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Sample records for candidate construction materials

  1. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  2. Systematic study of trace radioactive impurities in candidate construction materials for EXO-200

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, D S; Weber, P; Baussan, E; Djurcic, Z; Keefer, G; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Vuilleumier, J -L; Vuilleumier, J -M; Akimov, D; Bellerive, A; Bowcock, M; Breidenbach, M; Burenkov, A; Conley, R; Craddock, W; Danilov, M; DeVoe, R; Dixit, M; Dolgolenko, A; Ekchtout, I; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Fierlinger, P; Flatt, B; Gratta, G; Green, M; Hall, C; Hall, K; Hallman, D; Hargrove, C; Herbst, R; Hodgson, J; Jeng, S; Kolkowitz, S; Kovalenko, A; Kovalenko, D; LePort, F; Mackay, D; Moe, M; Díez, M Montero; Neilson, R; Odian, A; O'Sullivan, K; Ounalli, L; Prescott, C Y; Rowson, P C; Schenker, D; Sinclair, D; Skarpaas, K; Smirnov, G; Stekhanov, V; Strickland, V; Virtue, C; Wamba, K; Wodin, J

    2007-01-01

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  3. Scattering Properties of Candidate Planetary Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory investigation of the scattering properties of candidate planetary regolith materials is an important technique for understanding the physical properties of a planetary regolith. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  5. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A., E-mail: smlandi@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  6. Corrosion resistance of candidate transportation container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is currently remediating several sites that have been contaminated over the years with hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. Regulatory guidelines require strict compliance demonstrating public safety during remediation and the transport of these hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. The compatibility of the metallic transportation containers with the contents they are designed to transport is an ultimate concern that must be satisfied to ensure public safety. The transportation issue is inherently complicated due to the complex, varied, and unknown composition of the hazardous, mixed and radioactive waste that is being, considered for transport by the DOE facilities. Never before have the interactions between the waste being transported and the materials that comprise the transportation packages been more important. Therefore, evaluation of material performance when subjected to a simulated waste will ensure that all regulatory issues and requirements for transportation of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes are satisfied. The tasks encompassed by this study include defining criteria for candidate material selection, defining a test matrix that will provide pertinent information on the material compatibility with the waste stimulant, and evaluation of material performance when subjected to a stimulant waste. Our goal is to provide package design engineers with a choice of materials which exhibit enhanced performance upon exposure to hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste that is similar in composition to the waste stimulant used in this study. Due to the fact that there are many other possible waste compositions, additional work needs to be done to broaden our materials compatibility/waste stream data base

  7. Construction of Basic Evaluation Criteria for Candidate HLW Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final objectives of the research are to study basically site selection criteria and methods for high level radioactive wastes disposal. In order to accomplish the final objectives, this study proposes basic concept of site evaluation and selection for HLW disposal and develops a geologic database system for management of geologic data which will be used for site selection. This study performed the following contents such as i) development of a technical guide for geologic evaluation system for candidate sites selection; ii) construction of geological evaluation factors and selection methods for candidate sites; iii) development of geologic information system for evaluation and selection of candidate sites. The results are expected to be applied for basic research results for setting up further research foundation for site selection, development of systematic site evaluation process considered with geologic conditions of candidate sites, and utilization of the research result for public acceptance

  8. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  9. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW)

  10. Canister filling materials -- Design requirements and evaluation of candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has been evaluating a copper/steel canister for use in the disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Once the canister is breached by corrosion, it is possible that the void volume inside the canister might fill with water. Water inside the canister would moderate the energy of the neutrons emitted by spontaneous fission in the fuel. It the space in the canister between and around the fuel pins is occupied by canister filling materials, the potential for criticality is avoided. The authors have developed a set of design requirements for canister filling material for the case where it is to be used alone, with no credit for burnup of the fuel or other measures, such as the use of neutron absorbers. Requirements were divided into three classes: essential requirements, desirable features, and undesirable features. The essential requirements are that the material fill at least 60% of the original void space, that the solubility of the filling material be less than 100 mg/l in pure water or expected repository waters at 50 C, and that the material not compact under its own weight by more than 10%. In this paper they review the reasons for these requirements, the desirable and undesirable features, and evaluate 11 candidate materials with respect to the design requirements and features. The candidate materials are glass beads, lead shot, copper spheres, sand, olivine, hematite, magnetite, crushed rock, bentonite, other clays, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the determination of whether further work is needed to eliminate uncertainties in the evaluation of the ability of a particular filling material to be successfully used under actual conditions, and on the ability to predict the long-term performance of the material under the repository conditions

  11. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  13. Candidate materials to prevent brittle fracture - (186)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For heavy transport or dual purpose casks, selecting the appropriate materials for the body is a key decision. To get a Type B(U) approval, it is necessary to demonstrate that the mechanical strength of the material is good enough at temperature as low as -40 C so as to prevent the cask from any risk of brittle fracture in regulatory accident conditions. Different methods are available to provide such a demonstration and can lead to different choices. It should be noted also that the material compositions given by national or international standards display relatively wide tolerances and therefore are not necessarily sufficient to guarantee a required toughness. It is therefore necessary to specify to the fabricator the minimum value for toughness, and to verify it. This paper gives an overview of the different methods and materials that are used in several countries. Although the safety is strongly linked to the choice of the material, it is shown that many other parameters are important, such as the design, the fabrication process (multi layer, cast or forged body), the welding material and process, the ability to detect flaws, and the measured and/or calculated stress level, including stress concentration, in particular when bolts are used. The paper will show that relying exclusively on high toughness at low temperature does not necessarily deliver the maximum safety as compared with other choices. It follows that differences in approaches to licensing by different competent authorities may bias the choice of material depending on the country of application, even though B(U) licenses are meant to guarantee unilaterally a uniform minimum level of safety

  14. Recent production of candidate reference materials at IRMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.N.; Pauwels, J.; Le Guern, L.; Schimmel, H.; Trapmann, S. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Joint Research Centre

    2001-06-01

    In the execution of its mission to promote a common European measurement system in support of EU policies, IRMM's Reference Materials Unit is currently involved in preparation of proficiency-testing samples and candidate reference materials. Recent work related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cows, genetically modified organisms, and a variety of environmental materials is described. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary corrosion studies of candidate materials for supercritical water oxidation reactor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orzalli, John Clarke

    1994-01-01

    An experimental test facility has been designed and constructed for investigation of the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in a supercritical water oxidation environment. The high temperatures (500 deg C) and high pressures (300 atm) required in this process, made the experimental apparatus construction and control a complex engineering problem. The facility consists of two systems. The first is an exposure autoclave internal volume 850 ml, with associated monitoring and control syste...

  16. Tests of candidate materials for particle bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium metal hot frits and zirconium carbide-coated fuel particles appear suitable for use in flowing hydrogen to at least 2000 K, based on previous tests. Recent tests on alternate candidate cooled particle and frit materials are described. Silicon carbide-coated particles began to react with rhenium frit material at 1600 K, forming a molten silicide at 2000 K. Silicon carbide was extensively attacked by hydrogen at 2066 K for 30 minutes, losing 3.25% of its weight. Vitrous carbon was also rapidly attacked by hydrogen at 2123 K, losing 10% of its weight in two minutes. Long term material tests on candidate materials for closed cycle helium cooled particle bed fuel elements are also described. Surface imperfections were found on the surface of pyrocarbon-coated fuel particles after ninety days exposure to flowing (∼500 ppM) impure helium at 1143 K. The imperfections were superficial and did not affect particle strength

  17. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  18. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  19. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degree}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project's high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250 degree C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab

  1. Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

  2. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as sufficient homogeneity, was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS), Type 316L SS, Incology 825, P-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7% Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks, and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in simulated Well J-13 water which is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site has been completed, and crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests are also being conducted under the same environmental conditions. 13 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs

  4. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  5. Candidate Materials Evaluation for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final technical report on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and radiation response of candidate materials for the supercritical water-cooled reactor concept. The objective of the proposed research was to investigate degradation of materials in the supercritical water environment (SCW). First, representative alloys from the important classes of candidate materials were studied for their corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance in supercritical water. These included ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels, austenitic stainless steels, and Ni-base alloys. Corrosion and SCC tests were conducted at various temperatures and exposure times, as well as in various water chemistries. Second, emerging plasma surface modification and grain boundary engineering technologies were applied to modify the near surface chemistry, microstructure, and stress-state of the alloys prior to corrosion testing. Third, the effect of irradiation on corrosion and SCC of alloys in the as-received and modified/engineered conditions were examined by irradiating samples using high-energy protons and then exposing them to SCW

  6. Material Properties of Three Candidate Elastomers for Space Seals Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    A next-generation docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support Constellation Space Exploration Missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. A number of investigations were carried out to quantify the properties of candidate elastomer materials for use in the main interface seal of the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This seal forms the gas pressure seal between two mating spacecraft. Three candidate silicone elastomer compounds were examined: Esterline ELA-SA-401, Parker Hannifin S0383-70, and Parker Hannifin S0899-50. All three materials were characterized as low-outgassing compounds, per ASTM E595, so as to minimize the contamination of optical and solar array systems. Important seal properties such as outgas levels, durometer, tensile strength, elongation to failure, glass transition temperature, permeability, compression set, Yeoh strain energy coefficients, coefficients of friction, coefficients of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and are reported herein.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods for construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some ultrasonic methods for evaluation of physical-mechanical properties of construction materials (bricks, concrete, BCA), such as: pulse method, examination methods, and direct measurement of the propagation velocity and impact-echo method. Utilizing these nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods it can be determined the main material parameters and material characteristics (elasticity coefficients, density, propagation velocity, ultrasound attenuation, etc.) of construction materials. These method are suitable for construction materials because the defectoscopy methods for metallic materials cannot be utilized, due to its rugged and non-homogeneous structures and grate attenuation coefficients of ultrasound propagation through materials. Also, the impact-echo method is a technique for flaw detection in concrete based on stress wave propagation. Studies have shown that the impact-echo method is effective for locating voids, honeycombing, delaminating, depth of surface opening cracks, and measuring member thickness

  8. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  9. Use of superabsorbent polymers in construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of some of the possibilities which are offered by the use of superabsorbent polymers in construction. Superabsorbent polymers, SAP, have some distinct properties that make them interesting to use in connection with construction materials. These properties include...

  10. Use of superabsorbent polymers in construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    This paper gives an overview of some of the possibilities which are offered by the use of superabsorbent polymers in construction. Superabsorbent polymers, SAP, have some distinct properties that make them interesting to use in connection with construction materials. These properties include...

  11. Surface segregation in binary alloy first wall candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been studying the conditions necessary to produce a self-sustaining stable lithium monolayer on a metal substrate as a means of creating a low-Z film which sputters primarily as secondary ions. It is expected that because of the toroidal field, secondary ions originating at the first wall will be returned and contribute little to the plasma impurity influx. Aluminum and copper have, because of their high thermal conductivity and low induced radioactivity, been proposed as first wall candidate materials. The mechanical properties of the pure metals are very poorly suited to structural applications and an alloy must be used to obtain adequate hardness and tensile strength. In the case of aluminum, mechanical properties suitable for aircraft manufacture are obtained by the addition of a few at% Li. In order to investigate alloys of a similar nature as candidate structural materials for fusion machines we have prepared samples of Li-doped aluminum using both a pyro-metallurgical and a vapor-diffusion technique. The sputtering properties and surface composition have been studied as a function of sample temperature and heating time, and ion beam mass. The erosion rate and secondary ion yield of both the sputtered Al and Li have been monitored by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Auger analysis providing information on surface segregation, depth composition profiles, and diffusion rates. The surface composition ahd lithium depth profiles are compared with previously obtained computational results based on a regular solution model of segregation, while the partial sputtering yields of Al and Li are compared with results obtained with a modified version of the TRIM computer program. (orig.)

  12. Corrosion of candidate container materials by Yucca Mountain bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several candidate container materials have been studied in modified Yucca Mountain (YM) ground water in the presence or absence of YM bacteria. YM bacteria increased corrosion rates by 5-6 fold in UNS G10200 carbon steel, and nearly 100-fold in UNS NO4400 Ni-Cu alloy. YM bacteria caused microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) through de-alloying or Ni-depletion of Ni-Cu alloy as evidenced by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) analysis. MIC rates of more corrosion-resistant alloys such as UNS NO6022 Ni-Cr- MO-W alloy, UN's NO6625 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, and UNS S30400 stainless steel were measured below 0.05 umyr, however YM bacteria affected depletion of Cr and Fe relative to Ni in these materials. The chemical change on the metal surface caused by depletion was characterized in anodic polarization behavior. The anodic polarization behavior of depleted Ni-based alloys was similar to that of pure Ni. Key words: MIC, container materials, YM bacteria, de-alloying, Ni-depletion, Cr-depletion, polarization resistance, anodic polarization,

  13. Construction Material Waste: Recognition and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by long term observations of the construction industry in the Northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The observations showed that the construction waste is becoming a serious environmental, economical and safety issue that affects the suburbs of the KSA. The study utilizes Likert scaled responses through a two-part questionnaire distributed to 42 contractors located in the Northern region of KSA. The first part of the questionnaire aims at identifying causes of material waste in building construction projects from the contractors’ viewpoint. The second part seeks to rank the considered materials according to their level of importance from the contractors’ viewpoint. The collected data was analyzed through Minitab statistical software. It was found that the most significant factors causing construction waste are: (1 inaccuracy in quantity surveys leading to over-ordering or under-ordering; (2 the selection of low quality products; (3 detail errors in design and construction; (4 the order of supplies in loose form; (5 and the inefficiency in resource management. The results of this study show that construction material handling and managerial decisions have a critical impact on the cause and effect of the level of construction waste. The study findings demonstrate that the most important benefits for considering construction waste are to know the exact required quantities for a construction project and to plan and prepare an accurate schedule for material arriving supply. The study recommends employing Lean Manufacturing principles to eliminate the construction waste and to enhance the decision making process in construction management in the northern part of KSA.

