WorldWideScience

Sample records for candidate construction materials

  1. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  2. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  3. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  4. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  5. Recent production of candidate reference materials at IRMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.N.; Pauwels, J.; Le Guern, L.; Schimmel, H.; Trapmann, S. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Joint Research Centre

    2001-06-01

    In the execution of its mission to promote a common European measurement system in support of EU policies, IRMM's Reference Materials Unit is currently involved in preparation of proficiency-testing samples and candidate reference materials. Recent work related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cows, genetically modified organisms, and a variety of environmental materials is described. (orig.)

  6. Candidate plasma-facing materials for EUV lithography source components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Burtseva, Tatiana; Brooks, Jeff N.; Konkashbaev, Isak K.; Rice, Bryan J.

    2003-06-01

    Material selection and lifetime issues for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are of critical importance to the success of this technology for commercial applications. This paper reviews current trends in production and use of plasma-facing electrodes, insulators, and wall materials for EUV type sources. Ideal candidate materials should be able to: withstand high thermal shock from the short pulsed plasma; withstand high thermal loads without structural failure; reduce debris generation during discharge; and be machined accurately. We reviewed the literature on current and proposed fusion plasma-facing materials as well as current experience with plasma gun and other simulation devices. Both fusion and EUV source materials involve issues of surface erosion by particle sputtering and heat-induced evaporation/melting. These materials are either bare structural materials or surface coatings. EUV materials can be divided into four categories: wall, electrode, optical, and insulator materials. For electric discharge sources, all four types are required, whereas laser-produced plasma EUV sources do not require electrode and insulator materials. Several types of candidate alloy and other materials and methods of manufacture are recommended for each component of EUV lithography light sources.

  7. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  8. Outgassing studies of materials for the TRT construction

    CERN Document Server

    Guarino, F; Romaniouk, A; Soutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F

    1999-01-01

    Systematic outgassing studies of 7 materials and 10 glues candidates to be used in the construction of the TRT are persented. Each sample has been tested before and after irradiation up to 50 Mrad dose. Some results on tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of the materals are also presented.

  9. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  10. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  11. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  12. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR) may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ce...

  13. Sustainable material selection for construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization and globalization has led to a rapid development in the construction industry. Many strategies have been proposed to improve cost effectiveness in this sector. Over the last decade, cost concerns have been balanced with a growing debate on the necessity for sustainable construction...... in particular, there is an ongoing demand to select the best sustainable construction materials because the industry is growing so rapidly in this nation. Thus, the main intent of this paper is to propose a model to evaluate the best sustainable construction material based on sustainable indicators through...... practices. Because of depleting resources and environmental concerns, researchers and practitioners have begun to explore sustainable construction strategies. Among these strategies is the selection of sustainable materials which play a vital role in a building's environmental footprint. In the UAE...

  14. Use of superabsorbent polymers in construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of some of the possibilities which are offered by the use of superabsorbent polymers in construction. Superabsorbent polymers, SAP, have some distinct properties that make them interesting to use in connection with construction materials. These properties include...

  15. Construction Material Waste: Recognition and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by long term observations of the construction industry in the Northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The observations showed that the construction waste is becoming a serious environmental, economical and safety issue that affects the suburbs of the KSA. The study utilizes Likert scaled responses through a two-part questionnaire distributed to 42 contractors located in the Northern region of KSA. The first part of the questionnaire aims at identifying causes of material waste in building construction projects from the contractors’ viewpoint. The second part seeks to rank the considered materials according to their level of importance from the contractors’ viewpoint. The collected data was analyzed through Minitab statistical software. It was found that the most significant factors causing construction waste are: (1 inaccuracy in quantity surveys leading to over-ordering or under-ordering; (2 the selection of low quality products; (3 detail errors in design and construction; (4 the order of supplies in loose form; (5 and the inefficiency in resource management. The results of this study show that construction material handling and managerial decisions have a critical impact on the cause and effect of the level of construction waste. The study findings demonstrate that the most important benefits for considering construction waste are to know the exact required quantities for a construction project and to plan and prepare an accurate schedule for material arriving supply. The study recommends employing Lean Manufacturing principles to eliminate the construction waste and to enhance the decision making process in construction management in the northern part of KSA.

  16. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  17. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  18. Construction of a trivalent candidate Shigella vaccine strain with host-vector balanced-lethal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮贤良; 徐永强; 吴旭东; 苏国富; 黄翠芬

    1997-01-01

    A trivalent live Shigella vaccine candidate FSD01 against S. flexneri 2a, S. sonnei and S. dysen-teriae I was constructed. This candidate strain was based on the S. flexneri 2a vaccine T32. By homologous recombi-nation exchange, the chromosomal asd gene of T32 was site-specifically inactivated, resulting in the strain unable to grow normally in LB broth, while another asd gene of S. mutans was employed to construct an Asd complementary vector. This combination of asd ’host/ Asd+ vector formed a balanced-lethal expression system in T32 strain. By use of this system, two important protective antigen genes coding for S. sonnei Form I antigen and Shiga toxin B subunit were cloned and expressed in T32, which led to the construction of trivalent candidate vaccine FSD01. Experimental results showed that this strain was genetically stable, but its recombinant plasmid was non-resistant. Moreover, it was able to effectively express trivalent antigens in one host and induce protective responses in mice against the

  19. Characterization of Candidate Materials for Remote Recession Measurements of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bradley D.; Winter, Michael; Panerai, Francesco; Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Stackpoole, Margaret; Danehy, Paul M.; Splinter, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring surface recession of a material sample in a plasma flow through emission spectroscopy of the post shock layer was characterized through experiments in the NASA Langley HYMETS arc jet facility. Different methods for delivering the seed products into the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material samples were investigated. Three samples were produced by seeding the PICA material with combinations of Al, Si, HfO2, VB2, Al2O3, SiO2, TiC, HfC, NaCl, and MgCl2 through infusing seed materials into a core of PICA, or through encapsulating seed material in an epoxy disk, mechanically bonding the disk to a PICA sample. The PICA samples seeded with the candidate tracers were then tested at surface temperatures near 2400 K under low pressure air plasma. The emission of Al, Ti, V, Na, and Mg in the post-shock layer was observed in the UV with a high resolution imaging spectrometer viewing the whole stagnation line from the side, and from UV to NIR with a fiber-coupled miniaturized spectrometer observing the sample surface in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1,100 nm from the front through a collimator. Al, Na, and Mg were found to be emitting in the post-shock spectra even before the recession reached the seeding depth - therefore possibly characterizing the pyrolysis process rather than the recession itself. The appearance of Ti and V emission in the spectra was well correlated with the actual recession which was monitored through a video of the front surface of the sample. The applicability of a seed material as an indicator for recession appears to be related to the melting temperature of the seed material. Future parametric studies will be carried out in low power plasma facilities at the University of Kentucky.

  20. Design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Murray, A. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Abes, J. [CC Technologies Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 4 discussed issues regarding recent technologies and practices in oil and gas pipeline design, material specification, qualification, construction and maintenance. The presentations raised awareness on emerging developments, issues and concerns, including the steps needed to implement an alternative integrity validation (AIV) process in lieu of a post-construction hydrotesting for pipeline construction. It was determined that before AIV can become an accepted practice for the entire oil and gas industry, additional research is needed to form criteria for acceptance by both regulators and the public. Issues regarding the rehabilitation of pipelines with reference to maintaining high safety standards were also reviewed. It was noted that the current labour shortage makes safety even more pertinent. Procedures should be written to ensure compliance by employees. The group discussed how operators should determine the required pressure decrease and margin of safety for integrity work in a ditch. The dangers of driver fatigue were also discussed along with proposed measures to reduce the risk of injuries to drivers. tabs., figs.

  1. Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lefu ZHANG; Fawen ZHU; Rui TANG

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the selection of nuclear fuel cladding and other structural materials, such as water rod. Survey of literature and experimental results reveal that the general corrosion mechanism of those candidate materials exhibits quite complicated mechanism in high-temperature and high-pressure supercritical water. Formation of a stable protective oxide film is the key to the best corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper focuses on the mechanism of corrosion oxide film breakdown for SCWR candidate materials.

  2. Identification of Candidate Zero Maintenance Paving Materials. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    asphalts could not be located, it is generally believed that the material is relatively stable at normal ambient temperatures. 4.8 DURABILITY 4.8.1 Freeze...Con Azufre," Proceedings, Second Interna- tional Seminar on Concrete Technology, Inscituto de Ingenieria Civil de la Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon...Seminar on Concrete Technology, ]nstituto de Ingenieria Civil de la Univarsidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico, Mcr 1975, pp 261-274. 49

  3. Sputtering Yield Calculation of Some Candidate PFC Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng; HUANGJinhua

    2001-01-01

    In order to estimate the erosion rates of some plasma facing component materials, the sputtering yields of Mo, W and Li bombarded by charged particles H+, D+, T+ and He+ are calculated by application of sputtering theory based on bipartition model of ion transport. The comparisons with Monte-Carlo calculation results are made. These data might be useful to estimate the lifetime of plasma facing components and to analyze the impurity level in core plasma of fusion reactors.

  4. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  5. Construction of a trivalent candidate vaccine against Shigella species with DNA recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒樑; 冯尔玲; 林云; 廖翔; 金明; 黄留玉; 苏国富; 黄翠芬

    2002-01-01

    In this work asd gene of Shigella flexneri 2a strain T32 was replaced by Vibrio cholerae toxin B subunit (ctxB) gene with DNA recombination in vivo and in vitro. The resulting derivative of T32, designed as FWL01, could stably express CtxB, but its growth in LB medium depended on the presence of diaminopimelic acid (DAP). Then form I plasmid of Shigella sonnei strain S7 was labeled with strain T32 asd gene and mobilized into FWL01. Thus a trivalent candidate oral vaccine strain, designed as FSW01, was constructed. In this candidate strain, a balanced-lethal system was constituted between the host strain and the form I plasmid expressing S. sonnei O antigen. Therefore the candidate strain can express stably not only its own O antigen but also CtxB and O antigen of S. sonnei in the absence of any antibiotic. Experiments showed that FSW01 did not invade HeLa cells or cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs. However, rabbits immunized FSW01 can elicit significant immune responses. In mice and rhesus monkey models, vaccinated animals were protected against the challenges of wild S. flexneri 2a strain 2457T and S. sonnei strain S9.

  6. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  7. High temperature indentation tests on fusion reactor candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.montanari@uniroma2.it; Filacchioni, G. [ENEA CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 S.M. di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Iacovone, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Plini, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Riccardi, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, P.O. Box 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2007-08-01

    Flat-top cylinder indenter for mechanical characterization (FIMEC) is an indentation technique employing cylindrical punches with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm. The test gives pressure-penetration curves from which the yield stress can be determined. The FIMEC apparatus was developed to test materials in the temperature range from -180 to +200 {sup o}C. Recently, the heating system of FIMEC apparatus has been modified to operate up to 500 {sup o}C. So, in addition to providing yield stress over a more extended temperature range, it is possible to perform stress-relaxation tests at temperatures of great interest for several nuclear fusion reactor (NFR) alloys. Data on MANET-II, F82H mod., Eurofer-97, EM-10, AISI 316 L, Ti6Al4V and CuCrZr are presented and compared with those obtained by mechanical tests with standard methods.

  8. Construction materials and construction influential factors in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Skribans, V.

    2000-01-01

    In work are analysed situation in Latvian building, building material producing, in real estate market. Show on building material producing influential factors. Analysed statistic about building material produce and using in Latvia. Work out matrix, which help to develop produces and building material branch.

  9. Green Building Construction Thermal Isolation Materials (Rockwool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Itewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Building insulation consisting roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Approach: Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It does not automatically having anything to do with problems of sufficient exposure to air and might or might not influence the amount of sound insulation. Results: In a constricted way insulation can just mean the insulation substance used to reduce heat loss, such as: Glass wool, cellulose, polystyrene, rock wool, urethane foam, vermiculite and the earth, but it can also entail a variety of plans and methods used to deal with the chief forms of heat movement like transmission, emission and convection substances. The efficiency of insulation is normally assessed by its R-value. However, an R-value does not allow for the superiority of assembly or narrow green issues for each structure. Building superiority matters comprise insufficient vapor obstructions and troubles with draft-proofing. Additionally, the property and concentration of the insulation substance itself is vital. Fiberglass insulation materials, for example, made out of short fibers of glass covered on top of each other is not as long-lasting as insulation prepared from extended entwined fibers of glass. Conclusion/Recommendations: Rockwool insulation is a kind of insulation that is constructed out of real rocks and minerals. It furthermore is known by the names of mineral wool insulation, stone wool insulation or slag wool insulation. A broad collection of goods can be constructed from Rockwool, because of its outstanding capability to obstruct sound and heat. Rockwool insulation is normally utilized in building assembly, manufacturing plants and in automotive purposes. In this study i proposed to use

  10. Survey on educational material on sustainable constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Veljkovic, Milan; Koukkari, Heli; Braganca, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Higher education of professionals in the construction and real estate sector is in the process of “Greening curricula”. Pressures to educate environmentally literate workforce are increasing. Leading construction companies worldwide are becoming involved in green construction. “Green building, green project, green property, green procurement as well as green living and green citizenship” are concepts that are used in business like in voluntary organisations. The literature surv...

  11. Integrating Sustainable Construction Materials to Achieve Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajeed H. Kasassbeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green buildings integrate building materials and methods that promote environmental quality, economic vitality and social benefits through the design, construction and operation of the built environment. This study demonstrates potential actions including material selection that can be implemented to achieve green building. Also, we discuss the importance and environmental impact of sustainable material, the selection criteria of these materials and the different types of sustainable materials in the buildings construction in Jordan.

  12. Self-Organized Construction with Continuous Building Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Wahby, Mostafa; Divband Soorati, Mohammad;

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized construction with continuous, structured building material, as opposed to modular units, offers new challenges to the robot-based construction process and lends the opportunity for increased flexibility in constructed artifact properties, such as shape and deformation. As an exampl...

  13. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  14. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining.

  15. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  16. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  17. Nanostructured materials, production and application in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of water-soluble high module silicate systems: based on polysilicates of alkali element called liquid glasses and the chains of their transformations from the lowest oligomers into the highest ones with further formation colloid solutions – silica sol. The authors describe the potentialities of the use of such systems as binders or modifying additives to produce different nanostructured silicate polymer concretes. There are examples of prospective application of liquid glass and water solutions of high module silicates in industrial areas and construction. Quantum-chemical calculations of the structure and properties of tetraphenylarsonium are given and heterogeneity of its functional groups is shown.

  18. The Discourse of Denial: How White Teacher Candidates Construct Race, Racism and "White Privilege"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Patrick; Portelli, John; Daniel, Beverly-Jean; Campbell, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on a representative sample from 200 teacher candidates' responses to Peggy McIntosh's article, "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack." The notion and understanding of whiteness and white privilege were explored revealing several strategies that teacher candidates employed to avoid addressing whiteness…

  19. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  20. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  1. In-situ hot corrosion testing of candidate materials for exhaust valve spindles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Hoeg, Harro A.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter;

    2011-01-01

    used, exhaust valve spindles in marine diesel engines are subjected to high temperatures and stresses as well as molten salt induced corrosion. To investigate candidate materials for future designs which will involve the HIP process, a spindle with Ni superalloy material samples inserted in a HIPd Ni49......The two stroke diesel engine has been continually optimized since its invention more than a century ago. One of the ways to increase fuel efficiency further is to increase the compression ratio, and thereby the temperature in the combustion chamber. Because of this, and the composition of the fuel...

  2. Innovative Materials and Techniques in Concrete Construction : ACES Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen enormous advances in the technology of concrete as a material, through which its strength, compactness and ductility can reach levels never dreamed of before. Thanks to these improved material properties, the strength and durability of concrete structures is greatly improved, their weight and dimensions reduced, the scope of concrete as a structural material is widened and – despite the higher material costs – overall economy is possible, with positive impacts on sustainability as well. Similar advances are underway in reinforcing materials, notably high strength steel and fibre-reinforced polymers, and in the way they are combined with concrete into high performance structures. Developments in materials and equipment, as well as new concepts, have lead to innovative construction techniques, reducing cost and construction time and making possible the application of concrete under extreme conditions of construction or environment. All these advances will be highlighted in the book by...

  3. Enablers of Innovation in the Construction Material Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Jacobsen, Alexia

    2014-01-01

    . By exploring case-based innovation processes the purpose is to discover enablers of innovation in the construction material industry. The research design is based on explorative case studies. By applying case study as method, the research is drawn towards inductive research, where we investigate patterns......The construction material industry is often acknowledged as slightly more innovative than the overall construction industry and could hence serve as a valuable learning place for how innovation could flourish in the construction industry. Construction is viewed as network or supply chain based...... suitable for generalization on enablers for innovation. In total, six cases of successful innovation are investigated. The conclusion of this research validates that open innovation in a network approach is a precondition for a successful innovation journey in the construction industry. In addition...

  4. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Weiss, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2013-01-01

    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  8. Alkali metal compatibility testing of candidate heater head materials for a Stirling engine heat transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jack E.; Hickman, Gary L.; Grobstein, Toni

    The authors describe work performed as part of the 25-kWe advanced Stirling conversion system project. Liquid alkali metal compatibility is being assessed in an ongoing test program to evaluate candidate heater head materials and fabrication processes at the temperatures and operating conditions required for Stirling engines. Specific materials under evaluation are alloy 713LC, alloy 713LC coated with nickel aluminide, and Udimet 720, each in combination with Waspaloy. The tests were run at a constant 700 C. A eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) was the working fluid. Titanium sheet in the system was shown to be an effective oxygen getter. Metallographic and microchemical examination of material surfaces, joints, and their interfaces revealed little or no corrosion after 1000 h. Tests are in progress, with up to 10,000 h exposure.

  9. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z Q J; Lowhorn, N D; Wong-Ng, W; Zhang, W; Thomas, E L; Otani, M; Green, M L; Tran, T N; Caylor, C; Dilley, N R; Downey, A; Edwards, B; Elsner, N; Ghamaty, S; Hogan, T; Jie, Q; Li, Q; Martin, J; Nolas, G; Obara, H; Sharp, J; Venkatasubramanian, R; Willigan, R; Yang, J; Tritt, T

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials-undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  10. Applications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ohama, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysis is based on the semiconducting nature of its anatase crystal type. Construction materials with titanium photocatalyst show performances of air purification, self-cleaning, water purification, antibacterial action. This book describes principles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, its applications to cementitious and noncementitious materials, as well as an overview of standardization of testing methods.

  11. Transport and handling of construction materials in the hard coal mining industry and tunnel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Stephan [Olko-Maschinentechnik GmbH, Olfen (Germany)

    2008-08-21

    In the German hard coal mining industry construction materials with the most diverse compositions are required for various applications. The largest proportion of the materials is required for the construction of roadside packs and for the backfilling of roadways because of the ever increasing depths and the resulting rock mechanical problems. Over the last 30 years handling, transport and processing systems have been developed to cope with these quantities of materials and to avoid further loads on the shaft hoisting installation. Nowadays these systems are standardised and are characterised by mobility, flexibility, small space requirement and the latest control engineering. This applies in particular to pneumatic and hydraulic transport and distribution of the construction materials. In future all mines will monitor and control all installations above and below ground from a central control room. The methods developed in the mining industry are also successfully used in tunnel and underground railway construction. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste-package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.; Jones, D.; Lian, T.; Martin, S.

    1998-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste-package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7Ð8mm/yr) and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1mm/yr). Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (mm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial end-point analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods.

  13. A simplified in vivo approach for evaluating the bioabsorbable behavior of candidate stent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Daniel; Edick, Jacob; Tauscher, Aaron; Pokorney, Ellen; Bowen, Patrick; Gelbaugh, Jesse; Stinson, Jon; Getty, Heather; Lee, Chee Huei; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Goldman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Metal stents are commonly used to revascularize occluded arteries. A bioabsorbable metal stent that harmlessly erodes away over time may minimize the normal chronic risks associated with permanent implants. However, there is no simple, low-cost method of introducing candidate materials into the arterial environment. Here, we developed a novel experimental model where a biomaterial wire is implanted into a rat artery lumen (simulating bioabsorbable stent blood contact) or artery wall (simulating bioabsorbable stent matrix contact). We use this model to clarify the corrosion mechanism of iron (≥99.5 wt %), which is a candidate bioabsorbable stent material due to its biocompatibility and mechanical strength. We found that iron wire encapsulation within the arterial wall extracellular matrix resulted in substantial biocorrosion by 22 days, with a voluminous corrosion product retained within the vessel wall at 9 months. In contrast, the blood-contacting luminal implant experienced minimal biocorrosion at 9 months. The importance of arterial blood versus arterial wall contact for regulating biocorrosion was confirmed with magnesium wires. We found that magnesium was highly corroded when placed in the arterial wall but was not corroded when exposed to blood in the arterial lumen for 3 weeks. The results demonstrate the capability of the vascular implantation model to conduct rapid in vivo assessments of vascular biomaterial corrosion behavior and to predict long-term biocorrosion behavior from material analyses. The results also highlight the critical role of the arterial environment (blood vs. matrix contact) in directing the corrosion behavior of biodegradable metals.

  14. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  15. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY15 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the previous report of this series, a literature review was performed to assess the potential for substantial corrosion issues associated with the proposed SHINE process conditions to produce 99Mo. Following the initial review, substantial laboratory corrosion testing was performed emphasizing immersion and vapor-phase exposure of candidate alloys in a wide variety of solution chemistries and temperatures representative of potential exposure conditions. Stress corrosion cracking was not identified in any of the exposures up to 10 days at 80°C and 10 additional days at 93°C. Mechanical properties and specimen fracture face features resulting from slow-strain rate tests further supported a lack of sensitivity of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking. Fluid velocity was found not to be an important variable (0 to ~3 m/s) in the corrosion of candidate alloys at room temperature and 50°C. Uranium in solution was not found to adversely influence potential erosion-corrosion. Potentially intense radiolysis conditions slightly accelerated the general corrosion of candidate alloys, but no materials were observed to exhibit an annualized rate above 10 μm/y.

  16. Creep rupture behavior of candidate materials for nuclear process heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.; te Heesen, E.; Bruch, U.; Cook, R.; Diehl, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Jakobeit, W.; Penkalla, H.J.; Ullrich, G.

    1984-08-01

    Creep and stress rupture properties are determined for the candidate materials to be used in hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The materials and test methods are briefly described based on experimental results of test durations of about20000 h. The medium creep strengths of the alloys Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, Hastelloy-S, Manaurite-36X, IN-519, and Incoloy-800H are compared showing that Inconel-617 has the best creep rupture properties in the temperature range above 800/sup 0/C. The rupture time of welded joints is in the lower range of the scatterband of the parent metal. The properties determined in different simulated HTGR atmospheres are within the scatterband of the properties obtained in air. Extrapolation methods are discussed and a modified minimum commitment method is favored.

  17. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu, Z. Q. J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™ for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy. Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  18. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  19. Construction and materials of airframe resisting severer fleight environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanbongi, Shigeo

    1988-07-01

    It is unavoidable for any spaceplane to encounter mechanically and thermally severe conditions regardless of the type when taking off and asecending or reentering the atmosphere. The nose part and other parts of smaller curvature are heated to about 1,500/sup 0/C by the friction between air and the airframe. The minimum temperature in the airframe is -253/sup 0/C in the liquid hydrogen tank and it is required for the construction to resist this larger temperature difference and severe mechanical outside load. For these reasons, the airframe side wall is constructed by thermal protection system(PTS), main construction material and insulating material; and suitable materials and constructions must be selected to respective parts. In addition to using different heat resistant materials for PTS, an active mean to cool heated parts with a coolant can be thought. There are much technical accumulations in the USA, and there is large technological gap between Japan and the USA but Japan may display the power with advanced materials. (9 figs, 6 refs)

  20. Spectral emissivity measurements of candidate materials for very high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G.; Weber, S.J.; Martin, S.O.; Anderson, M.H. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, K., E-mail: kumars@cae.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, T.R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Heat dissipation by radiation is an important consideration in VHTR components, particularly the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), because of the fourth power temperature dependence of radiated heat. Since emissivity is the material property that dictates the ability to radiate heat, measurements of emissivities of materials that are being specifically considered for the construction of VHTR become important. Emissivity is a surface phenomenon and therefore compositional, structural, and topographical changes that occur at the surfaces of these materials as a result of their interactions with the environment at high temperatures will alter their emissivities. With this background, an experimental system for the measurement of spectral emissivity has been designed and constructed. The system has been calibrated in conformance with U.S. DoE quality assurance standards using inert ceramic materials, boron nitride, silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide. The results of high temperature emissivity measurements of potential VHTR materials such as ferritic steels SA 508, T22, T91 and austenitic alloys IN 800H, Haynes 230, IN 617, and 316 stainless steel have been presented.

  1. Old and Modern Construction Materials In Yemen: The Effect In Building Construction In Sana'a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA A.M. Al_Kahtani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sana’a city in Yemen is one of the oldest cities in the worlds, which has different forms of building built with different types of materials. In the present work, the old and new forms of building construction and the building materials used in Sana’a, the sources available for the new material, the effects of new material usage on building forms are all presented with the advantages and disadvantages of each material. The old shapes of buildings in Yemen and the classical and modern forms of construction using different types of materials are considered in the study. Survey is used to investigate the building forms and material types in Sana’a. Several conclusions are submitted showing that, the new building material, such as concrete block, is preferred in building comparing with old material, such as stone, which makes it the best choice for the low income people but sometimes the limited resources make old material the only available choice. Several steps needed to develop and encourage the use of new building materials are recommended.

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  4. Improved suction technique for the characterization of construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93 %). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water satur...

  5. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic provi

  6. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  7. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  8. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technology candidates for the 1980's, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. E.; Maertins, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cost/benefit analyses to evaluate advanced material technologies projects considered for general aviation and turboprop commuter aircraft through estimated life-cycle costs, direct operating costs, and development costs are discussed. Specifically addressed is the selection of technologies to be evaluated; development of property goals; assessment of candidate technologies on typical engines and aircraft; sensitivity analysis of the changes in property goals on performance and economics, cost, and risk analysis for each technology; and ranking of each technology by relative value. The cost/benefit analysis was applied to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business-type jet aircraft configured with two TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business type turboprop aircraft configured with two TPE331-10 turboprop engines. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis was applied to a commercial turboprop aircraft configured with a growth version of the TPE331-10.

  9. Natural and construction materials and plant products. Raw materials, constructional physics, design and construction. 2. upd. and enl. ed.; Natuerliche und pflanzliche Baustoffe. Rohstoff - Bauphysik - Konstruktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, Gerhard; Wangelin, Matthias; Bruns, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    The book discusses all relevant renewable constructional materials made from fibre or dyeing plants along with their physical and chemical fundamentals. Protection of resources, environmental protection, and pollutants in constructional materials are gone into as well. [German] Dieses Buch behandelt alle wichtige nachwachsenden, pflanzlichen Baustoffe aus Faser- und Faerberpflanzen sowie dazugehoerige physikalische und chemische Grundlagen. Angesprochen werden auch Ressourcen- und Umweltschutz sowie Schadstoffe aus Bauprodukten.

  10. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish......The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... prevention and recycling / reuse play a key role by providing huge energy, water and materialsavings. These issues are also specifically addressed in the Construction Products Regulation (CPR2011), where health and safety aspects related to use of construction products cover the entire lifecycle. Meanwhile...

  11. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S., E-mail: almir@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adelaide@ird.gov.br, E-mail: vanessa@ird.gov.br, E-mail: maura@ird.gov.br, E-mail: poliana@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  12. Assessment of candidates for target window material in accelerator-driven molybdenum-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strons, Philip [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    NorthStar Medical Technologies is pursuing production of an important medical isotope, Mo-99, through a photo-nuclear reaction of a Mo-100 target using a high-power electron accelerator. The current target utilizes an Inconel 718 window. The purpose of this study was to evaluate other candidate materials for the target window, which separates the high-pressure helium gas inside the target from the vacuum inside the accelerator beamline and is subjected to significant stress. Our initial analysis assessed the properties (density, thermal conductivity, maximum stress, minimum window thickness, maximum temperature, and figure of merit) for a range of materials, from which the three most promising were chosen: Inconel 718, 250 maraging steel, and standard-grade beryllium. These materials were subjected to further analysis to determine the effects of thermal and mechanical strain versus beam power at varying thicknesses. Both beryllium and the maraging steel were calculated to withstand more than twice as high beam power than Inconel 718.

  13. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  14. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...

  15. Inclusion and difusion studies of D in fusion breeding blanket candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.

    2015-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction is the most practical fusion reaction on the way to harness fusion energy. As tritium presents trace quantities on Earth [1], tritium fuel is essential to be generated simultaneously with the D-T reaction in a commerical fusion power plant. Tritium can be obtained in the lithium contained breeding blanket as a transmutation product of nuclear reaction 6Li (n, a)T. Li2T iO3 is considered to be one promising candidate solid tritium breeder material, due to its high lithium density, low activation, compatiblity with structure materials and high chemical stability. The tritium generated in Li2T iO3 breeding blanket needs to be collected and recycled back to the fusion reaction. Therefore, the study of the diffusion characteristic of breeder material Li2T iO3 is necessary to determine tritium mobility and tritium extraction efficiency. In order to study tritium release mechanism of Li2T iO3 breeding material in a fusion power plant environment, a fusion like neutron spectrum is essential while it is now not availble in any laboratory. One alternative is using ion accelerator or implantor to get energetic hydrogenic (H,D,T) ions impacting on breeding material, to simulate the tritium distribution situation. Because of the radioactive property of tritium which will complicate processing procedure, another isotope of hydrogen Deuterium is actually used to be studied. The defect structure in Li2T iO3, due to reactor exposure to fusion generated particles and ? ray irradiation, is achieved by energetic Ti ions. SRIM program is implemented to simulate the D ion or Ti ion distributions after bombarding, as well as the defects. X-ray diffraction technique helps to identify phase compositions. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used to observe the microstructures (Author)

  16. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. Currently, this research involves two aspects: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulants with various additives in a furnace so as to produce a construction material like an intermediate ceramic; and (2) cyclic loading of simulant with different initial vacuums and densities with respect to the theoretical maximum densities (TMD). In both cases, bending, triaxial compression, extension, and hydrostatic tests will be performed to define the stress-strain strength response of the resulting materials. In the case of the intermediate ceramic, bending and available multiaxial test devices will be used, while for the compacted case, tests will be performed directly in the new device. The tests will be performed by simulating in situ confining conditions. A preliminary review of high-purity metal is also conducted.

  17. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W

    2002-01-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB sub 2 (a superconductor with T sub c = 39 K), B sub 6 Si, B sub 4 C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li sub 1 sub 2 Si sub 7 , and Li sub 7 Sn sub 2. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 6 Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lith...

  18. A Damage Resistance Comparison Between Candidate Polymer Matrix Composite Feedline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASAs focused technology programs for future reusable launch vehicles, a task is underway to study the feasibility of using the polymer matrix composite feedlines instead of metal ones on propulsion systems. This is desirable to reduce weight and manufacturing costs. The task consists of comparing several prototype composite feedlines made by various methods. These methods are electron-beam curing, standard hand lay-up and autoclave cure, solvent assisted resin transfer molding, and thermoplastic tape laying. One of the critical technology drivers for composite components is resistance to foreign objects damage. This paper presents results of an experimental study of the damage resistance of the candidate materials that the prototype feedlines are manufactured from. The materials examined all have a 5-harness weave of IM7 as the fiber constituent (except for the thermoplastic, which is unidirectional tape laid up in a bidirectional configuration). The resin tested were 977-6, PR 520, SE-SA-1, RS-E3 (e-beam curable), Cycom 823 and PEEK. The results showed that the 977-6 and PEEK were the most damage resistant in all tested cases.

  19. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  20. Photocatalytic construction and building materials: From fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-sun [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hum Hom (China)

    2009-09-15

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been intensively studied in recent decades because it only requires photonic energy to activate the chemical conversion contrasting with conventional catalysis which needs heat for thermo-activation. Over the years, the theories for photochemical activity of photocatalyst including photo-induced redox reaction and super-hydrophilic conversion of TiO{sub 2} itself have been established. The progress in academic research significantly promotes its practical applications, including the field of photocatalytic construction and building materials. TiO{sub 2} modified building materials are most popular because TiO{sub 2} has been traditionally used as a white pigment. The major applications of TiO{sub 2} based photocatalytic building materials include environmental pollution remediation, self-cleaning and self-disinfecting. The advantage of using solar light and rainwater as driving force has opened a new domain for environmentally friendly building materials. In this paper, the basic reaction mechanisms on photocatalyst surface under the irradiation of ultraviolet and their corresponding applications in building and construction materials are reviewed. The problems faced in practical applications and the trends for future development are also discussed. (author)

  1. Challenges in treating earthen construction materials as unsaturated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augarde Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthen construction is a loosely defined term covering both the materials and methods for creating structural components from mixtures of subsoil, often with the addition of chemical or mechanical stabilisers. There is evidence of Man creating earthen structures for thousands of years, and there are many world heritage sites containing earthen structures, some of which present issues in terms of conservation. In some parts of the world there is a growing market for new-build earthen structures and a key issue here is the lack of design codes. Since these materials are composed mainly of particulates and water it is natural to regard them as geotechnical in nature, where friction and the presence of water have a key influence on material properties, however until very recently this was not the case, with earthen construction materials regarded as weak concrete or masonry. In this paper we examine these opposing views and discuss the issues associated with regarding these materials as unsaturated soils. The paper is illustrated with outcomes from research at Durham University carried out over the past ten years.

  2. Advanced Construction Material for Airfield Pavements and Rapid Runway Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS AND RAPID RUNWAY REPAIR by Vincent Maurice Saroni, B.S.C.E. and David W. Fowler, Ph.D., P.E. T. U. Taylor Professor in...to my family, Betsy and Mark. ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL FOR AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS AND RAPID RUNWAY REPAIR Vincent Maurice Saroni, B.S.C.E. THESIS...85 C.4 Calculation Results of Modulus of Rupture, Density and Percent Voids for Uncompacted Siliceous G ravel

  3. Construction and preliminary immunobiological characterization of a novel, non-reverting, intranasal live attenuated whooping cough vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford-Nairns, Renee; Daggard, Grant; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2012-06-01

    We describe the construction and immunobiological properties of a novel whooping cough vaccine candidate, in which the aroQ gene, encoding 3-dehydroquinase, was deleted by insertional inactivation using the kanamycin resistance gene cassette and allelic exchange using a Bordetella suicide vector. The aroQ B. pertussis mutant required supplementation of media to grow but failed to grow on an unsupplemented medium. The aroQ B. pertussis mutant was undetectable in the trachea and lungs of mice at days 6 and 12 post-infection, respectively. Antigen-specific antibody isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a, were produced, and cell-mediated immunity [CMI], using interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma as indirect indicators, was induced in mice vaccinated with the aroQ B. pertussis vaccine candidate, which were substantially enhanced upon second exposure to virulent B. pertussis. Interleukin- 12 was also produced in the aroQ B. pertussis-vaccinated mice. On the other hand, neither IgG2a nor CMI-indicator cytokines were produced in DTaP-vaccinated mice, although the CMI-indicator cytokines became detectable post-challenge with virulent B. pertussis. Intranasal immunization with one dose of the aroQ B. pertussis mutant protected vaccinated mice against an intranasal challenge infection, with no pathogen being detected in the lungs of immunized mice by day 7 post-challenge. B. pertussis aroQ thus constitutes a safe, non-reverting, metabolite-deficient vaccine candidate that induces both humoral and cellmediated immune responses with potential for use as a single-dose vaccine in adolescents and adults, in the first instance, with a view to disrupting the transmission cycle of whooping cough to infants and the community.

  4. Evaluating the Readability of Radio Frequency Identification for Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghan Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, which was originally introduced to improve material handling and speed production as part of supply chain management, has become a globally accepted technology that is now applied on many construction sites to facilitate real-time information visibility and traceability. This paper describes a senior undergraduate project for a Construction Management (CM program that was specifically designed to give the students a greater insight into technical research in the CM area. The students were asked to determine whether it would be possible to utilize an RFID system capable of tracking tagged equipment, personnel and materials across an entire construction site. This project required them to set up an experimental program, execute a series of experiments, analyze the results and summarize them in a report. The readability test was performed using an active Ultra-High frequency (UHF, 433.92 MHz RFID system with various construction materials, including metal, concrete, wood, plastic, and aluminum. The readability distance distances are measured for each of the six scenarios. The distance at which a tag was readable with no obstructions was found to be an average of 133.9m based on three measurements, with a standard deviation of 3.9m. This result confirms the manufacturer’s claimed distance of 137.2m. The RFID tag embedded under 50.8mm of concrete was readable for an average distance of only 12.2m, the shortest readable distance of any of the scenarios tested. At the end of the semester, faculty advisors held an open discussion session to gather feedback and elicit the students’ reflections on their research experiences, revealing that the students’ overall impressions of their undergraduate research had positively affected their postgraduate education plans.

  5. Constructing Ontology for Knowledge Sharing of Materials Failure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials failure indicates the fault with materials or components during their performance. To avoid the reoccurrence of similar failures, materials failure analysis is executed to investigate the reasons for the failure and to propose improved strategies. The whole procedure needs sufficient domain knowledge and also produces valuable new knowledge. However, the information about the materials failure analysis is usually retained by the domain expert, and its sharing is technically difficult. This phenomenon may seriously reduce the efficiency and decrease the veracity of the failure analysis. To solve this problem, this paper adopts ontology, a novel technology from the Semantic Web, as a tool for knowledge representation and sharing and describes the construction of the ontology to obtain information concerning the failure analysis, application area, materials, and failure cases. The ontology represented information is machine-understandable and can be easily shared through the Internet. At the same time, failure case intelligent retrieval, advanced statistics, and even automatic reasoning can be accomplished based on ontology represented knowledge. Obviously this can promote the knowledge sharing of materials service safety and improve the efficiency of failure analysis. The case of a nuclear power plant area is presented to show the details and benefits of this method.

