of a past practice, residual waste created by an ongoing practice and waste which will arise from future activities. Regulation of NORM may therefore be consistent with consideration of a practice, an intervention or a combination of both. Different regulatory

  19. Thermal performance and radio-frequency transmissivity of candidate ablation materials for S-band antenna window application on manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillian, D. J.; Cubley, H. D.

    1970-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the MSC 1.5 MW arc-heated facility to evaluate the thermal performance of ablation materials having potential application as radio frequency windows. These tests were conducted for the improvement of omnidirectional antenna operating characteristics during atmospheric reentry. Since a full scale model of the Apollo command service module was available for antenna tests, this mockup was used as a basic for the tests. Test models were subjected to heating conditions simulating the nominal lunar return trajectory (AS-501) and the design trajectories, high heat load and high heating rate. RF measurements were made before and after the arc jet tests to measure attenuation effects due to the thermal degradation of the materials under consideration. The test program demonstrated that additional development is required in materials technology to achieve an ablative system with both good RF transmission characteristics and thermal-structural integrity.

  20. Republic of China (Taiwan) [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Eastern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Taiwan many kinds of wood and bamboo are abundantly produced in the mountainous areas (about 70% of the total land area) and sugar-cane is one of the main agricultural products in the plains. Before 1945 Taiwan was under the dominion of Japan and found markets for its timber chiefly on the Japanese mainland. By 1949 small amounts of products such as glued veneer and bagasse-board were being marketed, but both the mechanical strength and the water resistance of these products were very poor because of the low quality of the adhesive agents. In 1950, however, the adoption of urea-formaldehyde resin as an adhesive agent, improved these products remarkably and the plywood and bagasse-board industries developed steadily from this point on. Although the handicraft industry employing polymer-containing bamboo has advanced greatly in the last five years, its production is still on a small scale. It is the plywood industry which is the principal consumer of wood, bagasse and bamboo. This industry not only supplies domestic plywood consumption, but also produces 594 million square feet annually for export (1964) which earns the equivalent of 23 million US dollars. Because of the good dimensional stability and suitably large size of its product, the plywood industry has sharply increased its scale of production in the last twenty years. However, the utilization of plywood is limited because of the availability of many other wood products which require little processing, e. g. for house-building materials (beams or posts), indoor and outdoor furniture, sports equipment (skis, golf clubs, baseball bats, boating equipment, etc. ) and others. To meet the demand for improved properties in the above-mentioned commercial products and to develop the use of the abundant but less valuable types of wood and of bamboo and bagasse, the project of processing wood-, bamboo-, and bagasse-plastic combinations with gamma radiation has been under way since 1965 at the Union Industrial

  1. Ethanol production with simultaneous utilization of raw materials containing starch and lignocellulose-containing; Ethanolproduktion mit simultanem Einsatz von staerke- und lignocellulosehaltigen Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Sven; Buck, Michael; Senn, Thomas [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Gaerungstechnologie

    2010-07-01

    Ethanol production from cellulose-rich raw materials has again been the subject of much discussion during the past few years. Some new processes were developed during that time, all of which are more or less based on the acid hydrolysis process developed in the thirties of the past century. This technology is not suited for biogas plants because of the sulphuric acid involved. However, ethanol production combined with biogas production offers a chance in principle to make use of the cellulose and hemicellulose that are not converted in the ethanol process; these could be converted into biogas in the biogas plant. This would also ensure energetic utilization of pentoses from lignocellulose. The authors describe a process for utilization of cellulose-rich material which works without acid and requires very moderate hydrothermal process conditions (70 minutes at 150 degC). With straw, efficiencies up to 15 percent were achieved; with maize, efficiencies were up to 21.5 percent.