  14. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.Y.; Maiya, P.S.; Soppet, W.K.; Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS). Type 316L SS, Incoloy 825, phosphorus-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7%Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks. and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)- A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) and fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests was performed at 93{degree}C and 1 atm of pressure in simulated J-13 well water. This water is representative, prior to the widespread availability of unsaturated-zone water, of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site. Slow-strain-rate tests were conducted on 6.35-mm-diameter cylindrical specimens at strain rates of 10-{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}8} s{sup {minus}1} under crevice and noncrevice conditions. All tests were interrupted after nominal elongation strain of 1--4%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed some crack initiation in virtually all the materials, as well as weldments made from these materials. A stress- or strain-ratio cracking index ranks these materials, in order of increasing resistance to SCC, as follows: Type 304 SS < Type 316L SS < Incoloy 825 < Cu-30%Ni < Cu and Cu-7%Al. Fracture-mechanics CGR tests were conducted on 25.4-mm-thick compact tension specimens of Types 304L and 316L stainless steel (SS) and Incoloy 825. Crack-growth rates were measured under various load conditions: load ratios M of 0.5--1.0, frequencies of 10{sup {minus}3}-1 Hz, rise nines of 1--1000s, and peak stress intensities of 25--40 MPa{center_dot}m {sup l/2}.

  15. Corrosion of candidate container materials by Yucca Mountain bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several candidate container materials have been studied in modified Yucca Mountain (YM) ground water in the presence or absence of YM bacteria. YM bacteria increased corrosion rates by 5--6 fold in UNS G10200 carbon steel, and nearly 100-fold in UNS N04400 Ni-Cu alloy. YM bacteria caused microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) through de-alloying or Ni-depletion of Ni-Cu alloy as evidenced by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) analysis. MIC rates of more corrosion-resistant alloys such as UNS N06022 Ni-Cr-Mo- W alloy, UNS N06625 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, and UNS S30430 stainless steel were measured below 0.05 microm/yr, however YM bacteria affected depletion of Cr and Fe relative to Ni in these materials. The chemical change on the metal surface caused by depletion was characterized in anodic polarization behavior. The anodic polarization behavior of depleted Ni-based alloys was similar to that of pure Ni

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Types 304L and 316L stainless steel (SS), Incoloy 825, Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7%Al have been selected as candidate materials for the containment of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. The susceptibility of these materials to stress corrosion cracking has been investigated by slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in water which simulates that from well J-13 (J-13 water) and is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site. The SSRTs were performed on specimens exposed to simulated J-13 water at 93 degree C and at a strain rate 10-7 s-1 under crevice conditions and at a strain rate of 10-8 s-1 under both crevice and noncrevice conditions. All the tests were interrupted after nominal elongation strains of 1--4%. Examination by scanning electron microscopy showed some crack initiation in virtually all specimens. Optical microscopy of metallographically prepared transverse sections of Type 304L SS suggests that the crack depths are small (<10 μm). Preliminary results suggest that a lower strain rate increases the severity of cracking of Types 304L and 316L SS, Incoloy 825, and Cu but has virtually no effect on Cu-30%Ni and Cu-7%Al. Differences in susceptibility to cracking were evaluated in terms of a stress ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the increase in stress after local yielding in the environment to the corresponding stress increase in an identical test in air, both computed at the same strain. On the basis of this stress ratio, the ranking of materials in order of increasing resistance to cracking is: Types 304L SS < 316L SS < Incoloy 825 congruent Cu-30%Ni < Cu congruent Cu-7%Al. 9 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Generating dam construction material from tailings sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, H. [Northgate Minerals Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Northgate Minerals is a leading gold and copper producer with mining operations, development projects and exploration properties in Canada and Australia. This presentation provided background information on the Northgate Minerals Corp. Kemess Mines and how to generate dam construction material from tailings sand. Specifically, the objectives of the program are to generate construction material from tailings sand and replace earth fill construction with tailings sand from which sulphur has been removed. This presentation reviewed environmental specifications such as producing a construction material that does not generate poor water quality. It also reviewed engineering specifications such as producing a material suitable for d/s buttress zone placement. The presentation discussed the evaluation of source material as well as analysis challenges. The evaluation of Kemess ore was also outlined. along with other topics such as environmental testing and verification of sand plant beta testing; criteria and communication; operational procedures including sand plant operation and fail safe procedures; placement of sulphur-free sand; and benefits. It was concluded that the tailings cyclone plant was constructed at a cost of 5.4 million dollars. tabs., figs.

  18. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: ► Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. ► The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. ► The radium equivalent activity of building materials was evaluated. ► The external hazard index of building materials was evaluated.

  19. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fior, L.; Nicolosi Correa, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Paschuk, S.A., E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Denyak, V.V. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim, 1632, Curitiba, PR 80250-200 (Brazil); Soreanu Pecequilo, B.R. [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-/05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kappke, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 cm{sup 3} were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), and external hazard index (H{sub ext}) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radium equivalent activity of

  20. Toxic or dangerous substances present construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation is the elaboration of a guide which could be used as a support and consultation concerning the topic of safety in the construction, specifically in the area of the use and managing of material and dangerous substances; considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of the common construction materials represent for the health. The gathered information is the result of the review of bibliographical material, the visits to public institutions at national level and to international offices which representation in our country, this way as a work of field and of study of the national market, among others. Besides important consult through the Internet checking many sites of interest with the finality of getting more updated information as possible, like that as the consultation to professionals and workers related to the construction area. (Author)

  1. Compatibility of ITER candidate materials with static gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion tests have been conducted to determine the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) first wall/blanket systems, e.g., Type 316 stainless steel (SS), Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr. The results indicate that Type 316 SS is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400 C, corrosion rates for Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy are ∼ 4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr, respectively. Iron, nickel, and chromium react rapidly with gallium. Iron shows greater corrosion than nickel at 400 C (≥ 88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively). The present study indicates that at temperatures up to 400 C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The growth of intermetallic compounds may control the overall rate of corrosion

  2. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400 degrees C, corrosion rates are ∼4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400 degrees C are ≥88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400 degrees C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized

  3. Humid air corrosion of YMP waste package candidate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating candidate materials for high level nuclear waste containers (Waste Packages) for a potential deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The potential repository is located above the water table in the unsaturated zone. The rock contains nominally 10% by volume water and gas pressure in the emplacement drifts of the repository is expected to remain near the ambient atmospheric pressure. The heat generated by the radioactive decay of the waste will raise the temperature of the waste packages and the surrounding rock. Waste Package temperatures above the ambient boiling point of water are anticipated for the waste emplacement scenarios. Because the repository emplacement drifts are expected to remain at the ambient atmospheric pressure, the maximum relative humidity obtainable decreases above the boiling point of water. Temperatures of the Waste Packages and the surrounding rock are expected to reach maximum temperature within 100`s of years and then gradually decrease with time. Episodic liquid water contact with the WPs is also expected; this will result in the deposition of salts and mineral scale.

  4. Material and construction of primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of SNR's requires specific properties of the materials, i.e. high strength at temperatures of 6000C, adequate creep rupture strength, low long-time embrittlement. Aspects are given for optimalization of the mentioned properties with regard to safe manufacture especially good weldability. The austenitic material X6CrNil811 similar the type AISI 304 SS finally was chosen. Besides the fundamental analysis of the material properties it will be reported about the experiences gained during the manufacturing of the essential components. (author)

  5. High performance construction materials for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed hazardous/radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities are often required to either withstand harsh service environments or in the case of disposal facilities exhibit an extremely long service life. The default construction material, Portland cement based concrete (PCC) does not always meet the challenge. For example, many radioactive waste processing facilities are constructed with PCC and then lined with stainless steel. The stainless steel liner is added to provide a surface which can be decontaminated. Installation of the stainless steel liner is both expensive and labor intensive. Similarly, hazardous waste facilities generally require concrete surfaces to be lined with a material that reduces the permeability of the concrete and provides resistance to the harsh chemical environment prevalent in such facilities. This paper is a highly condensed report of the results of a research effort designed to expand the engineering knowledge on two alternate materials which exhibit properties that would allow them to replace the stainless steel lined concrete combination. The two materials are: (1) ICOM, a composite concrete made from a proprietary blend of resins, corrosion-resistant fillers and fine aggregates, and (2) sulfur concrete (SC) made from sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Both materials meet or exceed the mechanical and structural properties of PCC, with the added characteristic of impermeability. The experimental results which are briefly summarized below indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications where a PCC structure has traditionally required supplemental liners due to the poor performance of the PCC alone

  6. The construction of irradiated material examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detail design of the examination process, the hot cell facility and the annexed facility of the irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) which will be utilized to examine and evaluate physical and mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated materials, has been performed. Also a start-up work of the underground structure construction has been launched out. The project management and tasks required for the license application were duly carried out. The resultant detail design data will be used for the next step. (author)

  7. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  8. Quality and safety of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEPCO represents 20 industrial sectors, which take charge of construction materials production, and whose expectations of European and Spanish legislation observance (specially the articles related to quality, security and environmental respect) reach a very high level. This performance is equally taken to their internal competitiveness and to their huge international enlargement produced on the recent years. In addition to this principle, the Confederation includes its own this principle, the Confederation includes its own doctrine of trying to consolidate important heights of quality related to the evolution of the product trough I+D+i. (Author)

  9. Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours

  10. Irradiation creep of carbon construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parts of the newest installations operate in conditions of high temperatures, pressures, aggressive media, and ionizing radiation. This makes it necessary to create new materials with special properties capable of working in extreme conditions for a long time. Hence, the necessity of determining such properties of materials as the creep parameters and long-term strength, including in exposure to ionizing radiation. Three stages are characteristic of the creep of metals and alloys: nonstationary--with a rate that decreases in time; steady-state--which takes place with a constant rate; accelerated--the rate increases in time, causing the metal to fracture. The same type of creep is also characteristic of other classes of materials: heat-resistant intercalation phases and carbon construction materials (CCM). The steady-state irradiation creep rate of reactor and matrix graphites irradiated at 600 and 1400-1600 K was determined. It was found that the steady-state creep rate of nongraphitized material is five times higher than for graphites. The temperature curves of the steady-state creep rate were compared in a large number of graphite materials in different studies. A significant difference in the experimental data and the rate as a weak function of the irradiation temperature above 1000 K were observed. It was shown that neutron irradiation accelerates creep in the third stage, and the deformation is linear with the neutron fluence, while the rate is a function of the applied stress to a power of 0.5. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Decontamination of radionuclides on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of materials can become contaminated by radionuclides, either from a terrorist attack or an industrial or nuclear accident. The final disposition of these materials depends, in large part, on the effectiveness of decontamination measures. This study reports on investigations into the decontamination of a selection of building materials. The aim has been to find an effective, easy-to-use and inexpensive decontamination system for radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, considering both the chemical and physical nature of these potential contaminants. The basic method investigated was surface washing, due to its ease and simplicity. In the present study, a basic decontamination formulation was modified by adding isotope-specific sequestering agents, to enhance the removal of cesium(I) and cobalt(II) from such construction materials as concrete, marble, aluminum and painted steel. Spiking solutions contained 134Cs or 60Co, which were prepared by neutron activation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility at the Royal Military College of Canada. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the decontamination efficiency. The results showed that the addition of sequestering agents generally improved the radiological decontamination. Although the washing of both cesium and cobalt from non-porous materials, such as aluminum and painted steel, achieved a 90-95 % removal, the decontamination of concrete and marble was more challenging, due to the porous nature of the materials. Nevertheless, the removal efficiency from 6-year-old concrete increased from 10 % to approximately 50 % for cobalt(II), and from 18 to 55 % for cesium(I), with the use of isotope binding agents, as opposed to a simple water wash. (author)

  12. LEO effects on candidate solar-cell cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) test samples discussed within are part of the Solar Array Materials Passive (SAMPLE) LDEF experiment, which included contributions from NASA and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL). Only the JPL portion is described in this paper. The JPL test plate contains 30 individual thin silicon solar cell/cover samples. It was the intent of the experiment to evaluate the stability and protective capability of various cover materials such as conventional fused silica and potential alternative materials such as Teflon, silicone RTV's, glass resins, polyimides, and a copolymer encapsulate. Examination of the recovered experiment shows extensive physical changes have occurred. Approximately 150 micrometeoroid/debris impact were noted, some directly on the solar cells. Of particular interest are the results of ultraviolet and atomic oxygen interactions with the various cover materials. Initial results show that the fused silica cover is the most stable and protective, with performance of other materials varying widely. Electrical measurements of the cell/cover samples are presented as part of the evaluation of cover materials to protect cells in low earth orbit environments

  13. Characterization of Candidate Materials for Remote Recession Measurements of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bradley D.; Winter, Michael; Panerai, Francesco; Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Stackpoole, Margaret; Danehy, Paul M.; Splinter, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring surface recession of a material sample in a plasma flow through emission spectroscopy of the post shock layer was characterized through experiments in the NASA Langley HYMETS arc jet facility. Different methods for delivering the seed products into the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material samples were investigated. Three samples were produced by seeding the PICA material with combinations of Al, Si, HfO2, VB2, Al2O3, SiO2, TiC, HfC, NaCl, and MgCl2 through infusing seed materials into a core of PICA, or through encapsulating seed material in an epoxy disk, mechanically bonding the disk to a PICA sample. The PICA samples seeded with the candidate tracers were then tested at surface temperatures near 2400 K under low pressure air plasma. The emission of Al, Ti, V, Na, and Mg in the post-shock layer was observed in the UV with a high resolution imaging spectrometer viewing the whole stagnation line from the side, and from UV to NIR with a fiber-coupled miniaturized spectrometer observing the sample surface in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1,100 nm from the front through a collimator. Al, Na, and Mg were found to be emitting in the post-shock spectra even before the recession reached the seeding depth - therefore possibly characterizing the pyrolysis process rather than the recession itself. The appearance of Ti and V emission in the spectra was well correlated with the actual recession which was monitored through a video of the front surface of the sample. The applicability of a seed material as an indicator for recession appears to be related to the melting temperature of the seed material. Future parametric studies will be carried out in low power plasma facilities at the University of Kentucky.