  6. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  7. Evaluation of candidate alloys for the construction of metal flex hoses in the STS launch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1988-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Shuttle launch site use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the flex hoses, which were made of 304L stainless steel. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. This study focused on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, long term exposure at the beach corrosion testing site, and pitting corrosion tests in ferric chloride solution. Based on the results of these tests, the most corrosion resistant alloys were found to be (in order) Hastelloy C-22, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, and Inco Alloy G-3. Of these top five alloys, the Hastelloy C-22 stands out as being the best of those tested for this application.

  8. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, nu). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  9. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  10. Characterization of porous construction materials using electromagnetic radar wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wallace Wai Lok

    This thesis reports the effort of characterizing three porous construction materials (i.e. concrete, asphalt and soils) and the establishment and formulation of novel unified constitutive models by utilizing electromagnetic (EM) radar wave. An important outcome of this research is that the studied materials were assigned successfully into their rightful positions corresponding to the different regimes governed by three EM wave properties and two engineering/geological properties of the materials. The former refers to the real part of complex dielectric permittivity (epsilon'), energy attenuation and peak-frequency drift. The latter refers to porosity and permeability determined with forward models or conventional testing techniques. In soil and asphalt, the material characterization was achieved by a novel inhouse developed method called Cyclic Moisture Variation Technique (CMVT). The technique is termed cyclic because the porous materials were subjected to change from partially saturated states to fully saturated state (i.e. permeation), and vice versa (i.e. de-watering). With CMVT, water was used as an enhancer or a tracer to differentiate the studied materials which are otherwise difficult when they are dry. Soils and asphalt with different textures were characterized by different curve families exhibited in the relationship between epsilon' and degrees of water saturation (SW). In particular, these curve families were divided into three regions: slow-climbing region in very low SW, fast-climbing region in intermediate SW and another slow-climbing region at high S W. When data obtained from the permeation and de-watering cycles was compared, dielectric hysteresis was observed, but rarely reported in the field of ground penetrating radar (GPR). Different curing histories affect both porosity and pore size distribution within mature concrete. By injecting pressurized water into concrete specimens, different concrete curing histories was back-tracked through the

  11. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy......Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...

  12. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, nu). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  13. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis....... Tantalum showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media. On the contrary, passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 degrees C....

  14. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  15. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  16. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species.

  17. Recycling Of Concrete Waste Material from Construction Demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyewalehinmi E.O1 and Adeoye T.E2

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the engineering properties of demolished concrete aggregates wastes along Arakale Road, Akure. The purpose is to recycle and reduce the amount of construction wastes materials going into landfills and dumping pits. The study identifies about 15% to 20% of construction waste materials go into landfill and dumping pits in Akure. Four different mixes at 0.5, 0.55, 0.60 and 0.65 water/cement ratios were performed and a total of 96 (48 each concrete cube samples were cast, cured and crushed. The results showed that at lower percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 were much lower than virgin aggregates (16.89N/mm2 , 19.93N/mm2 while at higher percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 was almost the same as Virgin aggregates (18.07, 18.37. It shows that the used aggregates can attain the same compressive strength as virgin aggregates at higher water/cement ratios

  18. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  19. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  20. Construction of a Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: status of the optical system

    CERN Document Server

    Rousselle, J; Cameron, R; Connaughton, V; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Humensky, T B; Jenke, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; Okumura, A; Petrashyk, A; Vassiliev, V

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the status of procurement of the optical system of the prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT), for which construction is scheduled to begin in fall at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA. The Schwarzschild-Couder telescope is a candidate for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, which utilizes imaging atmospheric Cherenkov techniques to observe gamma rays in the energy range of 60Gev-60TeV. The pSCT novel aplanatic optical system is made of two segmented aspheric mirrors. The primary mirror has 48 mirror panels with an aperture of 9.6 m, while the secondary, made of 24 panels, has an diameter of 5.4 m. The resulting point spread function (PSF) is required to be better than 4 arcmin within a field of view of 6.4 degrees (80% of the field of view), which corresponds to a physical size of 6.4 mm on the focal plane. This goal represents a challenge for the inexpensive fabrication of aspheric mirror panels and for the precise ali...

  1. Construction of SMART cDNA Library of Sheep Ovary and Identification of Candidate Gene by Homologous Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cDNA library of an ovary from Small Tail Han sheep before estrus was constructed by switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript (SMART) approach. This library had a plaque titer of 1 × 109pfu mL-1 and a 96% recombinant ratio of which the fragment length of inserted average eDNA sequences was 1.0 kb. Based on bioinformatics analysis of the sequences, we obtained 338 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 380 cDNA clones which indicated 191 contigs. These contigs consist of 89 unmatched ESTs, 9 homologous known genes in sheep, and 93 homologous sequences in species of mouse, bovine, and human beings, including 19 sequences expressed in the ovary or follicle and 14 unknown sequences.Several candidate genes associated with sheep reproduction trait such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), estrogen receptor (ESR), Inhibin, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), prostaglandin (PG), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were identified and the homologous were cloned from this library, which will contribute to compile expression profies and find the major genes of prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep.

  2. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  3. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... procedure for determining the equilibrium moisture content of samples during the experiment. The method (refered to as the balance method) is to simply keep track of all water entering and leaving the system and use these data to estimate the moisture content of the samples. The advantage of this approach...... is that the experiment does not need to be stopped and restarted for each relative humidity level tested. The main disadvantage of the method is that the estimation of the moisture content in the samples depends on a correct estimation of the moisture content of the ceramic disc. The second adjustment is the development...

  4. Interspecific variation in beeswax as a biological construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R; Otis, Gard

    2006-10-01

    Beeswax is a multicomponent material used by bees in the genus Apis to house larvae and store honey and pollen. We characterized the mechanical properties of waxes from four honeybee species: Apis mellifera L., Apis andreniformis L., Apis dorsata L. and two subspecies of Apis cerana L. In order to isolate the material effects from the architectural properties of nest comb, we formed raw wax in to right, circular cylindrical samples, and compressed them in an electromechanical tensometer. From the resulting stress-strain curves, values for yield stress, yield strain, stress and strain at the proportional limit, stiffness, and resilience were obtained. Apis dorsata wax was stiffer and had a higher yield stress and stress at the proportional limit than all of the other waxes. The waxes of A. cerana and A. mellifera had intermediate strength and stiffness, and A. andreniformis wax was the least strong, stiff and resilient. All of the waxes had similar strain values at the proportional limit and yield point. The observed differences in wax mechanical properties correlate with the nesting ecology of these species. A. mellifera and A. cerana nest in cavities that protect the nest from environmental stresses, whereas the species with the strongest and stiffest wax, A. dorsata, constructs relatively heavy nests attached to branches of tall trees, exposing them to substantially greater mechanical forces. The wax of A. andreniformis was the least strong, stiff and resilient, and their nests have low masses relative to other species in the genus and, although not built in cavities, are constructed on lower, often shielded branches that can absorb the forces of wind and rain.

  5. Toward self-constructing materials: a systems chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2012-12-18

    To design the next generation of so-called "smart" materials, researchers will need to develop chemical systems that respond, adapt, and multitask. Because many of these features occur in living systems, we expect that such advanced artificial systems will be inspired by nature. In particular, these new materials should ultimately combine three key properties of life: metabolism, mutation, and self-replication. In this Account, we discuss our endeavors toward the design of such advanced functional materials. First, we focus on dynamic molecular libraries. These molecular and supramolecular chemical systems are based on mixtures of reversibly interacting molecules that are coupled within networks of thermodynamic equilibria. We will explain how the superimposition of combinatorial networks at different length scales of structural organization can provide valuable hierarchical dynamics for producing complex functional systems. In particular, our experimental results highlight why these libraries are of interest for the design of responsive materials and how their functional properties can be modulated by various chemical and physical stimuli. Then, we introduce examples in which these dynamic combinatorial systems can be coupled to kinetic feedback loops to produce self-replicating pathways that amplify a selected component from the equilibrated libraries. Finally, we discuss the discovery of highly functional self-replicating supramolecular assemblies that can transfer an electric signal in space and time. We show how these wires can be directly incorporated within an electronic nanocircuit by self-organization and functional feedback loops. Because the network topologies act as complex algorithms to process information, we present these systems in this order to provide context for their potential for extending the current generation of responsive materials. We propose a general description for a potential autonomous (self-constructing) material. Such a system

  6. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  7. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  8. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete.

  9. Adaptable Holders for Arc-Jet Screening Candidate Thermal Protection System Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Joe; Milhoan, Jim D.

    2010-01-01

    Reusable holders have been devised for evaluating high-temperature, plasma-resistant re-entry materials, especially fabrics. Typical material samples tested support thermal-protection-system damage repair requiring evaluation prior to re-entry into terrestrial atmosphere. These tests allow evaluation of each material to withstand the most severe predicted re-entry conditions.

  10. Development of a Equipment to Measure Gas Transport Properties: Application to Study Mixtures of Candidates Buffer Materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.L.; Barcala, J.M.; Oller, J.C.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the design, the construction and a testing of a system set-up for the measurement of gas transport, created at CIEMAT, and its application to study mixtures of candidate buffer materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repertories. The measure of the gas flows is carried on by mass flow meters of several ranges, white the pressure of the applied within the sample is controlled. Two National l Instrument's acquisition system that permits the control and recording of the parameters. A specific application developed for this test, with National Instruments LabWIEW DSC, permits to mange the system. A client interface lets to follow the experiment course from a remote location through Internet. (Author) 21 refs.

  11. Search for circum-planetary material and orbital period variations of short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Z.; Zhou, G.; Budaj, J.; Stellingwerf, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A unique short-period ({P = 0.65356(1)} d) Mercury-size Kepler exoplanet candidate KIC012557548b has been discovered recently by {Rappaport et al. (2012)}. This object is a transiting disintegrating exoplanet with a circum-planetary material-comet-like tail. Close-in exoplanets, like KIC012557548b, are subjected to the greatest planet-star interactions. This interaction may have various forms. In certain cases it may cause formation of the comet-like tail. Strong interaction with the host star, and/or presence of an additional planet may lead to variations in the orbital period of the planet. Our main aim is to search for comet-like tails similar to KIC012557548b and for long-term orbital period variations. We are curious about frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates. We concentrate on a sample of 20 close-in candidates with a period similar to KIC012557548b from the Kepler mission. We first improved the preliminary orbital periods and obtained the transit light curves. Subsequently we searched for the signatures of a circum-planetary material in these light curves. For this purpose the final transit light curve of each planet was fitted with a theoretical light curve, and the residuals were examined for abnormalities. We then searched for possible long-term changes of the orbital periods using the method of phase dispersion minimization. In 8 cases out of 20 we found some interesting peculiarities, but none of the exoplanet candidates showed signs of a comet-like tail. It seems that the frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates is very low. We searched for comet-like tails based on the period criterion. Based on our results we can conclude that the short-period criterion is not enough to cause comet-like tail formation. This result is in agreement with the theory of the thermal wind and planet evaporation (Perez-Becker & Chiang 2013). We also found 3 cases of candidates which

  12. Thermal Analysis and Testing of Candidate Materials for PAIDAE Inflatable Aeroshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Liles, Kaitlin A.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The Program to Advance Inflatable-Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is a NASA project tasked with developing and evaluating viable inflatable-decelerator aeroshell geometries and materials. Thermal analysis of material layups supporting an inflatable aeroshell was completed in order to identify expected material response, failure times, and to establish an experimental test matrix to keep barrier layer materials from reaching critical temperature limits during thermal soak. Material layups were then tested in the 8- foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT), where they were subjected to hypersonic aerothermal heating conditions, similar to those expected for a Mars entry. This paper presents a broad overview of the thermal analysis supporting multiple materials, and layup configurations tested in the 8'HTT at flight conditions similar to those that would be experienced during Mars entry trajectories. Direct comparison of TPS samples tested in the 8'HTT verify that the thermal model accurately predicted temperature profiles when there are up to four materials in the test layup. As the number of material layers in each test layup increase (greater than 4), the accuracy of the prediction decreases significantly. The inaccuracy of the model predictions for layups with more than four material layers is believed to be a result of the contact resistance values used throughout the model being inaccurate. In addition, the harsh environment of the 8'HTT, including hot gas penetrating through the material layers, could also be a contributing factor.

  13. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loading) 1.0 (iv) The dam, foundation, and abutments shall be stable under all conditions of construction...) of this section and for all increments of construction. (v) Seepage through the dam, foundation, and...) constructed of waste materials, in accordance with the requirements of this section. (b) Construction of...

  14. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  15. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  16. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY14 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory corrosion testing of candidate alloys—including Zr-4 and Zr-2.5Nb representing the target solution vessel, and 316L, 2304, 304L, and 17-4 PH stainless steels representing process piping and balance-of-plant components—was performed in support of the proposed SHINE process to produce 99Mo from low-enriched uranium. The test solutions used depleted uranyl sulfate in various concentrations and incorporated a range of temperatures, excess sulfuric acid concentrations, nitric acid additions (to simulate radiolysis product generation), and iodine additions. Testing involved static immersion of coupons in solution and in the vapor above the solution, and was extended to include planned-interval tests to examine details associated with stainless steel corrosion in environments containing iodine species. A large number of galvanic tests featuring couples between a stainless steel and a zirconium-based alloy were performed, and limited vibratory horn testing was incorporated to explore potential erosion/corrosion features of compatibility. In all cases, corrosion of the zirconium alloys was observed to be minimal, with corrosion rates based on weight loss calculated to be less than 0.1 mil/year with no change in surface roughness. The resulting passive film appeared to be ZrO2 with variations in thickness that influence apparent coloration (toward light brown for thicker films). Galvanic coupling with various stainless steels in selected exposures had no discernable effect on appearance, surface roughness, or corrosion rate. Erosion/corrosion behavior was the same for zirconium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions and in sodium sulfate solutions adjusted to a similar pH, suggesting there was no negative effect of uranium resulting from fluid dynamic conditions aggressive to the passive film. Corrosion of the candidate stainless steels was similarly modest across the entire range of exposures. However, some sensitivity to corrosion of the stainless steels was

  17. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials FY 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Xie, YuLong; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Campbell, Luke W.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    This annual report presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Dr. Fei Gao. This project is divided into three tasks, namely (1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; (2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and (3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonlinearity, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the findings and insights obtained in each of these three tasks are provided in this report. Additionally, papers published this fiscal year or currently in review are included in Appendix together with presentations given this fiscal year.

  18. Search for a circum-planetary material and orbital period variations of short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Z; Budaj, J; Stellingwerf, R F

    2014-01-01

    A unique short-period Mercury-size Kepler exoplanet candidate KIC012557548b has been discovered recently by Rappaport et al. (2012). This object is a transiting disintegrating exoplanet with a circum-planetary material - comet-like tail. Close-in exoplanets, like KIC012557548b, are subjected to the greatest planet-star interactions. This interaction may have various forms. In certain cases it may cause formation of the comet-like tail. Strong interaction with the host star, and/or presence of an additional planet may lead to variations in the orbital period of the planet. Our main aim is to search for comet-like tails similar to KIC012557548b and for long-term orbital period variations. We are curious about frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates. We concentrate on a sample of 20 close-in candidates with a period similar to KIC012557548b from the Kepler mission.

  19. Leaching characteristics of construction materials and stabilization products containing waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; De Groot, G.J.; Wijkstra, J.

    1987-06-01

    Construction materials prepared with an admixture of waste material(s) and various stabilized waste products have been subjected to leaching studies. Static and dynamic leach tests are applied, in which the specimen to be studied is fully submerged in demineralized water or in seawater. At increasing time intervals the contact solution is renewed and the flux of elements into solution is measured. By studying a wide range of products containing waste materials attempts have been made to find common leaching characteristics. Materials studied to date comprise mortar specimen with a 20% cement replacement by pulverized coal ash, phosphate slag, light weight concrete with 50% of pulverized coal ash, stabilized phosphogypsum and stabilized products prepared from combinations of pulverized coal ash, phosphogypsum, incinerator ash, blast furnace slag, lime or cement. The alkalinity of the material, the open porosity of the product and the surface to volume ratio prove to be important factors in controlling the release of potential hazardous elements from materials containing waste products. In these studies leach parameters on (trace) elements are related to those of sodium. Since the interaction of sodium with the solid phase is usually small, sodium can be used as an indicator for the tortuosity of the product. Elements leached from cement-based waste products are mainly anionic species, like Mo, B, V, F and SO/sub 4/-ions, whereas leaching of metals, like Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb, is limited due to the high pH in the pore solution. The leaching experiments have been verified by scanning electron microscopy for major components on field samples and by measuring depth profiles in waste products for trace constituents using apparatus developed for this purpose.

  20. The electrical conductivities of candidate beam-waveguide antenna shroud materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The shroud on the beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna at DSS 13 is made from highly magnetic American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A36 steel. Measurements at 8.42 GHz showed that this material (with paint) has a very poor electrical conductivity that is 600 times worse than aluminum. In cases where the BWG mirrors might be slightly misaligned, unintentional illumination and poor electrical conductivity of the shroud walls can cause system noise temperature to be increased significantly. This potential increase of noise temperature contribution can be reduced through the use of better conductivity materials for the shroud walls. An alternative is to attempt to improve the conductivity of the currently used ASTM A36 steel by means of some type of plating, surface treatment, or high-conductivity paints. This article presents the results of a study made to find improved materials for future shrouds and mirror supports.

  1. Report on Reactor Physics Assessment of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, Nathan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Maldonado, G. Ivan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-28

    This work focuses on ATF concepts being researched at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), expanding on previous studies of using alternate cladding materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The neutronic performance of two leading alternate cladding materials were assessed in boiling water reactors (BWRs): iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) cladding, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based composite cladding. This report fulfills ORNL Milestone M3FT-15OR0202332 within the fiscal year 2015 (FY15)

  2. Nitrogen nutrition of the sedge Cyperus laevigatus-A candidate species for use in constructed wetlands in hot and dry regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwpuan, Narumol; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    growing in brackish wetlands and on wet alkaline and mineral-rich soils. Hence, this species may be a candidate species for use in constructed wetland systems in hot and dry regions. We studied the nitrogen nutrition of C. laevigatus in order to determine if the plant prefers NO3- over NH4+, which could...... be expected based on the species’ natural distribution on alkaline and mineral-rich soils. A preference for NO3- over NH4+ would suggest that the species is less suitable for use in constructed wetland systems because the predominant form of nitrogen in waste water is NH4+. The growth, N-uptake kinetics...

  3. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  4. Relativistic electron gas: A candidate for nature's left-handed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities for a relativistic electron gas are calculated from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature and density as functions of temperature, chemical potential, frequency, and wave vector. The polarization and the magnetization depend linearly on both electric and magnetic fields, and are the sum of a zero-temperature and zero-density vacuum part with a temperature- and chemical-potential-dependent medium part. Analytic calculations lead to generalized expressions that depend on three scalar functions. In the nonrelativistic limit, results reproduce the Lindhard formula. In the relativistic case, and in the long wavelength limit, we obtain the following: (i) for ω =0 , generalized susceptibilities that reduce to known nonrelativistic limits; (ii) for ω ≠0 , Drude-type responses at zero temperature. The latter implies that both the electric permittivity ɛ and the magnetic permeability μ may be simultaneously negative, a behavior characteristic of metamaterials. This unambiguously indicates that the relativistic electron gas is one of nature's candidates for the realization of a negative index of refraction system. Moreover, Maxwell's equations in the medium yield the dispersion relation and the index of refraction of the electron gas. Present results should be relevant for plasma physics, astrophysical observations, synchrotrons, and other environments with fast-moving electrons.

  5. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials: FY 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.

    2014-10-01

    This annual reports presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project is divided into three tasks: 1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; 2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and 3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonproportionality, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the three tasks is provided in this Annual Report. Furthermore, peer-reviewed articles published this FY or currently under review and presentations given this FY are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Modular construction of quaternary hemiaminal-based inhibitor candidates and their in cellulo assessment with HIV-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Guillaume; Martinez, Lorena; Gimenez, Anna Servat; Adler, Paula; Maurin, Philippe; Wolkowicz, Roland; Falson, Pierre; Hasserodt, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Non-peptidomimetic drug-like protease inhibitors have potential for circumventing drug resistance. We developed a much-improved synthetic route to our previously reported inhibitor candidate displaying an unusual quaternized hemi-aminal. This functional group forms from a linear precursor upon passage into physiological media. Seven variants were prepared and tested in cellulo with our HIV-1 fusion-protein technology that result in an eGFP-based fluorescent readout. Three candidates showed inhibition potency above 20μM and toxicity at higher concentrations, making them attractive targets for further refinement. Importantly, our class of original inhibitor candidates is not recognized by two major multidrug resistance pumps, quite in contrast to most clinically applied HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  7. Dimensional-stability studies of candidate space-telescope mirror-substrate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, J. M.; Platt, R. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of aging, vacuum exposure, and thermal cycling on the dimensional stability of mirror-substrate materials, fused silica, Cer-Vit, Kanigen-coated beryllium, polycrystalline silicon, and U.L.E. fused silica were investigated. A multiple-beam interferometer was used to determine nonrecoverable surface-shape changes of the 12.7-cm-diameter mirrors with substrates of these materials. Thermal cycling and aging in vacuum produced the largest changes, but only a few were as large as 1/30 wavelength, where the wavelength was 632.8 nm.

  8. Wear Test Results of Candidate Materials for the OK-542 Towed Array Handling Machine Level Winder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-29

    while extremely resistant to corrosion , is very strong mechanically and is readily available in bar form from local suppliers. Figure 32...Stainless Steel, Inconel 625, Nickel-Aluminum-Bronze, and Titanium. The specialty materials: Inconel 625, Monel, Stainless and Stellite , were clad-welded...C71500 Cu-Ni Wheel/Clad Stainless ............................................ 14 13. Clad Stellite

  9. A new candidate as the cathode material for intermediate and low temperature SOFCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; SUN Xueli; WEN Zhongsheng; SUN Juncai

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop the new cathode materials suitable for intermediate and low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT/LTSOFCs), LaNi1-xFexO3(x=0.4-0.8) (LNF) materials were synthesized using coprecipitation method. Their structures and morphologies were investigated by XRD and SEM, and their electronic conductivities at different temperatures were measured by dc four terminal method. Fuel cells were fabricated to evaluate the electrochemical properties of the LNF materials as cathodes at different temperatures. The performance of 450-497 mW·cm-2 was obtained in the temperature region of 580-650 ℃ for the LaNi0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode, and of 209-227 mW·cm-2 at 400-500 ℃ for the LaNi0.4Fe0.6O3. The excellent fuel cell performances indicate that the LNF materials are good cathodes for IT/LTSOFCs.

  10. Reuse of materials and byproducts in construction waste minimization and recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the reuse of materials and byproducts in the construction industry. It investigates the main building materials and their use. The book also offers an overview of new green design guides that will encourage best practice.

  11. 46 CFR 162.017-3 - Materials, construction, and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., locknuts, or other acceptable means. (r) Pressure-vacuum relief valves constructed in accordance with ISO 15364 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 162.017-1) meet the requirements of this subpart....

  12. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  13. Retention, isotope exchange, and thermal release of hydrogen in candidate materials for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, W. R.; Doyle, B. L.; Brice, D. K.; Picraux, S. T.

    1980-08-01

    The materials studied included TiC, TiB/sub 2/, VB/sub 2/, B/sub 4/C, B, Si, graphite, and the metals Ti, V, and 304L stainless steel. The TiC and TiB/sub 2/ were formed by chemical vapor deposition on a graphite substrate. The C/Ti ratio of the TiC was measured to be 1.0 +- .05 by ion backscattering analysis. The Ti and V were explosively bonded to copper substrates, and the VB/sub 2/ was made by borodizing vanadium. Carbon (compression annealed pyrolytic graphite from Union Carbide and Papyex graphite ribbon from Le Carbone) and single crystal silicon samples were included in the study as reference materials. The hydrogen retention and isotope exchange behavior for these materials were studied by measuring the amount of H or D retained as a function of incident fluence using the D(/sup 3/He,P)/sup 4/He nuclear reaction analysis techniques for D and H(/sup 15/N,..cap alpha gamma..) profiling for H.

  14. Polysaccharide Fabrication Platforms and Biocompatibility Assessment as Candidate Wound Dressing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Aduba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound dressings are critical for wound care because they provide a physical barrier between the injury site and outside environment, preventing further damage or infection. Wound dressings also manage and even encourage the wound healing process for proper recovery. Polysaccharide biopolymers are slowly becoming popular as modern wound dressings materials because they are naturally derived, highly abundant, inexpensive, absorbent, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. Polysaccharide biopolymers have also been processed into biomimetic platforms that offer a bioactive component in wound dressings that aid the healing process. This review primarily focuses on the fabrication and biocompatibility assessment of polysaccharide materials. Specifically, fabrication platforms such as electrospun fibers and hydrogels, their fabrication considerations and popular polysaccharides such as chitosan, alginate, and hyaluronic acid among emerging options such as arabinoxylan are discussed. A survey of biocompatibility and bioactive molecule release studies, leveraging polysaccharide’s naturally derived properties, is highlighted in the text, while challenges and future directions for wound dressing development using emerging fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting are outlined in the conclusion. This paper aims to encourage further investigation and open up new, disruptive avenues for polysaccharides in wound dressing material development.

  15. Optimization on electrochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 as candidate catalytic material for Green diesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. W.; Nugraha, R. E.; Winarni, I. D.; Adreane, M.; Rahmawati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the effort to support the discovery of new renewable energy sources in Indonesia, biofuel is one of promising options. The conversion of vegetable oil into ready-biofuel, especially green diesel, needs several steps, one of which is a hydrogenation or hydro-deoxygenation reaction. In this case, the catalyst plays a very important role regarding to its activity and selectivity, and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) becoming a new generation of heterogeneous catalyst in this area. In this research, a preliminary study to optimize electrochemical synthesis of the catalytic material based on MOFs, namely HKUST-1 [Cu3(BTC)2], has been conducted. Some electrochemical reaction parameters were tested, for example by modifying the electrochemical synthetic conditions, i.e. by performing variation of voltages (12, 13, 14, and 15 Volt), temperatures (RT, 40, 60, and 80 °C) and solvents (ethanol, water, methanol and dimethyl-formamide (DMF)). Material characterization was carried out by XRD, SEM, FTIR, DTA/TG and SAA. The results showed that the optimum synthetic conditions of HKUST-1 are performed at room temperature in a solvent combination of water: ethanol (1: 1) and a voltage of 15 Volt for 2 hours. The XRD-analysis revealed that the resulted peaks are identical to the simulated powder pattern generated from single crystal data and comparable to the peaks of solvothermal method. However, the porosity of the resulting material through electrochemical method is still in the range of micro-pore according to IUPAC and 50% smaller than the porosity resulted from solvothermal synthesis. The corresponding compounds are thermally stable until 300 °C according to TG/DTA.

  16. Angular Scattering Reflectance and Polarization Measurements of Candidate Regolith Materials Measured in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark D.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Vandervoort, Kurt; Vides, Christina L.

    2016-10-01

    The reflectance and polarization of light reflected from a solar system object indicates the chemical and textural state of the regolith. Remote sensing data are compared to laboratory angular scattering measurements and surface properties are determined.We use a Goniometric Photopolarimeter (GPP) to make angular reflectance and polarization measurements of particulate materials that simulate planetary regoliths. The GPP employs the Helmholtz Reciprocity Principle ( 2, 1) - the incident light is linearly polarized - the intensity of the reflected component is measured. The light encounters fewer optical surfaces improving signal to noise. The lab data are physically equivalent to the astronomical data.Our reflectance and polarization phase curves of highly reflective, fine grained, media simulate the regolith of Jupiter's satellite Europa. Our lab data exhibit polarization phase curves that are very similar to reports by experienced astronomers (4). Our previous reflectance phase curve data of the same materials agree with the same astronomical observers (5). We find these materials exhibit an increase in circular polarization ratio with decreasing phase angle (3). This suggests coherent backscattering (CB) of photons in the regolith (3). Shkuratov et al.(3) report that the polarization properties of these particulate media are also consistent with the CB enhancement process (5). Our results replicate the astronomical data indicating Europa's regolith is fine-grained, high porous with void space exceeding 90%.1. Hapke, B. W. (2012). ISBN 978-0-521-88349-82. Minnaert, M. (1941).Asrophys. J., 93, 403-410.3. Nelson, R. M. et al. (1998). Icarus, 131, 223-230.4. Rosenbush, V. et al. (2015). ISBN 978-1-107-04390-9, pp 340-359.5. Shkuratov, Yu. et al. (2002) Icarus 159, 396-416.

  17. New π-Conjugated Materials Based on Furylenevinylene Candidate for Organic Solar Cells Application: A DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Alamy Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific properties of organic-conjugated molecules and polymers are of great importance since they have become the most promising materials for the optoelectronic device technology such as solar cells. The use of low band gap materials is a viable method for better harvesting of the solar spectrum and increasing its efficiency. The control of the parameters of these materials is a research issue of ongoing interest. In this work, a quantum chemical investigation was performed to explore the optical and electronic properties of a series of different compounds based on furylenevinylene. Different electron side groups were introduced to investigate their effects on the electronic structure. The theoretical knowledge of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels of the components is basic in studying organic solar cells; so the HOMO, LUMO, Gap energy and open circuit voltage (Voc of the studied compounds have been calculated and reported. These properties suggest that these materials behave as good candidate for organic solar cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.763 

  18. B4CN3 and B3CN4 monolayers as the promising candidates for metal-free spintronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongzhe; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Tang, Nujiang; Du, Youwei

    2016-09-01

    The search for candidates of spintronic materials, especially among the two-dimensional (2D) materials, has attracted tremendous attentions over the past decades. By using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations, two kinds of boron carbonitride monolayer structures (B4CN3 and B3CN4) are proposed and confirmed to be dynamically and kinetically stable. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that the magnetic ground states of the two B x C y N z systems are ferromagnetic ordering with a high Curie temperature of respectively 337 K for B4CN3 and 309 K for B3CN4. Furthermore, based on their respective band structures, the B4CN3 is found to be a bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), while the B3CN4 is identified to be a type of spin gapless semiconductor (SGS), both of which are potential spintronic materials. In particular, carrier doping in the B4CN3 can induce a transition from BMS to half-metal, and its spin polarization direction is switchable depending on the doped carrier type. The BMS property of B4CN3 is very robust under an external strain or even a strong electric field. By contrast, as a SGS, the electronic structure of B3CN4 is relatively sensitive to external influences. Our findings successfully disclose two promising materials toward 2D metal-free spintronic applications.

  19. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  20. Global blending optimization of laminated composites with discrete material candidate selection and thickness variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren N.; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    but is, however, convex in the original mixed binary nested form. Convexity is the foremost important property of optimization problems, and the proposed method can guarantee the global or near-global optimal solution; unlike most topology optimization methods. The material selection is limited...... rate. The capabilities of the method and the effect of active versus inactive manufacturing constraints are demonstrated on several numerical examples of limited size, involving at most 320 binary variables. Most examples are solved to guaranteed global optimality and may constitute benchmark examples...

  1. Conducting Graphite/Cellulose Composite Film as a Candidate for Chemical Vapor-Sensing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihua Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A type of conductive graphite/cellulose composite film used for chemical vapor-sensing material was prepared at room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl. Graphite was pretreated with both oxidation and reduction processes. Due to the use of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI, as a covalent cross-linking agent in [BMIm]Cl, there were limited chemical bonds between the graphite and cellulose. The composite film was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD. When these conducting films were exposed to certain organic vapors, their electrical resistances quickly changed, showing gas sensitivity. The percolation threshold of the conducting film was about 5 wt%. The gas-sensing behavior of these films in solvent were the opposite of those gas-sensing materials based on a non-polar polymer matrix. A typical negative vapor coefficient (NVC was observed when the film was placed in polar organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone.

  2. Moisture-cured silicone-urethanes-candidate materials for tissue engineering: a biocompatibility study in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrówka, P; Kozakiewicz, J; Jurkowska, A; Sienkiewicz, E; Przybylski, J; Lewandowski, Z; Przybylski, J; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to verify the response of human bone-derived cells (HBDCs) to moisture-cured silicone-urethanes (mcSUUs) in vitro, as the first step toward using them as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Good surgical handling, tissue cavity filling, stable mechanical properties, and potentially improved oxygen supply to cells after implantation justify the investigation of these nondegradable elastomers. A set of various mcSUUs were obtained by moisture-curing NCO-terminated prepolymers, synthesized from oligomeric siloxane diols of two different oligosiloxane chain lengths, and two different diisocyanates (MDI and IPDI), using two different NCO/OH molar ratios. Dibutyltindilaurate (DBTL) or N-dimethylethanolamine (N-met) served as catalysts. After 7 days of culture, cell number, viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were determined, and after 21 days, cell viability and collagen production were determined. Material characteristics significantly influenced the cell response. The mcSUUs prepared with DBTL (widely used in the syntheses of biomaterials) were cytotoxic. The MDI-based mcSUUs were significantly more favored by HBDCs than the IPDI-based ones in all performed tests. MDI-based material with low 2/1 NCO/OH and short chain length was the best support for cells, comparable with tissue-culture polystyrene (with ALP activity even higher). HBDCs cultured on porous scaffolds from this mcSUU produced a tissue-like structure in culture. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  3. Lightweight ZERODUR®: A Candidate Material for Affordable Future UVOIR Space Telescopes of All Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Westerhoff, T.; Leys, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent Developments now make available for spaceborne applications highly lightweighted mirrors in ZERODUR®, regarded to be the “gold standard” material for thermal stability. ZERODUR® has flown on over 30 missions, including two great observatories, but not previously to this high degree of lightweighting. Now highly lightweighted mirror substrates can be made from a single billet of low expansion glass which exhibits remarkably low thermal expansion, anisotropy and inhomogeneity. This staility has the potential to simplify every aspect of a mission payload cost. A 1.2m open-back isogrid lightweighted mirror substrate has been made by SCHOTT exhibiting 88% lightweighting and a first Eigenfrequency over 200Hz. Also a recently made 0.3m isogrid lightweighted mirror exhibits ribs thinner than 0.9mm. Mirror or mirror segment substrates can be cost-effectively manufactured from monolithic blanks in apertures as small as 0.3m aperture to over 4m aperture (until recently SCHOTT maintained a line to make 8m ZERODUR® billets). We will describe this technology, the attributes of isogrid lightweighted mirror blanks, and the relevance of this material and manufacturing approach to upcoming UVOIR missions from suborbital to Explorer class to next generation Great Observatory. Lightweight ZERODUR® supports optical telescope systems requiring great stability, even in the presence of payload and scene thermal perturbations. Furthermore, mirrors or mirror segments made with the approach described can be made to remarkably short schedule, cost effectively and with little risk.

  4. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  5. A plastic micropump constructed with conventional techniques and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, P.

    1999-01-01

    A plastic micropump which can be produced using conventional production techniques and materials is presented. By applying well-known techniques and materials, economic fabrication of micropumps for various applications is feasible even at low production volumes. The micropump is capable of pumping

  6. Method for producing fabrication material for constructing micrometer-scaled machines, fabrication material for micrometer-scaled machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method for producing fabrication material for use in the construction of nanometer-scaled machines is provided whereby similar protein molecules are isolated and manipulated at predetermined residue positions so as to facilitate noncovalent interaction, but without compromising the folding configuration or native structure of the original protein biomodules. A fabrication material is also provided consisting of biomodules systematically constructed and arranged at specific solution parameters.

  7. Construction Material-Based Methodology for Military Contingency Base Construction: Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Nigerians believe that the initial feasibility work was improperly conducted. One of the main feasibility studies was conducted with the in- tent to import...Military Contingency Base Construction Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry...Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Patrick J. Guertin, George W. Calfas, Michael K. Valentino, and Ghassan K. Al-Chaar Construction Engineering

  8. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Bismuth Chalcohalides: Candidate Photovoltaic Materials with Easily, Continuously Controllable Band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioku, Hironobu; Higashi, Masanobu; Abe, Ryu

    2016-09-01

    Although bismuth chalcohalides, such as BiSI and BiSeI, have been recently attracting considerable attention as photovoltaic materials, the methods available to synthesize them are quite limited thus far. In this study, a novel, facile method to synthesize these chalcohalides, including BiSBr1-xIx solid solutions, at low temperatures was developed via the substitution of anions from O2- to S2- (or Se2-) using bismuth oxyhalide precursors. Complete phase transition was readily observed upon treatment of BiOI particles with H2S or H2Se at surprisingly low temperatures of less than 150 °C and short reaction times of less than 1 h, producing BiSI and BiSeI particles, respectively. This method was also applied for synthesizing BiSBr1-xIx, where continuous changes in their band gaps were observed depending on the ratio between iodine and bromine. The composition of all elements (except oxygen) in the chalcohalides thus produced was almost identical to that of the oxyhalide precursors, attributed to the suppressed volatilization of halogens at such low temperatures. All chalcohalides loaded on FTO clearly exhibited an anodic photocurrent in an acetonitrile solution containing I-, attributed to their n-type nature, e.g., the BiSI electrode exhibited high IPCE (64% at 700 nm, +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl).