  2. Mesostructured Au/C materials obtained by replication of functionalized SBA-15 silica containing highly dispersed gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Fatmé

    2011-04-01

    The preparation and characterization of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbons CMK-3 are reported. These carbons were obtained using gold-containing functionalized SBA-15 silicas as hard templates. Two series of Au/SiO2 templates were prepared, depending on the nature of the functionalization molecule. While ammonium-functionalized silicas gave gold particles with a size determined by the pores of the silica support, the use of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as grafting molecule afforded the possibility to control the particle size inside the mesopores. Both series gave highly ordered mesoporous carbons with gold particles incorporated in the carbon nanorods. However, the gold particle size in mesoporous carbons was the same for both series and apparently did not depend on the nature of the silica template. Both Au/SiO2 templates and their corresponding Au/CMK-3 materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, chemical analysis, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and transmission electron microscopy. They were also used as catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene and trans-stilbene in the liquid phase. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental and numerical study on loading rate effects of rock-like material specimens containing two unparallel fissures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彦华; 杨圣奇; 曾卫

    2016-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments and PFC numerical simulations for rock-like material specimens containing two unparallel fissures were carried out. On the basis of experimental and numerical results, the stress−strain curves, mechanical properties, AE events, cracking behavior and energy characteristics were analyzed to reveal the macro-mechanical behavior and meso-mechanism of pre-fissured specimens under different loading rates. Investigated results show that:1) When the loading rate is relatively low, the stress−strain curves show a brittle response. When the loading rate is relatively high, the curve shows a more ductile response. Both of the peak strength and elastic mudulus increase with the increase of loading rate, which can be expressed as power functions. 2) Four crack types are identified, i.e., tensile crack, shear crack, far-field crack and surface spalling. Moreover, the tensile crack, far-field crack and surface spalling are under tensile mechanism, while the shear crack is under shear mechanism. 3) The drops of the stress−strain curves all correspond to the crack initiation or coalescence, which is also linked to a sudden increasing in the accumulated micro-crack curve. 4) Both of the maximum bond force and energy have the similar trend with the increase of loading rate to peak strength, which indicates that the trend of peak strength can be explained by the meso-mechanics and energy.

  4. Numerical Study of Solidification in a Plate Heat Exchange Device with a Zigzag Configuration Containing Multiple Phase-Change-Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilun Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES plays an important role in the advocation of TES in contrast to sensible energy storage because of the large storage energy densities per unit mass/volume possible at a nearly constant thermal energy. In the current study, a heat exchange device with a zigzag configuration containing multiple phase-change-materials (m-PCMs was considered, and an experimental system was built to validate the model for a single PCM. A two-dimensional numerical model was developed using the ANSYS Fluent 14.0 software program. The energy fractions method was put forward to calculate the average Ste number and the influence of Re and Ste numbers on the discharge process were studied. The influence of phase change temperature among m-PCMs on the solidification process has also been studied. A new boundary condition was defined to determine the combined effect of the Re and Ste numbers on the discharging process. The modelling results show that for a given input power, the Ste (or Re number has a significant impact on the discharging process; however, the period value of inlet velocity has almost no impact on it. Besides, the zigzag plate with m-PCMs has a good impact on the temperature shock as “filter action” in the discharging process.

  5. Evaluation of absorbed dose in irradiated sugar-containing plant material (peony roots) by an ESR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of irradiated plant materials and sugar content was investigated by spectral analysis using peony roots. A weak background signal near g=2.005 was observed in the roots. After a 10 kGy irradiation, the ESR line broadened and the intensity increased, and the spectral characteristics were similar to a typical spectrum of irradiated food containing crystalline sugars. The free radical concentration was nearly stable 30 days after irradiation. The spectrum of peony root 30 days after irradiation was simulated using the summation of the intensities of six assumed components: radical signals derived from (a) sucrose, (b) glucose, (c) fructose, (d) cellulose, (e) the background signal near g=2.005 and (f) unidentified component. The simulated spectra using the six components were in agreement with the observed sample spectra. The intensity of sucrose radical signal in irradiated samples increased proportionally up to 20 kGy. In addition, the intensity of sucrose radical signals was strongly correlated with the sucrose contents of the samples. The results showed that the radiation sensitivity of sucrose in peony roots was influenced little by other plant constituents. There was also a good correlation between the total area of the spectra and the sucrose content, because the sucrose content was higher than that of other sugars in the samples. In peony roots, estimation of the absorbed dose from the ESR signal intensity may be possible by a calibration method based on the sucrose content.