  14. 23 CFR 633.207 - Construction labor and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction labor and materials. 633.207 Section 633... labor and materials. (a) Construction and materials shall be in accordance with the State highway... Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Construction Contracts,” Form...

  15. Irradiation creep experiments on fusion reactor candidate structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation creep rates were determined for annealed and cold-worked AMCR- and 316-type steel alloys in the high flux reactor at Petten, for various irradiation temperatures, stresses and for neutron doses up to 4 dpa. Primary creep elongations were found in all annealed materials. A negative creep elongation was found in cold-worked materials for stresses equal to or below about 100 MPa. An increase of the negative creep elongation is found for decreasing irradiation temperatures and decreasing applied stresses. The stress exponent of the irradiation creep rate in annealed and cold-worked AMCR alloys is n = 1.85 and n = 1.1, respectively. The creep rates of cold-worked AMCR alloys are almost temperature independent over the range investigated (573-693 K). The results obtained in the HFR at Petten are compared with those obtained in ORR and EBR II. The smallest creep rates are found for cold-worked materials of AMCR- and US-PCA-type at Petten which are about a factor two smaller than the creep rates obtained of US-316 at Petten or for US-PCA at ORR or for 316L at EBR II. The scatter band factor for US-PCA, 316L, US-316 irradiated in ORR and EBR II is about 1.5 after a temperature and damage rate normalization

  16. Green Building Construction Thermal Isolation Materials (Rockwool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Itewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Building insulation consisting roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Approach: Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It does not automatically having anything to do with problems of sufficient exposure to air and might or might not influence the amount of sound insulation. Results: In a constricted way insulation can just mean the insulation substance used to reduce heat loss, such as: Glass wool, cellulose, polystyrene, rock wool, urethane foam, vermiculite and the earth, but it can also entail a variety of plans and methods used to deal with the chief forms of heat movement like transmission, emission and convection substances. The efficiency of insulation is normally assessed by its R-value. However, an R-value does not allow for the superiority of assembly or narrow green issues for each structure. Building superiority matters comprise insufficient vapor obstructions and troubles with draft-proofing. Additionally, the property and concentration of the insulation substance itself is vital. Fiberglass insulation materials, for example, made out of short fibers of glass covered on top of each other is not as long-lasting as insulation prepared from extended entwined fibers of glass. Conclusion/Recommendations: Rockwool insulation is a kind of insulation that is constructed out of real rocks and minerals. It furthermore is known by the names of mineral wool insulation, stone wool insulation or slag wool insulation. A broad collection of goods can be constructed from Rockwool, because of its outstanding capability to obstruct sound and heat. Rockwool insulation is normally utilized in building assembly, manufacturing plants and in automotive purposes. In this study i proposed to use

  17. Neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic breeder materials of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the European programs for the future fusion reactors, the Process Chemistry Department of ENEA, Casaccia Center (Rome), has been involved in preparing ceramic blanket materials as tritium breeders; a special consideration has been addressed to the nuclear characterization of LiAlO2 and Li2ZrO3. In this paper are reported neutron irradiation of ceramic specimens in TRIGA reactor and γ-spectrometric measurements for INAA purposes; and isothermal annealing of the irradiated samples and tritium extraction, by using an 'out of pile' system. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. Graphene oxide as an optimal candidate material for methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-07-01

    Methane, the primary constituent of natural gas, binds too weakly to nanostructured carbons to meet the targets set for on-board vehicular storage to be viable. We show, using density functional theory calculations, that replacing graphene by graphene oxide increases the adsorption energy of methane by 50%. This enhancement is sufficient to achieve the optimal binding strength. In order to gain insight into the sources of this increased binding, that could also be used to formulate design principles for novel storage materials, we consider a sequence of model systems that progressively take us from graphene to graphene oxide. A careful analysis of the various contributions to the weak binding between the methane molecule and the graphene oxide shows that the enhancement has important contributions from London dispersion interactions as well as electrostatic interactions such as Debye interactions, aided by geometric curvature induced primarily by the presence of epoxy groups.

  19. High temperature indentation tests on fusion reactor candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flat-top cylinder indenter for mechanical characterization (FIMEC) is an indentation technique employing cylindrical punches with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm. The test gives pressure-penetration curves from which the yield stress can be determined. The FIMEC apparatus was developed to test materials in the temperature range from -180 to +200 oC. Recently, the heating system of FIMEC apparatus has been modified to operate up to 500 oC. So, in addition to providing yield stress over a more extended temperature range, it is possible to perform stress-relaxation tests at temperatures of great interest for several nuclear fusion reactor (NFR) alloys. Data on MANET-II, F82H mod., Eurofer-97, EM-10, AISI 316 L, Ti6Al4V and CuCrZr are presented and compared with those obtained by mechanical tests with standard methods

  20. Radioactive materials in construction projects; Radioaktive Stoffe bei Baumassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank [Baugrund Dresden IGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kaltz, Andrea Christine [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Ref. 53 (Strahlenschutz)

    2014-07-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  1. Enablers of Innovation in the Construction Material Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Jacobsen, Alexia;

    2014-01-01

    The construction material industry is often acknowledged as slightly more innovative than the overall construction industry and could hence serve as a valuable learning place for how innovation could flourish in the construction industry. Construction is viewed as network or supply chain based...

  2. Survey on educational material on sustainable constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Koukkari, Heli; Veljkovic, Milan; Bragança, L.

    2008-01-01

    Higher education of professionals in the construction and real estate sector is in the process of “Greening curricula”. Pressures to educate environmentally literate workforce are increasing. Leading construction companies worldwide are becoming involved in green construction. “Green building, green project, green property, green procurement as well as green living and green citizenship” are concepts that are used in business like in voluntary organisations. The literature surv...

  3. Preliminary cleaning tests on candidate materials for APS beamline and front end UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative cleaning tests have been done on four candidate materials for use in APS beamline and front-end vacuum components. These materials are 304 SS, 304L SS, OFHC copper, and Glidcop* (Cu-Al2O3)- Samples of each material were prepared and cleaned using two different methods. After cleaning, the sample surfaces were analyzed using ESCA (Electron Spectography for Chemical Analysis). Uncleaned samples were used as a reference. The cleaning methods and surface analysis results are further discussed

  4. Design and construction regulations for nuclear plant electrical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the modifications brought to AFCEN French rules of conception and construction of nuclear plant electric materials since 1981. These rules concern materials which failure may have effects on personnel security or appreciable repercussions on power plant efficiency

  5. Mechanical Properties of Candidate Materials for Hot Gas Duct of VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot gas duct of VHTR is operated at 950 .deg.. Ni based superalloys, such as Hastelloy XR, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, for hot gas duct have been candidate material because of good strength and corrosion properties at high temperature. Mechanical properties of these alloys are tested at high temperature to apply to hot gas duct of VHTR

  6. Characteristics study of bentonite as candidate of buffer materials for radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature studies on bentonite characteristic of, as candidate for radioactive waste disposal system, have been conducted. Several information have been obtained from references, which would be contributed on performance assessment of engineered barrier. The functions bentonite includes the buffering of chemical and physical behavior, i.e. swelling property, self sealing, hydraulic conductivities and gas permeability. This paper also presented long-term stability of bentonite in natural condition related to the illitisazation, which could change its buffering capacities. These information, showed that bentonite was satisfied to be used for candidate of buffer materials in radioactive waste disposal system. (author)

  7. Analysis of candidate micro-reference materials of lichen and algae by SRXRF and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two micro-analysis techniques, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence and macro-proton induced X-ray emission (macro-PIXE), were used in a homogeneity test of two candidate reference materials (RMs), lichen IAEA-338 and algae IAEA-413 (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA), in the present work. The two candidate RMs had good homogeneity with the minimum sampling mass of 10 mg required for micro-analytical nuclear techniques. The elemental content in the RMs was also determined by macro-PIXE. The relative homogeneity factors HE of elements in the RMs were estimated on the base of our macro-PIXE results

  8. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  9. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  10. Nanostructured materials, production and application in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of water-soluble high module silicate systems: based on polysilicates of alkali element called liquid glasses and the chains of their transformations from the lowest oligomers into the highest ones with further formation colloid solutions – silica sol. The authors describe the potentialities of the use of such systems as binders or modifying additives to produce different nanostructured silicate polymer concretes. There are examples of prospective application of liquid glass and water solutions of high module silicates in industrial areas and construction. Quantum-chemical calculations of the structure and properties of tetraphenylarsonium are given and heterogeneity of its functional groups is shown.

  11. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic. PMID:23663865

  12. Element content and particle size characterization of a mussel candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas; Santos, Rafaela G. dos; Martinelli, Jose R., E-mail: jroberto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The use of certified reference materials is an important tool in the quality assurance of analytical measurements. To assure reliability on recently prepared powder reference materials, not only the characterization of the property values of interest and their corresponding uncertainties, but also physical properties such as the particle size distribution must be well evaluated. Narrow particle size distributions are preferable than larger ones; as different size particles may have different analyte content. Due to this fact, the segregation of the coarse and the fine particles in a bottle may lead to inhomogeneity of the reference material, which should be avoided. In this study the element content as well as the particle size distribution of a mussel candidate reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP was investigated. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to the determination of 15 elements in seven fractions of the material with different particle size distributions. Subsamples of the materials were irradiated simultaneously with elemental standards at the IEA-R1 research nuclear reactor and the induced gamma ray energies were measured in a hyperpure germanium detector. Three vials of the candidate reference material and three coarser fractions, collected during the preparation, were analyzed by Laser Diffraction Particle Analysis to determine the particle size distribution. Differences on element content were detected for fractions with different particle size distribution, indicating the importance of particle size control for biological reference materials. From the particle size analysis, Gaussian particle size distribution was observed for the candidate reference material with mean particle size {mu} = 94.6 {+-} 0.8 {mu}m. (author)

  13. Radiation shielding material and construction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillers such as concrete, mortar, cement, and soil cement are placed in a plurality of layers. Net-like members are buried between adjacent layers, and the fillers are integrally cured by way of the meshes of the net-like members. A synthetic resin net, a metal net or expand metal can be used for the net-like member. Since operation for placing the fillers of different qualities to the plurality of layers can be conducted at once, and it is enough that only the outer mold frame may be removed after curing in the construction method of the present invention, occurrence of gaps due to shrinkage can be prevented. (T.M.)

  14. 4th International Conference on Construction Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Oesterlee, C.; Denarié, E.; Brühwiler, E.

    2009-01-01

    The resistance as well as strain hardening and softening properties of UHPFRC depend on the type of matrix and mainly on the fibre dosage and final distribution and orientation in the element. The strength and deformability distribution in a thin UHPFRC panel was studied. Tensile and flexural specimens cut in different directions and at different positions in the panel were analysed in order to determine locally the mechanical material properties. The real fibre dosage, distribution and orien...

  15. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction. [space industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Mckenzie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Three different chemical processing schemes were identified for separating lunar soils into the major oxides and elements. Feedstock production for space industry; an HF acid leach process; electrorefining processes for lunar free metal and metal derived from chemical processing of lunar soils; production and use of silanes and spectrally selective materials; glass, ceramics, and electrochemistry workshops; and an econometric model of bootstrapping space industry are discussed.

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview

  17. Natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS report on the natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure covers the following topics: Procedures of sampling. Measuring methods: measurement of the specific activity (gamma spectrometry, determination of the radon exhalation). Radiation exposure estimation: radon exposure, external radiation exposure. Measuring results: specific activity, radon exhalation, total exposure. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity of construction materials: overview on the existing requirements of the radiation protection law, EU recommendations ''Radiation Protection 112'', Austrian norm S 5200 ''radioactivity on construction materials (OeNORM). EU basic norm draft, requirements according building laws. BfS evaluation proposal.