  9. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  10. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination VIII: Identification of crystalline material in two interstellar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsforth, Zack; Brenker, Frank E.; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Schmitz, Sylvia; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Cloetens, Peter; Lemelle, Laurence; Tresserras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Solé, Vicente A.; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Westphal, Andrew J.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Changela, Hitesh; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Srama, Ralf; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; von Korff, Joshua; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction measurements, we identified crystalline material in two particles of extraterrestrial origin extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. The first particle, I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook), consisted of a mosaiced olivine grain approximately 1 µm in size with internal strain fields up to 0.3%. The unit cell dimensions were a = 4.85 ± 0.08 Å, b = 10.34 ± 0.16 Å, c = 6.08 ± 0.13 Å (2σ). The second particle, I1043,1,30 (Orion), contained an olivine grain ≈ 2 µm in length and >500 nm in width. It was polycrystalline with both mosaiced domains varying over ≈ 20° and additional unoriented domains, and contained internal strain fields Fo65 (2σ). Orion also contained abundant spinel nanocrystals of unknown composition, but unit cell dimension a = 8.06 ± 0.08 Å (2σ). Two additional crystalline phases were present and remained unidentified. An amorphous component appeared to be present in both these particles based on STXM and XRF results reported elsewhere.

  11. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  12. A composite construction material that solidifies in water

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Fukai, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    A flexible, waterproof material that will solidify in water has long been desired in civil engineering. We have developed a new class of material, called Aquaphalt, which has these and other desirable properties. Aquaphalt is composed of an asphalt emulsion, cement and a water-absorbing polymer. The components are liquid at ambient temperature and can therefore be pumped, but they form a gel almost instantly when mixed. The hardened mixture is similar to hard bitumen, and has very low water p...

  13. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc.

  14. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-03-15

    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is

  15. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  16. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  17. Characterisation of bentonites from Kutch, India and Milos, Greece - some candidate tunnel back-fill materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    During the past decades comprehensive investigations have been made on bentonite clays in order to find optimal components of the multi-barrier system of repositories for radioactive waste. The present study gives a mineralogical characterisation of some selected bentonites, in order to supply some of the necessary background data on the bentonites for evaluating their potential as tunnel back-fill materials. Two bentonites from the island of Milos, Greece (Milos BF 04 and BF 08), and two bentonites from Kutch, India (Kutch BF 04 and BF 08) were analysed for their grain size distribution, cation exchange properties and chemical composition. The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and evaluated quantitatively by use of the Siroquant software. Both the bulk bentonite and the <1mum fraction were analyzed when relevant. Prior to the chemical analyses the <1 mum fractions were converted to homo-ionic clays and purified by dialysis. The chemical data were used for calculating the structural formula of the smectites. Milos BF 04 contains ca. 10% particles >63 mum. The bentonite is distinguished by a high content of dolomite and calcite, which make up almost 25% of the bulk sample. The major accessory minerals are K-feldspars and plagioclase, whereas the content of sulphur-bearing minerals is very low (0.06% total S). Smectite makes up around 60% of the bulk sample, which has a CEC value of 73 meq/100 g. The pool of interlayer cations has a composition Mg>Ca>>Na>>K. The X-ray diffraction characteristics and the high potassium content (1.03% K{sub 2}O) of the <1 mum fraction suggest that the smectite is interstratified with ca. 10% illitic layers. Based on the charge distribution the smectite should be classified as montmorillonite and according to the structural formula, Mg predominates over Fe in the octahedral sheet. However, remnants of Mg-carbonates, if present, may be a source of error in the formula calculation. Milos BF 08 has a

  18. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions.

  19. CISBAT 2007 - Environmental impacts of construction (ecological materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the eighth part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Environmental impacts of construction the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Nanostructured coatings for active solar facades' and 'Sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrids as binders for TISS paints'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

  20. Electric characterization of construction materials through radar data inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriarca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The non-destructive evaluation with the aim of characterizing objects before or after treatment has taken place, and the monitoring of long-term performance is analyzed in this thesis. Generally, these test methods measure material properties or changes in these properties that decision makers are i

  1. Development of a Portable Sensitive Equipment Decontamination System. Volume 1: Commercial Candidates Materials Evaluation (Chemical Agent Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    construction materials for the wiping systems are given in Volume II of this report. The instruction manuals for the two wiping systems, prepared by...034d-f P&G Swifter wipes ss disks HD 010503-1 10 mg HFE-7200 Micro-Care Manual rotary J906-038a-c Polyester felt nonwoven ss disks HD 010503-1 10 mg...HFE-7200 Micro-Care Manual rotary J906-038d-f Polyester felt nonwoven ss disks HD 010503-1 10 mg HFE-7200 Micro-Care Manual rotary J906-042a-c

  2. Environmental Management of Waste Based on Road Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Koletnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the European Council adopted a revised framework for waste management in the EU, with an objective to encourage recycling and reuse of waste, in order to reduce landfills and potential environmental emissions. This framework also sets new recycling targets for construction and demolition waste by 2020, suggesting that at least 70 % of the waste should be recycled. Nigrad d.d. is a utility company providing services to several municipalities in North-East Slovenia. These services include repairs to public roads and pavements. This paper examines the origin, amount and fraction of construction waste produced, identifying current waste management practices. Based on the state-of-the art study new approaches are to be proposed, which will make it possible to decrease environmental impacts and costs, when providing public services and establishing sustainable service systems. To reach this objective a life-cycle analysis of the existing service has been carried out, which will help identify the system parts that have the most significant impact on the environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.681

  3. Photoelectron Yield and Photon Reflectivity from Candidate LHC Vacuum Chamber Materials with Implications to the Vacuum Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Gröbner, Oswald

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the photoelectron yield and photon reflectivity at grazing incidence (11 mrad) from candidate LHC vacuum chamber materials have been made on a dedicated beam line on the Electron Positron A ccumulator (EPA) ring at CERN. These measurements provide realistic input toward a better understanding of the electron cloud phenomena expected in the LHC. The measurements were made using synchrotro n radiation with critical photon energies of 194 eV and 45 eV; the latter corresponding to that of the LHC at the design energy of 7 TeV. The test materials are mainly copper, either, i) coated by co- lamination or by electroplating onto stainless steel, or ii) bulk copper prepared by special machining. The key parameters explored were the effect of surface roughness on the reflectivity and the pho toelectron yield at grazing photon incidence, and the effect of magnetic field direction on the yields measured at normal photon incidence. The implications of the results on the electron cloud phenom ena, and thus the L...

  4. Feasibility Study of Construction of Building Using Reusable Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darade M.M,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil structures made of steel reinforced concrete normally suffer from corrosion of the steel by the salt, which results in the failure of those structures. Constant maintenance and repairing is needed to enhance the life cycle of those civil structures. There are many ways to minimize the failure of the concrete structures made of steel reinforce concrete. The Project aims to optimize the construction resources with applications to reduce, reuse and recycle to achieve the motive of saving planet, public and then profit. There is an unavoidable growth in the population for this, there is demand of urbanization. This consumes high amount of non-renewable resources and hence resources are getting exhausted creating a scarcity, which a major issue for present generation.

  5. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  6. The dose from radioactivity of covering construction materials in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor dose due to the radiation of ceramic and granite tiles, marble, granite and travertine plates, as well as some components of covering materials, produced in Serbia or imported from other countries, was estimated in the work. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured by the standard gamma-spectrometry system. The lowest content of the radionuclides was found in white marble (ARa = 2 Bq/kg, ATh < 2 Bq/kg, and AK < 3 Bq/kg, while the highest activities were in some granite samples (Balmoral red: ARa = 200 Bq/kg, ATh = 378 Bq/kg, and AK = 1679, and Madura Gold: ARa = 273 Bq/kg, ATh = 20 Bq/kg, and AK = 1456 Bq/kg. The indoor absorbed dose rate in air due to the gamma radiation from covering materials was determined based on the specific absorbed dose rate computed in this work. Concentration of 222Rn that emanated into the indoor space was also calculated from the known 226Ra content. The radiation hazard estimated from the usage of each sample was expressed through the evaluated effective dose. Almost all samples, except one, fulfil the dosimetric criterion for safe use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. 171021 i br. 171025

  7. COMPATIBILITY OF NAPLS AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH MATERIALS UED IN WELL CONSTRUCTION, SAMPLING, AND REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural integrity of well construction, sampling, and remediation materials may be compromised at many hazardous sites by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and their dissolved constituents. A literature review of compatibility theory and qualitative field experiences are provid...

  8. Heat and moisture transport in durian fiber based lightweight construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenvai, S.; Khedari, J.; Hirunlabh, J.; Asasutjarit, C. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology, Building Scientific Research Center, Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Zeghmati, B. [Perpignan Univ., Centre d' Etudes Fondamentales, Groupe de Mecanique, Acoustique et Instrumentation, Perpignan, 66 (France); Quenard, D.; Pratintong, N. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), Grenoble (France)

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents result on heat and moisture transport in durian (Durio zibethinus) fiber based lightweight construction materials composed of cement, sand and waste fiber from durian peel and the performance of the material was simulated with the surface treatment by using a computational tool. The commercial research software (WUFI 2D) was used to calculate heat and moisture transfer through a durian fiber based lightweight construction material. The materials were exposed to a climate condition similar to the one in Bangkok and the hygrothermal characteristics of the materials were investigated. The investigation reveals that the weekly mean water content on the surface of material was quite low. The effect of moisture on the apparent thermal performance of the composite was found to be higher as water absorbed in the pore structure contributed to higher thermal conductivity than the air it replaced. However, the mean value of thermal conductivity in material is still rather low as the mean value of water content in material is low. Coating the surface reduced the flow of moisture to or from the structure considerably. The results of simulation confirmed that the manufactured composite satisfied the requirement of construction materials. It is then reasonable to conclude that the use of such materials in the design and construction of passive solar buildings is promising. Laboratory investigation is undergoing to validate the simulated performance. (Author)

  9. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction; Aspekty wdrazania nowych materialow w budowie kotlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, R. [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  10. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property... construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property not excepted in section 3(n... business for the construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property...

  11. A platform for communicating construction material information between e-commerce systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen C W Kong; LI Heng; SHEN Qi-ping

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce systems for construction material procurement are becoming increasingly important in Hong Kong. These E-commerce systems are non-interoperable and create problems for the buyers who use these systems to purchase construction materials. This paper presents the mobile agent-based approach and Web serv-ices-based approach for enabling interoperation of these systems in the E-Union environment.

  12. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  13. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  14. Narrow gap HST welding process and its application to candidate pipe material for 700 C USC boiler component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuji [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Lab.; Mitsuhata, Koichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing steam temperature and pressure conditions of 700 C USC (Ultra Super Critical) power plants under consideration require the adoption of Ni-based alloys. One of the most crucial issues for the application of 700 C USC power plants is the establishment of welding technology for the thick-walled components. This paper reports the research results on the practicability of candidate material for the thickwalled components. The weld test was conducted on Ni-based Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr- 13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) by using the narrow gap HST (Hot wire Switching TIG) welding process developed by Babcock-Hitachi K.K with the matching filler wire of Alloy617. The weldability and strength properties of weld joint were examined. The sound weld joint was achieved. The advantages of narrow gap HST welding process for the thick-walled components of Ni-based alloy were discussed from the viewpoints of weld metal chemical composition and creep rupture strength. Due to the good shielding effect, the melting loss of alloy elements in the weld consumable during the narrow gap HST welding procedure was suppressed successfully. The narrow gap HST weld joint showed comparable strength with the parent metal. (orig.)

  15. The influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme ratio on preparation virgin coconut oil for candidate in-house reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohyami, Yuli; Anjani, Rafika Debby; Purwanti, Napthalina Putri

    2017-03-01

    Virgin coconut oil is an excellent product which has result of oil processing business opportunities in the international market. Standardization of virgin coconut oil necessary to satisfy the requirements industry needs. This research is expected as procedure preparation of reference materials. Preparation of virgin coconut oil by Sacharomycescerevisiaeenzyme. Based on the results of this study concluded that the ratio of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can affect the yield of virgin coconut oil produced. The preparation of virgin coconut oil enzymatically using a variety of mass ratio of 0.001 to 0.006% is obtained yield average of 12.40%. The optimum separation of virgin coconut oil on the use of enzymes with a mass ratio of 0.002%. The average water content at a ratio of 0.002% is 0.04 % with a value of uncertainty is 0.005%. The average iodine number in virgin coconut oil produced is 2.4403 ± 0,1974 grams of iodine per 100 grams of oil and optimum iodine number is obtained from the manufacturing process virgin coconut oil with a ratio of 0.006% Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sacharomycescerevisiae with a ratio of 0.002% results virgin coconut oil with acid number 0.3068 ± 0.1098%. The peroxide value of virgin coconut oil between 0.0108 ± 0.009 to 0.0114 ± 0015milli-equivalent per kilograms. Organoleptic test results and test chemical parameters can be used as the test data that can be developed in prototype preparation of candidate in-house reference material in the testing standards of quality virgin coconut oil.

  16. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  17. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views about Using Computer-Based Instructional Materials in Constructing Mathematical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukova-Guzel, Esra; Canturk-Gunhan, Berna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine prospective mathematics teachers' views about using computer-based instructional materials in constructing mathematical concepts and to reveal how the sample computer-based instructional materials for different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a qualitative study involving twelve…

  18. The Effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design Course to Teacher Candidates' Gaining of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkoparam, Süleyman Burak; Kiliç, Muhammet Emre; Usta, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Competencies of teacher candidates in Turkish Teaching department of Mevlana (Rumi) University and the effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design (ITMD) Course on TPACK. The study is a study of quantitative type and single-group pretest-posttest…

  19. Law Absence and System Construction of Equal Material Assistance Rights of Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,conception of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is introduced from the aspects of equal rights,material assistance rights,and farmers’ equal material assistance rights.Value function of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is pointed out,which can eliminate the partial policies with urban priority orientation.It is a necessary condition for maintaining the legal and institutional authority,as well as an inevitable choice to realize the social justice and harmony.Current status of the law absence of farmers’ equal material assistance rights in China is introduced,which is reflected in the lack of theoretical research on farmers’ equal material assistance rights in the law circle,the lack of procedural legal system of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present,and the lack of actual law effectiveness of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present.System construction is a turning point to change the law absence of farmers’ material assistance rights.Government should promote the economic development,provide material bases for the system construction of farmers’ material assistance rights,enhance the legal consciousness of farmers,cultivate the ability of farmers to participate in equal material assistance rights,strengthen the procedural legislation and judicial justice,and ensure the farmers’ material assistance rights.

  20. Construction of a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate and its protective efficacy against fowl typhoid in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Atul A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to develop a novel, safe and immunogenic fowl typhoid (FT vaccine candidate, a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with controlled expression of the bacteriophage PhiX174 lysis gene E was constructed using pMMP99 plasmid in this study. The formation of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with tunnel formation and loss of cytoplasmic contents was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No viable cells were detectable 24 h after the induction of gene E expression by an increase in temperature from 37 °C to 42 °C. The safety and protective efficacy of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost vaccine was tested in chickens that were divided into four groups: group A (non-immunized control, group B (orally immunized, group C (subcutaneously immunized and group D (intramuscularly immunized. The birds were immunized at day 7 of age. None of the immunized animals showed any adverse reactions such as abnormal behavior, mortality, or signs of FT such as anorexia, depression, or diarrhea. These birds were subsequently challenged with a virulent Salmonella Gallinarum strain at 3 weeks post-immunization (wpi. Significant protection against the virulent challenge was observed in all immunized groups based on mortality and post-mortem lesions compared to the non-immunized control group. In addition, immunization with the Salmonella Gallinarum ghosts induced significantly high systemic IgG response in all immunized groups. Among the groups, orally-vaccinated group B showed significantly higher levels of secreted IgA. A potent antigen-specific lymphocyte activation response along with significantly increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes found in all immunized groups clearly indicate the induction of cellular immune responses. Overall, these findings suggest that the newly constructed Salmonella Gallinarum ghost appears to be a safe, highly immunogenic, and efficient non-living bacterial vaccine

  1. Energy-Efficient Devices for Transporting and Feeding Bulk Materials in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only in the construction industry millions of tons of bulk materials that need to be transported to the place of processing, storing and evenly or dosed feeding are recycled annually. Decreasing the costs of these processes will significantly reduce the cost of the finished product. The article presents a review of studies conducted in the field of storage, transport and feed bulk materials, and it describes the innovative design of energy-efficient disc vibrating feeder bulk materials.

  2. Study of the Causes and Magnitude of Wastage of Materials on Construction Sites in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim A. Bekr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to study the causes and magnitude of wastage of construction materials on construction projects sites in Jordan. To achieve the research aim, the researcher had prepared a questionnaire form included questions about the causes of wastage and the estimated percentages of wastage of ten most popular kinds of materials used on construction sites in Jordan. Prior to the final formulation of the questionnaire form, a pilot survey was conducted. The form was revised in accordance with the feedback received. The number of causes adopted was 60 distributed on the six major categories. The form was distributed to 240 participants (clients, contractors, and consultants. The study revealed that the most important causes of wastage of materials on construction sites in Jordan are frequent design and client’s changes; rework due to workers mistakes; poor contract documents; wrong and lack of storage of materials; poor strategy for waste minimization; shortage and lack of experience of skilled workers; poor site conditions; damage during transportation; theft and vandalism; and mistakes in quantity surveying and over allowance. In addition the study concluded that the percentage of wastage materials is accounted for by values between 15% and 21% on Jordanian construction sites.

  3. Construction and characterization of bivalent vaccine candidate expressing HspA and Mr18000 OMP from Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiang; Ai-Long Huang; Xiao-Hong Tao; Pi-Long Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant vector which can express outer membrane protein (OMP) with Mr18 000 and heat shock protein A (HspA) from Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)in E.coli BL21, and to exploit the possibility for obtaining the vaccine conferring protection from H. pylori infection.METHODS: The target gene of HspA was amplified from H.pylori chromosome by PCR, and then inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a (+) by restrictive endonuclease enzyme kpn Ⅰ, BamH Ⅰ simultaneously. The recombinant vector was used to sequence, and then together with pET32a (+)/Omp18, digested by restrictive endonuclease enzyme Hind Ⅲ and BamH Ⅰ simultaneously. pET32a(+)/HspA and Omp18 were recovered from 1% agarose gel by gel kit, and ligated with T4 ligase by BarmH Ⅰ digested viscidity end. The recombinant plasmid of pET32a(+)/HspA/Omp18 was transformed and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under induction of IPTG. After purification, its antigenicity of the fusion protein was detected by Western blot.RESULTS: Enzyme digestion analysis and sequencing showed that the target genes were inserted into the recombinant vector, composed of 891 base pairs, encoded objective polypeptides of 297 amino acid residues. Compared with GenBank reported by Tomb et al, there were 1.3 %and 1.4 % differences in obtained H. pylori nucleotide sequence and amino acid residues, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that relative molecule mass (Mr) of the expressed product was Mr 51 000,Mr of protein expressed by pET32a (+) was about Mr 20 000, and soluble expression product accounted for 18.96 % of total bacterial protein.After purification with Ni+2-NTA agarose resins, the purification of recombinant fusion protein was about 95 %. Western blot showed that recombinant fusion protein could be recognized by the patients′ serum infected with H. pylori and anti-Omp18 monoclone, suggesting that this protein had good antigenicity.CONCLUSION: The gene coding for H. pylori Mr18 000OMP and

  4. Challenges of UK/Irish Contractors regarding Material Management and Logistics in Confined Site Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spillane, John P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the various managerial issues encountered by UK/Irish contractors in the management of materials in confined urban construction sites. Through extensive literature review, detailed interviews, case studies, cognitive mapping, causal loop diagrams, questionnaire survey and documenting severity indices, a comprehensive insight into the materials management concerns within a confined construction site environment is envisaged and portrayed. The leading issues highlighted are: that contractors’ material spatial requirements exceed available space, it is difficult to coordinate the storage of materials in line with the programme, location of the site entrance makes delivery of materials particularly difficult, it is difficult to store materials on-site due to the lack of space, and difficult to coordinate the storage requirements of the various sub-contractors. With the continued development of confined urban centres and the increasing high cost of materials, any marginal savings made on-site would translate into significant monetary savings at project completion. Such savings would give developers a distinct competitive advantage in this challenging economic climate. As on-site management professionals successfully identify, acknowledge and counteract the numerous issues illustrated, the successful management of materials on a confined urban construction site becomes attainable.

  5. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  6. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  7. Leaching behaviour of rock materials and a comparison with slag used in road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Tossavainen, Mia

    2000-01-01

    Leaching characteristics are used for the evaluation of secondary materials used in road construction. In order to form a basis for comparison of the leachability, Swedish rock material have been investigated using the availability test NT ENVIR 003. Microscopic studies of the mineral composition, Acid-Base-Accounting and pH-measurements have been used to explain the leaching results. Overall, the content of identified opaque minerals is low and the leachable amounts of the heavy metal elemen...

  8. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  9. A study of the photocatalytic effects of aqueous suspensions of platinized semiconductor materials on the reaction rates of candidate redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of powdered semiconductor materials in photocatalyzing candidate redox reactions was investigated. The rate of the photocatalyzed oxidation of cyanide at platinized TiO2 was studied. The extent of the cyanide reaction was followed directly using an electroanalytical method (i.e. differential pulse polarography). Experiments were performed in natural or artificial light. A comparison was made of kinetic data obtained for photocatalysis at platinized powders with rate data for nonplatinized powders.

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7044 Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments...

  11. Application of aging methods to estimate long term performance of secondary materials for road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarnejad, S.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Long term performance of secondary materials is becoming a challenging aspect in road construction since due to their benefits they are being used on a large scale, but on the other hand their future behaviors are difficult to estimate. In this study, aging is proposed as a means of exploring the lo

  12. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The results are presented of an exhaustive literature search and evaluation concerning the properties and economics of commercially available nonmetallic well casing and screens. These materials were studied in terms of their use in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction.

  13. Construction and testing of simple airfoils to demonstrate structural design, materials choice, and composite concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, L. Roy; Piippo, Steven W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this educational exercise is to have students build and evaluate simple wing structures, and in doing so, learn about materials choices and lightweight construction methods. A list of equipment and supplies and the procedure for the experiment are presented.

  14. Construction Surveying, 3-27. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This short course on construction surveying was developed from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. Students completing the course should be able to perform engineering surveys related to area and route surveying (knowledge of basic survey techniques is a prerequisite). The course is divided into…

  15. Artificial Molecular Machine Immobilized Surfaces: A New Platform To Construct Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Qu, Da-Hui

    2016-06-17

    Artificial molecular machines have received significant attention from chemists because of their unique ability to mimic the behaviors of biological systems. Artificial molecular machines can be easily modified with functional groups to construct new types of functional molecular switches. However, practical applications of artificial molecular machines are still challenging, because the working platform of artificial molecular machines is mostly in solution. Artificial molecular machine immobilized surfaces (AMMISs) are considered a promising platform to construct functional materials. Herein, we provide a minireview of some recent advances of functional AMMISs. The functions of AMMISs are highlighted and strategies for their construction are also discussed. Furthermore, a brief perspective of the development of artificial molecular machines towards functional materials is given.

  16. Stereogeneous construction – fabric-formed concrete as material and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    På engelsk: This paper contributes to studies of architectural potentials of fabric formwork for concrete by seeking to establish a theoretical concept that evaluates qualities of materials and principles of construction as well as aspects of the expression of concrete construction. Through...... planning and teaching workshops with students, categorizing and interpreting experimental data, and reflecting and communicating knowledge, the concept Stereogeneity developed as a response to questions about the nature of concrete cast in fabric forms and the relation between the molded and the mold....... The word describes concrete as material and process. Fabric Formwork is the pivotal formwork-tectonic topic of investigation in the experimental and analytical parts of the thesis work on which this paper is based. The youth of the architectural application of construction methods for fabric formwork...

  17. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  18. Micro-encapsulated phase-change materials integrated into construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossig, P.; Henning, H.-M.; Gschwander, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Haussmann, T. [PSE GmbH-Forschung, Entwicklung, Marketing Solar Info Center, 79072 Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    The idea of improving the thermal comfort of lightweight buildings by integrating phase-change materials (PCMs) into the building structure has been investigated in various research projects over several decades. Most of these attempts applied macro-capsules or direct immersion processes, which both turned out to present several drawbacks. Due to these problems, none of these PCM products was successful in the wider market. The new option to micro-encapsulate PCMs, a key technology which overcomes many of these problems, may make PCM products accessible for the building industry. This paper describes the work done at Fraunhofer ISE within a German government-funded project over the last 5 years, extending from building simulations to first measurements of full-size rooms equipped with PCM. The first products are now available on the market. (author) [Phase change material; Passive cooling; Energy efficient building; Microencapsulation].

  19. USE OF MIRROR PATTERN CUTTING OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF LAKE BEACH SEINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification and calculation of a new methodological approach to the construction of a standard beach seine (502 / 302 х 3.75 with the use of the properties of mirror netting ensuring the saving of the netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance. Methodology. The carp age group selectivity of the constructed seine was assessed within fish fauna monitoring based on the catch analysis of monitoring gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-130 mm according to generally accepted methods [9, 10]. Calculation of netting materials and ropes was carried out according to generally accepted methods [12-14]. Seine resistance was calculated according to N. T. Senin formula for different netting materials and the angles of the movement of different seine parts in water [2]. The gear reliability and data processing were carried out according to standard methods [11, 14, 15]. Findings. A variant of the construction of the maximum lightweight beach lake seines made of mirror pattern netting taking into account the properties of the mirror pattern netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance has been proposed. The provided recalculation of the properties of a serial seine made of rhombic mesh for the mirror netting seine taking into account netting properties allowed: 1 reducing the seine drag resistance value by 1,4 times; 2 reducing the weight of netting materials by 16.3% compared to the prototype; 3 increasing the seine selectivity when fishing older age groups of carp in non-drainable ponds. Originality. We presented the method of the calculation and construction of lake beach seines made of mirror netting, analyzed the technological stages of the construction of mirror netting, determined main qualitative and technological parameters, which had effect on the conditions of the construction and reliability of such fishing gears. A new method of the use of an insert of the combined netting material cutting ensuring

  20. Comparing material wastage levels between conventional in-situ and prefabrication construction in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivian W Y Tam; C M Tam; L Y Shen

    2004-01-01

    Generation of construction wastes constitutes a major impact to the environment. Studies have beend directed toward reducing wastes of the various construction processes. However, contractors in Hong Kong are rather conservative and lack motivation to develop new technology for waste minimization. This paper examines the benefits of using prefabrication in reducing material wastage levels for some traditional in-situ trades such as concreting, rebar fixing, bricklaying, drywall, plastering, screeding and tiling in Hong Kong. By measuring thirty construction projects, it is been found that waste levels of all major construction trades can be effectively reduced. This is particularly significant in the trade of plastering where 100% saving can be achieved after adopting prefabrication. The standardized design of the building can also be useful in the adoption of prefabrication for private housing projects.

  1. A Construction System for CALL Materials from TV News with Captions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Mori, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    Many language learning materials have been published. In language learning, although repetition training is obviously necessary, it is difficult to maintain the learner's interest/motivation using existing learning materials, because those materials are limited in their scope and contents. In addition, we doubt whether the speech sounds used in most materials are natural in various situations. Nowadays, some TV news programs (CNN, ABC, PBS, NHK, etc.) have closed/open captions corresponding to the announcer's speech. We have developed a system that makes Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials for both English learning by Japanese and Japanese learning by foreign students from such captioned newscasts. This system computes the synchronization between captions and speech by using HMMs and a forced alignment algorithm. Materials made by the system have following functions: full/partial text caption display, repetition listening, consulting an electronic dictionary, display of the user's/announcer's sound waveform and pitch contour, and automatic construction of a dictation test. Materials have following advantages: materials present polite and natural speech, various and timely topics. Furthermore, the materials have the following possibility: automatic creation of listening/understanding tests, and storage/retrieval of the many materials. In this paper, firstly, we present the organization of the system. Then, we describe results of questionnaires on trial use of the materials. As the result, we got enough accuracy on the synchronization between captions and speech. Speaking totally, we encouraged to research this system.

  2. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  3. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  4. The Promotion Strategy of Green Construction Materials: A Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Fah Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.

  5. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Maha; Grimaldi, Michel; Lerch, Thomas Z.; Pando, Anne; Gigon, Agnès; Blouin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    There is no information on how organisms influence hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols and how such influence will be affected by the parent-material composition factor. In a laboratory experiment, parent materials, which were excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC), were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, but not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass, resulting in positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affected the hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  6. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  7. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing.

  8. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Joost de

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe{sup 2+} and the other rich in Fe{sup 3+}, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (T{sub CO} {proportional_to}320K) and ferro magnetism (T{sub N}{proportional_to}240 K) LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The

  9. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  10. Expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material of low energy construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, P.; Spisakova, M.; Kyjakova, L.; Mandicak, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of buildings is a really important issue for the construction industry. Sustainable buildings are characterized by the lower construction costs for energy consumption and operations, they are environmentally friendly, able to save natural resources and they are comfortable and healthy for their users. The European Union supports this trend through its Strategy 2020, respectively with document Energy Roadmap 2020. The strategy 2020 sets greenhouse gas emissions 20% lower than 1990, 20% of energy from renewable and 20% increase in energy efficiency. It manifests itself in introduction of modern technologies of house building. One potential for the energy saving is construction of low-energy buildings using modern materials. This paper focuses on the analysis of the low-energy buildings made by expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material. The paper analyzes their design and describes the benefits of this modern but unusual type of construction technology for houses. The examples from abroad clearly indicate that this technology has potential in modern architecture. The success and exploration of this technology potential in the conditions of Slovak construction sector is closely related to interest of investors and users of further sustainable houses which are design according the Strategy 2020 conditions.

  11. Study of improving the thermal response of a construction material containing a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaouatni, A.; Martaj, N.; Bennacer, R.; Elomari, M.; El Ganaoui, M.

    2016-09-01

    The use of phase change materials (PCMs) for improving the thermal comfort in buildings has become an attractive application. This solution contributes to increasing the thermal inertia of the building envelope and reducing power consumption. A building element filled with a PCM and equipped with ventilation tubes is proposed, both for increasing inertia and contributing to refreshing building envelope. A numerical simulation is conducted by the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics, which aims to test the thermal behaviour of the developed solution. An experimental study is carried out on a concrete block containing a PCM with ventilation tubes. The objective is to see the effect of PCM coupled with ventilation on increasing the inertia of the block. The results show the ability of this new solution to ensure an important thermal inertia of a building.

  12. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Joost de

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe{sup 2+} and the other rich in Fe{sup 3+}, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (T{sub CO} {proportional_to}320K) and ferro magnetism (T{sub N}{proportional_to}240 K) LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The

  13. Construction of a medium-sized Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: development of the optical alignment system

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, D; Humensky, B; Kaaret, P; Limon, M; Mognet, I; Peck, A; Petrashyk, A; Ribeiro, D; Rousselle, J; Stevenson, B; Vassiliev, V; Yu, P

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-size candidate telescope model features a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of a wide field-of-view with significantly improved imaging resolution as compared to the traditional Davis-Cotton optics design. Achieving this imaging resolution imposes strict alignment requirements to be accomplished by a dedicated alignment system. In this contribution we present the status of the development of the SC optical alignment system, soon to be materialized in a full-scale prototype SC medium-size telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern ...

  14. New Construction and Catalyst Support Materials for Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    4 reports results of testing dierent types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials for HTPEMEC. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions of high temperature PEM...... steam electrolyzer. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to evaluate the stability of the mentioned materials. It was found that stainless steels were the least resistant to corrosion under strong anodic...... stainless steel showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media, while passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 °C. Today, there is a high interest in the eld towards investigation of new catalyst materials...

  15. Characteristics of the magnetic control of separable ferrous impurities contained in raw construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sandulyak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency of using the method of magnetic control of ferrous impurities for construction materials was noted. Especially it is important because of magnetic separators which are widely used for elimination of these impurities. There were shown the necessity of upgrading the present approach in order to realize the method of magnetic control. For example, it is necessary to take into account not only the rest of ferrous impurities (that is inevitable after limited numbers of operations but also a factor of involving sand particles. The concrete proposal how to develop the existing system of magnetic control of ferrous impurities in construction materials subjected to magnetic separation, is stated. The experimental-calculation model for such control is also shown. The main parameters of such model were estimated on the example of quartz sand and feldspar. The errors of standard methods of magnetic control were revealed for the first time.

  16. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Four appendices are included. The first covers applications of low-temperature geothermal energy including industrial processes, agricultural and related processes, district heating and cooling, and miscellaneous. The second discusses hydrogeologic factors affecting the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells: water quality, withdrawal rate, water depth, water temperature, basic well designs, and hydrogeologic provinces. In the third appendix, properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials are described, including: specific gravity, mechanical strength properties, resistance to physical and biological attack, thermal properties of nonmetallics, fluid flow characteristics, corrosion resistance, scaling resistance, weathering resistance of nonmetallics, and hydrolysis resistance of nonmetallics. Finally, special considerations in the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells using nonmetallics materials are covered. These include; drilling methods, joining methods, methods of casing and screen installation, well cementing, and well development. (MHR)

  17. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.; Vonbank, R.;

    2011-01-01

    in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded...... the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 μg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials...

  18. Identification of construction material pathologies in historical buildings using infrared thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Lerma Elvira, Carlos; Mas Tomas, Maria De Los Angeles; Gil Benso, Enrique; VERCHER SANCHIS, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2013-01-01

    [en] Study of historic buildings requires a pathology analysis of the construction materials used in order to define their conservation state. Usually we can find capillary moisture, salt crystallization or density differences by deterioration. Sometimes this issue is carried out by destructive testing which determine materials’ physical and chemical characteristics. However, they are unfavorable regarding the building’s integrity, and they are sometimes difficult to implement. This paper pre...

  19. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  20. Mold Susceptibility of Rapidly Renewable Building Materials Used in Wall Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    from outside the home can be introduced through moisture absorption from the exterior, facility cracks and penetrations, and leaky windows or roofs...from clay, cement, steel , fiberglass and gypsum. If so, rapidly renewable materials may not be desirable as long- term sustainable construction...through the court adding additional 23 23 costs to the claims, which only exacerbates the media craze and lawsuit frenzy that is taking place

  1. Research into Behaviour Patterns Typical for Consumers of Construction Material as the Mission of Ecological Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Zinaida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the co-authors is to study the motivation of purchasers of construction/finishing materials and the criteria that govern their selection. No systemic studies of consumer behavioral models and stereotypes in respect of residential housing have been performed so far. However, the environmentally determined management techniques, applicable to the production of building materials and construction of residential housing, are highly relevant both worldwide and in the Russian Federation. The co-authors have developed an original research methodology, drafted a questionnaire, and conducted a pilot survey. Its findings have proven that the price and quality of construction materials are the main factors that influence the decision making process in favor of particular items. Mere 14% of the respondents chose environmental friendliness as the decision making criterion. The findings of the focus group projects have also proven the trustworthiness of the stereotypes and behavioral models identified by the co-authors. The co-authors make a conclusion that further sociological surveys are needed to implement the patterns of environmentally determined management and to influence the value paradigms of the population.

  2. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  3. Measurement of color in different construction materials. The restoration in sandstone buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pascua, N.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of construction materials and their subsequent repair purposes include a search of knowledge and preservation of their original appearance. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to determine a color range which does not change with the possible actions on a building, both when restoration works which imply the use and repair of "ancient" materials are carried out, and when construction is carried out with new materials. It is necessary to obtain the quantification of this property in order to check its variation over the passage of time. Each construction material must be taken into account as an isolated problem, since the color is different in each case.

    El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso y reparación de materiales "viejos", o bien cuando se llevan a cabo trabajos de construcción con materiales nuevos. Es necesario cuantificar dicha propiedad para poder controlar el paso del tiempo. Cada material de construcción debe ser considerado como un problema aislado, ya que el color es distinto en cada caso.

  4. Material Waste Minimisation Strategies among Construction Firms in South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Olubanwo Adewuyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined material waste minimisation strategies practiced by construction firms in the study area, the amount of waste generated and the relationship between them. The data collected were analysed using mean score, Spearman Rank Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. It is revealed that the most commonly employed strategies are “ensuring that storage facilities are properly secured before staff leave on a daily basis”; “checking of deliveries for any shortages and/or damages”; and “using materials before expiry date” with mean scores of 4.46, 4.22, 4.20 respectively. A significant variation in the level of material waste generated by different category of firms was confirmed. There is also a significant relationship between the level of minimisation strategies adopted and the waste generated. Based on the R2 values, 18.8% to 49.4% of the material waste generated for all the material types studied could be explained by the material minimisation strategies adopted on site except for stone base with 9.4%. %. The study recommends that the players in the industry should step up efforts towards introducing incentives to motivate labour to minimise material wastage on site and the use of modular design system.

  5. Laser welding of dissimilar materials for lightweight construction and special applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Mitja; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Against the background of climate objectives and the desired reduction of CO2-emissions, optimization of existing industrial products is needed. To counter rising raw material costs, currently used materials are substituted. This will places new requirements on joining technologies for dissimilar material classes. The main difficulty lies in joining these materials cohesively without changing the properties of the base materials. Current research work at the LZH on joining dissimilar materials is being carried out for the automotive sector and for solar absorbers. For the automotive industry, a laser welding process for joining steel and aluminum without using additives is being investigated, equipped with a spectroscopic welding depth control to increase tensile strength. With a specially constructed laser processing head, it is possible to regulate welding penetration depth in the aluminum sheet, reducing the formation of intermetallic phases. Flat plate solar collectors are favorable devices for generating heat from solar energy. The solar absorber is the central part of a collector, consisting of an aluminum sheet and a copper tube which is attached to the aluminum sheet. Research on new laser welding processes aims at reducing the amount of energy required for production of these solar absorbers. In the field of joining dissimilar materials, laser joining processes, especially for special applications, will complement established joining techniques.