  6. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  7. A novel donor-acceptor polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole and 1,8-naphtalimide as subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyuncu, Fatma Baycan, E-mail: fatmabaycan@hotmail.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Koyuncu, Sermet [Can Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17400 Canakkale (Turkey); Ozdemir, Eyup, E-mail: eozdemir@comu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2010-07-01

    We report here the synthesis of a novel polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole (Cbz)-donor and 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor as subunit. The band gap E{sub g} was measured using UV-vis spectroscopy and compared with that obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Due to intramolecular electron transfer from Cbz-donor to 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor, the fluorescence quenching was observed. When the spectro-electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polymer film were investigated, various tones of green color were obtained on the polymeric film. In the positive regime, the polymer film obtained thereby is dark green resulting from the association of carbazolylium cation radicals at oxidized state and then it can be bleached by electrochemical reduction. Besides, in the negative regime, yellowish green color of film converted to blue attributed to reduction of the 1,8-napthalimide moiety. Finally, the polymeric electrochromic exhibits multi-electrochromic behavior, high redox stability, high coloration efficiency and reasonable response time.

  8. A novel donor-acceptor polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole and 1,8-naphtalimide as subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the synthesis of a novel polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole (Cbz)-donor and 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor as subunit. The band gap Eg was measured using UV-vis spectroscopy and compared with that obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Due to intramolecular electron transfer from Cbz-donor to 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor, the fluorescence quenching was observed. When the spectro-electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polymer film were investigated, various tones of green color were obtained on the polymeric film. In the positive regime, the polymer film obtained thereby is dark green resulting from the association of carbazolylium cation radicals at oxidized state and then it can be bleached by electrochemical reduction. Besides, in the negative regime, yellowish green color of film converted to blue attributed to reduction of the 1,8-napthalimide moiety. Finally, the polymeric electrochromic exhibits multi-electrochromic behavior, high redox stability, high coloration efficiency and reasonable response time.

  9. Compromised development and survival in amphibians in reclaimed wetlands' water containing oil sands process-affected material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When closing a mine, operators must comply with government regulations to ensure that the sites are ecologically sustainable to support endemic flora and fauna. Creating wetlands in order to age and detoxify oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) is a common reclamation strategy. In this study, amphibians indigenous to the boreal forest ecosystem were examined to determine if they can complete their lifecycle in water from reclaimed wetlands. Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) eggs were collected from a natural pond 60 km south of an oil sand mining site. Tadpoles were raised in 1 of 6 water treatments refreshed every two days. The 2 reference water treatments included aged tap water and water from natural wetlands. The remaining 4 water treatments were from research wetlands on Syncrude and Suncor lease sites. Of the 120 tadpoles raised per water treatment, there was no significant difference in growth, development, or survival rates between the aged tap water and reference wetland water, but the fastest growth, development, and highest survival rates occurred in the two reference groups. There was a pronounced difference among the 4 treatment groups from Suncor and Syncrude reclamation sites. Survival was high in 3 of the water treatments from Syncrude and Suncor sites, but development rates were considerably reduced. Tadpoles that do not metamorphose before winter do not survive. It was therefore concluded that delayed development in tadpoles poses a serious risk to population stability in OSPM-containing wetlands.

  10. Compromised development and survival in amphibians in reclaimed wetlands' water containing oil sands process-affected material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, J.; Schock, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

    2010-07-01

    When closing a mine, operators must comply with government regulations to ensure that the sites are ecologically sustainable to support endemic flora and fauna. Creating wetlands in order to age and detoxify oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) is a common reclamation strategy. In this study, amphibians indigenous to the boreal forest ecosystem were examined to determine if they can complete their lifecycle in water from reclaimed wetlands. Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) eggs were collected from a natural pond 60 km south of an oil sand mining site. Tadpoles were raised in 1 of 6 water treatments refreshed every two days. The 2 reference water treatments included aged tap water and water from natural wetlands. The remaining 4 water treatments were from research wetlands on Syncrude and Suncor lease sites. Of the 120 tadpoles raised per water treatment, there was no significant difference in growth, development, or survival rates between the aged tap water and reference wetland water, but the fastest growth, development, and highest survival rates occurred in the two reference groups. There was a pronounced difference among the 4 treatment groups from Suncor and Syncrude reclamation sites. Survival was high in 3 of the water treatments from Syncrude and Suncor sites, but development rates were considerably reduced. Tadpoles that do not metamorphose before winter do not survive. It was therefore concluded that delayed development in tadpoles poses a serious risk to population stability in OSPM-containing wetlands.