  18. Candidate soil indicators for monitoring the progress of constructed wetlands toward a natural state: a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Adams, Jean V.; Fennessy, M. Siobhan; Mack, John; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    A persistent question among ecologists and environmental managers is whether constructed wetlands are structurally or functionally equivalent to naturally occurring wetlands. We examined 19 variables collected from 10 constructed and nine natural emergent wetlands in Ohio, USA. Our primary objective was to identify candidate indicators of wetland class (natural or constructed), based on measurements of soil properties and an index of vegetation integrity, that can be used to track the progress of constructed wetlands toward a natural state. The method of nearest shrunken centroids was used to find a subset of variables that would serve as the best classifiers of wetland class, and error rate was calculated using a five-fold cross-validation procedure. The shrunken differences of percent total organic carbon (% TOC) and percent dry weight of the soil exhibited the greatest distances from the overall centroid. Classification based on these two variables yielded a misclassification rate of 11% based on cross-validation. Our results indicate that % TOC and percent dry weight can be used as candidate indicators of the status of emergent, constructed wetlands in Ohio and for assessing the performance of mitigation. The method of nearest shrunken centroids has excellent potential for further applications in ecology.

  19. Application of a passive electrochemical noise technique to localized corrosion of candidate radioactive waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key engineered barriers in the design of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is the waste canister that encapsulates the spent fuel elements. Current candidate metals for the canisters to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain include cast iron, carbon steel, Incoloy 825 and titanium code-12. This project was designed to evaluate passive electrochemical noise techniques for measuring pitting and corrosion characteristics of candidate materials under prototypical repository conditions. Experimental techniques were also developed and optimized for measurements in a radiation environment. These techniques provide a new method for understanding material response to environmental effects (i.e., gamma radiation, temperature, solution chemistry) through the measurement of electrochemical noise generated during the corrosion of the metal surface. In addition, because of the passive nature of the measurement the technique could offer a means of in-situ monitoring of barrier performance

  20. Fusible heat sink materials - Evaluation of alternate candidates. [for PLSS cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.; Lomax, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. Materials with greater thermal storage capability than water could enable both an extension of time between recharging and/or a reduction in size and/or mass. An extensive literature search identified 1,215 candidates with a solid-liquid transformation within the temperature range of -13 C to 5 C. Based on data available in the literature, several candidates with a cooling capacity significantly greater than water were identified. Measurements of the transformation temperature and enthalpy of transformation were then undertaken with a differential scanning calorimeter in order to confirm the accuracy of the literature. Laboratory measurements have thus far not been able to corroborate the extremely high values found from the literature. This paper presents the approach for materials selection utilized in this study, the experimental procedure, and the results of the measurements thus far undertaken.

  1. Innovative Materials and Techniques in Concrete Construction : ACES Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen enormous advances in the technology of concrete as a material, through which its strength, compactness and ductility can reach levels never dreamed of before. Thanks to these improved material properties, the strength and durability of concrete structures is greatly improved, their weight and dimensions reduced, the scope of concrete as a structural material is widened and – despite the higher material costs – overall economy is possible, with positive impacts on sustainability as well. Similar advances are underway in reinforcing materials, notably high strength steel and fibre-reinforced polymers, and in the way they are combined with concrete into high performance structures. Developments in materials and equipment, as well as new concepts, have lead to innovative construction techniques, reducing cost and construction time and making possible the application of concrete under extreme conditions of construction or environment. All these advances will be highlighted in the book by...

  2. Inner material requirements and candidates screening for spent fuel disposal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the present Spanish 'once-through' nuclear fuel cycle, the need arises to complete the geological repository reference concept with a spent fuel canister final design. One of the main issues in its design is selecting the inner material to be placed inside the canister, between the steel walls and the spent fuel assemblies. The primary purpose of this material will be to avoid the possibility of a criticality event once the canister walls have been finally breached by corrosion and the spent fuel is flooded with groundwater. That is an important role because the increase in heat generation from such an event would act against spent fuel stability and compromise bentonite barrier functions, negatively affecting overall repository performance. To prevent this possibility a detailed set of requirements for a material to fulfil this role in the repository environment have been devised and presented in this paper. With these requirements in view, eight potentially interesting candidates were selected and evaluated: cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, haematite, phosphates, and olivine. Among these, the first four materials or material families are found promising for this application. In addition, other relevant non-performance-related aspects of candidate materials, which could help on decision making, are also considered and evaluated. (authors)

  3. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  4. Construction module protecting against emissions from radioactive material and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A construction module is described for use in protecting personnel against emissions from radioactive material comprising: a shaped member suitable for assembly with other shaped members to form a structure for shielding personnel; said shaped members being formed from suitable shielding material capable of excluding passage of emissions from radioactive material and having adjoining surfaces for reception closely adjacent complementary surfaces of other shaped members; and a synthetic polymeric material having been formed by molding to engage and extend over an exterior surface of said shaped member forming a hardened coating layer protecting the shielding material from contamination by exposure to radioactive material and serving as a readily decontaminated surface to avoid exposure of personnel to emissions from radioactive material; whereby an encapsulated construction module is formed suitable for assembly as a structure to shield personnel and which is easily decontaminated avoiding exposure to emissions from radioactive material

  5. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  6. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2013-01-01

    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  7. Construction of tailing dumps dams by using modern materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Fidancev, Boris; Krstev, Boris; Golomeova, Mirjana; Golomeov, Blagoj

    2013-01-01

    During the construction of tailing dumps dams, modern materials can be used, which materials will improve the stability of dams and ensure high level of environmental protection. At tailing dumps where dams are built upstream or central it is possible the peripheral parts to be constructed by using geotubes. Thus improves the stability of the dam, prevents erosion and protects the air and surrounding area from fugitive emission of flotation sand with air currents. Also, to protect the ...

  8. Dynamic response of structures constructed from smart materials

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, T. K.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of structures constructed of homogeneous smart materials is greatly simplified by the observation that the eigenfunctions of such structures are identical to those of the same structures constructed entirely of purely elastic materials. The dynamic analysis of such structures is thus reduced to the analysis of the temporal behaviour of the eigenmodes of the structure. The theory is illustrated for both continuous and discrete structures using the generalization of 'positi...

  9. Corrosion tests of candidate fuel cladding and reactor internal structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion screening tests were conducted on candidate materials for nuclear fuel cladding and reactor internals of supercritical water reactor (SCWR) in static and flowing supercritical water (SCW) autoclave at the temperatures of 550, 600 and 650°C, pressure of about 25MPa, deaerated or saturated dissolved hydrogen (STP). Samples are nickel base alloy type Hastelloy C276, austenitic stainless steels type 304NG and AL-6XN, ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel type P92, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956. This paper focuses on the formation and breakdown of corrosion oxide scales, and proposes the future trend for the development of SCWR fuel cladding materials. (author)

  10. Corrosion tests of candidate fuel cladding and reactor internal structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, F.; Bao, Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai (China); Tang, R. [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, National Key Lab. for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Corrosion screening tests were conducted on candidate materials for nuclear fuel cladding and reactor internals of supercritical water reactor (SCWR) in static and flowing supercritical water (SCW) autoclave at the temperatures of 550, 600 and 650°C, pressure of about 25MPa, deaerated or saturated dissolved hydrogen (STP). Samples are nickel base alloy type Hastelloy C276, austenitic stainless steels type 304NG and AL-6XN, ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel type P92, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956. This paper focuses on the formation and breakdown of corrosion oxide scales, and proposes the future trend for the development of SCWR fuel cladding materials. (author)

  11. Value determination of ZrO2 in-house reference material (RM) candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value determination of zirconium oxide in-house reference materials (RM) candidate has been done by referring to ISO:35-2006 standard. The raw material of RM was 4 kg of ZrO2, Merck, that was dried at 90°C for 2×6 hours in a closed room. The samples were crushed with stainless steel (SS) pestle to pass ≤ 200 mesh sieve, homogenized in a homogenizer for 3×6 hours to obtain the powdered, dried and homogenous samples. The gravimetric method was performed to test the moisture content, while XRF and AAS methods were used to test the homogeneity and stability of samples candidates. Reference material (RM) candidates of ZrO2 powder were put into polyethylene bottles, each weighing 100 g. Samples were distributed to 10 testing laboratories that have been accredited for testing the composition of the oxide contents and loss of ignition (LOI) using variety of analytical methods that have been validated such as AAS, XRF, NAA, and UV-Vis. The testing results of oxide content and loss of ignition parameters from various laboratories were analyzed using statistical methods. The testing data of oxide concentration in zirconium oxide RM candidates obtained from various laboratories were ZrO2: 97.7334 ± 0.0016%, HfO2: 1.7329 ± 0.0024%, SiO2: 30.1224 ± 0.0053%, Al2O3: 0.0245 ± 0.0015%, TiO2: 0.0153 ± 0.0006%, Fe2O3: 0.0068 ± 0.0005%, CdO: 3.1798 ± 0.00006 ppm, and the LOI results was = 0.0217 ± 0.00022%. (author)

  12. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. PMID:27216677

  13. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  14. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Weiss, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Biologically-Induced Micropitting of Alloy 22, a Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment (or microcosm) consisting of crushed rock (tuff) from the Yucca Mountain repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years at room temperature and 30 C. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Room temperature, biotically-incubated coupons show a wide distribution of pores covering the coupon surface, while coupons incubated at 30 C show the pores restricted to polishing ridges

  16. The radioactivity of construction materials, fuel peat and peat ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide presents safety requirements related to radiation exposure from building materials and materials used in road and related construction. It also covers the safety requirements for the production of fuel peat and the handling and disposal of peat ash. Guidelines are also given for maintaining the required safety level. (5 refs.)

  17. Applications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ohama, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysis is based on the semiconducting nature of its anatase crystal type. Construction materials with titanium photocatalyst show performances of air purification, self-cleaning, water purification, antibacterial action. This book describes principles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, its applications to cementitious and noncementitious materials, as well as an overview of standardization of testing methods.

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Provisional Assessment of Candidate High-Temperature Thermal Conductivity Reference Materials in the EMRP “Thermo” Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J.; Morrell, R; T. Fry; Gnaniah, S.; Gohil, D.; Dawson, A.; Hameury, J.; Koenen, Alain; Hammerschmidt, U.; Turzó-András, E.; Strnad, R.; Blahut, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the provisional assessment of a short list of four candidate high-temperature thermal conductivity reference materials in a European research project, “Thermo.” These four candidate materials are low-density calcium silicate, amorphous silica, high-density calcium silicate, and exfoliated vermiculite. Based on initial tests on material composition and microstructure changes, dimensional stability, mechanical stability, chemical stability and uniformity, the best two can...

  1. Toxicity of building materials : a key issue in sustainable construction

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2010-01-01

    Avoiding the use of toxic building materials is one of the principles of sustainable construction. Current residential buildings frequently contain many toxic materials, some of which are even compliant with legal regulations in Europe and Portugal. Part of the problem is due to the fact that architects and civil engineers receive no education on the toxicity of building materials. Another problem is related to the fact that the regulations about toxicity thresholds are influenced by economic...

  2. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  3. A study on homogeneity of the IAEA candidate reference materials for microanalysis and analytical support in the certification of these materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a study on homogeneity of new IAEA candidate reference materials: IAEA 338 Lichen and IAEA 413 Algae in small (ca.10 mg) samples as well as some data contributing to certification of these materials are presented. (author)

  4. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ''excess'' nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist

  5. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  6. A quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste package materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities, or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7--8 microm/yr), and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1 microm/yr) was observed due to microbiological activities. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (microm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial endpoint analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods

  7. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY15 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the previous report of this series, a literature review was performed to assess the potential for substantial corrosion issues associated with the proposed SHINE process conditions to produce 99Mo. Following the initial review, substantial laboratory corrosion testing was performed emphasizing immersion and vapor-phase exposure of candidate alloys in a wide variety of solution chemistries and temperatures representative of potential exposure conditions. Stress corrosion cracking was not identified in any of the exposures up to 10 days at 80°C and 10 additional days at 93°C. Mechanical properties and specimen fracture face features resulting from slow-strain rate tests further supported a lack of sensitivity of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking. Fluid velocity was found not to be an important variable (0 to ~3 m/s) in the corrosion of candidate alloys at room temperature and 50°C. Uranium in solution was not found to adversely influence potential erosion-corrosion. Potentially intense radiolysis conditions slightly accelerated the general corrosion of candidate alloys, but no materials were observed to exhibit an annualized rate above 10 μm/y.

  8. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY15 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous report of this series, a literature review was performed to assess the potential for substantial corrosion issues associated with the proposed SHINE process conditions to produce 99Mo. Following the initial review, substantial laboratory corrosion testing was performed emphasizing immersion and vapor-phase exposure of candidate alloys in a wide variety of solution chemistries and temperatures representative of potential exposure conditions. Stress corrosion cracking was not identified in any of the exposures up to 10 days at 80°C and 10 additional days at 93°C. Mechanical properties and specimen fracture face features resulting from slow-strain rate tests further supported a lack of sensitivity of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking. Fluid velocity was found not to be an important variable (0 to ∼3 m/s) in the corrosion of candidate alloys at room temperature and 50°C. Uranium in solution was not found to adversely influence potential erosion-corrosion. Potentially intense radiolysis conditions slightly accelerated the general corrosion of candidate alloys, but no materials were observed to exhibit an annualized rate above 10 μm/y.