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degaltseva Z. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the integration development of accounting systems is the adoption of uniform valuation of building materials and structures. It is proved that the most rational combination of these types of records achieved by an adapted classification and measurement of building materials and structures to the conditions of formation of the budget for the project volume of construction works and the reflection of the actual volume of work in the financial accounting system. On the basis of the accounting policies and the organizational structure of the object of investigation of "Kubanstroykompleks" we have identified responsibility centers (sites for costs related to the material flow: Department of logistics and packaging and warehousing, which consists of a central and railroad warehouse

  7. Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-01-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials under realistic conditions. A commerical 50 mm x 50 mm NiO-YSZ anode supported thin YSZ electrolyte cell with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode was tested to evaluate the stability of candidate materials. The cell was tested in two stages at 800oC: stage I of low (~3% H2O) humidity and stage II of high (~30% H2O) humidity hydrogen fuel at constant voltage or constant current mode. Part I of the work was published earlier with information of the generic test fixture design, materials, cell performance, and optical post-mortem analysis. In part II, detailed microstructure and interfacial characterizations are reported regarding the SOFC candidate materials: (Mn,Co)-spinel conductive coating, alumina coating for sealing area, ferritic stainless steel interconnect, refractory sealing glass, and their interactions with each other. Overall, the (Mn,Co)-spinel coating was very effective in minimizing Cr migration. No Cr was identified in the cathode after 1720h at 800oC. Aluminization of metallic interconnect also proved to be chemically compatible with alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass. The details of interfacial reaction and microstructure development are discussed.

  8. Analysis of chromium and sulphate origins in construction recycled materials based on leaching test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, I; Ayuso, J; Galvín, A P; Jiménez, J R; López, M; García-Garrido, M L

    2015-12-01

    Twenty samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) with different compositions collected at six recycling plants in the Andalusia region (south of Spain) were characterised according to the Landfill Directive criteria. Chromium and sulphate were identified as the most critical compounds in the leachates. To detect the sources of these two pollutant constituents in recycled aggregate, environmental assessments were performed on eight construction materials (five unused ceramic materials, two old crushed concretes and one new mortar manufactured in the laboratory). The results confirmed that leached sulphate and Cr were mainly released by the ceramic materials (bricks and tiles). To predict the toxicological consequences, the oxidation states of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were measured in the leachates of recycled aggregates and ceramic materials classified as non-hazardous. The bricks and tiles mainly released total Cr as Cr (III). However, the recycled aggregates classified as non-hazardous according to the Landfill Directive criteria mainly released Cr (VI), which is highly leachable and extremely toxic. The obtained results highlight the need for legislation that distinguishes the oxidative state in which chromium is released into the environment. Leaching level regulations must not be based solely on total Cr, which can lead to inaccurate predictions.

  9. Experimental study on the performance of insulation materials in Mediterranean construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, L.F.; Castell, A.; Medrano, M.; Martorell, I.; Perez, G. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Fernandez, I. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    It is well known that it is necessary to insulate the buildings to decrease the thermal demand and to decrease the use of heating and cooling. Due to the high cost of fossil fuels and to the necessity to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and also due to the new building regulations more attention is paid to the insulation of buildings. Different insulation materials are available in the market. Usually, they are compared by their thermal conductivity and with theoretical calculations, but there are no experimental comparisons available, where the behavior of such insulation materials in a building is compared over time. This is why the authors started a comparison of three typical insulation materials, polyurethane, polystyrene, and mineral wool. For this purpose, four house-like cubicles were constructed (with a size of 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 2.4 m) and their thermal performance throughout the time was measured. The cubicles were built under a conventional Mediterranean construction system, differing only in the insulation material used. During 2008 and the first months of 2009 the performance of these cubicles was evaluated, and the results are presented in this paper. (author)

  10. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  11. An Overview of the Use of Absolute Dating Techniques in Ancient Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the chronology of historical buildings is a tricky issue, as usually there are not historical documents that allow the assessment of construction phases, and some materials are hardly reliable for the use of dating techniques (e.g., stone. However, in the last two decades, important advances on the use of absolute dating methods on building materials have increased the possibilities of reconstructing building chronologies, although some advances are still scarcely known among archaeologists and architects. Recent studies performed on several kinds of mortars, fired bricks, mud-bricks, and even stone surfaces have shown that it is possible to date them. Both radiocarbon and luminescence dating have been the most frequently used techniques but others such as archaeomagnetism can also be used in some cases. This paper intends to give an overview of the recent achievements on the use of absolute dating techniques for building materials.

  12. Development of construction materials using sulfite-rich scrubber sludge and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginder Chugh; Amit Patwardhan; Santosh Munish; Francois Botha [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Construction materials with characteristics suitable for a variety of applications have been developed using up to 95% of coal combustion by-products comprising of sulfite-rich scrubber sludge and fly ash. These materials can be produced as soil-like mixes that can be prepared at the power plant, transported to the deployment site and compacted using conventional road building equipment without a need for forms. These developed materials provide an early strength of 5.8-8.3 MPa after 7-14 d and are environmentally benign. For a cattle feeding pad application, which is the focus of this paper, the cost is estimated be about 25-30% of the cost of developing a conventional concrete feeding pad. Following mix development and establishment of quality assurance/quality control protocols, a commercial cattle feeding pad has been designed and demonstrated using the developed mix. 15 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  14. THE COMPLEX USE OF LOCAL TYPES OF FUEL IN THE POROUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  15. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  16. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  17. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  18. Use of macrophyte plants, sand & gravel materials in constructed wetlands for greywater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Sobriyah; Setyono, P.

    2017-02-01

    Greywater discharged without any treatments into drainage channels or natural water bodies will lead to environmental degradation and health risk. Local macrophyte plants combined with natural materials of sand and gravel have been used in a system of constructed wetland for the treatment of the greywater. This paper presents the results of some studies of the system carried out in Indonesia, Thailand, and Costa Rica. The studies demonstrate the success of the constructed wetland systems in removing some pollutants of BOD, COD, TSS, pathogen, and detergent. The studies resulted in the treated water in a level of treatment that fulfils the requirement of the local standards for wastewater reuse as irrigation water, fishery, or other outdoor needs.

  19. By what means should nanoscaled materials be constructed: molecule, medium, or human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hu, Xianluo; Mandal, Saikat; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2010-02-01

    There is great potential in nanoscale science and technology, and construction of macrosized materials and systems possessing nanoscale structural features is a crucial factor in the everyday application of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Because nanoscale substances are often constructed through self-assembly of unit molecules and nanomaterials, control of the self-assembly process is required. In order to establish general guidelines for the fabrication of materials with nanoscale structural characteristics, i.e., nanoscaled materials, we introduce here examples of recent research in related fields categorised as: (i) self-assembled structures with forms generally determined by intrinsic interactions between molecules and/or unit nanomaterials, (ii) self-assemblies influenced by their surrounding media, especially interfacial environments, (iii) modulation of self-assembly by artificial operation or external stimuli. Examples are not limited to organic molecules, which are often regarded as the archetypal species in self-assembly chemistry, and many examples of inorganic assemblies and hybrid structures are included in this review.

  20. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  1. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, M.; Grimaldi, M.; Lerch, T. Z.; Pando, A.; Gigon, A.; Blouin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed Technosols provide an opportunity to recycle urban waste, and are an alternative to the uptake of topsoil from the countryside. Despite potential problems of erosion, compaction or water holding capacity, their physical properties and the resulting water regulation services are poorly documented. In a laboratory experiment, excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC) were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass and the resulting positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials thus positively affected the hydro-structural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  2. Measurement of the thermal conductivity from construction materials; Medicion de conductividad termica de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Cortes, Leonel; Xaman Villasenor, Jesus P; Chavez Chena, Yvonne [CENIDET: Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to improve the calculation of thermal loads that allows to model the thermal behavior of constructions with aims of energy saving, it is necessary to count on the thermophysical properties of the materials used in the construction industry. Nevertheless at present in Mexico do not exist reported data of the materials that are made and used in our country, reason why it is chosen to take the results reported in the literature, whose values in their majority do not correspond to Mexican materials. In order to cover this necessity, at the CENIDET an instrument was developed to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating and construction materials. To date they have come with studies of different materials, which are provided by the manufacturers, with the intention of obtaining real data of thermal conductivity and to apply them with whole confidence in simulations of calculations of thermal loads. In this paper the results of measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two different materials from construction are presented, pumice stone block and block of tezontle (a porous volcanic rock).The measurement was made with an absolute and primary instrument according to norm ANSI/ASTM C-177-97. The operation principle of the apparatus is based on the technique of heat transference by conduction in permanent state between two plates, the experiment is carried out using an apparatus of hot plate with guard (APCG). Given the geographic zone where the studied materials are to be used, it is concluded that the obtained results show better properties for both with respect to reported values of similar materials, by virtue that these materials are intended to be applied in a humid climate as it is in the state of Puebla, Mexico. [Spanish] Para mejorar el calculo de cargas termicas que permita modelar el comportamiento termico de edificaciones con fines de ahorro de energia, es necesario contar con las propiedades termofisicas de los materiales utilizados

  3. Proposal for Construction/Demonstration/Implementation of A Material Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Jnatt

    2001-08-24

    Vortec Corporation, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) and DOE/Paducah propose to complete the technology demonstration and the implementation of the Material Handling System developed under Contract Number DE-AC21-92MC29120. The demonstration testing and operational implementation will be done at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The scope of work, schedule and cost for the activities are included in this proposal. A description of the facility to be constructed and tested is provided in Exhibit 1, attached. The USEC proposal for implementation at Paducah is presented in Exhibit 2, and the commitment letters from the site are included in Exhibit 3. Under our agreements with USEC, Bechtel Jacobs Corporation and DOE/Paducah, Vortec will be responsible for the construction of the demonstration facility as documented in the engineering design package submitted under Phase 4 of this contract on August 9, 2001. USEC will have responsibility for the demonstration testing and commercial implementation of the plant. The demonstration testing and initial commercial implementation of the technology will be achieved by means of a USEC work authorization task with the Bechtel Jacobs Corporation. The initial processing activities will include the processing of approximately 4,250 drums of LLW. Subsequent processing of LLW and TSCA/LLW will be done under a separate contract or work authorization task. To meet the schedule for commercial implementation, it is important that the execution of the Phase 4 project option for construction of the demonstration system be executed as soon as possible. The schedule we have presented herein assumes initiation of the construction phase by the end of September 2001. Vortec proposes to complete construction of the demonstration test system for an estimated cost of $3,254,422. This price is based on the design submitted to DOE/NETL under the Phase 4 engineering design deliverable (9 august 2001). The cost is subject to the

  4. Quality and safety of construction materials; Calidad y seguridad de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodulfo Zabala, L.

    2015-07-01

    CEPCO represents 20 industrial sectors, which take charge of construction materials production, and whose expectations of European and Spanish legislation observance (specially the articles related to quality, security and environmental respect) reach a very high level. This performance is equally taken to their internal competitiveness and to their huge international enlargement produced on the recent years. In addition to this principle, the Confederation includes its own this principle, the Confederation includes its own doctrine of trying to consolidate important heights of quality related to the evolution of the product trough I+D+i. (Author)

  5. Social construction and materiality: the limits of indeterminacy in therapeutic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannamann, J W

    1998-01-01

    By drawing parallels between the courtroom testimony of a Christian Science practitioner and an intersession conversation between systemic family therapists, I critique the abstract idealism of language-centered social constructionism. I argue that social constructionist inquiry that highlights the indeterminacy of meaning without a corresponding emphasis on the responsive embodied practices of family members glosses over the material conditions shaping the politics of interaction. The implications of this problem are discussed as they relate to the setting of family therapy, where social construction theory is often used to guide practical interventions.

  6. Microbial community structure of different electrode materials in constructed wetland incorporating microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Abayneh, Befkadu; Ding, Yi; Yan, Denghua; Bai, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    The microbial fuel cell coupled with constructed wetland (CW-MFC) microcosms were operated under fed-batch mode for evaluating the effect of electrode materials on bioelectricity generation and microbial community composition. Experimental results indicated that the bioenergy output in CW-MFC increased with the substrate concentration; maximum average voltage (177mV) was observed in CW-MFC with carbon fiber felt (CFF). In addition, the four different materials resulted in the formation of significantly different microbial community distribution around the anode electrode. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria in CFF and foamed nickel (FN) was significantly higher than that in stainless steel mesh (SSM) and graphite rod (GR) samples. Notably, the findings indicate that CW-MFC utilizing FN anode electrode could apparently improve relative abundance of Dechloromonas, which has been regarded as a denitrifying and phosphate accumulating microorganism.

  7. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  8. The Necessity to Strengthen the Construction Materials Management of Construction Engineering%加强建筑工程施工材料管理的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with people’s increasing demand for construction, the construction industry has become a pilar industry of Chinese economy. No mater what kind of constr-uction projects, it requires the use of building materials for construction. Whether the construction materials management measures properly or not, it not only affects the overall con-struction quality, but also affects the project construction cost and time of the next phase ofwork.%近年来,随着人们对建筑的需求增多,建筑行业已经成为我国经济产业中支柱性产业。不论何种建筑工程,都需要使用建筑材料来进行施工,施工材料管理措施是否得当,不仅影响到整体施工质量,也会影响到工程施工成本及下一期工作的开展时间。

  9. AMS method for depth profiling of trace elements concentration in materialsConstruction and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2015-10-15

    The need to investigate the behavior of solid state materials on the impact/retention/repulsion/contamination/impregnation with special trace elements or radioactive elements has driven us to develop a modified Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analyzing method that is able to perform the measurement of the concentration depth profile of an element in a host material. This upgraded method that we call AMS-depth profiling method (AMS-DP) measures continuously the concentration of a trace element in a given sample material as a function of the depth from the surface (e.g., tritium in carbon, deuterium in tungsten, etc.). However, in order to perform depth profiling, common AMS facilities have to undergo several changes: a new replaceable sample target-holder has to be constructed to accept small plates of solid material as samples; their position has to be adjusted in the focus point of the sputter beam; crater rim effects of the produced hole in the sample have to be avoided or removed from the registered events in the detector; suitable reference samples have to be prepared and used for calibration. All procedures are presented in the paper together with several applications.

  10. AMS method for depth profiling of trace elements concentration in materials - Construction and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2015-10-01

    The need to investigate the behavior of solid state materials on the impact/retention/repulsion/contamination/impregnation with special trace elements or radioactive elements has driven us to develop a modified Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analyzing method that is able to perform the measurement of the concentration depth profile of an element in a host material. This upgraded method that we call AMS-depth profiling method (AMS-DP) measures continuously the concentration of a trace element in a given sample material as a function of the depth from the surface (e.g., tritium in carbon, deuterium in tungsten, etc.). However, in order to perform depth profiling, common AMS facilities have to undergo several changes: a new replaceable sample target-holder has to be constructed to accept small plates of solid material as samples; their position has to be adjusted in the focus point of the sputter beam; crater rim effects of the produced hole in the sample have to be avoided or removed from the registered events in the detector; suitable reference samples have to be prepared and used for calibration. All procedures are presented in the paper together with several applications.

  11. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  12. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  13. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash

    2008-03-11

    Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  14. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Riahi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff'sbases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  15. Discussion on circulation material management of construction project construction cost management%论建设项目施工成本管理之周材管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍明华

    2016-01-01

    简述了建筑施工企业管理周转材料的常用方式,以材料现场积压、材料浪费、损失等方面,分析了目前周转材料管理中常见的问题,并提出了具体的解决方案,有利于降低企业施工成本,提高企业的成本管理水平。%The paper briefly describes common circulation material management methods of building construction enterprises,analyzes common circulation material management problems from aspects of material field overstocking,material waste and loss,and puts forward specific solving schemes,which will be good for reducing construction cost and improving cost management level.

  16. A Martian Fractionation Line Constructed from Oxygen Isotope Analyses of Bulk Material and Minerals from SNC Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Ali, A.; Jabeen, I.; Osinski, G.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Nasir, S.; Flemming, R.; Shivak, J.; Gregory, D.

    2013-09-01

    Precise triple oxygen isotope data of SNC Martian meteorites are obtained by laser-assisted fluorination technique. Martian fractionation line is constructed using bulk material and mineral separates of SNC meteorites.

  17. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  18. USAGE OF FILTERS FROM FIBROUS MATERIALS IN AMELIORATIVE AND HYDRO-TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Klimkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of first drainage tubular systems has been facing such problem as their protection against silting-up by soil particles penetrating through input openings. Searches and investigations have led to usage of various fibrous materials which are playing the role of filters. At the beginning glass-fibre mats have been widely applied for this purpose. However, the mats possessing good filtration properties have had a number of fundamental disadvantages. Works executed at the Institute of Mechanics of Metal Polymeric Systems (Gomel, Republic of Belarus have played a big role in usage of plastic materials. A new technology has been developed with the purpose to obtain thermally-bonded fibres from thermoplastic material. The fibres have been called as polyethylene mats. Investigation of their properties has been carried out under load and it has revealed that their lateral and longitudinal permeability becomes equal at specified pressures, in other words the material takes an isotropic state. The considered interactions of filtrating material and skeleton frame have shown that the main water filtration occurs directly above perforation holes while the material above blind frame sections does not participate in the process. Due to this a new design of the filtrating element has been developed and it can be used in water intake systems for surface and underground water. The filtrating element consists of the skeleton frame with openings and a filtration covering which is installed on the frame. Water-feeding groove cavities are located on the skeleton frame and they are dispersing from perforation holes in the form of beams. These grooves can have side branches of the second, third and other orders. As beam-like arrangement of grooves creates the shortest flow paths for filtrated water from periphery to frame holes and area of groove cross section exceeds the area of poral holes in water in-take covering by a factor of hundreds, it is possible

  19. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  20. Structural stability at high pressure, electronic, and magnetic properties of BaFZnAs: A new candidate of host material of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi-Juan, Chen; Zheng, Deng; Xian-Cheng, Wang; Shao-Min, Feng; Zhen, Yuan; Si-Jia, Zhang; Qing-Qing, Liu; Chang-Qing, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The layered semiconductor BaFZnAs with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure has been successfully synthesized. Both the in-situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the high-pressure Raman scattering measurements demonstrate that the structure of BaFZnAs is stable under pressure up to 17.5 GPa at room temperature. The resistivity and the magnetic susceptibility data show that BaFZnAs is a non-magnetic semiconductor. BaFZnAs is recommended as a candidate of the host material of diluted magnetic semiconductor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Project of Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  1. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed.

  2. Empirical Evaluation of Construction Material Waste Generated on Sites in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi, T.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the level of construction material waste generated on building sites in South-South, Nigeria. The objective is to empirically establish the level of waste generated on building sites and compare such with the allowable value in estimates. Data were collected from 30 on-going public building projects for six months. The level of material waste was calculated in percentages while one way ANOVA was employed to compare the waste values among the States in the zone. The significant difference between actual and allowable values of waste was tested using paired t-test. The level of material waste was found to be 11.69, 12.10, 10.45, 14.54, and 12.07 for concrete blocks, steel reinforcement, timber, and tiles respectively. It was concluded that these values are significantly different, with p-values < 0.05, from the allowable waste. The study recommends that the values of waste derived by this study be adopted in estimates

  3. New steel-materials for bridge-construction; Kyoryo yoto no shinkozai oyobi shinkenzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Takagi, M.; Nishiumi, K.; Kusunoki, T.; Tsuzuki, T.; Usami, A. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-31

    Nippon Steel Corporation is exerting endeavors for the development of various technologies which concern materials, designing, and execution in the field of bridges. Outlined in this report are the merits and effects of some fruits of such endeavors, which involve a new weather-resistant steel to reduce the maintenance cost, longitudinally profiled steel plates to reduce the manufacturing cost, rectangular steel tubes using a high-tenacity steel, long-span-conscious grating slabs and steel elements to save labor in bridge construction, etc. For instance, the newly developed weather-resistant steel is a product intended for use for Japan`s big cities and trunk lines near the seashore, and is so designed as to contain 5% Ni to withstand seashore climate after studies and tests. This steel will contribute to the reduction in the cost for maintaining bridges in seashore belts where the conventional weather-resistant steel does not work effectively or in snowy regions where the use of snow-melting agents is inevitable. In another example, the steel is used for the construction of Nippon Steel Corporation`s Minami-Ohashi Bridge situated in the sea-facing zone of Nagoya Works of the corporation, where tests are still under way. 18 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Material selection for a constructed wetroof receiving pre-treated high strength domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; van Dien, F; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2013-01-01

    A constructed wetroof (CWR) is defined in this study as the combination of a green roof and a constructed wetland: a shallow wastewater treatment system placed on the roof of a building. The foremost challenge of such CWRs, and the main aim of this investigation, is the selection of an appropriate matrix capable of assuring the required hydraulic retention time, the long-term stability and the roof load-bearing capacity. Six substrata were subjected to water dynamics and destructive tests in two testing-tables. Among all the materials tested, the substratum configuration composed of sand, light expanded clay aggregates, biodegradable polylactic acid beads together with stabilization plates and a turf mat is capable of retaining the water for approximately 3.8 days and of providing stability (stabilization plates) and an immediate protection (turf mat) to the system. Based on those results, a full-scale CWR was built, which did not show any physical deterioration after 1 year of operation. Preliminary wastewater treatment results on the full-scale CWR suggest that it can highly remove main wastewater pollutants (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, PO4(3-)-P and NH4(+)-N). The results of these tests and practical design considerations of the CWR are discussed in this paper.

  5. Physical properties and hydrological response of green roof substrates based on recycled construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Hayas, Antonio; Jiménez-Quiñones, Daniel; Peña, Adolfo; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs in urban areas improve the building's energy efficiency and provide a wide array of additional environmental benefits. Characterizing and predicting the physical properties and hydrological response of green roofs is necessary to understand the roof's heat balance, which is controlled to a large extent by the substrate's water content, to predict the runoff response and functioning as a part of sustainable urban drainage systems and to plan irrigation of the plants in drier climates. This study examines 10 different extensive green roof substrates, based on recycled construction materials. Green roof simulation decks were installed in boxes of 0,6 m x 0,4 m to a depth of 70 mm, 10 with and 10 without plants. Total water holding capacity of the substrates varied between 10,4 - 23,9 %, with an additional 19 % retained by the drainage layer and geotextiles used in the simulation deck. An important compaction of 30 % on average was observed after 1,5 months. Final bulk densities are between 1457 - 1993 kg m-3. In an evaporation experiment, it was shown that the water evaporated from the green roofs is controlled mainly by the relative moisture content. Substrate properties exerted only a secondary control, with the lowest evaporation rates from the substrates with highest coarse crushed aggregate content and with the highest clay content. The evaporation model proposed here was shown to work well to simulate the evolution of the water balance and therefore the specific unit weight over longer time periods in all substrates, with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.989. Finally, plants were found to grow satisfactorily in all substrates. Therefore, when regular irrigation is provided, it was concluded that green roofs based on recycled construction materials are a viable option. Future research will have to explore the long-term plant dynamics under water-limited conditions.

  6. EVALUATION OF THERMAL INSULATION FOR THREE DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION OF EXTERNAL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summers increasingly hot are bringing large thermal problems within homes and businesses, leading to increased demand for installation of air conditioners and the consequent high energy consumption. Constructions with thermal insulation on its external walls thatcould reduce energy use or even supply the use of such equipment. Due to these factors the present study was to evaluate the insulation in three boxes built with different materials, one made of wooden boards with plain walls, and two built with plywood, wall insulation andinterior walls filled with rice husk and Styrofoam®. The boxes were built after placed in drying oven at 40 °C, then noted the temperature inside the same interval every five minutes using a digital thermometer. The box with inner Styrofoam® showed the lowest variation among the three evaluated, followed by the box of rice husk. These two materials also showed good thermal initial, unlike the box built only with wood, which showed a large interiorheating, lay in a drying oven.

  7. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement.

  8. UTILIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL BYPRODUCT AS RAW MATERIAL IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAISHALI SAHU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A large quantity of sludge rich in nutrients and microorganisms is generated every year from water and wastewater treatment plants, the final destination of which affects the environment. Generally, dewatered sludge is disposed of by spreading on the land or by land filling. However, space limitations on existing landfill sites and problems of waste stabilization have prompted investigation into alternative reuse techniques and disposal routes for sludge. A more reasonable approach is to view the sludge as a resource that can be recycled or reused. Many researchers have exploited the reuse of lime sludge from water treatment plant and sewage sludge ash as an inexpensive source of soil stabilizer in sub grade stabilization and soft cohesive soil respectively. Sewage sludge pellets (SSP has replaced sand in concrete manufacturing for pavements. The use of SSP as substituting material in raw mix formulation in Portland cement manufacturing has been studied by many researchers. Experimental results showed the feasibility of the partial replacement (15 and 30% of cement by sewage sludge ash (SSA in mortars. This paper highlights the potential of dried sludge, sludge pellets and sludge ash in various building materials for construction.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  10. 30 CFR 717.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all conditions of construction and operation of the impoundment. Sufficient foundation investigations... section. (b) Construction of dams. (1) Waste shall not be used in the construction of dams unless... of § 77.216(a) of this title, shall be approved by the regulatory authority before construction...

  11. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  12. Permittivity Investigations of the Road Construction Raw Materials for Purposes of GPR Data Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    Permittivity is the major material property governing the formation of GPR response signal in diagnostic measurements. Every quantitative interpretation refers explicitly or implicitly to discussion of permittivity values. Thus, the recognition of permittivity for materials typical of the given technological area is necessary to make use of diagnostic measurements. Collection of several tens of stone cores representing different outcrops was investigated in order to obtain cross-sectional view of permittivity for stone materials being in use in Polish road construction industry as components of stone-asphalt mixtures. The main task was to estimate the typical permittivity values for stone materials treated as representation of several major petrological types. The capacimetry (at 50 MHz) was used as major and very efficient method of permittivity assessment and formation of the samples was subordinated to demands of this method. This method allows for determination of permittivity variability on the lateral surface of the cylindrical sample, giving the insight into the major features of the permittivity spatial distribution characteristic for the given rock. For the most homogeneous samples (in terms of permittivity distribution) the permittivity was measured also on the core top at frequency 2 GHz using impulse GPR reflectometry. No clear proofs for considerable permittivity frequency dependence were found (in the frame of the two methods precision) for these rocks. This conclusion can be related generally to major rock-forming minerals at least in dry igneous rocks. Only solid rocks obtained from regular massive outcrops were included to this first cross-sectional sampling, while artificial synthetic materials and natural gravels of postglacial origin were omitted since additional problems occur in these cases. This first experience allowed to recognize practical problems related to the sampling procedure. The collected data allow for provisional identification

  13. Kinetic Adsorption of Ammonium Nitrogen by Substrate Materials for Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-Ling; CUI Li-Hua; OUYANG Ying; LONG Cui-Fen; TANG Xiao-Dan

    2011-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are engineered systems that utilize natural systems including wetland vegetations,soils,and their associated microbial assemblages to assist in treating wastewater.The kinetic adsorption of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) by CW substrate materials such as blast furnace slag (BFS),zeolite,ceramsite,vermiculite,gravel,paddy soil,red soil,and turf,was investigated using batch experiments and kinetic adsorption isotherms.Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could adequately predict the NH4+-N adsorption process.The maximum adsorption capacities of NH4+-N,estimated from the Langmuir isotherm,ranked as:zeolite (33 333.33 mg kg-1) > turf (29274.01 mg kg-1) > BFS (5 000mg kg-1) > vermiculite (3333.33 mg kg-1) > gravel (769.23 mg kg-1) > paddy soil (588.24 mg kg-1) > red soil (555.56mg kg-1) > ceramsite (107.53 mg kg-1).Some properties of the substrate materials,including bulk density,specific gravity,hydraulic conductivity,uniformity coefficient (K60),curvature coefficient (Cc),organic matter,pH,exchangeable (or active) Cu,Fe,Zn and Mn,total Cu,and Fe,Mn,Zn,Cd,Pb and Ca,had negative correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.Other properties of the substrate materials like particle diameter values of D10,D30 and D60 (the diameters of particle sizes of a substrate material at which 10%,30% and 60%,respectively,of the particles pass through the sieve based on the accumulative frequency),cation exchange capacity (CEC),exchangeable (or active) Ca and Mg,and total K and Mg had positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.In addition,active K and Na as well as the total Na had significant positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.This information would be useful for selection of suitable substrate materials for CWs.

  14. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  15. Natural radioactivity of materials used in industry and construction in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Dragana J; Janković, Marija M

    2011-01-01

    Four different kinds of materials (feldspar, gypsum, clay and kaolin) commonly used in building construction and industry in Serbia were analyzed for their natural radioactivity, using gamma spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, Ra(eq), the absorbed dose rate, D, the annual effective dose, D(E), and the external hazard index, H(ex), were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The radium equivalent activities calculated in all samples are lower than the maximum admissible value 370 Bq kg(-1) set in the UNSCEAR report. The absorbed dose rate in air was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.19 μGy h(-1). Considering the fact that the average gamma dose rate indoors in Europe is 0.07 μGy h(-1), gamma dose rate calculated for feldspar, clay and kaolin samples exceed this limit. The obtained results for annual effective dose exceed limits of 0.41 mSv for feldspar, clay and kaolin samples. If the H(ex) exceeds unity, we might conclude that the potential external dose(s) to exposed individual(s) will exceed the acceptable level, and some action may be required. The obtained values of H(ex) are lower than unity for all investigated samples. All samples were measured immediately after preparation, except 10 samples of feldspar, because a comparative analysis were made between 215 samples which were measured immediately after preparation and 10 samples which were measured after radioactive equilibrium was reached in order to detect differences in the obtained concentrations.

  16. Construction and analysis of tag single nucleotide polymorphism maps for six human-mouse orthologous candidate genes in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa M; Smyth, Deborah J; Vella, Adrian; Payne, Felicity; Cooper, Jason D; Pask, Rebecca; Lowe, Christopher; Hulme, John; Smink, Luc J; Fraser, Heather; Moule, Carolyn; Hunter, Kara M; Chamberlain, Giselle; Walker, Neil; Nutland, Sarah; Undlien, Dag E; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Guja, Cristian; Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, Constantin; Savage, David A; Strachan, David P; Peterson, Laurence B; Todd, John A; Wicker, Linda S; Twells, Rebecca C

    2005-01-01

    Background One strategy to help identify susceptibility genes for complex, multifactorial diseases is to map disease loci in a representative animal model of the disorder. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model for human type 1 diabetes. Linkage and congenic strain analyses have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, which have been mapped to small chromosome intervals, for which the orthologous regions in the human genome can be identified. Here, we have conducted re-sequencing and association analysis of six orthologous genes identified in NOD Idd loci: NRAMP1/SLC11A1 (orthologous to Nramp1/Slc11a1 in Idd5.2), FRAP1 (orthologous to Frap1 in Idd9.2), 4-1BB/CD137/TNFRSF9 (orthologous to 4-1bb/Cd137/Tnrfrsf9 in Idd9.3), CD101/IGSF2 (orthologous to Cd101/Igsf2 in Idd10), B2M (orthologous to B2m in Idd13) and VAV3 (orthologous to Vav3 in Idd18). Results Re-sequencing of a total of 110 kb of DNA from 32 or 96 type 1 diabetes cases yielded 220 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sixty-five SNPs, including 54 informative tag SNPs, and a microsatellite were selected and genotyped in up to 1,632 type 1 diabetes families and 1,709 cases and 1,829 controls. Conclusion None of the candidate regions showed evidence of association with type 1 diabetes (P values > 0.2), indicating that common variation in these key candidate genes does not play a major role in type 1 diabetes susceptibility in the European ancestry populations studied. PMID:15720714

  17. Construction and analysis of tag single nucleotide polymorphism maps for six human-mouse orthologous candidate genes in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage David A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One strategy to help identify susceptibility genes for complex, multifactorial diseases is to map disease loci in a representative animal model of the disorder. The nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse is a model for human type 1 diabetes. Linkage and congenic strain analyses have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes loci, which have been mapped to small chromosome intervals, for which the orthologous regions in the human genome can be identified. Here, we have conducted re-sequencing and association analysis of six orthologous genes identified in NOD Idd loci: NRAMP1/SLC11A1 (orthologous to Nramp1/Slc11a1 in Idd5.2, FRAP1 (orthologous to Frap1 in Idd9.2, 4-1BB/CD137/TNFRSF9 (orthologous to 4-1bb/Cd137/Tnrfrsf9 in Idd9.3, CD101/IGSF2 (orthologous to Cd101/Igsf2 in Idd10, B2M (orthologous to B2m in Idd13 and VAV3 (orthologous to Vav3 in Idd18. Results Re-sequencing of a total of 110 kb of DNA from 32 or 96 type 1 diabetes cases yielded 220 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Sixty-five SNPs, including 54 informative tag SNPs, and a microsatellite were selected and genotyped in up to 1,632 type 1 diabetes families and 1,709 cases and 1,829 controls. Conclusion None of the candidate regions showed evidence of association with type 1 diabetes (P values > 0.2, indicating that common variation in these key candidate genes does not play a major role in type 1 diabetes susceptibility in the European ancestry populations studied.

  18. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  19. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  20. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD, physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity, chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses, and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  1. Construction materials used in the historical Roman era bath in Myra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret; Kockal, Niyazi Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  2. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size <0.045 mm), the content of the Al-Si glass phase and the surface characteristics were the main factors, which could affect the accessibility of PAHs for leaching. The mobility of PAHs from OSA of CFB and PF boilers was 20.2 and 9.9%, respectively. Hardening of OSA-based materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.

  3. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  4. USE OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos-Triantafyllos Galbenis; Stamatis Tsimas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the possibility of utilizing Construction and Demolition(C&D) wastes as substitutes of Portland cement raw meal. The C&D wastes that were so used, were the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and the Recycled Masonry Aggregates (RMA) derived from demolished buildings in Attica region, Greece. RCA and RMA samples were selected because of their calcareous and siliceous origin respectively,which conformed the composition of the ordinary Portland cement raw meal. For that reason, six samples of cement raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample, and five by mixing the reference sample with RCA and RMA in appropriate proportions. The effect on the reactivity of the generated mixtures, was evaluated on the basis of the free lime content (fCaO) in the mixtures sintered at 1350℃, 1400℃ and 1450℃. Test showed that the added recycled aggregates improved the burnability of the cement raw meal without affecting negatively the cement clinker properties. Moreover, the formation of the major components (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF) of the produced clinkers(sintered at 1450℃) was corroborated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  5. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of unimolecular pentavalent and hexavalent antigenic constructs targeting prostate and breast cancer: a synthetic route to anticancer vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathi, Govind; Koide, Fusataka; Livingston, Philip O; Cho, Young Shin; Endo, Atsushi; Wan, Qian; Spassova, Maria K; Keding, Stacy J; Allen, Jennifer; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Wilson, Rebecca M; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2006-03-01

    Several novel, fully synthetic, carbohydrate-based antitumor vaccines have been assembled. Each construct consists of multiple cancer-related antigens displayed on a single polypeptide backbone. Recent advances in synthetic methodology have allowed for the incorporation of a complex oligosaccharide terminating in a sialic acid residue (i.e., GM2) as one of the carbohydrate antigens. Details of the vaccine synthesis as well as the results of preliminary immunological investigations are described herein.

  7. Leightweight construction, a key technology for materials saving, energy efficiency and climate protection. Proceedings of the colloquium; Leichtbau, eine Schluesseltechnologie fuer Material-, Energieeffizienz und Klimaschutz. Tagungsband zum Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Otto; Bicker, Marc (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    At the fourth Landshut colloquium on lightweight construction, 24 papers were presented by experts of science and practice on the following subjects: 1. Composite structures; 2. Surface technology and coatings; 3. Foamed aluminium and magnesium; 4. Aluminium and foamed aluminium; 5. Joining techniques; 4. Bolted joints; 6. Metal composites and foamed materials; 7. Core materials for sandwich structures; 8. Fabrication technologies of fibre-reinforced composites; 9. Forming and efficient use of materials; 10. Aluminium moulds; 11. Simulation and optimisation; 12. Lightweight construction in aircraft and vehicle engineering. [German] Im vierten Landshuter Leichtbau-Colloquium-Band werden insgesamt 24 Beitraege von Experten aus Wissenschaft und Praxis aus folgenden Themengebieten vorgestellt: 1. Werkstoffverbundstrukturen, 2. Oberflaechentechnik und -beschichtungen, 3. Aluminiumschaeume und Magnesium, 4. Aluminium und Aluminiumschaeume, 5. Verbindungstechnik, 5. Schraubverbindungen, 6. Metallische Verbundwerkstoffe und Schaeume, 7. Kernmaterialien fuer Sandwichstrukturen, 8. Fertigungstechnologien Faserverbundstrukturen, 9. Umformen / Effizienter Materialeinsatz, 10. Urformen mit Aluminium, 11. Simulation und Optimierung und 12. Leichtbau im Luftfahrzeug- und Fahrzeugbau.

  8. Antenna Construction & Propagation of Radio Waves, 5-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps, Washington, DC.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of five individualized, self-paced chapters dealing with antenna construction and propagation of radio waves. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: basic electricity; antenna transmission-line fundamentals; quarter-wave antennas, half-wave antennas, and associated radio…

  9. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material and methods Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n = 15 each) according to investing method: plaster–plaster–plaster (P–P–P), plaster–stone–stone (P-S-S), and plaster–mix (P–M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I–I) and intermolar (M–M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor–molar (LI–LM and RI–RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to compare the results. Results M–M, LI–LM, and RI–RM movement was significantly greater in the P–P–P group than in the P–S–S and P–M groups; no significant difference in I–I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M–M and I–I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P–P–P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. Conclusion The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement. PMID:26792971

  10. Compound soil-tyre chips modified by cement as a road construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Promputthangkoon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to overcome the two problems of low-quality soil and a growing number of discarded tyres bymixing low-CBR soil with recycled tyre chips. The compound soil-tyre chips was then stabilised by Portland cement with theaim of using them as a new material in road construction in order to reduce the occurrence of shrinkage cracks. To achievethe purposes of this research three standard geotechnical testing programmes were employed: (1 modified compaction tests,(2 California Bearing Ratio tests (CBR, and (3 unconfined compression tests. The modified compaction test results provedthat for the mixtures having very low tyre chips and cement content, the behaviour is very complex. It was also observed thatthe greater the percentage of rubber added the lower the global density. However, this is predictable as the specific gravityof the rubber is much lower than that of the soil. For the relationship between the optimum moisture content (OMC and thecement content, it was observed that there is no clear pattern.For the specimens having no cement added, the CBR for unsoaked specimens was observed to be greater than that forsoaked specimens. However, when the cement was introduced the CBR test showed that the resistance to penetration for thesoaked specimens was significantly greater, indicating the effects of cement added on the strength. In addition, it was foundthat the CBR values for both soaked and unsoaked specimens gradually increased with the increase of cement content.Lastly, the unconfined compressive strength progressively increased with the increased percentage of cement.