  11. Electrochemical corrosion studies on copper-base waste package container materials in unirradiated 0.1 N NaNO3 at 95 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three candidate materials were investigated in this study in terms of their electrochemical corrosion behavior in unirradiated 0.1 N NaNO3 solutions at 95 degrees C. Anodic polarization experiments were conducted to determine the passive current densities, pitting potentials, and other parameters, together with Cyclic Current Reversal Voltammetry tests to evaluate the stability and protectiveness of the passive oxides formed. X-ray diffraction and Auger Electron Spectroscopy were used for identification of the corrosion products as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy for the surface morphology studies. 2 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Considerations on the performance and fabrication of candidate materials for the Yucca Mountain repository waste packages highly corrosion resistant nickel-base and titanium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E; Goldberg, A

    1995-11-30

    Among the metallurgical factors that affect the performance of a material in a given environment are alloy composition, alloy segregation, depletion of alloying elements, non-uniform microstructures, precipitation leading to an increase in susceptibility to corrosion as well as decreases in ductility, residual plastic deformation, and residual stresses. Precipitation often occurs preferentially at grain boundaries, causing depletion of critical elements in regions adjacent to these boundaries. Continuous grain-boundary precipitates can lead to drops in ductility and toughness. The presence of non-metallic inclusions, if excessive and/or segregated, can also cause embrittlement. Segregation of alloying elements can result in localized galvanic action. Depletion of alloying elements as well as segregation can result in reductions in the concentrations of critical elements below those necessary to resist localized corrosion. Segregation and alloy depletion can also facilitate precipitation that could lead to embrittlement.

  13. Adsorption and revaporisation studies of thin iodine oxide and CsI aerosol deposits from containment surface materials in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, S.; Foreman, M.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Tapper, U.; Jokiniemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    During a severe nuclear accident released fission and radiolysis products can react with each other to form new species which might contribute to the volatile source term. Iodine will be released from UO2 fuel mainly in form as CsI aerosol particles and elemental iodine. Elemental iodine can react in gaseous phase with ozone to form solid iodine oxide aerosol particles (IOx). Within the AIAS-2 (Adsorption of Iodine Aerosols on Surfaces) project the interactions of IOx and CsI aerosols with common containment surface materials was investigated. Common surface materials in Swedish and Finnish LWRs are Teknopox Aqua V A paint films and metal surfaces such as Cu, Zn, Al and SS. Non-radioactive and {sup 131}I labelled aerosols were produced from a KI solution and ozone with a new facility designed and built at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. CsI aerosols were produced from a CsI solution with the same facility. A monolayer of the aerosols was deposited on the surfaces. The deposits were analysed with microscopic and spectroscopic measurement techniques to identify the chemical form of the deposits on the surfaces to identify if a chemical conversion on the different surface materials had occured. The revaporisation behaviour of the deposited aerosol particles from the different surface materials was studied under the influence of heat, humidity and gamma irradiation at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Studies on the effects of humidity were performed using the FOMICAG facility, while heat and irradiation experiments were performed in a thermostated heating block and with a gammacell 22 with a dose rate of 14 kGy/h. The revaporisation losses were measured using a HPGe detector. The decomposition effect of the radiolysis product carbon monoxide was tested on IOx aerosols deposited on a glass fibre filter. Iodine oxide particles were produced at 50 deg. C, 100 deg. C and 120 deg. C and deposited on filter samples in order to study the chemical

  14. Standard Practices for Simulated Service Testing for Corrosion of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Heat-Transfer Fluids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover test procedures simulating field service for evaluating the performance under corrosive conditions of metallic containment materials in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. 1.2 These practices describe test procedures used to evaluate the resistance to deterioration of metallic containment materials in the several conditions that may occur in operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These conditions include: (1) operating full flow; (2) stagnant empty vented; (3) stagnant, closed to atmosphere, non-draindown; and (4) stagnant, closed to atmosphere, draindown. 1.3 The recommended practices cover the following three te...