  9. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel- and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron-absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. The stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on its chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high-chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. The results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility

  10. Experimental results of angular neutron flux spectra leaking from slabs of fusion reactor candidate materials, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes experimental data of angular neutron flux spectra measured on the slab assemblies of fusion reactor candidate materials using the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) method. These experiments have been performed for graphite (carbon), beryllium and lithium-oxide. The obtained data are very suitable for the benchmark tests to check the nuclear data and calculational code systems. For use of that purpose, the experimental conditions, definitions of key terms and results obtained are compiled in figures and numerical tables. (author)

  11. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...

  12. Biofabrication of multi-material anatomically shaped tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing in the field of regenerative medicine aims to fabricate organized tissue-equivalents. However, the control over shape and composition of biofabricated constructs is still a challenge and needs to be improved. The current research aims to improve shape, by converging a number of biocompatible, quality construction materials into a single three-dimensional fiber deposition process. To demonstrate this, several models of complex anatomically shaped constructs were fabricated by combined deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ε-caprolactone), gelatin methacrylamide/gellan gum and alginate hydrogel. Sacrificial components were co-deposited as temporary support for overhang geometries and were removed after fabrication by immersion in aqueous solutions. Embedding of chondrocytes in the gelatin methacrylamide/gellan component demonstrated that the fabrication and the sacrificing procedure did not affect cell viability. Further, it was shown that anatomically shaped constructs can be successfully fabricated, yielding advanced porous thermoplastic polymer scaffolds, layered porous hydrogel constructs, as well as reinforced cell-laden hydrogel structures. In conclusion, anatomically shaped tissue constructs of clinically relevant sizes can be generated when employing multiple building and sacrificial materials in a single biofabrication session. The current techniques offer improved control over both internal and external construct architecture underscoring its potential to generate customized implants for human tissue regeneration. (paper)

  13. Design and construction of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final design is more than 85 percent complete on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the facility for post-irradiation examination of the fuels and materials tests irradiated in the FFTF and for fuel process development, experimental test pin fabrication and supporting storage, assay, and analytical chemistry functions. The overall facility is generally described with specific information given on some of the design features. Construction has been initiated and more than 10% of the construction contracts have been awarded on a fixed price basis

  14. Green Materialities: Marketing and the socio-material construction of green products

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Green products are becoming part of contemporary consumer cultures and part of everyday life. But how are green products constructed? What kind of green products are constructed? And what happens as these green products are constructed? The aim of this paper is to contribute a socio-cultural and critical understanding of green marketing by exploring and illustrating how marketing practices work to construct green products as meaningful material-symbolic artefacts in practice. De...

  15. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Study on corrosion behavior of candidate materials in 650℃ supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general corrosion behavior of three candidate materials (347, HR3C and In-718) was investigated in 650 ℃/25 MPa deionized water. Morphology and composition of the surface oxide film with different exposure time were observed through FEG-SEM and EDS. The phase constitute was analyzed by GIXRD. For all the test materials, the weight loss follows typical parabolic law and the weight loss of 347 shows more than 40 times higher than that of HR3C and In-718. The oxide film of three alloys mainly consists of Ni(Cr, Fe)2O4. In-718 shows severe pitting and the oxide film of 347 appears significant spalling, while HR3C has compact oxide film. In the high temperature supercritical water, the high Cr content may enhance the general corrosion property of the alloys, while addition of Nb may be detrimental to the pitting resistance of alloys. (authors)

  17. Creep rupture behavior of candidate materials for nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep and stress rupture properties are determined for the candidate materials to be used in hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The materials and test methods are briefly described based on experimental results of test durations of about20000 h. The medium creep strengths of the alloys Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, Hastelloy-S, Manaurite-36X, IN-519, and Incoloy-800H are compared showing that Inconel-617 has the best creep rupture properties in the temperature range above 8000C. The rupture time of welded joints is in the lower range of the scatterband of the parent metal. The properties determined in different simulated HTGR atmospheres are within the scatterband of the properties obtained in air. Extrapolation methods are discussed and a modified minimum commitment method is favored

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel ∼ Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27

  20. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. New eco-friendly hybrid composite materials for civil construction

    OpenAIRE

    Eires, R.; Nunes, J. P.; Fangueiro, Raúl; Jalali, Said; Camões, Aires

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of new hybrid composite materials using granulated cork, a by-product of cork industry, cellulose pulp, from recycling of paper residues, and hemp fibres. The binder used is either cellulose pulp or lime-pozzolan mixture. Such materials may be used as composite boards and mortars for non structural elements of construction, such as dry walls and ceiling or floor levelling and filling. The possibility of using these composites in conjugation with light st...

  3. Introduction to the environmental impact of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    “Woodhead Publishing series in civil and structural engineering, nr. 49” Earth's natural resources are finite and face increasing human pressure. Over the last few decades, concern has been growing about resource efficiency and the environmental impact of material consumption. The construction industry is responsible for the consumption of a relevant part of all produced materials, however, only recently has this industry started to worry about its environmental impacts. This chapter highl...

  4. New eco-friendly gypsum materials for civil construction

    OpenAIRE

    Eires, R.; Camões, Aires; Jalali, Said

    2007-01-01

    The sustainable world’s economic growth and people’s life improvement greatly depend on the use of alternative products in the architecture and construction, such as industrial wastes conventionally called “green materials”. This paper concerns the main results of an experimental work carried out with the objective of developing new composite materials based on gypsum and incorporating waste material as granulated cork, a by-product of cork industry, and cellulose fibres, a waste of pap...

  5. Candidate BCR reference materials for arsenic and selenium determinations in human serum and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot production of candidate reference materials for the quality assurance and statistical control of methods to determine toxic trace elements in biological samples is described. In the initial phase the project concerns a lyophilized human blood material containing Cd and Pb, a lyophilized human urine material containing As, Cd, Co and Cr, and a liquid human serum material with Al, Se and Zn at three different levels, representative of environmental and occupational exposure. The homogeneity and stability of the pilot batches were investigated by determining Al and Zn in serum, As in urine, Cd and Pb in blood at the medium level. The pilot batches produced were deemed to be homogeneous with respect to all the trace elements tested, and there was no indication of thermal instability except that the arsenic levels decreased significantly with time at 200 deg., 370 deg. and 450 deg. C. Thirty-two laboratories from 12 different countries participated in an intercomparison round organized to test the suitability of the reference material and validate the methodological approaches for certification purposes. Focusing on the neutron activation results, the outcome of this first intercomparison exercise demonstrates that the comparability of the calibration standards needs improvement. Therefore, for the certification round stronger efforts will be undertaken to document the spiked concentrations and to reduce their uncertainties, and the laboratories will be required to meet defined quality criteria for the checking and documentation of traceability. (author)

  6. Natural and construction materials and plant products. Raw materials, constructional physics, design and construction. 2. upd. and enl. ed.; Natuerliche und pflanzliche Baustoffe. Rohstoff - Bauphysik - Konstruktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, Gerhard; Wangelin, Matthias; Bruns, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    The book discusses all relevant renewable constructional materials made from fibre or dyeing plants along with their physical and chemical fundamentals. Protection of resources, environmental protection, and pollutants in constructional materials are gone into as well. [German] Dieses Buch behandelt alle wichtige nachwachsenden, pflanzlichen Baustoffe aus Faser- und Faerberpflanzen sowie dazugehoerige physikalische und chemische Grundlagen. Angesprochen werden auch Ressourcen- und Umweltschutz sowie Schadstoffe aus Bauprodukten.

  7. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic provi

  8. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...

  9. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf;

    2013-01-01

    resistance and the anodic and cathodic limits were for the first time found for the electrolyte. Nickel, niobium, Inconel®625, Hastelloy®C-276 and Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L) demonstrated high corrosion stability and can be recommended as construction materials for bipolar plates. © (2013) Trans...

  10. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  11. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena;

    The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...

  12. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhdanok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus. 

  13. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhdanok; Khroustalev, B.; E. Batyanowski; S. Leonovich

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus. 

  14. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  15. Natural radioactivity in common building construction and radiation shielding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkawade, R. G.; Kant, K.; Muralithar, S.; Kumar, R.; Ramola, R. C.

    Commonly used building construction materials, radiation shielding bricks, hematite aggregate and other materials have been analyzed for the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides, namely 238U, 232Th and 40K, besides the radon exhalation rates. The activity concentration for 238U, 232Th and 40K varies from 29±1 to 98±4 Bq kg -1, 20±2 to 112±2.8 Bq kg -1, and 200±8 to 1908±15.6 Bq kg -1, respectively, in various materials studied in the present work. Radon activity in the various samples varies from 190±11 to 313±14 Bq m -3, the mass exhalation rate for radon varies from 1.05±0.07 to 1.92±0.09 mBq kg -1 h -1 and surface exhalation rate varies from 9.0±0.30 to 19.8±22 mBq m -2 h -1 for materials under investigation. The activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium and radon exhalation rates vary from material to material. Thorium and potassium activity in the granite materials is higher, followed by radiation shielding material compared to other common construction materials. Uranium activity concentration is higher in cement as compared to radiation shielding material and other common construction materials. The absorbed dose varies from 23 to 185 nGy h -1 and the indoor annual effective dose varies from 0.11 to 0.91 mSv. The outdoor annual effective dose varies from 0.03 to 0.23 mSv. The absorbed dose and the effective dose equivalent are found to be higher in the granite, followed by radiation shielding material and other common construction materials. In all the samples, the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K is found below the permissible levels. A strong correlation coefficient has been observed between radon activity and surface exhalation rate (correlation coefficient=0.899).

  16. Spectral emissivity measurements of candidate materials for very high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G.; Weber, S.J.; Martin, S.O.; Anderson, M.H. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, K., E-mail: kumars@cae.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, T.R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Heat dissipation by radiation is an important consideration in VHTR components, particularly the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), because of the fourth power temperature dependence of radiated heat. Since emissivity is the material property that dictates the ability to radiate heat, measurements of emissivities of materials that are being specifically considered for the construction of VHTR become important. Emissivity is a surface phenomenon and therefore compositional, structural, and topographical changes that occur at the surfaces of these materials as a result of their interactions with the environment at high temperatures will alter their emissivities. With this background, an experimental system for the measurement of spectral emissivity has been designed and constructed. The system has been calibrated in conformance with U.S. DoE quality assurance standards using inert ceramic materials, boron nitride, silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide. The results of high temperature emissivity measurements of potential VHTR materials such as ferritic steels SA 508, T22, T91 and austenitic alloys IN 800H, Haynes 230, IN 617, and 316 stainless steel have been presented.

  17. Spectral emissivity measurements of candidate materials for very high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat dissipation by radiation is an important consideration in VHTR components, particularly the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), because of the fourth power temperature dependence of radiated heat. Since emissivity is the material property that dictates the ability to radiate heat, measurements of emissivities of materials that are being specifically considered for the construction of VHTR become important. Emissivity is a surface phenomenon and therefore compositional, structural, and topographical changes that occur at the surfaces of these materials as a result of their interactions with the environment at high temperatures will alter their emissivities. With this background, an experimental system for the measurement of spectral emissivity has been designed and constructed. The system has been calibrated in conformance with U.S. DoE quality assurance standards using inert ceramic materials, boron nitride, silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide. The results of high temperature emissivity measurements of potential VHTR materials such as ferritic steels SA 508, T22, T91 and austenitic alloys IN 800H, Haynes 230, IN 617, and 316 stainless steel have been presented.

  18. Radon exhalation rates from some building construction materials using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following α- decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used. in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. In dwellings main source of radon are soil or rock underneath, building materials and portable water supplies. The major release of radon indoors is from building construction materials used. The radon measurements on the ground can give a clue about the hidden uranium. The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. In the present investigations radon exhalation rates from some soil and other building materials like fly ash, cement and sand collected from Panchkula, Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Panipat districts of Haryana have been estimated. For the measurement of radon concentration in these samples we used α-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from these samples have also been calculated. The aim of study is the possible health risk assessment due to emission of radiation from building construction materials. (author)

  19. Specific activity measurement of radioelement in construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human beings have always been exposed to radiation from both natural and technological sources. The main components of the construction materials produced from earth and thus they contain radioelement naturally exist. The most important source of external radiation exposure in buildings is caused by the gamma rays emitted from members of the uranium and thorium decay chains and 40K occurring naturally in building materials. The aim of this work is to determine the specific activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in some building materials used for construction purposes in the houses. The measurement has been performed using gamma ray spectrometer with the NaI(Tl) detector.