  11. Oral Candidal Colonization in the Patients with RPDs by Different Base Materials%RPDs基托材料对口腔念珠菌定植的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜薇; 陈骏; 吴凌莉; 何祥一; 车团结

    2011-01-01

    目的:初步研究可摘局部义齿(RPDs)不同基托材料对口腔念珠菌的定植的影响.方法:临床随机选择RPDs修复患者147例.其中树脂基托义齿(A组)58例,钴铬合金铸造基托义齿(B组)63例,纯钛及钛合金铸造基托义齿(C组)26例.吐唾法取样,用CHROMagar培养基鉴定念珠菌菌种.培养基中念珠菌菌落计数为每个样本的念珠菌检出强度.通过统计学方法,比较3组不同基托材料义齿戴用人群念珠菌检出率和检出强度的差异.结果:147例不同基托材料义齿戴用人群中检出的念珠菌包括白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、克柔念珠菌3个菌种.A、B、C组白色念珠菌和非白色念珠菌检出率无显著差异.白色念珠菌的菌落形成单位数,A组显著高于B、C组(P<0.05);B组显著高于C组(P<0.05).非白色念珠菌间的菌落形成单位数无明显差异.结论:戴不同材料义齿患者口腔除了能检出白色念珠菌,还可检出非白色念珠菌;口腔念珠菌的菌落形成单位数与义齿基托材料密切相关,钛及钛合金基托义齿应为预防义齿性口炎的首选义齿.%Objective: To study of the oral Candidal colonization status with different base-materials denture. Methods: 147 cases who wear RPDs were divided into three groups: group A (resin base denture), group B (Co- Cr alloy base denture) . And group C (Titanium and Titanium alloy base denture). Non- stimulated saliva were collected by standard procedure as before. Salivary samples were inoculated on CHROMagar Candida? To identify Candida strains. The total number of colonies was considered as the detectable intensity of oral Candida. Statistical analysis was used to compare the differences of detection rate and detection intensity between three denture materials. Results; Candida was isolated from 147 cases who wear different base materials denture, such as Candida albi-cans. Candida tropical, Candida krusei. The frequency of Candida

  12. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  13. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-10-31

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated. (FS)

  14. [Constructing images and territories: thinking on the visuality and materiality of remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the question of the image in science, thinking about how visual practices contribute towards the construction of knowledge and territories. The growing centrality of the visual in current scientific practices shows the need for reflection that goes beyond the image. The object of discussion will be the scientific images used in the monitoring and visualization of territory. The article looks into the relations between visuality and a number of other factors: the researchers that construct it; the infrastructure involved in the construction; and the institutions and policies that monitor the territory. It is argued that such image-relations do not just visualize but help to construct the territory based on specific forms. Exploring this process makes it possible to develop a more complex understanding of the forms through which sciences and technology help to construct realities.

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Degaltseva Z. V.; Shulepina S. A.; Ovsiyenko E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the ...

  17. Materialising Bodies: There Is Nothing More Material than a Socially Constructed Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Over the last one of two decades, researchers within the physical education (PE) and sport pedagogy research frequently use the concept "the material body". An initial purpose of this article is to explore what a concept of a "material body" might mean. What other bodies are there? Who would dispute the materiality of bodies? I…

  18. Bricolage as Institutional Maintenance Work: integrating new construction materials into heritage buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Colombero, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Listed-buildings refers to buildings that are protected by the state because of their recognized status as national patrimony. Many listed buildings are currently undergoing various construction works, such as renovation or extension, to preserve them while keeping intact the function for which they were originally built. Increased use of construction practices pertaining to Sustainable Development is calling for insight into the process through which these kinds of bu...

  19. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  20. A preliminary report on the use of cane and bamboo as basic construction materials for orthotic and prosthetic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, B; Banerji, J B

    1984-08-01

    Cane and bamboo have been found to be viable and alternative basic construction materials for orthotic/prosthetic appliances and rehabilitation aids. Amongst the appliances made, the night splint and the upper limb splints have proved effective in field trials. The lower limb orthoses and prosthesis however are still at an experimental stage. Of the rehabilitation aids, walkers, crutches and wheelchairs have been found to be remarkably useful, cheap and light.

  1. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  2. Construction and operation of a system for secure and precise medical material distribution in disaster areas after Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Xu, Jiankang; Ma, Jian; Cheng, Shusen; Shi, Yingkang

    2009-11-01

    After the Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th , 2008, under the strong leadership of the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee, the People's Government of Sichuan Province, and the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Medical Security Team working at the Sichuan Provincial Headquarters for Wenchuan Earthquake and Disaster Relief Work constructed a secure medical material distribution system through coordination and interaction among and between regions, systems, and departments.

  3. Construction of material and life science experimental facility under high intensity proton accelerator project

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Y

    2002-01-01

    The outline of construction of 1MW pulse spallation neutron source in the MLF experimental facility is explained in this paper. The object, project activities, project team and construction of group are stated. 1MW pulse nuclear spallation neutron source, neutron source design and technical problems, Hg target, the basic parameters, neutron source station, moderator, reflector, shield, shutter, low temperature system, facility, spectrometer, and neutron experimental device are explained. The nuclear calculation code and nuclear data used as technical support and computer environment are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  4. Growing grass: a smart material interactive display, design and construction history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, Andrea; Nijholt, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we will present the design process and development of 'Follow the Grass', our smart material interactive pervasive display, with related technical detailed explanation. We will present the design steps and prototypes with instructions for the use of smart materials (NiTiNOL) to create

  5. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia

    2016-04-01

    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  6. Clay raw materials from the Triassic Red Beds (Northern JaéUy Spain for making ceramic construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Triassic Red Beds from northern Jaén in the production of structural clay products has been evaluated. These materials have high phyllosilicate contents (36-69%, although some samples are enriched in quartz (<8-54% and feldspars (<5-2I%. Dolomite (<5-20% and calcite (< 7% are present. Illite is the main phyllosilicate (96-74%, kaolinite values are rather low (<17% and chlorite is present in low content (<14%. The studied samples have high silica (39.2-74.8% and alumina (6.9-18.3% content. K4ost of the samples have low CaO and MgO concentrations (<6%. <2 pm (64-36% and 2-20 pm (68-36% are the predominant grain size fraction of the studied samples. Low plasticity for extrusion process of the Triassic Red Beds is not appropriated for making bricks and roofing tiles by themselves. However, water absorption and linear shrinkage values are often suitable for manufacturing bricks. A small number of samples are appropriated for making roofing tiles, due to the its high firing shrinkage. Mixing of these materials with different proportions of complementary raw materials would allow to make porous bodies.

    En este trabajo se ha evaluado el uso de las Capas Rojas Triásicas de la Cobertera Tabular del Macizo Ibérico del norte de la provincia de Jaén para elaborar materiales cerámicos. Estos materiales tienen altos contenidos en filosilicatos (36-69%, aunque algunas muestras son ricas en cuarzo (hasta 54% y feldespatos (hasta 21%. Los carbonatos presentes en las muestras son dolomita (<5-20% y calcita (<7%. La illita es el principal filosilicato (96-74%, mientras que la caolinita y la clorita están presentes en bajos contenidos (< 17%. Las muestras estudiadas tienen altos contenidos en sílice (39,2-74,8% y alúmina (6,9-18,3%. La mayoría de estas arcillas tienen bajas concentraciones de CaO y MgO (<6%. Las fracciones granulométricas predominantes son la< 2 pm (64-36% y la situada entre 2 y 20 pm (68-36%. La baja plasticidad

  7. 75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... the NBI: steel, concrete, pre-stressed concrete, and other. The category ``other'' includes wood, timber, masonry, aluminum, wrought iron, cast iron, and other. Material type is the predominate type...

  8. Functional Inorganic Materials with Complex Form: Construction, Self-assembly Principles and Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuhong; YANG Jian; LIU Biao; GUO Xiaohui; CUI Xianjin

    2011-01-01

    There is a rich and long history of gaining inspiration from the nature for the design of practical materials and systems.Biominerals are well-known composites of inorganic and organic materials in the form of fascinating shapes and highly ordered structures existing in the natural world, such as pearl, oyster shells, corals, ivory, sea urchin spines, cuttlefish bone, limpet teeth, magnetic crystals in bacteria and human bones that are created by living organisms.During the past few decades, it has become one of the most influencing subjects in materials proteins, which involve in all the processes of multicell organisms, such as fertilization, differentiation, development, immunity, infection, and cancer.chemistry to explore new bio-inspired strategies for selfassembling or surface-assembling molecules or colloids to generate materials with controlled morphologies,

  9. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction.

  10. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  11. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  12. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-06-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions.

  13. Nondestructive indication of fatigue damage and residual lifetime in ferromagnetic construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, Ondřej; Vértesy, Gábor; Kadlecová, Jana

    2014-06-01

    A new revolutionary attitude toward investigation of fatigue damage in cyclically loaded steel samples is reported. The measurement is based on the method of magnetic adaptive testing, which--in contrast to traditional magnetic hysteresis investigations--picks up the relevant information from systematic measurement and evaluation of whole minor magnetic hysteresis loops and their derivatives. Satisfactory correlations between nondestructively measured magnetic descriptors and actual lifetime of the fatigued material were found. The presented method is able to serve as a powerful tool for indication of changes, which occur in the structure of the inspected objects during their industrial service lifetime, as long as they are manufactured from ferromagnetic materials.

  14. A dialogue regarding "The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David; Prain, Vaughan; Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    Science fiction and the `technofantasies' of the future that it provides may attract some students to study physics. The details and assumptions informing these `imaginaries' may, on the other hand, be unattractive to other students, or imply that there is not a place for them. This forum discussion complements Cathrine Hasse's paper discussing the ways in which gender and other interests interact in the `entanglement' of physics and science fiction. The conversation interrogates some of the issues in Cathrine's paper, and brings in complementary literatures and perspectives. It discusses the possibility of a `successor science' and new, more inclusive ways of imagining and constructing our possible futures.

  15. Surface constructions of nano TiO_2 as the environmental and energy materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TiO_2 has attracted an increasing attention because of its variety of potential applications in environments and energies,such as gas sensing,self-cleaning,solar energy conversion, wettability and photo-catalysis applications.In this presentation,we summarize some progress in surface constructions of nano TiO_2 and its characterizations of physicochemistry and properties. (1)Superhydrophobic nanostructure TiO_2 films Superhydrophobic nanotube,nanopore and sponge-like structure TiO_2 films are fabricated ...

  16. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  17. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    to change the status of different ashes from waste to raw material and that export for disposal will be no longer be allowed. We wish to influence the consequences from this new situation. In principle some of the ashes can be used already, but the huge variation in ash characteristics and lack of knowledge...

  18. Verification of Design and Construction Techniques for Gaillard Island Dredged Material Disposal Area, Mobile, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    34turbidity plume study" was conducted by Timothy Sullivan, of the MDO. The purpose of the study was to determine the thickness and aerial ex- tent of a...actual velume cut from the channel would be only 7.2 million cubic yards. 92. The Lenel Bean dredge excavated about 5.3 million cubic yards of material

  19. Use of non-standardised micro-destructive techniques in the characterization of traditional construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Theodoridou, Magdalini; Modestou, Sevasti; Fournari, Revecca; Dagrain, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of material properties and the diagnosis of their state of weathering and conservation are three of the most important steps in the field of cultural heritage preservation. Several standardised experimental methods exist, especially for determining the material properties and their durability. However, they are limited in their application by the required size of test specimens and the controlled laboratory conditions needed to undertake the tests; this is especially true when the materials under study constitute immovable parts of heritage structures. The current use of other advanced methods of analysis, such as imaging techniques, in the aforementioned field of research offers invaluable results. However, these techniques may not always be accessible to the wider research community due to their complex nature and relatively high cost of application. This study presents innovative applications of two recently developed cutting techniques; the portable Drilling Resistance Measuring System (DRMS) and the scratch tool. Both methods are defined as micro-destructive, since they only destroy a very small portion of sample material. The general concept of both methods lies within the forces needed to cut a material by linear (scratch tool) or rotational (DRMS) cutting action; these forces are related to the mechanical properties of the material and the technological parameters applied on the tool. Therefore, for a given testing configuration, the only parameter influencing the forces applied is the strength of the material. These two techniques have been used alongside a series of standardised laboratory tests aiming at the correlation of various stone properties (density, porosity, dynamic elastic modulus and uniaxial compressive strength). The results prove the potential of both techniques in assessing the uniaxial compressive strength of stones. The scratch tool has also been used effectively to estimate the compressive strength of mud bricks. It

  20. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-04-22

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge-as an ontological and/or aesthetic category-has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world.

  1. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Technology Transfer Opportunities for the Construction Engineering Community: Materials and Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-27

    34 .. CC .0 clj 0 C.C. -" C 4)4) 0 C.27 ROOF BLISTER VALVE Charles Korhonen U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Annually, the Army...7122 (within Illinois). REFERENCES 1. A. Kumar, E. C. Segan, and J. Bukowski , "Ceramic Coated Anodes for Cathodic Protection," Materials Performance...Chief of Engineers. References: (Available from the author) 1. "Roof Moisture Surveys: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," by Wayne Tobiasson and Charles

  3. Constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling can twist materials to create spiral structures in optical vortex illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barada, Daisuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Juman, Guzhaliayi; Yoshida, Itsuki [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige, E-mail: omatsu@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Molecular Chirality Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawata, Shigeo [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Ohno, Seigo [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    It was discovered that optical vortices twist isotropic and homogenous materials, e.g., azo-polymer films to form spiral structures on a nano- or micro-scale. However, the formation mechanism has not yet been established theoretically. To understand the mechanism of the spiral surface relief formation in the azo-polymer film, we theoretically investigate the optical radiation force induced in an isotropic and homogeneous material under irradiation using a continuous-wave optical vortex with arbitrary topological charge and polarization. It is revealed that the spiral surface relief formation in azo-polymer films requires the irradiation of optical vortices with a positive (negative) spin angular momentum and a positive (negative) orbital angular momentum (constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling), i.e., the degeneracy among the optical vortices with the same total angular momentum is resolved.

  4. Construction and Application of a National Data-Sharing Service Network of Material Environmental Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the key features of a newly developed national data-sharing online network for material environmental corrosion. Written in Java language and based on Oracle database technology, the central database in the network is supported with two unique series of corrosion failure data, both of which were accumulated during a long period of time. The first category of data, provided by national environment corrosion test sites, is corrosion failure data for different materials in typical environments (atmosphere, seawater and soil. The other category is corrosion data in production environments, provided by a variety of firms. This network system enables standardized management of environmental corrosion data, an effective data sharing process, and research and development support for new products and after-sale services. Moreover this network system provides a firm base and data-service platform for the evaluation of project bids, safety, and service life. This article also discusses issues including data quality management and evaluation in the material corrosion data sharing process, access authority of different users, compensation for providers of shared historical data, and finally, the related policy and law legal processes, which are required to protect the intellectual property rights of the database.

  5. Ceramic Carbon/Polypyrrole Materials for the Construction of Bienzymatic Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was constructed by electrochemical formation of a polypyrrole (PPy) membrane in the presence of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the surface of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) mediated sol-gel derived ceramic carbon electrode. The amperometric detection of glucose was carried out at +0.16 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) with a linear response range between 8.0×10-5 and 1.3×10-3 mol/L of glucose. The biosensor showed a good suppression of inter- ference and a negligible deviation in the amperometric detection.

  6. Usage of Local Raw Material in the Construction of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18, Bujang Valley, Kedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

  7. The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of doing science. There are many kinds of fiction within the science fiction genre. In the presented empirical exploration physics students seem particularly fond of what is called `hard science fiction': a particular type of science fiction dealing with technological developments (Hartwell and Cramer in The hard SF renaissance, Orb/TOR, New York, 2002). Especially hard science fiction as a motivating fantasy may, however, also come with a gender bias. The locally materialized techno-fantasies spurring dreams of the terraforming of planets like Mars and travels in time and space may not be shared by all physics students. Especially female students express a need for other concerns in science. The entanglement of physics with hard science fiction may thus help develop some students' interest in learning school physics and help create an interest for studying physics at university level. But research indicates that especially female students are not captured by the hard techno-fantasies to the same extent as some of their male colleagues. Other visions (e.g. inspired by soft science fiction) are not materialized as a resource in the local educational culture. It calls for an argument of how teaching science is also teaching cultural values, ethics and concerns, which may be gendered. Teaching materials, like the use of hard science fiction in education, may not just be (yet another) gender bias in science education but also carrier of particular visions for scientific endeavours.

  8. Radioactivity concentration measurement and analysis in construction floor materials of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, H. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the radioactive concentrations contained in samples of commonly used building floor materials were measured. This result can be used as basic information for public health and the environment. Among building floor materials, samples of induction blocks, cement bricks, artificial granite blocks and compact high-pressure blocks were chosen and used. A detailed gamma nuclide analysis was performed with a multichannel analyzer by putting these samples on a high-purity germanium detector which is a semiconductor detector. In order to measure the concentration of radionuclides, a spectrum file was obtained by analyzing the concentration of gamma radionuclides and setting the measurement time as 1000, 4000, 7000 and 10,000 s. According to the study results, K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and U-235 were detected in the induction blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Th-230, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and Na-22 were detected in the cement bricks measured at 10,000 s. K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, U-235 and Ra-223 were detected in the artificial granite blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, Ra-226, Ra-223 and Mn-54 were detected in the compact high-pressure blocks. In conclusion, low-level radioactivity was detected in building floor materials, so it is thought that measures to reduce radioactivity and further studies on this will be needed.

  9. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  10. Scientific basis for creation of construction materials based on titanium and alumina minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O.; Shmakova, A.; Ponaryadov, A.

    2017-02-01

    Currently there is a need in affordable and accessible materials with specific physical and chemical properties. Al- and Ti-minerals are excellent test objects for correlation between structure and physical properties of mineral. For example, corundum and ilmenite are related to the same structural type (rhombohedral lattice R3) and possess various physical properties. With the help of modern equipment we studied titanium- and aluminum-containing concentrates of natural raw and also products of various kinds of influences on them, which showed signs of nanostructuring. We observed methods of directional change of physical and chemical characteristics of Al- and Ti-minerals and creation of new commercial products.

  11. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zea Escamilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI. All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount into mass (kg units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road and international (freight ship, which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5

  12. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Escamilla, E; Habert, G

    2015-09-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article "Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs"[5].

  13. Hospital construction materials: poor shielding capacity with respect to signals transmitted by mobile telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, E; Watanabe, Y; Antoku, Y; Kenjo, Y; Nutahara, H; Nose, Y

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) with electronic medical equipment by the handsets of mobile telephones is a well documented problem in hospitals. To gain information about how to build an EMI-free hospital and how to make rooms safe for mobile telephone handset use in the hospital building the authors measured the shielding capacities of a concrete wall, concrete blocks, a steel door, and steel-surfaced partition panels. The shielding capacities of these materials were 2-7 dB for the concrete wall, 6-8 dB for the concrete blocks, 19-27 dB for the steel door, and 20-37 dB for the steel-surfaced partition panels. These results indicate that care should be taken to shield electronic equipment from signals coming from neighboring rooms and from those under and above any patient room in which such equipment is in use. Electricity-conductive paint, electricity-conductive wallpaper, and electricity-conductive cloth are examples of inexpensive materials that can increase shielding capacity.

  14. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwen Bouasker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  15. Controlled mechanical buckling for origami-inspired construction of 3D microstructures in advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jiechen; Liu, Fei; Guo, Xuelin; Nan, Kewang; Lin, Qing; Gao, Mingye; Xiao, Dongqing; Shi, Yan; Qiu, Yitao; Luan, Haiwen; Kim, Jung Hwan; Wang, Yiqi; Luo, Hongying; Han, Mengdi; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A

    2016-04-25

    Origami is a topic of rapidly growing interest in both the scientific and engineering research communities due to its promising potential in a broad range of applications. Previous assembly approaches of origami structures at the micro/nanoscale are constrained by the applicable classes of materials, topologies and/or capability of control over the transformation. Here, we introduce an approach that exploits controlled mechanical buckling for autonomic origami assembly of 3D structures across material classes from soft polymers to brittle inorganic semiconductors, and length scales from nanometers to centimeters. This approach relies on a spatial variation of thickness in the initial 2D structures as an effective strategy to produce engineered folding creases during the compressive buckling process. The elastic nature of the assembly scheme enables active, deterministic control over intermediate states in the 2D to 3D transformation in a continuous and reversible manner. Demonstrations include a broad set of 3D structures formed through unidirectional, bidirectional, and even hierarchical folding, with examples ranging from half cylindrical columns and fish scales, to cubic boxes, pyramids, starfish, paper fans, skew tooth structures, and to amusing system-level examples of soccer balls, model houses, cars, and multi-floor textured buildings.

  16. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Silvestre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions, including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  17. ELWIRA "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials": University meets school - science meets high school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    The research project "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials" (ELWIRA) is in the framework of the Sparkling Science programme performed by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences together with the Billroth Gymnasium in Vienna. The targets of a Sparkling Science project are twofold (a) research and scientific activities should already be transferred in the education methods of schools in order to fascinate high school students for scientific methods and to spark young people's interest in research, and (b) exciting research questions not solved and innovative findings should be addressed. The high school students work together with the scientists on their existing research questions improve the school's profile and the high school student knowledge in the investigated Sparkling Science topic and can lead to a more diverse viewing by the involvement of the high school students. In the project ELWIRA scientists collaborate with the school to quantify and evaluate the properties of classical building materials like concrete and natural materials like plants and woodlogs in terms of their life cycle through the use of different laboratory and field methods. The collaboration with the high school students is structured in workshops, laboratory work and fieldworks. For an efficient coordination/communication, learning and research progress new advanced electronic media like "Moodle classes/courses" have been used and utilized by the high school students with great interest. The Moodle classes are of high importance in the knowledge transfer in the dialogue with the high school students. The research project is structured into four main areas associated with the efficiencies of building materials: (a) the aesthetic feeling of people in terms of the appearance of materials and associated structures will be evaluated by means of jointly developed and collected questionnaires. The analysis, interpretation and evaluation are carried

  18. Facile construction of 3D graphene/MoS2 composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhua; Li, Zhangpeng; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Limin; Wang, Jinqing; Yang, Shengrong

    2016-11-01

    Flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) microstructures are synthesized based on three-dimensional graphene (3DG) skeleton via a simple and facile one-step hydrothermal method, aiming at constructing series of novel composite electrode materials of 3DG/MoS2 with high electrochemical performances for supercapacitors. The electrochemical properties of the samples are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Specifically, the optimal 3DG/MoS2 composite exhibits remarkable performances with a high specific capacitance of 410 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and an excellent cycling stability with ca. 80.3% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 2 A g-1, making it adaptive for high-performance supercapacitors. The enhanced electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the combination of 3DG and flower-like MoS2, which provides excellent charge transfer network and electrolyte diffusion channels while effectively prevents the collapse, aggregation and morphology change of active materials during charge-discharge process. The results demonstrate that 3DG/MoS2 composite is one of the attractive electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  19. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillos, que incluyen cáscara de cacao, aserr ín, cáscara de arroz y caña de azúcar. En primer lugar, se determinó la compos ición mineralógica y química de los residuos y del suelo arcill oso. A continuación, los ladrillos se fabricaron con diferentes cantid ades de residuos (5%, 10% y 20%. El efecto de la adición de es tos residuos en el comportamiento tecnológico del ladrillo se evaluó mediant e ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, resistencia a la flex ión y durabilidad. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, las cantidad es óptimas de residuos agroindustriales para obtener ladrillos fueron mezclando 10% de cáscara de cacao y 90% de suelo arcilloso. Est os porcentajes producen ladrillos cuyas propiedades mecánicas e ran adecuadas para su uso como materias primas secundarias en la pr oducción de ladrillos.

  20. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  1. Shield construction methods. Recent status and examples of development of material transportation systems; Shirudo koho. Saikin no shizai hanso system kaihatsu genkyo to jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, M.; Tazaki, A.; Makigami, S. [Tomoe Electric Manufacturing Company, Limited, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    Material transportation in a shield construction is assigned to transporting segments, aggregates, and pipes, particularly the segment transportation being the major assignment. Other materials are transported in spare moments between the segment transportation as required. The other materials can often be transported by utilizing segment transporting vehicles. Thus, for a transportation system in the shield construction, a segment transportation system which can synchronize with construction cycles based on those for a shield excavation machine is considered most importantly, and developed as the main force. The segment transportation system is classified into a rail type transportation system and a tire type transportation system. A high-speed transportation system of the former type transports materials at as high speed as 8 to 15 km/h. An Abt-system railway type steep-slope transportation system operates on slopes as steep as 20 to 40%. The tire transportation system is advantageous from an environmental preservation viewpoint. This paper introduces examples of constructions using a high-speed construction system for long tunnel construction, a steep-slope material transportation system, and an automatic trackless system. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 略论公路施工项目材料管理模式%Discuss the Material Management Mode of Highway Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕希军

    2014-01-01

    公路施工项目中,材料费用占总支出的比重较大。对于现如今企业管理的模式,如何加强施工单位的材料管理,达到降低工程施工成本的目的,成为企业发展的关键。本文通过对施工中材料的管理做出了讨论。%In the highway construction project, material costs account for the proportion of total spending is bigger. For today's enterprise management mode, how to strengthen the management of construction materials and achieve the goal of reducing construction cost so as to become the key of the enterprises development. This article mainly discusses the material management in highway engineering construction.

  3. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  4. Improved tunable filter-based multispectral imaging system for detection of blood stains on construction material substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janchaysang, Suwatwong; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2013-06-01

    We present the improved tunable filter based multispectral imaging system for detecting blood stains on construction materials. Based upon the reflectance and Kubelka Munk absorbance spectra stocked from our previous work, we modify the blood discrimination criteria to make the system more efficient by replacing the old criteria which make use of polynomial fitting with new criteria associated with a few wavelengths images. The newly established criteria are tested to be able to detect blood against other stains almost as efficient as the old criteria, while the number of spectral images required for detecting blood stains are reduced significantly from 64 to 9 spectral images. The reduction of required spectral images will reduce the time needed for image capturing and blood detection criteria application with little sacrificing of the specificity and sensitivity of the system.

  5. Using expanded real options analysis to evaluate capacity expansion decisions under uncertainty in the construction material industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momani, Amer Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Capacity expansion generally requires large capital expenditure on illiquid assets. Therefore, decisions to enlarge capacity must support the organisation’s strategic objectives and provide valuable input for the budgeting process. This paper applies an expanded form of Real Options Analysis (ROA to generate and evaluate capacity expansion strategies under uncertainty in the construction material industry. ROA is applied to different expansion strategies associated with different demand scenarios. Evaluating a wider variety of strategies can reduce risk and sponsor decisions that maximise the firm’s value. The case study shows that the execution of a lead expansion strategy with 10-year intervals under a 50 per cent demand satisfaction scenario produces superior results.

  6. Antifriction and Construction Materials Based on Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Reinforced with Mineral and Synthetic Fibrous Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistr, M. V.; Boiko, V. S.; Lipko, E. O.; Gerasimenko, K. O.; Gomza, Yu. P.; Vesnin, R. L.; Chernyayev, A. V.; Ananchenko, B. A.; Kovalenko, V. L.

    2014-05-01

    Novel polymer composite materials (PCM) based on resole phenol-formaldehyde resins modified with polyamide and reinforced with a combination of organic and inorganic fibrous fillers have been developed. PCM are characterized by a Charpy impact strength of up to 250 kJ/m2, an ultimate strength in static bending of up to 468 MPa, an ultimate strength in compression of up to 178 MPa, a Martens thermal stability of up to 300 °C, a friction coefficient of up to 0.12, and mass wear of up to 0.76 mg/(cm2 · km). They can be used for the fabrication of products intended for antifriction and constructional purposes.

  7. Honeycomb core material for sandwich construction - with common hexagonal walls bonded by thermoplastic resin and free walls carrying layer of resin and masking agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    unknown

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of NL 8902116 (A) In a honeycomb core material for a sandwich construction, the common hexagonal walls are bonded together by a thermoplastic resin, and the free hexagonal walls carry a layer of the same resin and also a masking agent. - A number of plates of raw material are given strips

  8. Fostering Student Sense Making in Elementary Science Learning Environments: Elementary Teachers' Use of Science Curriculum Materials to Promote Explanation Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.; Biggers, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    While research has shown that elementary (K-5) students are capable of engaging in the scientific practice of explanation construction, commonly-used elementary science curriculum materials may not always afford them opportunities to do so. As a result, elementary teachers must often adapt their science curriculum materials to better support…

  9. CONSTRUCTION OF DOUBLE CHAMBERED MICROBIAL FUEL CELL (MFC USING HOUSEHOLD MATERIALS AND BACILLUS MEGATERIUM ISOLATE FROM TEA GARDEN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Borah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out for the isolation and screening of potential bioelectricity generating bacteria from tea garden soil samples and also to construct an indigenous microbial fuel cell (MFC using house hold materials. Bacillus megaterium was found to the best isolate for the production of bioelectricity, out of a total of 25 bacterial isolates from soil samples of Lepetkata Tea Estate of Dibrugarh district of Assam. The isolate was identified on the basis of staining techniques and biochemical characteristics. Double chambered MFC was constructed by using two poly acrylic containers of 500 ml volume each. The two chambers were connected using an agar salt bridge and carbon rods were used as electrodes. The electricity generated by the isolate was compared using glucose and fructose as sole carbon source in minimal media. The maximum voltage was found to be 440 mV in presence of glucose as sole carbon source after 84 hrs of incubation at room temperature. The voltage was further increased up to 698 mV after the media was supplemented with 1.5 % (w/v yeast extract, which would have served as additional source of vitamin to the bacteria to proliferate. During the entire study, the experimental set up was allowed to incubate at room temperature and occasional shaking was done manually, hence no external electricity was required. With all the above features the isolate Bacillus megaterium was found to be a good source of bioelectricity.

  10. Environmental impact of highway construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. Case study: crumb rubber asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Nelson, Peter O; Thayumanavan, Pugazhendhi; Williamson, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    The practice of incorporating certain waste products into highway construction and repair materials (CRMs) has become more popular. These practices have prompted the National Academy of Science, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) to research the possible impacts of these CRMs on the quality of surface and ground waters. State department of transportations (DOTs) are currently experimenting with use of ground tire rubber ( crumb rubber) in bituminous construction and as a crack sealer. Crumb rubber asphalt concrete (CR-AC) leachates contain a mixture of organic and metallic contaminants. Benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone (organic compounds used in tire rubber manufacturing) and the metals mercury and aluminum were leached in potentially harmful concentrations (exceeding toxic concentrations for aquatic toxicity tests). CR-AC leachate exhibited moderate to high toxicity for algae ( Selenastrum capriconutum) and moderate toxicity for water fleas ( Daphnia magna). Benzothiazole was readily removed from CR-AC leachate by the environmental processes of soil sorption, volatilization, and biodegradation. Metals, which do not volatilize or photochemically or biologically degrade, were removed from the leachate by soil sorption. Contaminants from CR-AC leachates are thus degraded or retarded in their transport through nearby soils and ground waters.

  11. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Rice Husks in Unfired Bricks for Sustainable Construction Materials Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of sustainable construction component could prevent and control the pollution and environmental degradation in Malaysia. This is a key area in Malaysia’s Green Strategies (Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment, 2002. This paper reports on the laboratory investigation to establish the potential of utilizing Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk (RH in developing green construction components. Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC reported that currently Malaysia’s contribution to world palm oil production is 39% and has taken 44% of world exports. Consequently it will increase the POFA production in palm oil manufacturing and this waste sometimes dispose in open area near the factory. On the other hand Malaysia also producing more 300k hectares of paddy production, thus rice husk is also a concern as an agricultural waste. The research objective is to study on the potential of utilizing of agricultural waste in developing of green bricks. This research involved laboratory investigations. In this research 2% - 10% of POFA and 1% - 5% RH were used in the mix composition of the brick’s weight. Addition of POFA was aimed to reduce the cement usage and RH was added to reduce sand in the bricks. The bricks were manually pressed in Materials Laboratory in Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Shah Alam. The result showed that the addition of POFA and RH are able to reduce the density but in contrast the compressive strength were decrease compare to the control unit.

  12. A single-source precursor route to anisotropic halogen-doped zinc oxide particles as a promising candidate for new transparent conducting oxide materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lehr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous applications in optoelectronics require electrically conducting materials with high optical transparency over the entire visible light range. A solid solution of indium oxide and substantial amounts of tin oxide for electronic doping (ITO is currently the most prominent example for the class of so-called TCOs (transparent conducting oxides. Due to the limited, natural occurrence of indium and its steadily increasing price, it is highly desired to identify materials alternatives containing highly abundant chemical elements. The doping of other metal oxides (e.g., zinc oxide, ZnO is a promising approach, but two problems can be identified. Phase separation might occur at the required high concentration of the doping element, and for successful electronic modification it is mandatory that the introduced heteroelement occupies a defined position in the lattice of the host material. In the case of ZnO, most attention has been attributed so far to n-doping via substitution of Zn2+ by other metals (e.g., Al3+. Here, we present first steps towards n-doped ZnO-based TCO materials via substitution in the anion lattice (O2− versus halogenides. A special approach is presented, using novel single-source precursors containing a potential excerpt of the target lattice 'HalZn·Zn3O3' preorganized on the molecular scale (Hal = I, Br, Cl. We report about the synthesis of the precursors, their transformation into halogene-containing ZnO materials, and finally structural, optical and electronic properties are investigated using a combination of techniques including FT-Raman, low-T photoluminescence, impedance and THz spectroscopies.

  13. Processing of ash and slag waste of heating plants by arc plasma to produce construction materials and nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Yu; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    simultaneously to receive a condensed product in the form of carbon sublimated nanoparticles, which can be found further use in construction materials, in particular in high-strength concrete and other materials.

  14. Evaluating the Performance of Absolute RSSI Positioning Algorithm-Based Microzoning and RFID in Construction Materials Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Truijens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High accuracy of construction materials tracking with radio frequency identification technology (RFID is challenging to achieve. The microzoning method consists essentially of an absolute received signal strength indication (RSSI positioning algorithm on the basis of measuring the distance of tag from antennas base. In this paper, we analyse and examine the effects of microzoning method on the performance of RFID tags. A system was set up whereby RFID tags and antennas with the microzoning method were developed and studied. The performance of the tag antennas was studied with the practical read-range measurements. The study results showed that this absolute algorithm worked reliably and was suitable for RFID applications requiring identification of positions of onsite materials and components. The results also showed that the algorithm achieved a large read range and high accuracy. The study investigates the RFID solutions for Australian LNG (liquefied natural gas industry and was initiated by the collaboration between Woodside Energy, Curtin University, and Industrial Automation Group Pty Ltd.

  15. An attempt to elaborate a construct to measure the degree of explicitness and implicitness in ELT materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Cantos Gómez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of explicit and implicit (knowledge are at the core of SLA studies. We take explicit as conscious and declarative (knowledge; implicit as unconscious, automatic and procedural (knowledge (DeKeyser, 2003; R. Ellis, 2005a, 2005b, 2009; Hulstjin, 2005; Robinson, 1996; Schmidt, 1990, 1994. The importance of those concepts and components, we believe, must also be acknowledged in language teaching, and consequently in language teaching materials. However, explicitness and implicitness are rather complex constructs; such complexity allows for multiple nuances and perspectives in their analysis, and this fact poses a real challenge for their identification in the learning and teaching process and materials. We focus here on ELT materials and aim at the building of a reliable construct which may help in the identification of their potential for promoting implicit and explicit components. We first determined the features to identify the construct for implicitness and explicitness; next, we validated it and then we applied it to the analysis of the activities included in three sample units of three textbooks. The results were computed along a continuum ranging from 0 to 10 in each activity. The systematization and computation of results will hopefully offer a reliable figure regarding the identification of the degree of explicitness and/or implicitness in the materials analysed.Los conceptos de (conocimiento explícito e implícito constituyen uno de los puntos centrales en los estudios sobre la adquisición de lenguas extranjeras. Por explícito se entiende (conocimiento consciente o declarativo; por implícito, (conocimiento no consciente, automático y procedimentalizado (DeKeyser, 2003; R. Ellis, 2005a, 2005b, 2009; Hulstjin, 2005; Robinson, 1996; Schmidt, 1990, 1994. La importancia de ambos conceptos debe trasladarse también al campo de la enseñanza de idiomas y por lo tanto a los materiales docentes. Sin embargo, lo explícito e impl

  16. Constructed ILs coated porous magnetic nickel cobaltate hexagonal nanoplates sensing materials for the simultaneous detection of cumulative toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-03-18

    The different morphologies of magnetic nickel cobaltate (NiCo2O4) electrocatalysts, consisting of nanoparticles (NiCo2O4-N), nanoplates (NiCo2O4-P) and microspheres (NiCo2O4-S) were fabricated. It was found that the electrocatalytic properties of the sensing materials were strongly dependent on morphology and specific surface area. The porous NiCo2O4 hexagonal nanoplates coupled with ILs as modified materials (ILs@NiCo2O4-P) for the simultaneous determination of thallium (Tl(+)), lead (Pb(2+)) and copper (Cu(2+)), exhibited high sensitivity, long-time stability and good repeatability. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity was attributed to relatively large specific surface area, excellent electronic conductivity, and unique porous nanostructure. The analytical performance of the constructed electrode on detection of Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) was examined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Under optimal conditions, the electrode showed a good linear response to Tl(+), Pb(2+)and Cu(2+) in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0, 0.1-100.0 and 0.05-100.0μg/L, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) were 0.046, 0.034 and 0.029μg/L for Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied to detect trace Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) in various water and soil samples with satisfactory results. Hence, this work provided a promising material for electrochemical determination of cumulative toxic metals individually and simultaneously.