  15. Modeling of Stress Development During Thermal Damage Healing in Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials Containing Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bor, T.C.; Warnet, L.; Akkerman, R.; Boer, de A.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are susceptible to damage development through matrix cracking and delamination. This article concerns the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in a composite material to support healing of damage through a local heat treatment. The composite material co

  16. A fracture mechanics safety concept to assess the impact behavior of ductile cast iron containers for shipping and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of the German licensing procedures for shipping and storage containers for radioactive materials made of ductile cast iron, BAM performs approval design tests including material tests to ensure the main safety goals of shielding, leaktightness and subcriticality under ''Type B accident conditions''. So far the safety assessment concept of BAM is based essentially on the experimental proof of container strength by prototype testing under most damaging test conditions in connection with complete approval design tests, and has been developed especially for cylindrical casks like CASTOR- and TN-design. In connection with the development of new container constructions such as ''cubic cast containers'', and the fast developments in the area of numerical calculation methods, there is a need for a more flexible safety concept especially considering fracture mechanics aspects.This paper presents the state of work at BAM for such an extended safety concept for ductile cast iron containers, based on a detailed brittle fracture safe design proof. The requirements on stress analysis (experimental or numerical), material properties, material qualification, quality assurance provisions and fracture mechanics safety assessment, including well defined and justified factors of safety, are described. ((orig.))

  17. High-efficiency orange and yellow organic light-emitting devices using platinum(II) complexes containing extended π -conjugated cyclometalated ligands as dopant materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kui, SCF; Che, CM; Xu, SJ; Yan, BP; Cheung, CCC; Roy, VAL

    2007-01-01

    Two luminescent platinum(II) complexes 1 and 2 containing extended π -conjugated cyclometalated ligands have been used as dopant materials for the construction of two high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices I and II. Device I (containing dopant 1) emits orange emission and exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency of 12.4%, a maximum luminous efficiency of 32.3 cdA, and a maximum power efficiency of 11.2 lmW. Device II (containing dopant 2) emits yellow light and exhibits a maximu...

  18. Teaching "Candide": A Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Theodore E. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches to teaching Voltaire's "Candide", one deriving meaning from the textual fabric or "inside" of the story and the other focusing on the author's "external" intent in writing the story, are presented and compared. (MSE)

  19. Adsorption and revaporisation studies of thin iodine oxide and CsI aerosol deposits from containment surface materials in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, S.; Foreman, M.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Tapper, U.; Jokiniemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    During a severe nuclear accident released fission and radiolysis products can react with each other to form new species which might contribute to the volatile source term. Iodine will be released from UO2 fuel mainly in form as CsI aerosol particles and elemental iodine. Elemental iodine can react in gaseous phase with ozone to form solid iodine oxide aerosol particles (IOx). Within the AIAS-2 (Adsorption of Iodine Aerosols on Surfaces) project the interactions of IOx and CsI aerosols with common containment surface materials was investigated. Common surface materials in Swedish and Finnish LWRs are Teknopox Aqua V A paint films and metal surfaces such as Cu, Zn, Al and SS. Non-radioactive and {sup 131}I labelled aerosols were produced from a KI solution and ozone with a new facility designed and built at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. CsI aerosols were produced from a CsI solution with the same facility. A monolayer of the aerosols was deposited on the surfaces. The deposits were analysed with microscopic and spectroscopic measurement techniques to identify the chemical form of the deposits on the surfaces to identify if a chemical conversion on the different surface materials had occured. The revaporisation behaviour of the deposited aerosol particles from the different surface materials was studied under the influence of heat, humidity and gamma irradiation at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Studies on the effects of humidity were performed using the FOMICAG facility, while heat and irradiation experiments were performed in a thermostated heating block and with a gammacell 22 with a dose rate of 14 kGy/h. The revaporisation losses were measured using a HPGe detector. The decomposition effect of the radiolysis product carbon monoxide was tested on IOx aerosols deposited on a glass fibre filter. Iodine oxide particles were produced at 50 deg. C, 100 deg. C and 120 deg. C and deposited on filter samples in order to study the chemical

  20. Synthesis and investigation of sorbing materials based on natural and synthetic dispersed oxide systems for sorbing active leaching products of lava-like fuel-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory sorbent samples were synthesized on the basis of modified natural clayey raw material and fumed silica. Using chemical methods, composition of synthesized sorbents was established. Oxide and hydroxide structures, plated on the fumed silica and natural montmorillonite clay surface were identified. A forecast about sorbing properties of synthesized materials is made