  20. Application of INAA complementary gamma ray photopeaks to homogeneity study of candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization and certification of reference materials, RMs, is a complex task involving many steps. One of them is the homogeneity testing to assure that key property values will not present variation among RM bottles. Good precision is the most important figure of merit of an analytical technique to allow it to be used in the homogeneity testing of candidate RMs. Due to its inherent characteristics, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, is an analytical technique of choice for homogeneity testing. Problems with sample digestion and contamination from reagents are not an issue in INAA, as solid samples are analyzed directly. For element determination via INAA, the activity of a suitable gamma ray decay photopeak for an element is chosen and it is compared to the activity of a standard of the element. An interesting possibility is the use of complementary gamma ray photopeaks (for the elements that present them) to confirm the homogeneity test results for an element. In this study, an investigation of the use of the complementary gamma ray photopeaks of 110mAg, 82Br, 60Co, 134Cs, 152Eu, 59Fe, 140La, 233Pa (for Th determination), 46Sc and 75Se radionuclides was undertaken in the between bottle homogeneity study of a mussel candidate RM under preparation at IPEN - CNEN/SP. Although some photopeaks led to biased element content results, the use of complementary gamma ray photopeaks proved to be helpful in supporting homogeneity study conclusions of new RMs. (author)

  1. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part I- Radiation damage of the construction steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task was testing the mechanical properties of stainless steels having different grain size. Being an important material used mainly for reactor vessel construction stainless steel will be exposed to neutron flux in the RA reactor for testing

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials [CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)], which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Preparation and evaluation of the homogeneity of milk as a candidate reference material for carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot project was initiated to study the feasibility of preparing milk as a candidate reference material for 14C near environmental levels. Two materials, MK-B at natural level of 14C and MK-C4 at an elevated level, have been prepared from pasteurized 2% dairy milk. MK-C4 was spiked with an appropriate amount of 14C-methylated casein tracer to achieve the elevated level. Several samples from MK-B and MK-C4 have been analyzed to test the homogeneity of these materials for the distribution of 14C. The samples were combusted in oxygen under 20 atmospheres pressure using a Parr bomb. The 14C concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation counting using Carbo-Sorb/Permafluor E+ cocktail. The results indicate that these materials are homogeneous with respect to 14C concentration even in sub-sample sizes of 0.25 g of the freeze-dried material. The precision of our 14C measurements, as expressed by the % relative standard deviation, is within 5%. The accuracy has been tested by analyzing replicate samples of the IAEA 14C quality assurance materials, C-3 (cellulose) and C-6 (ANU sucrose) and found to be within 3%. The lower limits of detection are 0.08, 0.05 and 0.02 Bq.g-1 of carbon for 20 ml of liquid scintillation mixture (Carbo-Sorb/Permafluor E+ = ∼0.67) loaded with up to 0.4g of carbon from the sample and counted for 3 cycles of 60, 180 and 1000 min each, respectively. Our measurements of 14C specific activities of MK-B and MK-C4 are 0.26 ± 0.01 and 15.3 ± 0.4 Bq.g-1 of carbon, respectively. (author)

  5. IDMS studies on sodalite - a candidate material for nuclear waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste management is one of the important aspects of nuclear fuel cycle from environmental and safety considerations. Different forms of waste storage matrices are known to be applicable for different kinds of nuclear wastes. Glass bonded sodalite (GBS) (Na8(AISiO4)6Cl2), a glass-ceramic, is a promising candidate for the immobilization of the chloride waste resulting from pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear fuels. Characterization of individual components is essential for the development of this waste storage material which is expected to encounter different physicochemical conditions. For this purpose, we have undertaken studies to determine the concentrations of individual components in GBS employing Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) owing to its capability to ensure precise and accurate data for multi element analysis in a matrix

  6. Thermo-Optical and Mechanical Property Testing of Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollerman, WIlliam A.; Stanaland, T. L.; Womack, F.; Edwards, David; Hubbs, Whitney; Semmel, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Since sails are not limited by reaction mass, they provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Practical solar sails can expand the number of possible missions, enabling new concepts that are difficult by conventional means. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra-lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. Solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic front layer, a thin polymeric substrate, and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate sails to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to electrons. This poster will discuss the preliminary results of this research.

  7. Global blending optimization of laminated composites with discrete material candidate selection and thickness variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren N.; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    distinct choice among predefined numbers of candidates. The laminate thickness is variable but the number of plies must be integer. We solve the convex mixed binary non-linear programming problem by an outer approximation cutting-plane method augmented with a few heuristics to accelerate the convergence...... but is, however, convex in the original mixed binary nested form. Convexity is the foremost important property of optimization problems, and the proposed method can guarantee the global or near-global optimal solution; unlike most topology optimization methods. The material selection is limited to a...... rate. The capabilities of the method and the effect of active versus inactive manufacturing constraints are demonstrated on several numerical examples of limited size, involving at most 320 binary variables. Most examples are solved to guaranteed global optimality and may constitute benchmark examples...

  8. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  11. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  12. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan (1) has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  13. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S., E-mail: almir@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adelaide@ird.gov.br, E-mail: vanessa@ird.gov.br, E-mail: maura@ird.gov.br, E-mail: poliana@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  14. LONG-TERM CORROSION TESTING OF CANDIDATE MATERIALS FOR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE CONTAINMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented from the long-term corrosion test program of candidate materials for the high-level radioactive waste packages that would be emplaced in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The present waste package design is based on a multi-barrier concept having an inner container of a corrosion resistant material and an outer container of a corrosion allowance material. Test specimens have been exposed to simulated bounding environments that may credibly develop in the vicinity of the waste packages. Corrosion rates have been calculated for weight loss and crevice specimens, and U-bend specimens have been examined for evidence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Galvanic testing has been started recently and initial results are forthcoming. Pitting characterization of test specimens will be conducted in the coming year. This test program is expected to continue for a minimum of five years so that long-term corrosion data can be determined to support corrosion model development, performance assessment, and waste package design

  15. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  16. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Toxic substances or dangerous presents in the construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work of investigation is the elaboration of a guide who serves as support and consults in the referring thing to the subject of the security in the construction, specifically in and area of the use and handling of materials and dangerous substances; Considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of but the common construction equipments represent for the health. The obtained data is a bibliographical review, the visits to public institutions and international offices with representation in our country, as well as a work of field and study of the national market, among others. In addition it made an important consultation through network Internet reviewing many sites of with the purpose of obtaining the data but updated interest possible, as well as the consultation to professionals and workers with the area of the construction. (Author)

  19. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  20. Sustainability of construction industry : quality control of fly ash for its application into construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawa, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan). Laboratory of Eco-Materials and Resources; Nishi, H. [FLOWRIC Co. Ltd., Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Concrete Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    A major driver for future innovations and prospects for development of the construction industry is the realization of a sustainable society through green infrastructures that are more energy and resource-efficient. However, until the materials used for construction are also green, greening of the construction industry cannot be complete. Therefore, the use of industrial by-products and recycling material in construction are a favourable option to ensure sustainable development. This paper discussed the quality control of concrete with fly ash, which is a by-product from a coal-fired electrical power plant. The paper examined the effect of the quality of fly ash on fluidity of concrete in order to establish effective quality control of fly ash concrete. The paper discussed the experimental materials, sample preparation and experimental methods. Topics that were discussed included the influence of unburnt carbon in fly ash on the content of entrained air bubbles; the influence of the type of fly ash on fluidity of concrete; prediction of fluidity of fly ash concrete from fluidity test of mortar; and prediction of concrete fluidity from quality of fly ash. It was concluded that both fluidity of concrete and required dosage of superplasticizer to obtain the same fluidity varies significantly depending on the type of fly ash. It was concluded that the required dosage of superplasticizer and air entrained agents to obtain the same fluidity of concrete and air contents, respectively, is closely related to the methylene blue adsorption of fly ash. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure. PMID:27311782

  3. Oriented strand board: new material for building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper will attempt to show the suitability and competitiveness of oriented strand board (OSB) in building construction. One important factor underlining the success of this product is the availability of the wood raw material. Plantation timbers such as rubberwood, paraserianthes falcataria, acacia crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis and A. mangium have been identified as the major source of this industry. We will focus on the domestic market as well as export market especially on the Asia Pacific region

  4. Evaluation of C/C-SiC Composites as Potential Candidate Materials for High Performance Braking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat

    2016-05-01

    This paper is aimed at evaluating the characteristic and performance of C/C-SiC composites as potential candidate materials for high performance braking system. A set of material specifications had been derived from specific engineering design requirements. Analysis was performed by formulating the function(s), constraint(s), and objective(s) of design and materials selection. Function of a friction material is chiefly to provide friction, absorb and dissipate energy. It is done while withstanding load and maintaining the structural adequacy and characteristic of tribology at high temperature. Objective of the material selection and design is to maximize the absorption and dissipation of energy and to minimize weight and cost. Candidate materials were evaluated based on their friction and wear, thermal capacity and conductivity, structural properties, manufacturing properties, and densities. The present paper provides a state of the art example on how materials - function - geometry - design, are all interrelated.

  5. Permeability of some building construction material for radon diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the radon diffusion coefficient and diffusion lengths for some building construction materials viz: soil, sand, cement, fly ash have been calculated. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. The diffusion of the radon through the ground is a complex process and is related to the porosity, permeability, which is dependent on grain size distribution, degree of compaction and the water content of the soil. The apparatus designed for the study of radon diffusion through different building construction materials consists of a hollow plastic cylinder of inner diameter 25 cm and length 50 cm deployed vertically. The radon source covered with latex membrane is fixed at the bottom of the cylinder in the cavity. Open-ended cylindrical tubes of diameter 1.5 cm and of length 15 and 25 cm are installed in hollow plastic cylinder. The top end of each diffusion tube holds LR-115 type-II plastic detector such that its sensitive side always faces the source of radon. The building construction materials under study in the pulverized form are filled in diffusion tubes and the system is left undisturbed for a period of 30 days. The detectors are chemically etched in NaOH solution. The alpha tracks are counted using an optical Olympus microscope

  6. Assessment of commutability for candidate certified reference material ERM-BB130 "chloramphenicol in pork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Emteborg, Håkan; Schimmel, Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), an effective antibiotic against many microorganisms, is meanwhile banned in the EU for treatment of food-producing animals due to adverse health effects. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) is currently developing a certified reference material (CRM) for CAP in pork, intended for validation and method performance verifications of analytical methods. The material will be certified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods and has a target CAP level around the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 microg/kg. To prove that the material can be applied as a quality control tool for screening methods, a commutability study was conducted, involving five commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and one biosensor assay (BiaCore kit). Meat homogenates (cryo-milled wet tissue) with CAP concentrations around the MRPL and the candidate CRM (lyophilised powder) were measured by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as well as the six screening methods. Pairwise method comparisons of results obtained for the two sample types showed that the CRM can successfully be applied as quality control (QC) sample to all six screening methods. The study suggests that ERM-BB130 is sufficiently commutable with the investigated assays and that laboratories applying one of the investigated kits therefore benefit from using ERM-BB130 to demonstrate the correctness of their results. However, differences among the assays were observed, either in the abundance of bias between screening and confirmatory LC and GC methods, the repeatability of test results, or goodness of fit between the methods. PMID:20665007

  7. A Damage Resistance Comparison Between Candidate Polymer Matrix Composite Feedline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASAs focused technology programs for future reusable launch vehicles, a task is underway to study the feasibility of using the polymer matrix composite feedlines instead of metal ones on propulsion systems. This is desirable to reduce weight and manufacturing costs. The task consists of comparing several prototype composite feedlines made by various methods. These methods are electron-beam curing, standard hand lay-up and autoclave cure, solvent assisted resin transfer molding, and thermoplastic tape laying. One of the critical technology drivers for composite components is resistance to foreign objects damage. This paper presents results of an experimental study of the damage resistance of the candidate materials that the prototype feedlines are manufactured from. The materials examined all have a 5-harness weave of IM7 as the fiber constituent (except for the thermoplastic, which is unidirectional tape laid up in a bidirectional configuration). The resin tested were 977-6, PR 520, SE-SA-1, RS-E3 (e-beam curable), Cycom 823 and PEEK. The results showed that the 977-6 and PEEK were the most damage resistant in all tested cases.

  8. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W

    2002-01-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB sub 2 (a superconductor with T sub c = 39 K), B sub 6 Si, B sub 4 C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li sub 1 sub 2 Si sub 7 , and Li sub 7 Sn sub 2. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 6 Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lith...

  9. Prevention of radioactive gas seeping into buildings through constructive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of possible method of realization of the terrorist acts is using gases and liquids, which easily permeate through the constructive materials of walls, floor, ceiling, roof, etc. into buildings by the capillary action of the pores. Toxic volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic gases, radioactive elements, especially, which emits alpha particles can be used as the dangerous substances. Increased ventilation may help in removing the gases, but can actually increase the gases level by increasing the suction through the pores of concrete. If the gases and liquids are soluble in water and are easily volatilized from it, they can also get by groundwater up to underground structures and penetrate inside through opening and pores in concrete or pushed by hydrostatic pressure. The purpose of this work is creating a method to reduce concentration of toxic and radioactive gases in homes, buildings, underground buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, bomb shelters, etc. The most effective method to prevent penetration of radionuclides into premises of buildings and underground structures through walls, roofs, floors is using special chemicals, which seal micropores inside the construction materials against gases. Worked out chemicals which consist of blend of polymeric compounds are described in the paper. Radioactive gases permeability in constructive materials after treatment by chemicals was studied. Influence of types of cement, sand and gypsum, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric compounds, time between treatments, moisture of materials, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of materials (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) were examined. Experiments have shown that our method allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability 200 - 400 times

  10. Composition and long-term safety of salt deposits as candidate sites for toxic material dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of the long-term safety of toxic material dumps in salt bodies, it is necessary to understand also the potential processes in the rock and to evaluate their effects on the dump. The scientific fundamentals are observations on the geological situation as well as the mineralogical and chemical composition of the rock in which the dump is planned to be constructed. Knowledge on the existing geological, mineralogical and physico-chemical conditions of formation and transformation of evaporite allow a quantitative interpretation of mineral reactions and material transfers, which have taken place in the geological past. This working principle is independent of location. It is exemplarily applied to the Gorleben salt dome. (orig./DG)