  17. Independent candidates in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Gonzalo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of independent candidates in Mexico, because through the so-called political reform of 2012 was incorporated in the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States the right of citizens to be registered as independent candidates. Also, in September 2013 was carried out a reform of Article 116 of the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States in order to allow independent candidates in each state of the Republic. However, prior to the constitutio...

  18. Considerations on the performance and fabrication of candidate materials for the Yucca Mountain repository waste packages highly corrosion resistant nickel-base and titanium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E; Goldberg, A

    1995-11-30

    Among the metallurgical factors that affect the performance of a material in a given environment are alloy composition, alloy segregation, depletion of alloying elements, non-uniform microstructures, precipitation leading to an increase in susceptibility to corrosion as well as decreases in ductility, residual plastic deformation, and residual stresses. Precipitation often occurs preferentially at grain boundaries, causing depletion of critical elements in regions adjacent to these boundaries. Continuous grain-boundary precipitates can lead to drops in ductility and toughness. The presence of non-metallic inclusions, if excessive and/or segregated, can also cause embrittlement. Segregation of alloying elements can result in localized galvanic action. Depletion of alloying elements as well as segregation can result in reductions in the concentrations of critical elements below those necessary to resist localized corrosion. Segregation and alloy depletion can also facilitate precipitation that could lead to embrittlement.

  19. Recycling construction materials by multi-agent based coordination assistant system; Recycle suishin no tame no kensetsu fukusanbutsu yuzu chosei shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, t.; Hagihara, J. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Akiyoshi, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on the coordination assistant system for recycling construction materials. We deal with planning coordination among many people or organizations. It is difficult to design an assistant system for such a job by top-down approach because generally coordination is made asynchronously and relevant members are not fixed. So we applied `multi-agent technique` to design the system. We studied a planning method based on `maximum flow and minimum cost algorithm` for recycling construction materials among many sites, and studied planning data management in asynchronous negotiations. The prototype system was implemented in Java. We expect to increase recycling materials through the planning simulation between many construction sites, and also expect to make this system a good platform on evaluating the recycling policy by changing relevant rules and parameters such as transportation and recycling costs. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  20. 复合材料在桥梁建设中的应用%Applications of composite materials in bridge construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莹; 郭添悦

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the use of composite materials in bridge construction was described from the points of new bridge and bridge reinforcement.The potential application of composite materials in the future was also proposed on the field of bridge construction .%从新建桥梁和桥梁加固两个方面阐述了复合材料的在桥梁工程中的应用,并针对未来复合材料在桥梁中的应用做了展望。

  1. Seepage and stress analysis of anti-seepage structures constructed with different concrete materials in an RCC gravity dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-chao Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used the finite element method (FEM to analyze the stress field and seepage field of a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dam, with an upstream impervious layer constructed with different types of concrete materials, including three-graded RCC, two-graded RCC, conventional vibrated concrete (CVC, and grout-enriched vibrated RCC (GEVR, corresponding to the design schemes S1 through S4. It also evaluated the anti-seepage performance of the imperious layer in the four design schemes under the normal water level and flood-check level. Stress field analysis of a retaining section and discharge section shows that the maximum tensile stress occurs near the dam heel, the maximum compressive stress occurs near the dam toe, and the stress distributions in the four schemes can satisfy the stress control criteria. Seepage field analysis shows that the uplift pressure heads in schemes S3 and S4 descend rapidly in the anti-seepage region, and that the calculated results of daily seepage flow under the steady seepage condition in these two schemes are about 30% to 50% lower than those in the other two schemes, demonstrating that CVC and GEVR show better anti-seepage performance. The results provide essential parameters such as the uplift pressure head and seepage flow for physical model tests and anti-seepage structure selection in RCC dams.

  2. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-01

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  3. Building construction materials effect in tropical wet and cold climates: A case study of office buildings in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was conducted in 15 office buildings in the humid and cold tropics during the working hours of the dry and rainy seasons in Cameroon. This was with the aim to study the effects that local and imported materials had on indoor air quality. To achieve this objective, the adaptive model approach has been selected. In accordance with the conditions of this model, all workers were kept in natural ventilation and, in accordance with the general procedure, a questionnaire was distributed to them, while variables, like air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were sampled. The results showed a clear agreement between expected behaviour, in accordance with the characteristics of building construction, and its real indoor ambience once they were statistically analysed. On the other hand, old buildings showed a higher percentage of relative humidity and a lower degree of indoor air temperature. Despite this, local thermal comfort indices and questionnaires showed adequate indoor ambience in each group of buildings, except when marble was used for external tiling. The effect of marble as an external coating helps to improve indoor ambience during the dry season. This is due to more indoor air and relative humidity being accumulated. At the same time, these ambiences are degraded when relative humidity is higher. Finally, these results should be taken cognisance of by architects and building designers in order to improve indoor environment, and overcome thermal discomfort in the Saharan area.

  4. Designing nanoscale constructs from atomic thin sheets of graphene, boron nitride and gold nanoparticles for advanced material applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Kabeer

    2011-12-01

    Nanoscale materials invite immense interest from diverse scientific disciplines as these provide access to precisely understand the physical world at their most fundamental atomic level. In concert with this aim of enhancing our understanding of the fundamental behavior at nanoscale, this dissertation presents research on three nanomaterials: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), Graphene and ultra-thin Boron Nitride sheets (UTBNSs). The three-fold goals which drive this research are: incorporating mobility in nanoparticle based single-electron junction constructs, developing effective strategies to functionalize graphene with nano-forms of metal, and exfoliating ultrathin sheets of Boron Nitride. Gold nanoparticle based electronic constructs can achieve a new degree of operational freedom if nanoscale mobility is incorporated in their design. We achieved such a nano-electromechanical construct by incorporating elastic polymer molecules between GNPs to form 2-dimensional (2-D) molecular junctions which show a nanoscale reversible motion on applying macro scale forces. This GNP-polymer assembly works like a molecular spring opening avenues to maneuver nano components and store energy at nano-scale. Graphene is the first isolated nanomaterial that displays single-atom thickness. It exhibits quantum confinement that enables it to possess a unique combination of fascinating electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. Modifying the surface of graphene is extremely significant to enable its incorporation into applications of interest. We demonstrated the ability of chemically modified graphene sheets to act as GNP stabilizing templates in solution, and utilized this to process GNP composites of graphene. We discovered that GNPs synthesized by chemical or microwave reduction stabilize on graphene-oxide sheets to form snow-flake morphologies and bare-surfaces respectively. These hybrid nano constructs were extensively studied to understand the effect and nature of GNPs

  5. Meaning-Construction in warring states philosophical discourse : a discussion of the palaeographic materials from Tomb Guōdiàn One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    This book analyzes a defined corpus of philosophic texts from the Warring States period. It treats texts as objects in their own right and, in a broad sense, discusses the relationship between material conditions of text and manuscript culture, writing, techniques of meaning-construction, and philos

  6. 绿色供应链进程下建筑材料管理探究%Study on Construction Materials Management in Green Supply Chain Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文凤; 董金辉

    2015-01-01

    Through tracing the origin of green supply chain, this paper analyzed the current situation of material management in construction, discussed the problems of procuring and using building materials in the green construction, recycling the construction waste in green scrap under the green supply chain process in construction industry, proposed the mode to play the initiative of the green supply chain members from the perspective of recycled building materials manufacturers, material suppliers and engineering contractors.%本文通过追溯绿色供应链的起源,并对建筑材料管理现状进行分析,论述了建设行业绿色供应链进程下建筑材料在绿色施工中的采购使用问题和绿色报废中的建筑材料回收问题,并分别从再生建材制造商、材料供应商、工程承包商的角度提出了发挥绿色供应链各成员能动性的途径。

  7. 电教教材建设的实践与思考%Practice and thinking of audio-visual teaching materials construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝强; 刘守东; 王莹

    2013-01-01

    电教教材已成为提高教育教学质量、全面实施素质教育的重要手段和培养学生创新精神及实践能力的重要途径。文章系统分析和梳理了空军工程大学电教教材建设理论与实践工作,提出了“着眼复合型人才培养,完善建设体系;发挥人才和技术优势,形成建设合力;实行全流程精细化管理,确保建设质量;推进数字资源共建共享,提高使用效益”的建设策略,对于高等院校探索信息化人才培养,打造精品电教教材有一定的借鉴意义和参考价值。%Audio-visual teaching materials are the important means of improving teaching quality and implementing quality-oriented education .They are also an important way to cultivate students 'innovative spirit and practical ability .This article analyzes the theory and practice of audio-visual teaching material construction at our university .Then it puts forward construction strategies as follows:focusing on the compound-type talents training and improving construction system; giving play to the advantages of talents and technology to form construction power; carrying out whole-process fine management to ensure the quality of construction; and promoting co-construction and sharing of digital resources to enhance using benefits .This study has valuable reference for information professional training and top-quality audio-visual teaching material construction .

  8. 可重复使用材料在绿色施工中的应用%Application of repeatedly-usable materials in green construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    校婧

    2015-01-01

    Through comparing the engineering application of construction field fabricating concrete components and traditional construction tech-nology,the article specifically describes fabricated concrete components advantages,such as green environmental protection,saving materials, saving construction duration,reducing cost and sustainable development and so on,which meets national green construction demands.%通过施工现场预制混凝土构件与传统施工工艺在工程中的应用对比,对预制混凝土构件所具有的绿色环保、节约材料、节省工期、降低造价、可持续发展等优点做了详细的阐述,符合国家绿色施工的要求。

  9. Preparation of candidate reference materials for potassium in frozen human mixed serum%冰冻混合人血清钾候选标准物质的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 马怀安; 王清涛

    2016-01-01

    目的:研制冰冻混合人血清钾标准物质,应用于校准和评价常规方法,促进血清钾检测标准化进程,实现结果的互认。方法收集正常体检血清,过滤除菌后分装于冻存管中。采用单因素方差分析法,以F<F0.05为判定标准评价候选标准物质的均匀性。通过直线回归方差分析,以直线斜率|b1|<t0.95,n-2・ s(b1)为判定标准进行短期稳定性(2~8℃,室温,37℃)和长期稳定性(-80℃)研究,采用参考方法同位素稀释电感耦合等离子体质谱法( ICP-MS)定值,计算相应不确定度。对3水平的候选标准物质及25份新鲜血清在ICP-MS与FAES及两个常规检测系统间的互通性进行观察,并在33家常规实验室间进行标准物质的正确度验证。结果通过SPSS 17.0统计软件进行统计分析,3个浓度水平的冰冻混合人血清钾候选标准物质均匀性检验F值分别为0.247,0.117,0.162,均小于F0.05(9,20)=2.39;冷藏(2~8℃),室温(20~25℃),37℃分别至少稳定30、12、4 d;-80℃保存在已监测12个月内稳定性良好。定值结果分别为(2.349±0.028) mol/L、(3.845±0.024) mol/L、(5.831±0.042)mol/L;3个水平冰冻混合血清钾标准物质全部在25份血清标本的回归直线95%置信区间范围内,互通性良好;33家实验室的正确度调查中,97%的检验结果均在定值±2.5%(±1/2 CLIA′88Tea)范围内。结论3水平冰冻混合人血清钾候选标准物质均匀性、稳定性、互通性良好,定值准确可靠。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:633-638)%Objective To prepare the candidate reference materials for frozen mixed serum potassium, in order to calibrate and evaluate the conventional methods to achieve mutual recognition of the results.Methods Fresh sera without hemolysis,lipemia and choloplania were

  10. 浅析高职课程立体化教材建设%Analysis on the Construction of Stereoscopic Teaching Materials in Higher Vocational Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮连根; 孙海波

    2012-01-01

    立体化教材是信息社会发展的产物,是网络社会发展的需要,具有形式多元化、设计立体化及内容系统化等特点,根据高职院校立体化教材建设的现状,探讨了当前立体化教材建设的思路与对策。%Stereoscopic teaching materials is the product of the development of information society, the need of social network development, the form of a plurality, three- dimensional design and the content of the system fea- tures. According to the present situation of teaching material construction in vocational college, this paper discusses the stereoscopic teaching material construction and puts forward countermeasures.

  11. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  12. Colloquium 3: Thermal insulation materials in construction and in high-temperature plants. Lectures; Kolloquium 3: Waermedaemmstoffe im Bauwesen und in Hochtemperaturanlagen. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, E.; Gross, U.; Walter, G. [comps.

    1999-07-01

    Colloquium 3, ''Thermal insulation materials in construction and in high-temperature plants'' focused, for one thing, on the inter-relationships between the development of thermal insulation materials for construction and high-temperature applications and the development of processes and plants and, for another, on the standards of and amendments to the thermal protection ordinance. Calcium silicate and Silcapor as a thermal protection material and a high-temperature thermal insulant, respectively, are dealt with inter alia. The use of thermal insulants in industrial furnaces and different methods for measuring thermal conductivity are described. Further topics are the elements of the energy conservation ordinance being drafted, and thermal-insulation construction materials such as bricks and foam mortar. Ten papers are individually listed in the Energy database. (orig.) [German] Im Mittelpunkt des Kolloquium 3 ''Waermedaemmstoffe im Bauwesen und in Hochtemperaturanlagen'' stehen die wechselseitigen Zusammenhaenge zwischen der Entwicklung von Waermedaemmstoffen fuer das Bauwesen und die Hochtemperaturanwendung einerseits und der Prozess-und Anlagenentwicklung anderseits sowie die Normung und die Novellierung der Waermeschutzverordnung. Es wird u.a. auf den Waermedaemmstoff Calciumsilicat eingegangen ebensowie auf Silcapor als Hochtemperaturd ammstoff. Der Einsatz von Waermedaemmstoffen in Industrieoefen sowie die unterschiedlichen Messmethoden der Waermeleitfaehigkeit werden beschrieben. Weitere Themen sind die Grundlagen der kuenftigen Energiesparverordnung sowie waermedaemmende Baustoffe wie Ziegel und Porenbeton. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden zehn Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  13. Structure of aluminosilicate melts produced from granite rocks for the manufacturing of petrurgical glass-ceramics construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakin, A. G.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aluminosilicate melt is a partly ordered phase and is the origin of glass for producing glassceramics and petrurgical materials. They are well extended used as construction materials for pavings and coatings. Its structure can be described in the terms of the aluminosilica tetrahedras coordination so-called Q speciation. The proportions of tetrahedra with different degree of connectivity with others (from totally connected to free has been studied by NMR and IR methods for sodium-silicate melts. Medium range structure can be characterized by the sizes of irreducible rings composed of the aluminosilica tetrahedra. Systematic increase of the four member rings proportion in the sequence of the Ab-An glasses were observed. The water dissolution in sodium-silicate glass affects the Q speciation. Cations network-modifiers positions in the melt structure are important to know since these cations stabilize particular structure configurations. Modification of the distribution of Na coordination in the sodium-silicate glass at water dissolution was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The observed modification of the hydrous aluminosilicate melt structure resulted in the shift of the eutectic composition in the granite system with decreasing of the crystallization field of feldspars. The feldspar growth rates show practically no dependence on the water content in the concentration range 2-4 wt.%. Likewise, the solved water has a little influence on the crystal growth rate of the lithium silicate phase in lithium containing glasses in accordance with estimated enhancing of the diffusion transport.

    Los fundidos de alumino-silicato son una fase parcialmente ordenada. Su estructura puede ser descrita en términos de la coordinación de tetraedros de alúmina-sílice también denominados especies Q. La proporción de tetraedros con diferente grado de conectividad entre si se ha investigado por espectroscopias de RMN e IR en fundidos de silicatos

  14. 建筑材料在建筑表皮中的生态运用%Building Materials in Ecological Application of the Construction Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玮; 徐峰

    2012-01-01

    本文以建筑材料为切人点,着重阐述了建筑材料在建筑表皮中的生态运用策略。建筑材料的使用贯穿了建筑建造、维护以及改造等整个生命周期。材料会对建筑的外观、性能和建造成本造成影响。经过几十年的发展科研人员对材料的特性有了新的了解。材料有了全生命周期评价(LCA),当材料选择时可以考虑在建造过程中的可持续问题。通过材料在建筑表皮中的分层组成方式的分析模拟,设备的控制以及空腔等系统和材料自身物理性能,来完成应对气候和建筑微气候的适应及其变化。%This article to the point of building materials, focused on the ecological strategy of building material in the skin. Construction materials use · d throughout the building of the construction, maintenance and transformation throughout the life cycle. Material impact on the appearance, performance and construction of the building cost, After several decades of development researchers new understanding of the properties of the materials. Materials have a life-cycle assessment (LCA), when the material can be taken into account in the construction of sustainability issues in the process. By material in the skin of a hierarchical composition analysis of simulation, device control, and systems such as cavities and the physical properties of the material itself, to complete the adaptation to climate and building micro-climate and its changes.

  15. 高校图书馆教材馆藏建设之思考%Considerations about the Construction of Teaching Materials Collection in University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁敏雅

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the important significance and the current status of the construction of library's teaching materials collection, puts forward the collecting principles of the teaching materials, and probes into the collecting scope and collecting path of teaching materials and the utilization of teaching materials collection.%阐述了图书馆教材馆藏建设的重要意义及高校图书馆教材馆藏建设现状,提出了教材入藏的原则,探讨了教材馆藏的入藏范围、入藏途径以及教材馆藏的利用.

  16. Creation of Polyurethane Injection Materials, Their Pilot-industrial Production, Development and Industrial Introduction of the Technology of Strengthening and Restoring the Operability of Damaged Constructions and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marukha, V.І.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane and foam polyurethane fluid injection materials not conceding foreign analogues and technology technology of restoration and strengthening the operability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and buildings damaged by cracks were developed. Normative and technical documentation on the injection materials and technological processes was created. The diagnosticrestoring complex for implementing the above technologies was designed, installed and utilized at the construction sites. The equipment is designed and manufactured; the technology of the research and industrial production of «A» and «B» components of injecting polyurethane materials is designed and developed. The pilot-scale batch is manufactured. Technological processes of preparation and application of the «A» and «B» componentsof the injecting materials in industrial conditions are worked out and implemented.

  17. 浅析输变电工程施工中的物资管理%Analysis of the Materials Management in the Engineering Construction of Power Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      物资管理,是现代企业管理的一项重要内容。输变电工程施工中,物资管理具有重要的意义,它有利于降低电力企业的生产成本,从根本上保证了工程施工质量。%The materials management is an important part of modern business management. In the engineering construction of power transmission, the materials management is of great significance, which is conducive to reducing electricity prod-uction costs, and fundamental y guarantees the quality of engi-neering construction.

  18. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  19. Sandwich construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A.

    A form of composites known as structural sandwich construction is presented in terms of materials used, design details for solving edging and attachment problems, and charts of design material analysis. Sandwich construction is used in nearly all commercial airliners and helicopters, and military air and space vehicles, and it is shown that this method can stiffen a structure without causing a weight increase. The facing material can be made of 2024 or 7075 aluminum alloy, titanium, or stainless steel, and the core material can be wood or foam. The properties of paper honeycomb and various aluminum alloy honeycombs are presented. Factors pertaining to adhesive materials are discussed, including products given off during cure, bonding pressure, and adaptability. Design requirements and manufacturing specifications are resolved using numerous suggestions.

  20. Cold Weather Construction Materials. Part 2. Field Validation of Laboratory Tests on Regulated-Set Cement for Cold Weather Concreting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    patches, slipform tunnel liners and cast-in- place roof decking. Letters requesting information (construction problems, cracking, durability, cost, etc...this minimum mst be verified. Once known, this will also dictate the earliest times at which formwork or concrete protection could be removed. The

  1. Spanish experiences with marginal and special materials on the construction of road embankments; Experiencias de utilizacion de materiales marginales y especiales en terraplenes viarios en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Linares, H.; Perucho Martinez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The use of existing materials along the alignment of a road is an essential problem within the Sustainable Development policies, which is being promoting worldwide since a long time. In the Word road Association (PIARC-AIPCR) this subject has being investigated by different Technical Committees during last decades. Additionally, the review of the article 330 Embankment of PG-3 (FOM 1382/2002) has opened the door to new non-conventional materials, as wastes and artificial materials, to be used on embankments. This could come to adequate solutions, technically, and environmentally, contributing with national legislation on valorisation policies. In this sense, the use of marginal materials and wastes con represent and important save on natural resources and dumping sites. In Spain, some experiences with marginal materials and wastes have being carried out. The work presented has consisted in compiling and analysing the experiences executed with marginal materials and wastes on Spanish road embankments. Although there are many other cases, 24 cases published with adequate information have being analysed, summarising aspects as: materials problems arrangement solutions or treatments employed. Analysing these experiences and making them public can be a way to transmit confidence, help to improve knowledge, and progress on the preparation of recommendations. This work has being carried out on the frame of the Project Geotechnical Engineering, Materials and Structures and Impact of Infrastructure in Civil engineering (TTIGEM), within the frame Program Border Cooperation Spain-External Borders (POCTEFEX); particularly in the Activity 2 related to Technology Transfer of Construction Materials, including marginal materials and wastes. (Author)

  2. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-Min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology.

  3. Pilot Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    pilot selection system and to best support up-front track selection for SUPT? Assumptions The USAF Trainer Masterplan does not include a plan to...replace the T-41 with a new flight screening aircraft. In addition, the Masterplan states that candidates will be track selected prior to entry into primary...training. (3:10) While the Masterplan is not a static document and aircraft procurement plans and/or the timing of track selection are subject to

  4. Construction of tubular polypyrrole-wrapped biomass-derived carbon nanospheres as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhong; Lu, Yang; Peng, Tao; Hou, Xiaoyi; Luo, Rongjie; Wang, Yange; Yan, Hailong; Liu, Xianming; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Luo, Yongsong

    2017-03-01

    A promising hybrid material composed of tubular polypyrrole (T-PPy)-wrapped monodisperse biomass-derived carbon nanospheres (BCSs) was first synthesized successfully via a simple hydrothermal approach by using watermelon juice as the carbon source, and further used as an anchoring object for sulfur (S) of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. The use of BCSs with hydrophilic nature as a framework could provide large interface areas between the active materials and electrolyte, and improve the dispersion of T-PPy, which could help in the active material utilization. As a result, BCS@T-PPy/S as a cathode material exhibited a high capacity of 1143.6 mA h g‑1 and delivered a stable capacity up to 685.8 mA h g‑1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 C, demonstrating its promising application for rechargeable Li–S batteries.

  5. Environmental construction of nano-material design codes. The example of simulation codes used in the CMD workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Mikiya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Generally it is well known that the R and D works on new materials or devices will play a central role on the evolution of future society. But, the old ways based on the empirical and experimental approach have already reached the limit, especially for dealing with a strange substance and material. The structure of a substance and material is needed to be dealt with in detail by quantum mechanics, because the limit on accuracy has come in sight in the calculation using a classical theory. The research on the latest electronic state calculation technique founded on quantum mechanics made a great advance as the technique of solving these problems as well as the technique of a computational materials design. It enables the prediction of material properties because it is based on First Principles. Therefore, in the future it is expected to have a very high possibility of becoming a breakthrough in such a situation. In this article, the example calculation results by PC cluster on the codes (MACHIKANEYAMA-2000, OSAKA-2000) used in the CMD (Computational Materials Design) workshop, held on Sep. 19-21, at ITBL-Building and International Institute for Advanced Studies under the auspices of the University of Osaka, are described. Furthermore, the graphical user interfaces on the codes are examined. (author)

  6. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  7. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  8. Engineering geological characterization of volcanic rocks of ethiopian and sardinian highlands to be used as construction materials

    OpenAIRE

    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of the study conducted on the “Geoengineering characterization of volcanic rocks from Ethiopian and Sardinian highlands to be used as construction materials”. Though, the two project areas are geographically far apart, both are partly covered with volcanic rocks mainly consisting of basic and subordinate felsic rocks. The research was conducted in two countries; part I, the Ethiopian Project area located on the northwestern central Highlands of ...

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of four post-AGB candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, R E; Pereira, C B; Ferro, A Arellano; Muneer, S

    2014-01-01

    We have done a detailed abundance analysis of four unexplored candidate post- Asymptotic Giant Branch(AGB) stars IRAS 13110 - 6629, IRAS 17579 - 3121, IRAS 18321 - 1401 and IRAS 18489 - 0629 using high resolution spectra. We have constructed Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for these objects using the existing photometric data combined with infrared (IR) fluxes. For all sample stars, the SEDs exhibit double peaked energy distribution with well separated IR peaks showing the presence of dusty circumstellar material. The CNO abundances indicate the production of N via CN cycling, but observed [C/Fe] indicates the mixing of carbon produced by He burning by third dredge up although C/O ratio remains less that 1. A moderate DG effect is clearly seen for IRAS 18489 - 0629 and IRAS 17579 - 3121 while a large scatter observed in depletion plots for IRAS 18321 - 1401 and IRAS 13110 - 6629 indicate the presence of other processes affecting the observed abundance pattern.

  10. 候选材料在650℃超临界水中的腐蚀行为研究%Study on Corrosion Behavior of Candidate Materials in 650 ℃ Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马姝丽; 罗英; 张强; 王浩; 邱绍宇

    2014-01-01

    研究了3种候选材料(347、H R3C和In-718)在650℃、25 M Pa去离子水中的均匀腐蚀行为,使用场发射扫描电镜(FEG-SEM )和能谱(EDS)观察了不同腐蚀时间的表面氧化膜形貌与合金元素分布,使用掠入射X射线衍射(G IX RD )分析了氧化膜相结构。结果表明,3种材料腐蚀失重均符合抛物线规律,347的失重为 HR3C和In-718的40倍以上;3种材料氧化膜均以 Ni(Cr ,Fe)2 O4为主,In-718点蚀严重,347氧化膜明显脱落,H R3C氧化膜较均匀致密;高温超临界水中,提高合金的C r含量有助于增强均匀腐蚀性能,添加Nb有损合金的点蚀抗力。%The general corrosion behavior of three candidate materials (347 ,HR3C and In-718 ) was investigated in 650 ℃ /25 MPa deionized water . Morphology and composition of the surface oxide film with different exposure time were observed through FEG-SEM and EDS .The phase constitute was analyzed by GIXRD .For all the test materials ,the weight loss follows typical parabolic law and the weight loss of 347 shows more than 40 times higher than that of HR3C and In-718 .The oxide film of three alloys mainly consists of Ni(Cr, Fe)2O4 .In-718 shows severe pitting and the oxide film of 347 appears significant spalling ,while HR3C has compact oxide film .In the high temperature supercritical water ,the high Cr content may enhance the general corrosion property of the alloys ,while addition of Nb may be detrimental to the pitting resistance of alloys .

  11. Energy cogeneration contributions in the wood quality as civil construction material; Contribuicoes da cogeracao de energia na qualidade da madeira como material de construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto de

    1993-07-01

    This work presents the practicable technical alternative for the improvement of solid wood quality used in the building construction. Through the reality of the solid wood Amazon Region's production and actual generation conception; cogeneration, economy and efficiency on the energy application; the alternative displayed proposes the modification on the lay-out production and production process seeking the best quality obtention of the solid wood; the replace of the petroleum derived energetics by biomass (residues) and the introduction on the production site, the solid wood drying process. The production alternatives proposed can contribute for the solid wood production cost reduction, through the fuel economy, the imperfect number piece reduction and transportation cost production reduction. Contributing significantly for the cost/benefit/quality wood relations, enabling its placement of the consuming market on the Northeast, Southeast, South and Middle west Regions and so on the international market with competitive costs. (author)

  12. Use of ferrous industrial wastes as binding materials for construction; Empleo de residuos industriales siderurgicos como materiales aglomerantes en construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mymrin, V.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    Several ferrous and non ferrous metallurgical wastes, slag, powdered wastes, alkaline liquors, etc., can be used as binding materials to produce new building materials. These materials can be used in place of concretes made of cement, crushed stones, sand and gravel mixtures in several applications, road, industrial and airport foundations, etc. They are leaching resistant, so heavy metals do not migrate to the environment. These new materials, with a new structure, are obtained by mixing in right proportion of two or three industrial wastes or with mixtures of two of them and natural soils without any addition of traditional binders like and without heating. The main advantages are the solution of the problem of disposal of industrial wastes and the lower cost of the new materials, 5 to 6 times cheaper than traditional. Several examples of roads existing in Russia, even in Siberia and other northern regions, demonstrate the benefit of this process because after 20 years they still offer a good performance. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Decision Analysis of Advanced Scout Helicopter Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    assist the ASH SSG by constructing a comprehensive ASH evaluation model utilizing multi-attribute utility assessment ( MAUA ) modeling. ~~UA is a forre...results are included as well. The output of the MAUA model is a numerical representation of the worth of each ASH candidate. These numbers are...instance of a methodology called Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis ( MAUA ). In general, MAUA is characterized by the represen- tation of outcomes in terms

  14. The corrosion of titanium and some other construction materials during hydrogen peroxide bleaching according to the field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyoekyvirta, O.; Pohjanne, P.; Heinaevaara, A. [Oy METSA-BOTNIA Ab, Kaskinen' s mill, 64260 Kaskinen (Finland); Hirvonen, J. [VTT Automation, Industrial Automation, P.O. Box 1301, FIN-02044 (Finland); Lewenstam, A. [Center for Process Analytical Chemistry and Sensor Technology ' ProSens' Abo Akademi University, 20500 Abo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    In a Finnish pulp mill, the field measurements of different materials were performed in different stages of peroxide bleaching: P{sub 1} and P{sub 2}. The field measurements were performed with three different sensors. The sensors were designed in co-operation with Valmet Automation Kajaani Oy. Each sensor measured the corrosion potential, the redox potential and the weight losses of three different materials. Simultaneously, the data of the most important parameters of bleaching, i.e. temperature, pH, peroxide flow rate and concentration, mass flow, consistency, residuals, flow rate and concentration of alkaline, were collected in the data logger by a dedicated program. The results proved that the corrosion of different materials (stainless steel S31654, nickel-based alloy N10276 and titanium Gr. 5) could be estimated with field experiments. The uniform corrosion of titanium occurred in a certain bleaching situation. The field measurements gave a good estimation of whether the material dissolved during process operation or process disorders. Our results clearly show that the mixing of the chemicals can be reliably estimated, and thus advantageous for a pulp mill. The materials studied withstood the bleaching significantly better if the chemicals were mixed directly with a pulp. Usually the chemicals are mixed with alkaline and then added to the pulp. The field measurements could also be applied in ozone and in the peracetic acid bleaching stage. The sensors can be utilized as tools during process monitoring or diagnostics. With the aid of monitoring it is possible to clarify how the different process operation models affect the corrosion of materials. (author)

  15. Influence of environmental parameters and of their interactions on the release of metal(loid)s from a construction material in hydraulic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Goryunova, E; Ecker, D; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2016-03-05

    Besides the leaching behaviour of a construction material under standardised test-specific conditions with laboratory water, for some construction materials it is advisable to test their environmental behaviour also under close to end use conditions. The envisaged end use combined with the product characteristics (e.g. mineral phases) is decisive for the choice of environmental factors that may change the release of substance that potentially cause adverse environmental effects (e.g. fertilisation or ecotoxicity). At the moment an experimental link is missing between mono-factorial standardised test systems and non standardised complex incubation experiments such as mesocosms which are closer to environmental conditions. Multi-factorial batch experiments may have the potential to close the gap. To verify this, batch experiments with copper slag were performed which is used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Design of experiments (DoE) was applied to evaluate the impact of pH, ionic strength, temperature and sediment content on the release of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn. The study shows that release and sediment-eluent partitioning of metal(loid)s are impacted by interactions between the studied factors. Under the prevalent test conditions sediment acts as a sink enhancing most strongly the release of elements from the material.

  16. Background radioactivity of construction materials, raw substance and ready-made CaMoO4 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busanov O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of natural radioactive isotopes content in different source materials of natural and enriched composition used for CaMoO4 scintillation crystal growing are presented. The crystals are to be used in the experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo.

  17. Background radioactivity of construction materials, raw substance and ready-made CaMoO4 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busanov, O A; Gavriljuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Moseev, P S; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Yakimenko, S P

    2013-01-01

    The results of measurements of natural radioactive isotopes content in different source materials of natural and enriched composition used for CaMoO4 scintillation crystal growing are presented. The crystals are to be used in the experiment to search for double neutrinoless betas-decay of Mo-100.

  18. Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C; Mitsch, W J; Wolfe, W E

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the use of flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) by-products from electric power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms although lower average stem lengths and fewer stems bearing flowers were observed in mesocosms with FGD liners. Potentially phytotoxic boron was significantly higher in the belowground biomass of plants grown in lined mesocosms with low phosphorus loading. A larger-scale, long-term wetland experiment close to full scale is recommended from this two-year mesocosm study to better predict the potentially positive and negative effects of using FGD by-products in constructed wetlands.

  19. Thermal capacitator design rationale. Part 1: Thermal and mechanical property data for selected materials potentially useful in thermal capacitor design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. A.; Liao, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal properties of paraffin hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures which may be used as the phase change material (PCM) in thermal capacitors are discussed. The paraffin hydrocarbons selected for consideration are those in the range from C11H24 (n-Undecane) to C20H42 (n-Eicosane). A limited amount of data is included concerning other properties of paraffin hydrocarbons and the thermal and mechanical properties of several aluminum alloys which may find application as constructional materials. Data concerning the melting temperature, transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, heat of transition, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of pure and commercial grades of paraffin hydrocarbons are given. An index of companies capable of producing paraffin hydrocarbons and information concerning the availability of various grades (purity levels) is provided.

  20. On building construction enterprises to reduce material cost management methods%建筑施工企业降低物资成本的管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蓉

    2012-01-01

    This paper made analysis according to the existing problems in current material management of construction enterprises, pointed out the causes of problems, from the management methods, purchasing plans, purchasing cost and other aspects, put forward the necessary measures to reduce the material management cost, and made specific elaboration.%针对目前建筑施工企业物资管理中存在的问题进行了分析,指出了问题产生的根源,从管理方法、采购计划、采购成本等方面入手,提出了降低物资管理成本的必要措施,并作了具体阐述。

  1. Investigating the Possibility of Geopolymer to Produce Inorganic-Bonded Wood Composites for Multifunctional Construction Material – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noorbaini Sarmin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood-based composites are widely used in consumer products, either in structural or non-structural applications. One of the basic elements for wood-based composites is the binder itself. Recent years have seen great development and trends in the field of eco-friendly binders in wood-based composite. There have been many concerns on the effects of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC released from wood-based products. Researchers have put lot of effort into developing environmental friendly products with enhanced sustainability. Binder materials with a focus on geopolymers (i.e., alumino-silicates are discussed in this publication. The development and utilization of geopolymeric binders is relatively new in the field of wood-based composites. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of wood-nonwood composite materials prepared using a geopolymeric binder. This paper considers the background of geopolymer materials and the possibilities of producing inorganic-bonded wood composite using geopolymer.

  2. Tetraarylboronic acid resorcinarenes: Synthesis, molecular recognition, and templates for the construction of three-dimensional electronic organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Patrick Tyrone

    The resorcinarenes are remarkable cyclic aromatic tetramers whose impressive impact in the disciplines of molecular recognition, materials science and supramolecular chemistry has been the subject of extensive study and recent review. The potential utility of these materials as chemosensors, catalysts, energy storage and drug delivery agents has been studied or proposed. Research involving resorcinarene molecular containers (careceplexes, carecerands, hemicarcerands) has resulted in landmark achievements including the stabilization of encapusulated cyclobutadiene and benzyne. Functionalization of the resorcinarene lower rim has begun to attract attention as a means to enhance the properties of the parent macrocycles. There has been only one report (1989), however, describing the extension of their lower cavity conjugation. We have performed direct, fourfold conjugation extension of the lower rim. Our findings would allow for the fabrication of heteropolyfunctional, directional molecular scaffolds embodying new receptors and supramolecular materials. We have thus (1) performed a gram scale synthesis and direct isolation of boronic acid functionalized stereoisomeric resorcinarenes; (2) polyfunctionalized at divergent macrocyclic sites, affording chiral and achiral resorcinarene octols and cavitands; (3) presented preliminary evidence that the relatively little-explored C2h resorcinarenes can compete effectively with their C4v counterparts in both covalent and non-covalent binding of polar guests; (4) reported their use in the colorimetric differentiation of carbohydrates; and (5) extended the lower cavity by fourfold aryl coupling under Suzuki conditions.

  3. Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: A mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.; Mitsch, W.J.; Wolfe, W.E.

    2001-07-01

    This paper investigates the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms.

  4. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  5. Jellyfish Galaxy Candidates at Low Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Moretti, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Vulcani, B.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2016-03-01

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04-0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity LX. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (1011-1014M⊙), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M⊙ 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  6. A vaccine candidate for post-weaning diarrhea in swine constructed with a live attenuated Salmonella delivering Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA, and FedF fimbrial antigens and its immune responses in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Stein, Barry D; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-07-01

    In order to construct a novel vaccine candidate for preventing post-weaning diarrhea in swine, the individual genes for Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA, and FedF fimbriae were inserted into a secretion plasmid pBP244 containing asd, lepB, secA, and secB. These were transformed into Salmonella Typhimurium Δlon ΔcpxR Δasd. Secretion of the individual recombinant fimbrial antigens was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Groups 1 and 2 mice received a single oral dose of the vaccine mixture and S. Typhimurium carrying pBP244 only as a control, respectively. In groups 3 and 4, mice were primed and boosted with the vaccine mixture and S. Typhimurium carrying pBP244 only as a control, respectively. In general, all immunized mice had significantly increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G (P immunized mice. Thus, the vaccine candidate can be highly immunogenic and be safe to the environment.

  7. Steel slag: a waste industrial by-product as an alternative sustainable green building material in construction applications--an attempt for solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pofale, Arun D; Nadeem, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility of utilizing granular slag as an alternative to fine aggregate (natural sand) in construction applications like masonry and plastering. Construction industry utilizes large volume of fine aggregate in all the applications which has resulted into shortage of good quality naturally available fine aggregate. Use of granular slag serves two fold purposes, i.e. waste utilisation as well as alternative eco-friendly green building material for construction. The investigation highlights comparative study of properties with partial and full replacement of fine aggregate (natural sand) by granular slag in cement mortar applications (masonry and plastering). For this purpose, cement mortar mix proportions from 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 & 1:6 by volume were selected for 0, 25, 50, 75 & 100% replacement levels with w/c ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 & 0.72 respectively. Based on the study results, it could be inferred that replacement of natural sand with granular slag from 25 to 75% increased the packing density of mortar which resulted into reduced w/c ratio, increased strength properties of all mortar mixes. Hence, it could be recommended that the granular slag could be effectively utilized as fine aggregate in masonry and plastering applications in place of conventional cement mortar mixes using natural sand.

  8. 白汉双语教育及其教材建设%Bai-Chinese Bilingual Education and Teaching Material Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞

    2012-01-01

    白汉双语教育是教学中同时使用汉语和汉字、白语和拼音白文的双语双文型的双语教育活动。白汉双语教育工作主要在白族人口比例最高的大理州剑川县西中小学和石龙小学开展。为配合白汉双语教育工作的开展,有关部门编写、出版了三种类型的白汉双语教育教材。白汉双语教育工作的开展及其教材建设丰富了民汉双语教育理论和学科建设。%[ Bai-Chinese bilingual education refers to the bilingual education using mandarin, Chinese character, Bai language, and Bai phonetic character in the class. Bai-Chinese bilingual education has been carried out mostly in Xizhong Primary School and Shilong Primary School of Jianehuan County in Dali Prefecture where there is the highest population of Bai people. To carry out Bai- Chinese bilingual education, three types of teaching materials have been compiled. The practice of Bai-Chinese bilingual education and the teaching material construction have enriched the theory and subject construction of minority language and Chinese bilingual education.

  9. 浅议屋面卷材防水的施工与维护%Construction and Maintenance of Waterproof Reefing with Coiled Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏周苔

    2011-01-01

    屋面防水工程是保证建筑物能够发挥正常使用功能和使用年限的一项重要因素.合理选择卷材品种、严格控制卷材质量、规范防水施工工艺是保证防水质量的关键环节;科学管理、定期检查、及时维修是决定屋面使用寿命的重要因素.探讨了对屋面卷材防水施工及维护的有关技术问题.%Waterproof roofing is an important factor to guarantee the function and the service life of the building. Reasonable choice of the coiled material, the Quality control inspection and construction technology standard is the key to waterproof quality. Scientific managencent, timely repairment are decisive to the service life of the roof. The technological problem about the construction and maintenance of the waterproof roofing with coiled material were disscussed in detail.

  10. Analysis of the thermal and optical properties of some construction materials; Analisis de las propiedades termicas y opticas de algunos materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin Hernandez, Karla F. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Huauchinango, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the optical and thermal properties of some materials of construction of greater application in a region of the state of Puebla, are obtained and presented, with the purpose of extending the bibliography and at the same time to analyze the importance that these properties have in the field of energy saving and to know the normative aspects in Mexico, as well as the control that is held of the construction materials. The properties that were analyzed are: Optical (Transmittance, reflectance, absorbency and emittance), Thermal (Thermal conductivity). [Spanish] En este trabajo se obtienen y se presentan las propiedades opticas y termicas de algunos materiales de construccion de mayor aplicacion en una region del estado de Puebla, con el fin de ampliar la bibliografia y al mismo tiempo de analizar la importancia que dichas propiedades tienen en el campo del ahorro energetico y de conocer los aspectos de la normativa en Mexico, asi como el control que se tiene de los materiales de construccion. Las propiedades que se analizaron son: Opticas (Transmitancia, reflectancia, absortancia y emitancia) Termica (Conductividad termica).

  11. Geochemical behavior and environmental risks related to the use of abandoned base-metal tailings as construction material in the upper-Moulouya district, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argane, R; El Adnani, M; Benzaazoua, M; Bouzahzah, H; Khalil, A; Hakkou, R; Taha, Y

    2016-01-01

    In some developing countries, base-metal residues that were abandoned in tailing ponds or impoundments are increasingly used as construction material without any control, engineering basis, or environmental concern. This uncontrolled reuse of mine tailings may constitute a new form of pollution risks for humans and ecosystems through metal leaching. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess mine drainage, metal mobility, and geochemical behavior of two abandoned mine tailings commonly used in the upper-Moulouya region (eastern Morocco) as fine aggregates for mortar preparation. Their detailed physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties were subsequently evaluated in the context of developing appropriate alternative reuses to replace their conventional disposal and limit their weathering exposure. The obtained results showed that both tailings contain relatively high quantities of residual metals and metalloids with lead (ranging between 3610 and 5940 mg/kg) being the major pollutant. However, the mineralogical investigations revealed the presence of abundant neutralizing minerals and low sulfide content which influence mine drainage geochemistry and subsequently lower metals mobility. In fact, leachate analyses from weathering cell kinetic tests showed neutral conditions and low sulfide oxidation rates. According to these results, the tailings used as construction material in the upper-Moulouya region have very low generating potential of contaminated effluents and their reuse as aggregates may constitute a sustainable alternative method for efficient tailing management.

  12. Ultrasound-triggered release of materials entrapped in microbubble-liposome constructs: a tool for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Alexander L; Shevchenko, Talent I; Raju, Balasundar I; Seip, Ralf; Chin, Chien T

    2010-11-20

    We investigated the preparation of ultrasound-triggered drug delivery system, based on a pendant complex of microbubble coated with liposomes. Biotinylated decafluorobutane microbubbles were coated with biotinylated liposomes via a streptavidin linker. Liposomes were prepared incorporating calcein and thrombin. Based on initial concentration of calcein, over 1 um(3) payload volume per each microbubble-liposome particle was achieved, when 100 nm liposomes were used. Insonation of microbubble-liposome pendants in vitro resulted in the complete destruction of microbubbles and triggered release of a significant fraction of the entrapped material. Treatment with 1MHz ultrasound (5 pulses, 100 ms, 7 MPa peak negative acoustic pressure) resulted in the release of ~30% of entrapped calcein, as estimated by the fluorescence quenching assay. Thrombin release from liposomes complexed with microbubbles (11% of entrapped material) due to ultrasound treatment was estimated by a chromogenic substrate study. Prior to insonation, substrate hydrolysis was at background level. Ultrasound-triggered release of thrombin from the pendant complexes caused an acceleration of blood clotting.

  13. Construction of a Fish‐like Robot Based on High Performance Graphene/PVDF Bimorph Actuation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Zhang, Tengfei; Chang, Huicong; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Smart actuators have many potential applications in various areas, so the development of novel actuation materials, with facile fabricating methods and excellent performances, are still urgent needs. In this work, a novel electromechanical bimorph actuator constituted by a graphene layer and a PVDF layer, is fabricated through a simple yet versatile solution approach. The bimorph actuator can deflect toward the graphene side under electrical stimulus, due to the differences in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two layers and the converse piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive property of the PVDF layer. Under low voltage stimulus, the actuator (length: 20 mm, width: 3 mm) can generate large actuation motion with a maximum deflection of about 14.0 mm within 0.262 s and produce high actuation stress (more than 312.7 MPa/g). The bimorph actuator also can display reversible swing behavior with long cycle life under high frequencies. on this basis, a fish‐like robot that can swim at the speed of 5.02 mm/s is designed and demonstrated. The designed graphene‐PVDF bimorph actuator exhibits the overall novel performance compared with many other electromechanical avtuators, and may contribute to the practical actuation applications of graphene‐based materials at a macro scale.

  14. Sound transmission through a double-panel construction lined with poroelastic material in the presence of mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Bhaskar, Atul; Zhang, Xin

    2013-08-01

    This paper investigates the sound transmission characteristics through a system of double-panel lined with poroelastic material in the core. The panels are surrounded by external and internal fluid media where a uniform external mean flow exists on one side. Biot's theory is used to model the porous material. Three types of constructions—bonded-bonded, bonded-unbonded and unbonded-unbonded—are considered. The effect of Mach number of the external flow on the sound transmission over a wide frequency range in a diffuse sound field is examined. External mean flow is shown to give a modest increase in transmission loss at low frequency, but a significant increase at high frequency. It is brought out that calculations based on static air on the incidence side provide a conservative estimate of sound transmission through the sandwich structure. The acoustic performance of the sandwich panel for different configurations is presented. The effect of curvature of the panel is also brought out by using shallow shell theory.

  15. Construction of a Fish-like Robot Based on High Performance Graphene/PVDF Bimorph Actuation Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Zhang, Tengfei; Huang, Yi; Chang, Huicong; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Smart actuators have many potential applications in various areas, so the development of novel actuation materials, with facile fabricating methods and excellent performances, are still urgent needs. In this work, a novel electromechanical bimorph actuator constituted by a graphene layer and a PVDF layer, is fabricated through a simple yet versatile solution approach. The bimorph actuator can deflect toward the graphene side under electrical stimulus, due to the differences in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two layers and the converse piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive property of the PVDF layer. Under low voltage stimulus, the actuator (length: 20 mm, width: 3 mm) can generate large actuation motion with a maximum deflection of about 14.0 mm within 0.262 s and produce high actuation stress (more than 312.7 MPa/g). The bimorph actuator also can display reversible swing behavior with long cycle life under high frequencies. on this basis, a fish-like robot that can swim at the speed of 5.02 mm/s is designed and demonstrated. The designed graphene-PVDF bimorph actuator exhibits the overall novel performance compared with many other electromechanical avtuators, and may contribute to the practical actuation applications of graphene-based materials at a macro scale.

  16. A new vision of the post-NIST civil infrastructure program: the challenges of next-generation construction materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. Felix; Wan, Yan

    2014-03-01

    , security, and safety of elements of critical infrastructure for the Nation's already deteriorating civil infrastructure. It is envisioned that the Nation should look far beyond: not only should we efficiently and effectively address current problems of the aging infrastructure, but we must also further develop next-generation construction materials and processes for new construction. To accomplish this ambitious goal, we must include process efficiency that will help select the most reliable and cost-effective materials in construction processes; performance and cost will be the prime consideration for selections construction materials based on life-cycle cost and materials performance; energy efficiency will drive reduced energy consumption from current levels by 50 % per unit of output; and environmental responsiveness will achieve net-zero waste from construction materials and its constituents. Should it be successfully implemented, we will transform the current 21st century infrastructure systems to enable the vital functioning of society and improve competitiveness of the economy to ensure that our quality of life remains high.

  17. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  18. Construction materials for hot water and drinking water systems and its resistance in front of disinfection treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcó Gratacós

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Royal Decree 865/2003 that establishes the hygienic and sanitary conditions to prevent and control legionellosis, requires that all risk installations shall have a suitable water treatment to prevent Legionella growth.Treatments that are normally carried out for disinfection are usually based on a biocide addition or on a temperature increase.These treatments in many cases may be very aggressive for the circuit components and result in important corrosion processes that, on the other hand, avoid the disinfection effectiveness.For all this, it is very important to know the characteristics of each treatment and their possible interactions with the existing materials in order to select the most appropriate not only to guarantee Legionella prevention but, in addition, to maintain the circuit under perfect sanitary conditions.

  19. Mortality among employees of an Ontario factory that manufactured construction materials using chrysotile asbestos and coal tar pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, M M

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes mortality in a cohort of 324 men exposed to chrysotile asbestos and coal tar pitch used in the manufacture of electrical conduit pipe from a mixture of newsprint, bentonite, and asbestos. One death in a factory worker was attributed to pleural mesothelioma, and long-term employees experienced an increased risk of lung cancer (Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) 221; six deaths) and non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 215; four deaths). In a case-control analysis, men whose jobs involved adding asbestos to the mix of raw materials were found to have a risk of lung cancer sevenfold higher (lower 95% confidence limit: 2.3) than men who had never worked at this job. Exposure to coal tar pitch is presumed to be responsible for the death of one worker from squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum.

  20. On the use of crystalline admixtures in cement based construction materials: from porosity reducers to promoters of self healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Liberato; Krelani, Visar; Moretti, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    The project detailed in this paper aims at a thorough characterization of the effects of crystalline admixtures, currently employed as porosity reducing admixtures, on the self-healing capacity of the cementitious composites, i.e. their capacity to completely or partially re-seal cracks and, in case, also exhibit recovery of mechanical properties. The problem has been investigated with reference to both a normal strength concrete (NSC) and a high performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC). In the latter case, the influence of flow-induced fibre alignment has also been considered in the experimental investigation. With reference to either 3-point (for NSC) or 4-point (for HPFRCC) bending tests performed up to controlled crack opening and up to failure, respectively before and after exposure/conditioning recovery of stiffness and stress bearing capacity has been evaluated to assess the self-healing capacity. In a durability-based design framework, self-healing indices to quantify the recovery of mechanical properties will also be defined. In NSC, crystalline admixtures are able to promote up to 60% of crack sealing even under exposure to open air. In the case of HPFRCCs, which would already feature autogenous healing capacity because of their peculiar mix compositions, the synergy between the dispersed fibre reinforcement and the action of the crystalline admixture has resulted in a likely ‘chemical pre-stressing’ of the same reinforcement, from which the recovery of mechanical performance of the material has greatly benefited, up to levels even higher than the performance of the virgin un-cracked material.

  1. Characterization of ancient construction materials (mud walls and adobe in the churches at Cisneros, Villada and Boada de Campos (Palencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Hernández, R.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to characterize the ancient building materials (mud wall and adobe of three churches in the province of Palencia. This is the first part of a study which seeks to evaluate how the mud walls of the tower of the church of Cisneros reacted to restoration treatment which consisted of a structural reinforcement made by injecting a highly fluid grout of cement/lime/sand mortar. This treatment implies the introduction of large quantities of water into the fabric. The mud walls of the tower of Cisneros are compositionally and texturally very similar to each other, which indicates that despite their large dimensions, care was taken in the homogeneity of the materials. These mud walls are also very similar to those of the church of Villada. The original raw material is mud with some additives (rubble, ashes, bones, etc. and some remains of lime used as a stabiliser. Although there is a very high proportion of clay, no effervescing clay has been detected. Hence it is deduced that once the mud wall was built, there were no important changes in volume due to variation in the humidity of the fabric. The characteristics of the adobe of the tower of Boada are logically different form those of the mud walls, being made of less sandy, more clayey mud with a high proportion of straw that the mud walls do not have, and without the addition of bricks, bones, etc.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar los materiales antiguos de construcción (tapial y adobe de tres iglesias en la provincia de Falencia. El trabajo es la primera parte de un estudio en el que se pretende evaluar el comportamiento de los tapiales de la torre de la iglesia de Cisneros frente al tratamiento de restauración, consistente en un cosido estructural mediante la realización de perforaciones en las que se introduce una barra de acero y donde, posteriormente, se inyecta una lechada muy fluidificada de mortero de cemento/cal/arena. Este tratamiento implica la

  2. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents and radon exhalation rate from materials used for construction and decoration in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngachin, M; Njock, M G Kwato [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, PO Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Garavaglia, M; Giovani, C; Scruzzi, E [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Nourreddine, A [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, UMR7178 CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, F-67037, Strasbourg cedex 02 (France); Lagos, L [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W Flagler Street, EC 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)], E-mail: mngachin@yahoo.com

    2008-09-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from building materials manufactured in Douala city from geological materials. Nine types of building material were surveyed for their natural radioactivity contents using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K varied from 11.5 to 49 Bq kg{sup -1}, 16 to 37 Bq kg{sup -1} and 306 to 774 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The absorbed dose rate in the samples investigated at 1 m above ground level ranged from 28.5 to 66.6 nGy h{sup -1}. External and internal hazard indices were also estimated as defined by the European Commission. The Ra equivalents of the materials studied ranged from 57.5 to 133 Bq kg{sup -1} and are much smaller than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for construction materials for dwellings. Polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (NTDs), type CR-39, were used for measuring the radon concentration from different materials. In fact, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from building materials is important for understanding the individual contribution of each material to the total indoor radon exposure. Samples were hermetically closed in glass vessels and the radon growth was followed as a function of time. The radon exhalation rate was therefore derived from the experimental measurement of {alpha}-track densities. The radon exhalation varied from (5.77 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -5} to (7.61 {+-} 0.07) x 10{sup -5} Bq cm{sup -2} h{sup -1} in bricks, from (5.79 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -5} to (11.6 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -5} in tiles, and was (6.95 {+-} 0.03) x 10{sup -5} Bq cm{sup -2} h{sup -1} in concrete. A correlation (correlation coefficient approx. = 0.8) was found between radium concentration measured with a HPGe detector and the radon exhalation rate obtained using nuclear track detectors.

  3. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents and radon exhalation rate from materials used for construction and decoration in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngachin, M; Garavaglia, M; Giovani, C; Nourreddine, A; Kwato Njock, M G; Scruzzi, E; Lagos, L

    2008-09-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from building materials manufactured in Douala city from geological materials. Nine types of building material were surveyed for their natural radioactivity contents using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K varied from 11.5 to 49 Bq kg(-1), 16 to 37 Bq kg(-1) and 306 to 774 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate in the samples investigated at 1 m above ground level ranged from 28.5 to 66.6 nGy h(-1). External and internal hazard indices were also estimated as defined by the European Commission. The Ra equivalents of the materials studied ranged from 57.5 to 133 Bq kg(-1) and are much smaller than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) for construction materials for dwellings. Polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (NTDs), type CR-39, were used for measuring the radon concentration from different materials. In fact, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from building materials is important for understanding the individual contribution of each material to the total indoor radon exposure. Samples were hermetically closed in glass vessels and the radon growth was followed as a function of time. The radon exhalation rate was therefore derived from the experimental measurement of alpha-track densities. The radon exhalation varied from (5.77 +/- 0.06) x 10(-5) to (7.61 +/- 0.07) x 10(-5) Bq cm(-2) h(-1) in bricks, from (5.79 +/- 0.05) x 10(-5) to (11.6 +/- 0.12) x 10(-5) in tiles, and was (6.95 +/- 0.03) x 10(-5) Bq cm(-2) h(-1) in concrete. A correlation (correlation coefficient approximately 0.8) was found between radium concentration measured with a HPGe detector and the radon exhalation rate obtained using nuclear track detectors.

  4. Analysis of material characteristics for the construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam skin radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Antunes, Paula C.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.br, e-mail: hyoriyas@ipen.br, e-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, e-mail: pacrisguian@usp.br; Furnari, Laura; Santos, Gabriela R. [Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com, e-mail: reis.gabby@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    There are many radiosensitive diseases associated to the skin such as mycosis fungoids and the syndrome of Sezary that are part of a sub-group of cutaneous diseases type T-cell lymphoma. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary a very large field size radiation beam, and also, it should deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report nr. 23 of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine), the present study will develop an energy scattering and degrading plates, supplying subsidies for a future installation for skin treatment at the - Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built the design of the plates has been performed analyzing several materials, shapes and dimensions most adequate on the basis of radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulations will be validated with experimental measurements using copper and aluminum. (author)

  5. Environmental and technical assessments of the potential utilization of sewage sludge ashes (SSAs) as secondary raw materials in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maozhe; Blanc, Denise; Gautier, Mathieu; Mehu, Jacques; Gourdon, Rémy

    2013-05-01

    Ashes produced by thermal treatments of sewage sludge exhibit common properties with cement. For example, major elements present in SSA are the same of major elements of cement. Hydraulic properties of SSA are quite the same of cement ones. They may therefore be used to substitute part of cement in concrete or other cementitious materials, provided that technical prescriptions are satisfied and that environmental risks are not significantly increased. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriate substitution ratios to satisfy both technical and environmental criteria. In a first step, the elemental composition and particle size distribution of the ashes were measured. Then the ashes were used along with Portland cement and sand at different ratios of substitution to produce mortar and concrete which were cured for up to 90 days into parallelepipedic or cylindrical monoliths. The mechanical properties of the monoliths were measured using standard procedures for flexural and compressive strengths, and compared to blanks containing no ashes. The environmental criteria were assessed using leaching tests conducted according to standard protocols both on the ashes and the monoliths, and compared to the blanks. Results showed that the characteristics of the ashes ranged between those of cement and sand because of their larger particle size and higher content in SiO2 as compared to cement. The monoliths made with the highest substitution ratios exhibited a significant decrease in flexural and compressive strengths. However, when the ashes were used in partial substitution of cement at appropriate ratios, the concrete monoliths exhibited similar compressive strengths as the blank samples. The most appropriate ratios were found to be 10% substitution of cement and 2% substitution of sand. The leaching tests conducted on the ashes in their powdery form revealed that amongst the potential contaminants analyzed only Mo and Se were leached at

  6. Heterogeneous photocatalysis on construction materials: effect of catalyst properties on the efficiency for degrading NOx and self cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of some properties of different catalysts on the photocatalytic activity. The efficiency has been determined for two different processes: NOx abatement and self-cleaning for Rhodamine B and tobacco extract being, the TiO2 based photocatalyst, supported as coatings on white mortar. Eight different catalysts were tested, seven commercial ones and one home-made catalyst with improved visible light absorption properties. Additionally, some of them were submitted to exposition to water and/or calcinations to alter their physical properties. A kinetic approach was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity, being the first reaction constant (for NO and just empirical constants (for self-cleaning the parameters used for the comparison of the different materials. As a result, the efficiency, even for ranking, is dependent on the type of contaminant used in the experiment. In general, NO oxidation and tobacco followed similar trends while no clear relations were found for Rhodamine B.En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de las propiedades de distintos catalizadores en la actividad fotocatalítica de degradación de NOx y autolimpieza, para Rodamina B y extracto de tabaco. Se han ensayado ocho fotocatalizadores, basados en TiO2 y soportados sobre mortero blanco; siete de ellos comerciales y uno sintetizado en el laboratorio con absorción mejorada en el visible. Adicionalmente, las propiedades físicas de algunos de ellos se alteraron mediante tratamientos con agua y/o por calcinación. La actividad fotocatalítica se ha evaluado mediante aproximación cinética, siendo la constante de reacción de primer orden (para NO y constantes empíricas de ajuste (para autolimpieza los parámetros de comparación entre materiales. Como resultado, la eficiencia depende del contaminante utilizado en el experimento de evaluación. En general, en este estudio, oxidación de NO y de extracto de tabaco presentan tendencias similares

  7. Investigation of the contribution possibilities of non-destructive methods of testing for the diagnosis and quality control of building materials with emphasis given on sustainable construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiotis, Nikolaos S.; Matikas, Theodoros E.; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the contribution potential of non-destructive methods of testing is studied in order to assess, diagnose and assert building materials' diagnosis & quality control, with emphasis given on Sustainable Construction. To this end, the following techniques are implemented: fiber-optics microscopy, digital image processing, scanning electron microscopy, pulse/lock-in thermography, acoustic emission as well as ultrasounds. Furthermore, in addition to the above, the maturity method for measurement of compressive strength is applied and correlated to the array of full field non-destructive methods of testing. The results of the study clearly demonstrate how effective non-destructive methods of testing can be, in revealing and determining highly applicable data in a real-time, in situ and efficient manner.

  8. Use of washery discard in road construction and as a basis for building materials. Report on ECSC contract 7220-EC/101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, T.; Erdmann, W.; Leininger, D.

    1985-01-01

    Due to a shortage of suitable areas for dumping and for reasons of conservation the German coal-mining industry has been looking for alternative ways of disposing of washery discard. With the use of mechanical and thermal processing it is possible to convert washery discard into useful building materials. Techniques have been developed for the manufacture of light concrete blocks using fired refuse as an additive and also cement bound masonry blocks with refuse in the green state as an additive. In the field of road construction, roads were made using green refuse with hydraulic or bitumen binders as frost blanket and roadbase management. Work has also been carried out using residues from the fluidised bed combustion of flotation tailings.

  9. Use Teaching Materials Effectively Construct the Knowledge Network%有效利用教材构建知识网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柏军

    2014-01-01

    以人教版《平面向量》这一章节为例,从平面向量的运算、平面向量的几何意义、平面向量基本定理这三个方面入手,详细阐述在新课改中如何有效利用教材,构建知识网络,使教师的教和学生的学都做到有的放矢。%This article takes the chapter plane vector in PEP for instances,beginning with the computation,geometric meaning and funda-mental theorem of plane vector,to expound the argument about how to use teaching materials effectively and construct the knowledge network. Thus,both teachers and students can be to the point.

  10. Recycling wastes: its application in acoustic screens and construction materials; Residuos con necesidad de reciclado: su aplicacion en plantallas acusticas y como materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Coloma, O.; Cortes, A.; Sanchez, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    The activities developed by man are origin of a great variety of wastes. These activities entail both the resource consumption and the generation of wastes. Both aspects are important because of the impact on the environment where man lives. If we focus on our attention on the consumption of natural resources, both economic aspects (every time the resources are more expensive) and its availability (it increases gradually the difficulty to get them). In this sense, it is very important to pro move the plans and programs necessary in order to minimize the wastes through the re utilization and recycling. Two of the options are the application of some wastes in the manufacture of acoustic screens and as construction materials. (Author)

  11. Impacts of vegetation and temperature on the treatment of domestic sewage in constructed wetlands incorporated with Ferric-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingwei; Zhu, Hui; Bañuelos, Gary; Yan, Baixing; Liang, Yinxiu; Yu, Jing; Li, Huai

    2017-03-20

    Ferric-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis (Fe/C-M/E) material had been widely used for the pretreatment of wastewater. Therefore, we hypothesized that Fe/C-M/E material could enhance the treatment of domestic sewage when integrated into CWs. In this study, constructed wetlands (CWs) integrated with Fe/C-M/E material were developed. During the experiment of vegetation influence, percentages of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, TN, and COD removed in polyculture (W1) were up to 91.8%, 97.0%, 92.3%, and 85.4%, respectively, which were much higher than those in Lythrum salicaria monoculture (W2) and Canna indica monoculture (W3). In the experiment of temperature influences, temperature substantially influenced the performance of CWs. For example, NO3(-)-N removal percentages of W1, W2 and W3 at high temperature (25.5°C and 19.8°C) were relatively stable and greater than 85.4%. At 8.9°C, however, a sharp decline of NO3(-)-N removal percentage was observed in all CWs. Temperature also influenced the COD removal and soil microbial activity and biomass. Overall, the polyculture showed the best performance during most of the operating time, average temperature ≥ 19.8°C, due to the functional complementarity between vegetation. All the CWs consistently achieved high removal efficiency (above 96%) for TP in all experiments, irrespective of vegetation types, phosphorous loadings and temperatures. In conclusion, polyculture was an attractive solution for the treatment of domestic sewage during most of the operating time, average temperature ≥ 19.8°C). Furthermore, CWs with Fe/C-M/E material were ideally suitable for domestic sewage treatment, especially for TP removal.

  12. Whole-journey nanomaterial research in an electron microscope: from material synthesis, composition characterization, property measurements to device construction and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiqiang; Li, Xing; Wu, Gongtao; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing; Peng, Lianmao; Wei, Xianlong

    2016-12-01

    The whole-journey nanomaterial research from material synthesis, composition and structure characterizations, property measurements to device construction and tests in one equipment chamber provides a quick and unambiguous way of establishing the relationships between synthesis conditions, composition and structures, physical properties and nanodevice performances of nanomaterials; however, it still proves challenging. Herein, we report the whole-journey research of tungsten oxide nanowires in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) equipped with an x-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and a multifunctional nanoprobe system. Tungsten oxide nanowires are synthesized by irradiating a tungsten filament using a high-energy laser in O2 atmosphere with the dynamic growth processes of nanowires being directly visualized under ESEM observation. The as-synthesized nanowires are then characterized to be monoclinic W18O49 nanowires by combing in situ EDS and ex situ transmission electron microscopy. Important physical parameters, i.e. Young’s modulus, breaking strength, and electrical conductivity, of W18O49 nanowires are determined based on in situ property measurements. Two-terminal electronic devices employing single W18O49 nanowires as the channel are in situ constructed and their performances as near-infrared photodetectors and water vapor sensors are studied. The whole-journey research establishes the relationships between synthesis conditions, composition and structures, physical properties and nanodevice performances of tungsten oxide nanowires, and can be applied to other nanomaterials.

  13. 普通高校跆拳道教材建设的思考%Reflection on the Teaching Material Construction of Taekwondo in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣骏

    2011-01-01

    Based on the inductive analysis of the Taekwondo sport in PE teaching materials in colleges and universities,this article proposes that the construction of Taekwondo teaching materials should not only comply with the development features of Taekwondo,but also adapt to college teaching and physical and mental development of students' characteristics so as to promote the popularity of Taekwondo in colleges and universities.%文章通过对部分高校体育教材中跆拳道内容进行归纳分析,针对现今教材中的跆拳道内容比较单一,缺乏系统性的现状,提出跆拳道教材建设不仅要符合跆拳道学科发展特点,还要适应普通高校教学和学生身心发展特点,才能促进跆拳道运动在普通高校中的普及与推广。

  14. Knowledge platform for calculating climate impact from construction and building materials. Literature study; Kunnskapsplattform for beregning av klimabelastning fra bygg og byggematerialer. Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Anne; Lyng, Kari-Anne; Vold, Mie

    2011-07-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from building linked today to a large extent to the energy consumption during the operating period. Through increasingly stringent energy requirements and other changes, the energy consumption for the operation could go down over time. This means in this case that the energy required to produce, transport and set up the building, to a greater extent can be relatively more important in a life-cycle analysis. KRD in that regard ha given Oestfoldforskning the commission to conduct a literature study that will provide an overview and assessment of the literature / research papers describing various building materials climate impact and how this translates into a lifetime (LCA - Life Cycle Assessment), and thus describe the knowledge platform these analyzes are based in. It also means a description of the factors that affect the climate and the environment, including the stages of life that are important. Literature study is conducted by searching scientific databases (Springer Link, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Norwegian EPD database of declarations). The literature search is limited to studies that are based on LCA as a methodology for calculating the climate impacts associated with the construction and building materials. Based on the review of literature is also undertaken an analysis focusing on explaining the methodological platform between the studies are based on, in order to explain why the results differ and / or may not be comparable.(eb)

  15. Study of the radiological impact of the construction materials in Argentina; Estudio del impacto radiologico de los materiales de la construccion en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, E.; Serdeiro, G.; Fernandez, J.; Ciallella, H. [ARN, Av. Del Liberatdor 8250, Buenos Aires (1429) (Argentina)]. e-mail: equintan@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    Some countries have established specific regulations on the radioactivity content of the construction materials (MC), while others are considering if its are necessary specific regulations. The purpose of limiting these radioactivity levels, it is to restrict the exposure to the radiation due to the natural or increased content of the natural radionuclides. All the used materials for the construction possess variable quantities of natural radionuclides. The materials derived of the rocks and soils contain mainly the radionuclides of the natural chains of the U-238 and of the Th-232 and the K-40 radionuclide. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority is carrying out studies of the concentration of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in different MC with the final purpose of providing recommendations that apply its to control the levels of radioactivity of the same ones. However, it should be kept in mind that restrictions on the use of certain MC could have important economic, environmental or social consequences so much in the regional as national confines. Such consequences should be evaluated and considered together with the radioactivity levels when establishing recommendations or regulations. The exposure to the radiation coming from the MC can be divided in external and internal. The external exposure is caused by direct gamma irradiation, coming from the radioactive decay of the natural radionuclides. The internal irradiation is caused by the inhalation of Rn-222 (radon), Rn-220 (thoron) and its offspring. The radon is part of the decay series of the uranium that is present in the MC. The biggest source of radon production is undoubtedly the soil, but in some cases the MC can to produce an outstanding contribution. These can also be an important source of thoron production when they contain high concentrations of Thorium. In this work the results of the measurements of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 carried out in leader trademarks of cements and plasters of national origin that are

  16. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  17. Ceramics As Materials Of Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, A.; Eteiba, M. B.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the limitations for using the important ceramics in contact with corrosive media. Different types of ceramics are included. Corrosion properties of ceramics and their electrical properties are mentioned. Recommendations are suggested for using ceramics in different media.

  18. Using Indigenous Materials for Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    laterite clay activated with soda ash and lime, where laterite clay moderately calcined in the presence of soda ash partially replaces natural laterite...block, lime, gypsum, natural pozzolans, biomass ash, vegetable fibers (and their fabrics/ropes), straw, bamboo, tree trunks/stems/leaves, corrugated...18, 20, 37], and render binding effects relying primarily upon aluminosilicate hydrates or integrated carbonated lime and gypsum [37-39] o require

  19. Construction Materials for Coastal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    special method used in quarry develorment is called "Coyote LUi ,,ling." This is a method in which tunnels are excavated into a bluff ,,, hillside and...tetrapods 1957 Kahului, Hawaii Breakwater 33-ton tetrapods 1958 Nawiliwili, Hawaii Breakwater 18-ton tribars 1958 Rincon Island, Calif. Revetment 31-ton

  20. Materials Trends in Marine Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    GRADE STEELS ABS EH36 EH36 Mod HTS HY80 HYI00 HSLA80 HSLAI00 ELEMENT C 0.07 0.07 0.18 0.18 0.2 0.07 0.04 Mn 1.5 1.5 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.05 0.9 S i 0.3 0.3 0.3...as HTS, HY80 and HY1O0 are used. These are quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels which derive their strength from the martensitic microstructure resulting...grade steels ; Welding,’ carbon equivalent;.Graville diagram,-weld defects weld joints; titanium .AP-its. alloy4’, Ifflpe*:-e- e polymer matrix composites

  1. Environmental influence in construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández París, José M.

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLos materiales de naturaleza pétrea, procedentes de las rocas naturales, pueden considerarse como los materiales de construcción más primitivos, utilizándose en la antigüedad clásica como parte integrante de las estructuras y en paramentos y conjuntos nobles.

  2. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  3. Safety analysis on construction material derivative products of red mud%赤泥建设材料衍生产品的安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亮

    2014-01-01

    Red mud is a residue obtained by the Bayer process during alumina production , and its disposal is an environmental problem due to its caustic nature , metal and radionuclide content and high alkalinity .The best solu-tion to safe disposal of red mud , which is continuously generated in large amounts , is to develop feasible application in industrial scale and to decrease the quantity for disposal with the utilization of red mud in the industry .Develop-ment of derivative construction material by red mud is one of the best ways to reutilize red mud in large scale .Be-sides, the safety issue of derivative construction material must be solved to make red mud harmless through treat-ment.Feasibility, safety and environmental compatibility of derivative construction material by red mud were dis-cussed in the aspects of radioactivity , causticity and leaching toxicity .Experimental results showed that radioactivi-ty levels of red mud exceed the limit specified in the national standard .However , it doesn ’ t produce strong leac-hing toxicity , and its alkalinity slows down the depassivation of rebar .%赤泥是拜耳法炼铝工业中产生的残渣,因其具有碱性腐蚀、有毒有害金属元素、放射性元素,而成为一个棘手的环境问题。赤泥安全处置的有效方法是通过开发工业上可行的规模化应用方法,以提高利用率、减少处置量,赤泥在建设工程材料领域的开发就是其规模化应用的一种有效途径;同时,必须解决赤泥的建设材料衍生产品的安全性问题,才能从根本上实现赤泥废弃物的无害化处置。从放射性、腐蚀性及浸出毒性方面讨论赤泥建设工程材料衍生品的可行性、安全性与环境相容性。结果表明,赤泥的放射性水平超过了安全规定的限值,但没有表现出显著的浸出毒性,同时其碱性延缓了钢筋的去钝化进程。

  4. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Eisele

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  5. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    connected to some Cultural Heritage element; this allowed to compare differences in recent substituted capitals, important reconstruction events, signs of the evolution of the building. All data were then treated and analysed to deepen the knowledge about the most meaningful aspects of different construction techniques and use of materials, provenance of raw materials, stone alterations and static-structure decay. As the result, a base was created to read common behaviours, design choices, recursive constructive solutions, and the "models" guiding the ancient intentions. A great effort has been made to keep together all these different kind of data, from the chemical and petrophysical information on the geomaterials to the geometrical description of the building, creating a robust relationship between the architectural and geological approach to the subject. The very specific photogrammetric survey of the stones sampled will be presented in details with a clear description of the applied processing and of the reached results. This contribution will present the progress state of this research, together with some widening about the most important churches between the investigated group, like: St. Saturnino in Cagliari (South Sardinia), St. Trinità of Saccargia (near Sassari, North), St. Antioco of Bisarcio in Ozieri (North-central), St. Giusta (near Oristano, central-Western). Keywords: Petrographic characterization, Physical properties, Medieval architecture, Laser scan, Digital survey

  6. An innovative concept for mixed-material construction in vehicle design: self-piercing riveting of aluminium and steel in combination; Innovatives Konzept fuer Mischbauweisen im Fahrzeugbau: Stanznieten von Aluminium mit Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, O.; Doelle, N. [Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lab. fuer Werkstoff- und Fuegetechnik; Rahde, A. [Continental Gummi-Werke AG, Hannover (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    A 'mixed construction' with different materials whose properties have been optimised in combination and new construction and production technologies represent a solution for optimising light-weight construction in the manufacture of motor vehicles in relation to the reduction of waste gas emissions, improvement in acoustics, as well as a reduction in the consumption of fuel. (orig.) [German] Eine 'Mischbauweise' mit verschiedenen eigenschaftsoptimierten Werkstoffen im Verbund sowie neue Konstruktions- und Fertigungstechnologien stellen eine Loesung fuer den optimierten Leichtbau bei der Herstellung von Fahrzeugen im Hinblick auf die Reduzierung von Abgasemissionen, die Verbesserung der Akustik sowie die Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauches dar. (orig.)