  11. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction is one of the most powerful methods for condensed matter studies. This method is used for non-destructive determination of residual stresses in material. The fundamental aspects of neutron diffraction are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facility. The principal advantage of using neutrons rather than the more conventional X-rays is the fact that neutron can penetrate deeply (2-4 cm for steel and more than 10 cm for aluminium) into metals to determine internal parameters within the bulk of materials. We present results of measurements residual stresses in NPP construction material - austenitic stainless steel (Cr-18%, Ni-10%, Ti-1%) coated with high-nickel alloy. (authors)

  12. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of candidate structural materials in supercritical pressurized water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je, Hwanil, E-mail: hwanil.je@gmail.com; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-12-15

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in supercritical pressurized water (SCPW) was investigated for the candidate structural steels of advanced fusion and fission nuclear system, which are SUS316L austenitic steel, F82H ferritic–martensitic steel and SOC-16 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel. In order to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC with those materials, slow strain rate test (SSRT) was carried out at 773 K, under a pressure of 25 MPa of SCPW with deaerated condition. High temperature tensile test in vacuum at 773 K was also performed to compare the deformation and fracture behavior between corrosive environment of SCPW and non-corrosive environment. Although SUS316L showed a change in the fracture mode in the deaerated SCPW from an entire ductile fracture at higher strain rate to a mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture at lower one, the fracture mode of ODS steel and F82H was not changed in the tested strain rate range. Both the IGSCC and TGSCC were observed in SUS316L. And F82H steel suffered from much severer oxidation than SUS316L and SOC-16.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of candidate structural materials in supercritical pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in supercritical pressurized water (SCPW) was investigated for the candidate structural steels of advanced fusion and fission nuclear system, which are SUS316L austenitic steel, F82H ferritic–martensitic steel and SOC-16 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel. In order to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC with those materials, slow strain rate test (SSRT) was carried out at 773 K, under a pressure of 25 MPa of SCPW with deaerated condition. High temperature tensile test in vacuum at 773 K was also performed to compare the deformation and fracture behavior between corrosive environment of SCPW and non-corrosive environment. Although SUS316L showed a change in the fracture mode in the deaerated SCPW from an entire ductile fracture at higher strain rate to a mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture at lower one, the fracture mode of ODS steel and F82H was not changed in the tested strain rate range. Both the IGSCC and TGSCC were observed in SUS316L. And F82H steel suffered from much severer oxidation than SUS316L and SOC-16

  14. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  15. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential ENP and the protection potential EPP. The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  16. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A cypermethrin CRM in green tea was developed. ► Using two isotope dilution mass spectrometry techniques for characterization. ► Certified value of 148 μg kg−1 with expanded uncertainty of ±9.2%. ► Support quality assurance of pesticide residue analysis in tea to testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC–HRMS) and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC–HRIDMS and GC–IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg−1 and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14 μg kg−1. The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation.

  17. Certification of a new biological reference material - Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) and homogeneity study by NAA on this and other candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the laboratory's participation in the interlaboratory comparison run where the laboratory applied neutron activation analysis aimed at certification of the candidate reference material. Data evaluation and statistical treatment steps are discussed. The report also describes homogeneity study on the reference material and provides details of the analytical procedures

  18. Enhancing recycling of construction materials: An agent based model with empirically based decision parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Knoeri, C; Nikolic, I; Althaus, H-J; Binder, CR

    2014-01-01

    Recycling of construction material is a valuable option for minimizing construction & demolition waste streams to landfills and mitigating primary mineral resource depletion. Material flows in the construction sector are governed by a complex socio-technical system in which awarding authorities decide in interaction with other actors on the use of construction materials. Currently, construction & demolition waste is still mainly deposited in landfills, as construction actors lack the necessar...

  19. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...... proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy and...

  20. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, ν). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  1. Construction of a Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: status of the optical system

    CERN Document Server

    Rousselle, J; Cameron, R; Connaughton, V; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Humensky, T B; Jenke, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; Okumura, A; Petrashyk, A; Vassiliev, V

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the status of procurement of the optical system of the prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT), for which construction is scheduled to begin in fall at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA. The Schwarzschild-Couder telescope is a candidate for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, which utilizes imaging atmospheric Cherenkov techniques to observe gamma rays in the energy range of 60Gev-60TeV. The pSCT novel aplanatic optical system is made of two segmented aspheric mirrors. The primary mirror has 48 mirror panels with an aperture of 9.6 m, while the secondary, made of 24 panels, has an diameter of 5.4 m. The resulting point spread function (PSF) is required to be better than 4 arcmin within a field of view of 6.4 degrees (80% of the field of view), which corresponds to a physical size of 6.4 mm on the focal plane. This goal represents a challenge for the inexpensive fabrication of aspheric mirror panels and for the precise ali...

  2. Construction of SMART cDNA Library of Sheep Ovary and Identification of Candidate Gene by Homologous Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cDNA library of an ovary from Small Tail Han sheep before estrus was constructed by switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript (SMART) approach. This library had a plaque titer of 1 × 109pfu mL-1 and a 96% recombinant ratio of which the fragment length of inserted average eDNA sequences was 1.0 kb. Based on bioinformatics analysis of the sequences, we obtained 338 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 380 cDNA clones which indicated 191 contigs. These contigs consist of 89 unmatched ESTs, 9 homologous known genes in sheep, and 93 homologous sequences in species of mouse, bovine, and human beings, including 19 sequences expressed in the ovary or follicle and 14 unknown sequences.Several candidate genes associated with sheep reproduction trait such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), estrogen receptor (ESR), Inhibin, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), prostaglandin (PG), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were identified and the homologous were cloned from this library, which will contribute to compile expression profies and find the major genes of prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep.

  3. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  4. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  5. Comparison of abrasion resistance of selected constructional materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamiak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to define and compare abrasion resistance of selected constructional materials widely used in the industry. Chromium cast iron wear resistant plates were compared with typically used wear resistant plates made from Hardox 400 steel and two different, wear resistant, materials cladded by welding technologies.Design/methodology/approach: The tests of abrasive wear were conducted in accordance to procedure “A” of standard ASTM G 65 - Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus.Findings: Abrasion resistance tests shows that the best properties among investigated samples has chromium cast iron plate. Abrasion wear resistance of this plate is two times higher than wear resistance of layer made by welding technologies and nine times higher than typical Hardox 400 steel plate.Practical implications: Application, of abrasion resistant materials, results in significant material and economy savings, due to wear and costs reduction (decreasing stop times needed to change worn parts for a new one.Originality/value: Wear plates are modern solution in regeneration of worn machines parts and also for producing a new parts which connect high wear and abrasion resistance with costs reduction.

  6. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. PMID:21222116

  7. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  8. Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Urpi Bertran, Raquel; Latza, Andreas; Andörfer-Lang, Katrin; Hügelschäffer, Claudia; Pöhlein, Manfred; Puchta, Ralph; Placht, Christian; Maid, Harald; Bauer, Walter; van Eldik, Rudi

    2015-04-01

    Candidate reference materials (RM) for the analysis of phosphorus-based flame retardants in styrene-based polymers were prepared using a self-made mini-extruder. Due to legal requirements of the current restriction for the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, focus now is placed on phosphorus-based flame retardants instead of the brominated kind. Newly developed analytical methods for the first-mentioned substances also require RMs similar to industrial samples for validation and verification purposes. Hence, the prepared candidate RMs contained resorcinol-bis-(diphenyl phosphate), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphine oxide as phosphorus-based flame retardants. Blends of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene as well as blends of high-impact polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide were chosen as carrier polymers. Homogeneity and thermal stability of the candidate RMs were investigated. Results showed that the candidate RMs were comparable to the available industrial materials. Measurements by ICP/OES, FTIR and NMR confirmed the expected concentrations of the flame retardants and proved that analyte loss and degradation, respectively, was below the uncertainty of measurement during the extrusion process. Thus, the candidate RMs were found to be suitable for laboratory use. PMID:25410641

  9. Determination of butoxyacetic acid (biomarker of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether exposure) in human urine candidate reference material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sperlingova, I.; Dabrowská, L.; Stránský, V.; Duskova, S.; Kučera, Jan; Tvrdíková, M.; Tichý, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 2 (2010), s. 433-438. ISSN 1618-2642. [12th International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Reference Materials Keble Coll. Oxford, 07.07.2009-10.07.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Candidate reference material * Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether * Metabolite Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.841, year: 2010

  10. Compatibility of candidate overpack materials with deep argillaceous HLW disposal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian R and D programme on the disposal of high level radioactive waste has been focused on the qualification of deep argillaceous formations for HLW disposal, because they have a number of inherent attractive characteristics and also because they are sufficiently abundant to cover the Belgian needs. A large number of corrosion resistant materials as well as some corrosion allowance materials have been tested. The laboratory test program included accelerated tests as well as exposure tests in simulated repository conditions. Initial ''field'' experiments have been performed in a near surface clay quarry. However, in order to obtain realistic corrosion rate estimates corrosion experiments with simultaneous monitoring of the clay environment parameters have been started in a 230 meters deep underground laboratory constructed in the Boom clay formation at Mol. Two types of experimental devices have been designed. In the first type coupons are mounted on an internally heated tubular holder and are directly exposed to the solid clay. In a second type of test a purge gas is used to extract corrosive products from the clay and circulate them subsequently over a number of metal coupons. Relevant parameters such as pH and Eh are continuously monitored for evaluating the evolution of soil agressivity after the initial chemical and mechanical disturbance of the clay, caused by the operations required for the introduction of the experimental devices. (author)

  11. A review of candidate ceramic materials for use as heat shield tiles in a supercritical-water-cooled-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Canadian supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) utilizes a reactor shell made of a zirconium alloy insulated with a ceramic tile heat shield. The main consideration in the selection of a tile material will be resistance to corrosion in supercritical water and long term microstructure stability, in addition to thermal conductivity. This paper provides a review of the literature on corrosion behaviours of ceramic materials in supercritical water and ranks candidate ceramic materials accordingly. Materials reviewed include alumina, zirconia, silica glasses, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, sialon, mullite, and aluminum nitride. (author)

  12. Phase stability effects on the corrosion behavior of the metal barrier candidate materials for the nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six candidate materials are currently under consideration by the Nuclear Waste Management Program (NWMP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as potential metal barrier materials for high-level nuclear waste storage. The waste package, which must meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing requirements for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project (NNWSI), will contain spent fuel from civilian nuclear power plants PWR and BWR fuel assemblies, commercial high level waste (CHLW) in the form of borosilicate glass containing commercial spent fuel reprocessing wastes and defense high level waste (DHLW) contained in borosilicate glass. The waste package is being designed for emplacement in the unsaturated zone above the water table at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. This location should result in a slightly oxidizing repository environment. The Metal Barrier Selection and Testing Task is responsible for the selection of the materials to be employed in the waste package container. The candidate materials include three iron to nickel-based austenitic materials and three copper-based alloy materials. The austenitic materials are AISI 304L stainless steel, AISI 316L stainless steel and alloy 825. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al) and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The selection of the final metal barrier material is dependent upon the expected behavior of these materials in the repository environment

  13. Joining Characteristics of Intermediate Heat Exchanger Candidate Materials in Very High Temperature Reactor(VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide studies have shown an increasing need for energy with the use of all energy sources, ranging from renewable sources through nuclear power, gas, to a limited extent oil and finally to the most prolific fossil fuel, coal. Although this increased need for generation capacity can met with different fuel sources, maybe the main fuel worldwide for next generation is hydrogen. The very high temperature reactor(VHTR) can produce hydrogen from only heat and water by using thermochemical iodine-sulfur(I-S) process or from heat, water, and natural gas by applying the steam reformer technology to core outlet temperatures greater than about 950 .deg. C. An intermediate heat exchanger(IHX) is the component in which the heat from the primary circuit helium is transferred to the secondary circuit helium(about 950 .deg. at 1000psi), thus keeping the secondary circuit free of radioactive contamination. The IHX will be located with a pressure vessel within the reactor containment that will be attached to the reactor pressure vessel by the cross-vessel. Therefore, an intermediate heat exchanger(IHX) especially is a key component in a VHTR. The Status of the IHX design will probably be a compact, counter-flow heat exchanger design consisting of metallic plate construction with small channels etched into each plate and assembled into a module. This heat exchanger design is refereed to as a 'printed circuit heat exchanger'. Printed circuit type heat exchanger are constructed from flat metal plates into which fluid flow channels are chemically milled. The milled plates are stacked and diffusion bonded together. In this study, the effects of the brazing temperature and homogenizing time for brazed specimens on the joint and base material microstructures, elemental distribution within the microstructures and the resulting joint tensile strength and micro hardness of Ni-based superalloy such as Haynes 230 were investigated

  14. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  15. Improved suction technique for the characterization of construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93 %). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... procedure for determining the equilibrium moisture content of samples during the experiment. The method (referred to as the balance method) is to simply keep track of all water entering and leaving the system and use these data to estimate the moisture content of the samples. The advantage of this approach...... adjustment is the development of a pressure regulation system that keeps the pressure constant (±0.015 bar) within an extractor for weeks....

  16. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... procedure for determining the equilibrium moisture content of samples during the experiment. The method (refered to as the balance method) is to simply keep track of all water entering and leaving the system and use these data to estimate the moisture content of the samples. The advantage of this approach...... adjustment is the development of a pressure regulation system that keeps the pressure constant (±0.015 bar) within an extractor for weeks....