  7. The use of Web-based GIS data technologies in the construction of geoscience instructional materials: examples from the MARGINS Data in the Classroom project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; McIlrath, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Web-accessible geospatial information system (GIS) technologies have advanced in concert with an expansion of data resources that can be accessed and used by researchers, educators and students. These resources facilitate the development of data-rich instructional resources and activities that can be used to transition seamlessly into undergraduate research projects. MARGINS Data in the Classroom (http://serc.carleton.edu/ margins/index.html) seeks to engage MARGINS researchers and educators in using the images, datasets, and visualizations produced by NSF-MARGINS Program-funded research and related efforts to create Web-deliverable instructional materials for use in undergraduate-level geoscience courses (MARGINS Mini-Lessons). MARGINS science data is managed by the Marine Geosciences Data System (MGDS), and these and all other MGDS-hosted data can be accessed, manipulated and visualized using GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org; Carbotte et al, 2004), a freely available geographic information system focused on the marine environment. Both "packaged" MGDS datasets (i.e., global earthquake foci, volcanoes, bathymetry) and "raw" data (seismic surveys, magnetics, gravity) are accessible via GeoMapApp, with WFS linkages to other resources (geodesy from UNAVCO; seismic profiles from IRIS; geochemical and drillsite data from EarthChem, IODP, and others), permitting the comprehensive characterization of many regions of the ocean basins. Geospatially controlled datasets can be imported into GeoMapApp visualizations, and these visualizations can be exported into Google Earth as .kmz image files. Many of the MARGINS Mini-Lessons thus far produced use (or have studentss use the varied capabilities of GeoMapApp (i.e., constructing topographic profiles, overlaying varied geophysical and bathymetric datasets, characterizing geochemical data). These materials are available for use and testing from the project webpage (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/). Classroom testing and assessment

  8. The construction materials used in highway design%建筑材料在公路设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂震丽

    2015-01-01

    随着社会的发展和文明进步,公路建设取得了辉煌的成就,这对我国的现代化发展起到了举足轻重的作用。路上的车辆越来越多,道路交通安全问题成为当今社会面临的重要问题。道路交通安全的影响因素很多,公路设计就是其中的一个,而设计中又大量使用各种建筑材料。本文对公路设计中影响道路交通安全的因素进行分析。%With the development of society and the progress of civilization,the highway construction has made brilliant achievements,the modernization of our country development has played a pivotal role.More and more vehicles on the road, the road traffic security problem has become an important issue facing today’s society.Many factors affect the road traffic safety,a highway design is one of the,and design and the extensive use of all kinds of building materials.In this paper,through the analysis of factors influencing factors of road traffic safety of highway design,can further improve the effect of traffic safety in highway design related factors measures appropriate choice of building materials.

  9. Design of Construction Plan of Hazardous Material Supply Chain Laboratory%危险品供应链实验室建设方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆洲艳; 钱华

    2012-01-01

    指出了危险品供应链实验室的建设目的,指导思想及总体规划,并从危险品仓储管理实验,危险品追塑系统实验等6方面介绍了基于物联网技术的危险品供应链实验室方案设计内容,最后详细介绍了实验手段与环境设计内容及相关实验设备配置情况.%In this paper, we pointed out the objective, guideline and general planning of the construction of hazardous material supply chain laboratory, introduced from six aspects the content of the laboratory solution design based on IOT technology, and finally studied in detail the experiment means, content of environmental design and the configuration of relevant experimental devices.

  10. Characterization of the natural radioactivity of materials used in civil construction or the Curitiba, Parana state, Brazil, metropolitan region; Caracterizacao da radioatividade natural de materiais utilizados na construcao civil da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, Allan F.N.; Martins, Patricia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Claro, Flavia Del, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper performs an analysis of the natural radioactivity of construction materials (mainly the {sup 222}Rn) which are present in human environment. The main objective of the study is to characterize different building materials which come from the metropolitan region of the Curitiba related to the exhalation of {sup 222}Rn. The applied methodology analyse the samples of ceramic brick, plaster mortar, and fine lime from the concentration measurements of radon using CR-39 type detectors, and gamma spectrometry analysis

  11. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  12. Components of Candidate Images: Statistical Analysis of the Issue-Persona Dichotomy in the Presidential Campaign of 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Kenneth L.; Zakahi, Walter R.; Giles, Maury J.; McQuitty, Shaun

    2000-01-01

    Describes the results of a study intended to test a specific hypothesis and a research question related to the theoretical development of the candidate image construct in political communication. Tests the long-standing assumption that there is a dichotomy between candidate issue positions and candidate persona impressions ("images").…

  13. Adhesives in Building--Lamination of Structural Timber Beams, Bonding of Cementitious Materials, Bonding of Gypsum Drywall Construction. Proceedings of a Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Spring 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The role of adhesives in building design is discussed. Three major areas are as follows--(1) lamination of structural timber beams, (2) bonding of cementitious materials, and (3) bonding of gypsum drywall construction. Topical coverage includes--(1) structural lamination today, (2) adhesives in use today, (3) new adhesives needed, (4) production…

  14. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials (detachable plane panel); Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (chakudatsushiki heiban panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of technology for module structures, specifications of the horizontal muntin system module were newly determined in addition to the improved muntin system module, and the prototype pseudo-module integrated with construction material was prepared. The comparison results of the basic performance of both system modules clarified superior waterproofing and module temperature uniformity of the horizontal muntin system. Based on this specifications, integration technology of modules with back metal plates was studied. Formation of the integrated module close to final specifications was ascertained to be possible by use of passivation equipment to irregular form. (2) On development of construction and installation methods of modules, improvement of the waterproofing and workability of both system modules was studied. (3) On the study on practical use of modules, their design and ventilation/cooling structure were studied. 38 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. 玉米持绿相关QTL整合图谱构建及一致性QTL区域内候选基因发掘%Construction of integration QTL map and identification of candidate genes for stay-green in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永丰; 李永生; 白江平; 慕平; 孟亚雄; 张金林; 王汉宁; 尚勋武

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a character of plant development. Delayed leaf senescence or stay green character has received considerable attention because of its negative impact on photosynthesis and its role in nutrient redistribution within the plant. In the past few decades, a wealth of QTLs (quantitative trait locus) mapping data for stay green and its related traits in maize has been produced using molecular marker approaches. In order to unlock the full potential of the information contained in these independent experiments, 173 stay-green and related QTLs in maize were collected from maize genomic database (maize GDB), and were compiled to construct the integration QTL map for stay-green in maize (Zea mays). The high-scale genetic linkage map of maize IBM2 2008 Neighbors was used as reference and the map were constructed with BioMercator 2. 1 software based on the method of meta analysis. Five consensus QTL for maize stay green were identified on maize chromosomes 1,4,5 and 9, respectively. After project the consensus QTL region on maize physical map of B73 Ref-Gen_v2, a total of 1 445 candidate genes in the consensus QTL region were discovered and downloaded from Plant GDB(http://www. plantgdb. org/). Meanwhile, according to the results of gene ontology analysis, most candidate genes might take part in the cell development, catalytic process, enzymatic activity and other biological progresses. The sequences of eight stay-green candidate genes were identified by comparatively analyzing the sequences of stay-green gene sequence from other crops. Using a syntonic conservation approach, which is used to comparatively analyze the rice genetic map and maize physical map, one rice gene (sgr) that is coding for the senescence-inducible chloroplast stay-green protein was projected onto the physical map of maize B73RefGen_v2. Therefore, the results suggested that this approach provided an useful tool for identifying QTL conferring stay-green and other candidate genes in maize

  16. Simulation of the Mechanism between Construction Industry and Building Materials Industry and Its Influence Degree%建筑业与建材业发展的互动机理及效应仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁神军; 张云波; 丁烈云

    2011-01-01

    采用系统动力学原理和方法,从投人与产出角度提出了建筑业与建材业发展的动力机制和动力模型.根据我国1992年至2005年建筑业、建材业及宏观经济发展的数据,模拟和预测了我国建筑业、建材业发展现状及发展趋势;改变建筑业投资,模拟并预测其对建筑业、建材业的影响效应.设定金融危机对建筑业和建材业的影响参数,模拟并预测其对建筑业和建材业的影响程度;在此基础上,设定建筑业增加3万多亿投资的参数,模拟金融危机情形下增加建筑业投资对建筑业和建材业的拉动效应.研究结果表明,建筑业与建材业发展互动影响效应明显;在金融危机的情形下,对建筑业增加投资,能有效促进建筑业及建材业等关联产业的持续增长,促进GDP的持续上涨.%On the basal idea of Input-Output mode, the interior mechanism and dynamical model between construction industry and building materials industry was proposed with System Dynamics. Collecting and analyzing the history data of construction industry, building materials industry and macro-economy, the current situation and tendency of construction industry and building materials industry were monitored with the dynamical model. Computing the parameters of the dynamical model on the situation of Financial Crisis 2008,the influence degree of construction industry and building materials industry was analyzed. The pulling effect of construction industry and building materials industry by the countermeasure of increasing 3 trillion of investment plans was also investigated. The research results indicate that the interior mechanism between construction industry and building materials industry is very obvious, and increasing investment plans is an effective method to expand domestic demand to promote economic growth of construction industry, building materials industry, even other related industries.

  17. Some problems on the aqueous corrosion of structural materials in nuclear engineering; Problemes de corrosion aqueuse de materiaux de structure dans les constructions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Grall, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to give a comprehensive view of some aqueous corrosion studies which have been carried out with various materials for utilization either in nuclear reactors or in irradiated fuel treatment plants. The various subjects are listed below. Austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys: the behaviour of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in nitric medium and in the presence of hexavalent chromium; the stress corrosion of austenitic alloys in alkaline media at high temperatures; the stress corrosion of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in 650 C steam. Ferritic steels: corrosion of low alloy steels in water at 25 and 360 C; zirconium alloys; the behaviour of ultrapure zirconium in water and steam at high temperature. (authors) [French] On presente un ensemble d'etudes de corrosion en milieu aqueux effectuees sur des materiaux utilises, soit dans la construction des reacteurs soit pour la realisation des usines de traitement des combustibles irradies. Les differents sujets etudies sont les suivants. Les alliages austenitiques Fer-Nickel-Chrome: comportement d'alliages austenitiques fer-nickel-chrome en milieu nitrique en presence de chrome hexavalent; Corrosion sous contrainte d'alliages austenitiques dans les milieux alcalins a haute temperature; Corrosion sous contrainte dans la vapeur a 650 C d'alliages austenitiques fer-nickel-chrome. Les aciers ferritiques; Corrosion d'aciers faiblement allies dans l'eau a 25 et 360 C; le zirconium et ses alliages; Comportement du zirconium tres pur dans l'eau et la vapeur a haute temperature. (auteurs)

  18. 46 CFR 160.054-3 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 160.054-3 Section 160.054-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Construction. (a) Construction. The container shall be constructed of tough transparent material, not less...

  19. 应用型高校食品化学实验教材建设的思考%Thoughts of Experiment Materials Construction of Food Chemistry of Applied -type University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华丽; 陈林; 王兆丹; 肖国生

    2015-01-01

    The construction of experiment teaching materials is the key point to experiment teaching.In order to further strengthen the construction of teaching materials and promote the improvement of teaching quality,this paper analyzes and summarizes the problems of unclear thinking,unique features,innovation is not enough and the monitoring is not strict existing in construction of food chemistry ex-periment teaching materials in local colleges.Simultaneously,we also discuss the ways to strengthen the construction of teaching mate-rials under the new situation from the teaching material construction idea,system planning,research and exchange,management and monitoring,etc.%实验教材建设是搞好实验教学的关键环节。为了进一步强化实验教材建设,促进实验教学质量的提高,文中分析了地方本科院校在食品化学实验课程教材建设中普遍存在的思路不清、特色不明、创新不够、监控不严等问题,并从教材建设理念、系统规划、研讨交流、管理监控等方面对新形势下如何加强食品化学实验教材建设进行了探讨。

  20. The Evolution of Modular Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School & University, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Explores how the myths of modular construction for schools began; also discusses the advances made in steel and modular construction. The major advantages of using permanent modular construction for schools are highlighted, including its rapid construction, use of standard building materials, financial flexibility, and durability. (GR)

  1. Testing candidate interlayers for an enhanced water-cooled divertor target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, David, E-mail: david.hancock@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Barrett, Tom; Foster, James; Fursdon, Mike; Keech, Gregory; McIntosh, Simon; Timmis, William [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rieth, Michael; Reiser, Jens [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We introduce an optimised divertor target concept: the “Thermal Break”. • We suggest a candidate interlayer material for this concept: FeltMetal. • We describe a bespoke rig for testing the thermal conductivity of this material. • We present preliminary results for a number of samples. - Abstract: The design of a divertor target for DEMO remains one of the most challenging engineering tasks to be overcome on the path to fusion power. Under the European DEMO programme, a promising concept known as Thermal Break has been developed at CCFE. This concept is a variation of the ITER tungsten divertor in which the pure Copper interlayer between Copper Chrome Zirconium coolant pipe and Tungsten monoblock armour is replaced with a low thermal conductivity compliant interlayer, with the aim of reducing the thermal mismatch stress between the armour and structure. One candidate material for this interlayer is FeltMetal™ (Technetics Group, USA). This material consists of an amorphous matrix of fine copper wires which are sintered onto a thin copper foil, creating a sheet of approximately 1 mm thickness. FeltMetal has been successfully used for many years to provide compliant sliding electrical contacts for the MAST TF coils and on ALCATOR C-Mod and extensive material testing has therefore been undertaken to quantify thermal and mechanical properties. These tests, however, have not been performed under vacuum or DEMO-relevant conditions. A bespoke experimental test rig has therefore been designed and constructed with which to measure the interlayer thermal conductance as a function of temperature and pressure under vacuum conditions. The design of this apparatus and the results of experiments on FeltMetal as well as other candidate interlayers are presented here. In parallel, joint mockups using the candidate interlayers have been prepared and Thermal Break divertor target mockups have been manufactured, requiring the development of a dedicated

  2. 高职英语视听说教材建设的研究与实践%Research and Practice on the Construction of Teaching Materials for Higher Vocational English Audio-Visual-Oral Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕春意

    2014-01-01

    教学的成效首先取决于教的内容,也就是教材。教材建设是高职教学基本建设的重要组成部分,高质量的教材是不断提高教学水平、保障教学质量的基础。目前,市面上的很多视听说教材都不适合高职高专的学生使用,这很不利于教学,因此我们必须有针对性地建设真正合适的教材,才能有效地提高高职学生的英语应用交际能力。%The effectiveness of teaching depends primarily on teaching contents, that is, teaching materials. Teaching material construction is an important part of the capital construction of higher vocational education, as high-quality teaching materials are the foundation to continuously improve the teaching level and protect the teaching quality. At present, a lot of audio-visual-oral teaching materials are not suitable for higher vocational students, which is a disservice to teaching, so we must targetedly construct truly suitable teaching materials, in order to effectively improve higher vocational students' English applied and communicative competence.

  3. Intelligent robots for planetary exploration and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Robots capable of practical applications in planetary exploration and construction will require realtime sensory-interactive goal-directed control systems. A reference model architecture based on the NIST Real-time Control System (RCS) for real-time intelligent control systems is suggested. RCS partitions the control problem into four basic elements: behavior generation (or task decomposition), world modeling, sensory processing, and value judgment. It clusters these elements into computational nodes that have responsibility for specific subsystems, and arranges these nodes in hierarchical layers such that each layer has characteristic functionality and timing. Planetary exploration robots should have mobility systems that can safely maneuver over rough surfaces at high speeds. Walking machines and wheeled vehicles with dynamic suspensions are candidates. The technology of sensing and sensory processing has progressed to the point where real-time autonomous path planning and obstacle avoidance behavior is feasible. Map-based navigation systems will support long-range mobility goals and plans. Planetary construction robots must have high strength-to-weight ratios for lifting and positioning tools and materials in six degrees-of-freedom over large working volumes. A new generation of cable-suspended Stewart platform devices and inflatable structures are suggested for lifting and positioning materials and structures, as well as for excavation, grading, and manipulating a variety of tools and construction machinery.

  4. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...

  5. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-08

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  6. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  7. Investigation of materials for inert electrodes in aluminum electrodeposition cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, J. S.; Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-09-14

    Work was divided into major efforts. The first was the growth and characterization of specimens; the second was Hall cell performance testing. Cathode and anode materials were the subject of investigation. Preparation of specimens included growth of single crystals and synthesis of ultra high purity powders. Special attention was paid to ferrites as they were considered to be the most promising anode materials. Ferrite anode corrosion rates were studied and the electrical conductivities of a set of copper-manganese ferrites were measured. Float Zone, Pendant Drop Cryolite Experiments were undertaken because unsatisfactory choices of candidate materials were being made on the basis of a flawed set of selection criteria applied to an incomplete and sometimes inaccurate data base. This experiment was then constructed to determine whether the apparatus used for float zone crystal growth could be adapted to make a variety of important based melts and their interactions with candidate inert anode materials. The third major topic was Non Consumable Anode (Data Base, Candidate Compositions), driven by our perception that the basis for prior selection of candidate materials was inadequate. Results are presented. 162 refs., 39 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Reflection on teaching material construction for stomatology postgraduate education%口腔医学专业研究生教材建设的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐骎; 张志愿; 陈万涛

    2014-01-01

    组织编写和使用优秀的研究生教材是医学院校研究生培养工作中的重要命题。以口腔医学专业研究生培养为例,提出自编研究生专用教材应根据研究生教学的特点,突出教学内容的前沿性,与本科生教材相区别。教材编写过程中应遵循普适性、探索性和精品性原则,并结合学科建设、教学手段方法革新、教学资源整合等工作,注重启发学生创新思维。教材建设是一项系统过程,应当在统筹、组织、过程控制和后续应用等各阶段建立起有效的管理机制,才能保证教材编写质量及有效使用。%The organization and application of excellent textbooks for postgraduates is an im-portant work for every medical scientific research institution. Taking the cultivation of postgraduates majored in stomatology as an example, when compiling self-organized textbooks, the compiler should take into consideration the characteristics of postgraduate education as well as emphasize on the lead-ing edge of the contents and the difference from textbooks for undergraduates. When compiling self-organized textbooks, the principles of universality, exploratory and fineness should be always followed and the discipline construction, teaching method innovation, teaching resource integration should be combined to inspire students' innovative thinking. Compiling a textbook is a systematic process, there-fore an effective management mechanism should be established at all stages (plan, organization, pro-cess control and follow-up application) to ensure the quality of teaching materials and efficient use.

  9. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program: Topical report I, selection of candidate alloys. Volume 3. Selection of surface coating/substrate systems for screening creep and structural stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-20

    Considering the high temperature, low O/sub 2/, high C environment of operation in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Systems, the utilization of coatings is envisaged to hold potential for extending component lifetimes through the formation of stable and continuous oxide films with enhanced resistance to C diffusion. A survey of the current state of technology for high temperature coatings has been performed. The usefulness of these coatings on the Mo, Ni, and Fe base alloys is discussed. Specifically, no coating substitute was identified for TZM other than the well known W-3 (pack silicide) and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ forming coatings were recommended for the Fe and Ni base structural materials. Recommendations as to coating types and processng have been made based on the predicted VHTR component size, shape, base metal and operational environment. Four tests designed to evaluate the effects of selected combinations of coatings and substrate matrices are recommended for consideration.

  10. Regional Applied Research Effort Project (RARE) with Region 8 - Beneficial Use of Red and Brown Mud and Phosphogypsum as Alternative Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red and brown muds are the secondary materials generated from the extraction of alumina from bauxite, an aluminum-containing sedimentary rock (Ref. 2). Phosphogypsum is the secondary material generated by the phosphorous fertilizer industry from phosphate-containing sedimentary ...

  11. Automatic Classification of Kepler Planetary Transit Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    McCauliff, Sean D.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Seader, Shawn; Li, Jie; Cote, Miles

    2014-01-01

    In the first three years of operation the Kepler mission found 3,697 planet candidates from a set of 18,406 transit-like features detected on over 200,000 distinct stars. Vetting candidate signals manually by inspecting light curves and other diagnostic information is a labor intensive effort. Additionally, this classification methodology does not yield any information about the quality of planet candidates; all candidates are as credible as any other candidate. The torrent of exoplanet disco...

  12. Exploration and Practice Based on Characteristics Organic Chemistry Teaching Material Construction%基于特色有机化学教材建设的探索和实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海峰; 姜建辉; 丁从文; 赵俭波; 杨玲

    2014-01-01

    教材建设是有机化学教学改革的一个重要组成部分,教材是直接反映教学内容的载体,是保证教学质量的基础。本文结合我校民族班有机化学教材建设的实际情况及任课教师和近三届民族同学学习后的反馈意见,总结了在教材建设中的一些经验和体会,既肯定了民族特色有机教材所取得的成果,也指出了所存在的不足,同时对民族教材建设方向进行了展望。%Textbook construction was an important part of teaching reform in organic chemistry.The teaching material, the basis of guarantee the quality of teaching , was the carrier of directly reflecting the teaching content.Combined with the actual situation of the teaching material construction for national organic chemistry class and nearly three session of national students'feedback after learning , some experience and understanding in the teaching material construction was summarized.The achievements of national characteristics of organic materials were affirmed , the existing shortages were also points out , and the national construction of teaching material direction was prospected.

  13. Características de solos construídos após mineração de carvão relacionadas ao processo de construção e à composição do material utilizado Constructed soils characteristics after coal mining related to construction process and to material composition utilized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rafael Gadea Quinõnes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A mineração de carvão a céu aberto envolve a remoção do solo e de camadas geológicas, que devem ser repostos na seqüência original, visando a reabilitação das áreas mineradas. Este processo altera as características originais do solo e da paisagem. Neste sentido, perfis de solos construídos há 24 e 2 anos, em duas áreas mineradas no município de Minas do Leão (RS, foram avaliados quanto ao processo e à composição dos materiais utilizados na construção. Quanto ao processo de construção, foram determinadas as características morfológicas, a densidade, a condutividade hidraulica saturada e a capacidade de infiltração de água no solo. Em relação à composição dos materiais, determinaram-se granulometria, capacidade de traoca de cátions (CTC, teor de carbono orgânico (CO e potenciais de neutralização e acidificação. Em ambas as áreas reconstituídas, o processo de construção aumentou a densidade e diminuiu a condutividade hidráulica saturada e a capacidade de infiltração de água no solo. A granulometria, a CTC e o teor de CO foram similares nas duas áreas amostradas, indicando que o processo de construção e os materiais utilizados foram semelhantes. A diminuição dos potenciais de neutralização e acidificação nos perfis de solos construídos há 24 anos indicou um avanço da sulfurização com o tempo de construção dos solos. Os solos em ambas as áreas apresentam sérias limitações para o desenvolvimento de vegetação, influindo negativamente para a recuperação dessas áreas e de áreas adjacentes.Coal stripmining involves the removal of upper soil and geological layers, which must be relocated in a similar way that in the original profile when reconstructing the landscape. As this process changes soil and landscape characteristics, this study evaluated changes related to composition of materials and construction process in soils reconstructed 2 and 24 years ago, in Boa Vista Coal Mining

  14. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  15. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-06

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  16. Toward organometallic antischistosomal drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jeannine; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of novel approaches for the treatment of parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis. Among the different approaches used, organometallic compounds were found to offer unique opportunities in the design of antiparasitic drug candidates. A ferrocenyl derivative, namely ferroquine, has even entered clinical trials as a novel antimalarial. In this short review, we report on the studies describing the use of organometallic compounds against schistosomiasis.

  17. Operational support and analysis a guide for ITIL exam candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Sansbury, John

    2014-01-01

    This user-friendly book aims to assist candidates pass the ITIL® OSA Intermediate examination. It references material from the core ITIL texts and gives practical guidance. This new edition includes the latest ITIL guidance as well as additional insights from the author's own experience of developing effective solutions. An ITIL® licensed product.

  18. 混凝土面板堆石坝垫层料上游坡面施工技术简介%Construction technology for cushion material upstream slope face of concrete face-slab rockfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仙

    2014-01-01

    介绍了面板堆石坝的特点及垫层料上游坡面的主要施工方法,以及斜坡碾压固坡技术、挤压边墙施工技术、移动边墙施工技术和翻模固坡技术的施工工艺流程,及其在工程实施中的应用效果。%An introduction was made on the characteristics of face-slab rockfill dam,main construction technolo⁃gies for cushion material upstream slope face,the technical programs and application effects of slope roller compac⁃tion reinforcement technology,extrusion side wall construction technology,shift side wall construction technology and turn-over form slope reinforcement technology.

  19. The application of ceramic foam exterior insulation materials in construction%谈泡沫陶瓷外墙外保温材料在施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋磊

    2014-01-01

    介绍了泡沫陶瓷外墙外保温材料防火性能优异、环保节能、安装快捷等优点,从基层处理、弹控制线、锚固件安装等方面论述了泡沫陶瓷外墙保温系统的施工重点,为该材料在建筑行业的推广应用提供了技术支撑。%This paper introduced the exterior fire fighting performance,environmental protection and energy saving,quick installation and other advantages of ceramic foam exterior insulation materials,discussed the construction key points of ceramic foam exterior insulation system from primary processing,playing control line,anchor installation and other aspects,provided technical support for the popularization and application of the material in construction industry.

  20. Penetron水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料施工的应用%Application of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material in construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋斌

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the waterproofing mechanism and characteristics of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material.Combining with the underground waterproofing construction practice of Shanxi Haitang international hotel,it specifically describes the construction technology and operation points of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material,which has certain guiding meaning for similar engineering in future.%简要介绍了Penetron膨内传水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料的防水机理、特点,并结合山西海棠国际酒店地下防水施工实践,具体阐述了Penetron水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料施工工艺及操作要点,对今后同类工程具有指导意义。

  1. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  2. Fuzzy Logic Based Trusted Candidate Selection for Stable Multipath Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata V. Mallapur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, providing reliable and stable communication paths between wireless devices is critical. This paper presents a fuzzy logic stablebackbone-based multipath routing protocol (FLSBMRP for MANET that provides a high-quality path for communication between nodes. The proposed protocol has two main phases. The first phase is the selection of candidate nodes using a fuzzy logic technique. The second phase is the construction of a routing backbone that establishes multiple paths between nodes through the candidate nodes, thus forming a routing backbone. If any candidate node in the path fails due to a lack of bandwidth, residual energy or link quality, an alternate path through another candidate node is selected for communication before the route breaks, because a candidate node failure may lead to a broken link between the nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol performs better in terms of the packet delivery ratio, overhead, delay and packet drop ratio than the major existing ad hoc routing protocols.

  3. 核电建设阶段大宗材料采购缺失分析和改进建议%Analysis and Improvement Suggestion for the Lack of Bulk Material Procurement during the Construction of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠英; 顾健

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the importance and influence of lack of procurement for bulk materials during nuclear power plant construction, the design, procurement and construction management for bulk material are analyzed. Through analysis, referring to the problems during design, procurement and construction management, suggestions are given to countermeasures for all stage of work, with an aim to increase procurement efficiency and decrease the lack of procurement for bulk materials.%文章针对核电建设阶段大宗材料采购缺失重要性及缺失影响,进行了大宗材料采购时设计、采购、施工管理方面问题的分析.通过分析,针对大宗材料采购时设计、采购、施工管理问题提出了各阶段的工作对策,旨在提高采购效率、减小大宗材料的缺失率.

  4. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  5. Achieving Acetylcholine Receptor Clustering in Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Constructs In vitro through a Materials-Directed Agrin Delivery Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John B.; Ward, Catherine L.; Corona, Benjamin T.; Deschenes, Michael R.; Harrison, Benjamin S.; Saul, Justin M.; Christ, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can result from trauma, infection, congenital anomalies, or surgery, and produce permanent functional and cosmetic deficits. There are no effective treatment options for VML injuries, and recent advances toward development of muscle constructs lack the ability to achieve innervation necessary for long-term function. We sought to develop a proof-of-concept biomaterial construct that could achieve acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering on muscle-derived cells (MDCs) in vitro. The approach consisted of the presentation of neural (Z+) agrin from the surface of microspheres embedded with a fibrin hydrogel to muscle cells (C2C12 cell line or primary rat MDCs). AChR clustering was spatially restricted to areas of cell (C2C12)-microsphere contact when the microspheres were delivered in suspension or when they were incorporated into a thin (2D) fibrin hydrogel. AChR clusters were observed from 16 to 72 h after treatment when Z+ agrin was adsorbed to the microspheres, and for greater than 120 h when agrin was covalently coupled to the microspheres. Little to no AChR clustering was observed when agrin-coated microspheres were delivered from specially designed 3D fibrin constructs. However, cyclic stretch in combination with agrin-presenting microspheres led to dramatic enhancement of AChR clustering in cells cultured on these 3D fibrin constructs, suggesting a synergistic effect between mechanical strain and agrin stimulation of AChR clustering in vitro. These studies highlight a strategy for maintaining a physiological phenotype characterized by motor endplates of muscle cells used in tissue engineering strategies for muscle regeneration. As such, these observations may provide an important first step toward improving function of tissue-engineered constructs for treatment of VML injuries. PMID:28123368

  6. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  7. The development of a new perspective of computer professional teaching material construction%计算机专业教材建设的新视角的发展探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海燕

    2015-01-01

    当今时代,计算机的普及率已经十分高了,社会各方各面对计算机人才的依赖和要求也越来越多,这就更加促进了我们对计算机的学习热情,而要学习好计算机,专业教材尤为重要.所以,培养人才的各大高等院校也更加注重计算机专业教材建设.本文着重分析计算机专业教材的现状,并根据现状从几个重要角度对计算机教材建设的新视角进行研究.%In modern times, the computer penetration rate is very high, each facing the computer talents depend on and require all parties in society, more and more, all the better for promoting our enthusiasm to the computer, and want to learn computer well, professional teaching materials is particularly important. So, fosters the talent of each big colleges and universities also pay more attention to the computer professional teaching material construction. This paper analyzes the present situation of computer professional teaching materials, and according to the current situation from the perspective of a few important to research a new perspective of computer teaching material construction.

  8. Construction Technology of Material Transportation Dolly on Mobile Tower Crane Track%行走式塔式起重机轨道上材料运输桁车施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 李小进; 陈华周

    2016-01-01

    Mobile tower crane is widely used in large⁃scale construction. And the important prerequisite of project smoothly is to solve the problem of material transportation from periphery to central area. Aiming at arc track with a large span in this paper, main terminal steel structure of Abu Dhabi International Airport will be taken for example to explain the characteristics of material transportation dolly travelling on arc track, to introduce the structure design of material transportation dolly, stress calculation, the choice of power system and checking, calculation of material transportation dolly through arc track. Practice proves that the construction technology is safe, feasible and has a certain economic benefit.%以阿布扎比国际机场项目为例,通过对可行走在弧线轨道上的材料运输桁车的研究,介绍行走在大跨度轨道梁上材料运输桁车的结构设计、受力验算,动力系统台车的选择校核以及材料运输桁车通过曲线钢轨的验算等材料转运的施工技术。通过实践证明,该施工技术安全、可行,并具有一定的经济效益。

  9. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  10. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  11. Characterization of Construction Material Properties through Gamma Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence, and Hyper-spectral Imagery for Background Correction Applications in Nuclear Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    spectroscopy, 2) X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and 3) hyper-spectral imagery. Gamma-spectroscopy focuses on the presence of potassium as well as uranium and...each material. Each materials hyper-spectral characteristics are compared to chemical composition and radioactive properties to determine if any...of bundling a variety of sensors onto a small number of vehicles. A MISTI vehicle carries a ten by ten sodium iodide detector array with a coded

  12. Potential candidate cells for constructing tissue-engineered lacrimal duct epithelium:a histological and cytological study in rabbits%潜在候选细胞构建组织工程的泪道上皮:兔的组织学和细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen XIE; Xiu-yi LI; Hong-guang CUI

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Injury and deficiency of the lacrimal duct epithelium (LDE) can lead to a variety of lacrimal diseases. The purpose of this study was to characterize potential candidate cels for constructing a tissue-engineered LDE. Methods: Different areas of the conjunctiva and lacrimal duct tissue were removed from male adult New Zealand white rabbits for histological evaluation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining of cy-tokeratin AE1+AE3, cytokeratin 4, Ki-67, and MUC5AC were observed by light microscopy. The surface morphologies of different epithelial tissues and celular structures were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Epithelial cels were isolated from tissues and identified by specific markers. In vitro, proliferative ability and Western blot analyses of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) of different epithelial cels cultured in identical environments were investigated and compared. Results: Histologicaly, the epithe-lial specific markers, cytokeratin AE1+AE3 and cytokeratin 4, were expressed in the conjunctiva epithelium and the LDE. Notably, highly proliferative cells stained with Ki-67 were concentrated under the epithelium in a dome structure of the posterior palpebral conjunctiva. Differentiated goblet cels were also found to a lesser extent in this region. Primary palpebral and fornical conjunctival epithelial cells (PFCECs), bulbar conjunctival epithelial cells (BCECs), and lacrimal duct epithelial cels (LDECs) were successfully separated from tissues.In vitro, rabbit PFCECs and LDECs grew faster and expressed more PCNA than BCECs. Conclusions: PFCECs are anatomicaly similar to LDECs. They also have similar morphological characteristics, immune phenotypes, and proliferation features. PFCECs are therefore potential candidate cells to replace LDECs in tissue engineering to treat lacrimal duct diseases.%目的:泪道上皮细胞的损伤和缺陷会导

  13. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  14. 核电厂土建施工三大原材料质量控制%Quality control of three main materials for civil construction of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋

    2011-01-01

    核电厂的建造运行是一项系统工程。为了保证核电厂的质量安全,从设计立项到运行使用,每一个环节的工作都对质量安全产生不同程度影响。与之相关的每一步工作都必须做到质量受控。从核电厂建造过程中土建施工环节中的原材料质量控制入手,着重分析了土建施工中钢材、混凝土材料、模板材料三大主材如何实施质量控制和管理。%The construction and operation of nuclear power plant is a systematic engineering.To ensure quality and safety of nuclear power plants,each work from design to operation can have certain impact on the quality and safety of the project.The quality of each related work shall be controlled.Starting from the quality control over raw materials for the civil construction of nuclear power plant,this article mainly analyzes how to control the quality and manage the three main materials of steel,concrete and modular parts in the civil construction.

  15. Considerations about the Construction of Teaching Materials of Literature Retrieval Course%文献检索课教材建设的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑元元; 康红梅; 唐志红

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current content settings of teaching materials of literature retrieval course, and connecting with the division of subject categories in our country, puts forward an idea of teaching materials reform that the teaching materials of literature retrieval course can use unified theoretical textbook, the instance part and the usage of retrieval tools can be compiled into the form of practice guidance materials, and at the same time, should strengthen the electronization of teaching materials.%对现有的文献检索课教材内容的设置进行了分析,结合我国学科门类的划分,提出了文献检索课教材可采用统一的理论教材,实例部分和检索工具的使用方法可按照不同的学科编写成实习指导教材的形式,同时应加强教材电子化的教材改革思路。

  16. Modeling the mobility of uranium from NORM-rich bedrock using multivariate statistical techniques - The mobility of uranium from U-containing bedrock materials as a function of pH: Implications for tunnel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, Tari; Fjermestad, Halldis; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Meland, Sondre; Hagelia, Per [Norwegian Public Roads Administration, P.O. Box 8142, 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    According to amendments made to the Norwegian Pollution Control Act in 2011, naturally occurring radioactive material is now to be considered as an environmental contaminant, in addition to organic pollutants and trace metals. Environmental contamination is strongly correlated with the mobility and bioavailability of metals and radionuclides in natural systems. In order to determine the risk of environmental contamination from e.g. uranium (U) in alum shale areas, it is of particular importance to determine the mobility of U and trace metals found in the rock materials and their binding mechanisms. By determining the speciation and mobility of uranium and trace metals, better predictions can be made on the transport of contaminants in the environment from intervention like road and tunnel construction. The substrate media analyzed in this work was collected from a future tunnel construction site that is being built in the Gran municipality on National road Rv4 in Norway. The bedrock in the Gran municipality is rich in U-bearing minerals. Therefore, there is high potential for environmental contamination from the rock material removed for tunnel construction purposes. The present work focuses upon the effects of pH and the contact time (substrate media: solution) on the mobility of uranium. In order to identify the effects of pH and contact time on mobility, sample cores collected from an area rich in alum shale were subjected to an extended leaching experiment. In this experiment, the substrate materials were treated with five different pH solutions and were analyzed for different contact times. In addition, the results were compared to data from a sequential extraction experiment. In the leaching experiment, the mobilization of uranium in all of the substrate material was affected by the pH of solution. All of the samples were capable of quickly buffering pH solutions with a pH as low as 4 to neutral-alkaline conditions, attributed to the carbonate minerals

  17. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  18. Discussion on centralized bulk materials purchase management of building construction enterprises%谈建筑施工企业的大宗材料物资集中采购管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宗平

    2015-01-01

    In light of problems existing decentralized construction materials procurement for building construction enterprises,the thesis puts for-ward centralized bulk materials purchase management countermeasures including establishing scientific benefits concept,cultivating professional agency and talents,implementing high efficient tender system and so on,and finally summarizes advantages of centralized bulk materials pur-chase,with a view to provide some guidance.%针对建筑施工企业建材分散采购中存在的问题,提出了确立科学的效益观念、培育专业化的机构与人才、推行高效的招投标制度等实施大宗材料物资集中采购管理的对策,并总结了大宗材料物资集中采购的优势,以供参考。

  19. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C

  20. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...