  17. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... saturated ceramic disc or membrane. The pressure corresponding to a certain relative humidity level is established and moisture is expelled from the samples until moisture equilibrium is reached. This paper presents two adjustments to this method and their applicability. The first adjustment is a new...... procedure for determining the equilibrium moisture content of samples during the experiment. The method (refered to as the balance method) is to simply keep track of all water entering and leaving the system and use these data to estimate the moisture content of the samples. The advantage of this approach...

  18. Traditional Building Materials and Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites. A Sustainability Approach in Construction Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Maxineasa, Sebastian-George; Ţăranu, Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that the construction industry is among the largest consumers of material, energy and a significant polluter. From the extraction of raw materials to disposal and recycling, the entire life cycle of a construction has a significant environmental impact. The manufacturing/ processing of materials represents an important phase in the life cycle of constructions which has a negative effect on the environment. Accordingly, the construction materials industry has made tremendous p...

  19. Oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steels as fuel cladding candidate materials for SCWR in superheated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of cold work on oxidation kinetics was clearly observed for 15Cr–20Ni SS. • The tube-shaped 15Cr–20Ni SS showed very good oxidation resistance. • The machined layer by cold drawing has a significant role to mitigate oxidation. - Abstract: Oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steels as fuel cladding candidate materials for supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR), including three types of 15Cr–20Ni stainless steels (1520 SSs), in the temperature range of 700–780 °C superheated steam have been investigated. Effect of temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), degree of cold work (CW), and machined layer by cold drawing process on the oxidation kinetics assuming power-law kinetics are discussed. Characteristics of oxide layers and its relation to oxidation behaviors are also discussed. The effect of DO on the weight gain behavior in superheated steam at 700 °C was minor for all specimens at least up to 200 ppb DO. The tube-shaped specimens of 1520 SSs showed very good oxidation resistance at 700–780 °C. There was no clear difference in the oxidation kinetics among the three investigated types of 1520 SSs. The machined layer formed at the tube surface has a significant role to mitigate oxidation in superheated steam. A fine-grained microstructure near the surface due to recrystallization by cold drawing process is effective to form the protective Cr2O3 layer. It has been suggested that since Cr diffusion in the outside surface of tubes is accelerated as a result of an increased dislocation density and/or grain refinement by cold drawing, tube specimens show very slow oxidation kinetics. Breakdown of the protective Cr2O3 layer and nodule oxide formation were partly observed on the tube-shaped specimens of 15Cr–20Ni SSs. The reliability of Cr2O3 layer has to be carefully examined to predict the oxidation kinetics after long-term exposure

  20. 46 CFR 160.013-3 - Materials, workmanship, and construction details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, and construction details. 160...) for Merchant Vessels § 160.013-3 Materials, workmanship, and construction details. (a) General. All materials, workmanship, and construction details shall be in substantial compliance with the provisions...

  1. CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A WATER TANK WITH RECYCLABLE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIANE FARINASSO RODRIGUES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electric power became a factor of citizenship and quality of life, but most of this energy comes from energy sources that cause serious damage to the environment and its use depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. The cost of energy offered by the utilities is still significant, and equipment used to capture alternative sources are still expensive. Therefore, many studies are being conducted in this area, seeking new technologies and alternative ways to reduce those costs. From this need, we developed a reservoir for hot water by using recycled materials in order to preserve the temperature of water heated by solar collectors, in order to achieve efficiency similar to equipment found in the market, but with an affordable cost to lowincome. Manual method was used to construct the reservoir, using materials easily found in our market. The tests were performed by comparing the thermal inertia between the reservoirs and proposed commercial and the results were presented in graphical and tabular. Proposals submitted with thermal efficiency exceeding 20% over the proposal without thermal insulation. Regarding the financial part of the proposed system represents an investment of one tenth of the trading system and the rate of return of the complete system (plate + tank is around 11 months.

  2. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  3. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  4. Application of Pulsed Heat Balance Method for Determining the Characteristics of Construction Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Troitsky O.Yu.; Medvedev V.V.; Chernova G.S.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility for applying the pulsed heat balance method was considered to determine thermal and physical characteristics of different construction materials. The determination methods of characteristic points at temperature curve and correlations were offered to calculate values of thermal and physical characteristics of construction materials among them there are materials with protective and hardsurfacing overlays including anisotropic materials.

  5. VALENT TAXIS CONSTRUCTIONS (BY THE YAKUT LANGUAGE MATERIAL)

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    The author considers one of the varieties of taxis constructions - valent structures with taxis meaning. They are realized in poly-predicative constructions with additional meaning. In such constructions, in contrast to other taxis structures, the relations of simultaneousness and precedence are expressed, which can be complicated with additional senses.

  6. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe2O4. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe2O4 is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe2+ and the other rich in Fe3+, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (TCO ∝320K) and ferro magnetism (TN∝240 K) LuFe2O4 has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe2O4, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe2O4 on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The main focus is on samples exhibiting a sharp magnetic transition to long-range spin order at TN∝240 K

  7. Production of candidate natural matrix reference materials for micro-analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneity is considered to be the most vital prerequisite for a certified reference material (CRM); more stringent requirements exist for the analysis of small subsamples. Many of the natural matrix CRMs are prepared from bulk samples by grinding and milling them to a certain particle size, which is expected to provide a more homogenous material; however recommended sample sizes for biological and environmental reference materials are found to be more than 100 mg. Since the milling of materials is costly and has some drawbacks, natural materials that already occur as small particles such as air particulate matter, certain sediments, and cellular biological materials may form the basis of the required reference materials. The nature of these materials, i.e. naturally occurring particles, may provide ideal model reference material. We describe here the production of the materials and preliminary tests, the evaluation for the micro-analytical techniques

  8. Development of miniaturized specimens for the study of neutron irradiation/plasma exposure synergistic effects on candidate fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to choose a miniaturized specimen version relevant for testing candidate fusion reactor materials including mechanical testing after combined neutron irradiation/plasma exposure in a fission reactor. The material examined was reactor pressure vessel type steel in irradiated and aged (unirradiated) conditions. Comparative standard impact, three point bend and small punch tests were conducted. It is established that there is a possibility of miniaturization of irradiated steel experimental specimens by means of proper specimens type choice with mass reducing from ∼40 (Charpy) to 0.4 g (small plates). (orig.)

  9. Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} as a candidate material for lead cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utili, M., E-mail: marco.utili@enea.i [Universita degli studi di Bologna, Facolta di Ingegneria, Via Risorgimento, 2 DIENCA, Bologna (Italy); Agostini, M.; Coccoluto, G. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Fis Ing, Camugnano (Italy); Lorenzini, E. [Universita degli studi di Bologna, Facolta di Ingegneria, Via Risorgimento, 2 DIENCA, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    One of the main issues regarding the design of LFR is the corrosion-erosion behaviour of materials in contact with high temperature and high velocity lead, such as pump impeller and bearing materials. Those materials will worked in lead at about 480 {sup o}C with a velocity relative to impeller blade in the magnitude of 10 m/s. Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}, a ternary compound was selected as one of the most promising candidate material, the most significant aspect of Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} is that it combines some of the most attractive proprieties of ceramics with those of metals. This material was already applied in industry but more effort is needed to qualify its performance when compared with candidate structural stainless steel available in Europe. With the purpose of evaluating the corrosion resistance of Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}, a preliminary screening test was carried out at ENEA Brasimone in fluent lead under oxidation conditions (oxygen concentration of about 10{sup -6} wt% in the melt), with an average temperature of 500 {sup o}C and a stream velocity of about 1 m/s.

  10. Biocompatibility and characterisation of a candidate microelectrode material for biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in microcircuit technology have enabled the fabrication of Multiple Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) for investigating the characteristics of networks of neuronal cells either in vivo or in vitro. When producing a MEA materials used must be corrosion resistant, have low electrical impedance and the materials must be biocompatible. Existing MEA's have limited life spans, relatively high impedance values and limited uses. Thus creating a requirement for new MEA technology. TiN thin films have become increasingly useful in a wide variety of applications, due to their nature, which includes chemical stability, high hardness, excellent wear and electrical properties and also biocompatibility. The favourable electrical and biocompatibility characteristics of thin films of TiN make them a possible candidate for use in a MEA. TiN thin films can be deposited by a number of methods including evaporation, ion plating and sputtering. The method of deposition, along with process parameters used can have a marked effect on the characteristics of TiN films, including changes in preferred orientation, hardness and wear and also biocompatibility. TiN thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by pulsed DC reactive sputtering of a Ti target, with Argon and nitrogen gas mixtures and labelled Type I TiN films. Also industrial TIN films deposited by Arc Ion plating were carefully selected for comparison and labelled Type II TiN films. The microstructure, composition, surface chemistry, surface topography and roughness were studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Profilometry. Type I TIN films showed a surface topography similar to Zone I and Type II TiN films showed a surface topography similar to Zone 2 of the Movchan and Dernchishin structure zone model for sputtered films. XPS showed that the surface composition of all TiN films was predominantly TiO2, TiN and TiNxOy. Significant differences in

  11. Adaptable Holders for Arc-Jet Screening Candidate Thermal Protection System Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Joe; Milhoan, Jim D.

    2010-01-01

    Reusable holders have been devised for evaluating high-temperature, plasma-resistant re-entry materials, especially fabrics. Typical material samples tested support thermal-protection-system damage repair requiring evaluation prior to re-entry into terrestrial atmosphere. These tests allow evaluation of each material to withstand the most severe predicted re-entry conditions.

  12. Two spruce shoot candidate reference materials from the German environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new materials are introduced that might serve as useful aids for the harmonisation of analytical results. Spruce shoots, cryogenically homogenized and characterized for 50 elements from two sampling sites of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) are presented as possible third generation reference materials that might also act as calibrating materials in speciation analysis. (author)

  13. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  14. Evaluation of Landfill Site Candidate for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Norm) and Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refers to co-location concept, Kabil site, where located at the southeast end of low hills in Batam Island, will be sited as an integrated industrial waste management center including landfill. So that, it is necessary an evaluation of the landfill site candidate for NORM and hazardous waste. The evaluation includes geological and non-geological aspects, to determine the suitability or capability in supporting the function as landfill facility. The site candidate was evaluated by serial sreps as follows: 1) criteria formulation; 2) selecting the parameter for evaluation; 3) Positive screening or evaluation of the land having potentiality for landfill site by descriptive method: and 4) determine the land suitability or capability for landfill site. The evaluation of geological and non- geological aspects include topography, litology, seismicity, groundwater and surface water, climate, hydro-oceanography, flora and fauna, spatial pattern and transportation system. The most of the parameters evaluated show the fulfilling to the site criteria, and can be mentioned that the land is suitable for landfill site. Some parameters are not so suitable for that purpose, especially on permeability and homogeneity of the rocks/soils, distance to surface water body, depth of groundwater, the flow rate of groundwater, precipitation, and humidity of the air. The lack of suitability showed by some parameters can be compensated by improving the appropriate engineered barrier in order to fulfill the landfill performance in providing the supporting capacity, long live stability and waste containment. (author)

  15. Utilizing Repurposed Materials to Construct Utility Buildings and Small Animal Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, C. Kim

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes how to use repurposed materials such as shipping pallets, scraps from construction sites or other building projects, to construct utility buildings and small animal shelters.

  16. The research on the material management system in nuclear power plant construction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the module construction speciality of nuclear power plant, this article analyzes the relationship between the actual amount of the material transported to the construction site and the planed needs of the material, and points out the zero inventory management target in the nuclear power plant construction site. Based on this, the article put forward a nuclear power plant material management system which is based on the 'pull' information driver. This system is composed by material coding sub-system, procurement and site material integrated management sub-system and project control sub-system, and is driven by the material demand from construction site to realize the JIT purchasing. This structure of the system can reduce the gap between the actual amount of the material transported to the site and the planed needs of the material and achieve the target of reducing storage at construction site. (authors)

  17. Assessment of Commutability for Candidate Certified Reference Material ERM-BB130 "Chloramphenicol in Pork"

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleny, Reinhard; EMTEBORG Per; Schimmel, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), an effective antibiotic against many microorganisms, is meanwhile banned in the EU for treatment of food-producing animals due to adverse health effects. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) is currently developing a certified reference material (CRM) for CAP in pork, intended for validation and method performance verifications of analytical methods. The material will be certified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) a...

  18. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY14 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory corrosion testing of candidate alloys—including Zr-4 and Zr-2.5Nb representing the target solution vessel, and 316L, 2304, 304L, and 17-4 PH stainless steels representing process piping and balance-of-plant components—was performed in support of the proposed SHINE process to produce 99Mo from low-enriched uranium. The test solutions used depleted uranyl sulfate in various concentrations and incorporated a range of temperatures, excess sulfuric acid concentrations, nitric acid additions (to simulate radiolysis product generation), and iodine additions. Testing involved static immersion of coupons in solution and in the vapor above the solution, and was extended to include planned-interval tests to examine details associated with stainless steel corrosion in environments containing iodine species. A large number of galvanic tests featuring couples between a stainless steel and a zirconium-based alloy were performed, and limited vibratory horn testing was incorporated to explore potential erosion/corrosion features of compatibility. In all cases, corrosion of the zirconium alloys was observed to be minimal, with corrosion rates based on weight loss calculated to be less than 0.1 mil/year with no change in surface roughness. The resulting passive film appeared to be ZrO2 with variations in thickness that influence apparent coloration (toward light brown for thicker films). Galvanic coupling with various stainless steels in selected exposures had no discernable effect on appearance, surface roughness, or corrosion rate. Erosion/corrosion behavior was the same for zirconium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions and in sodium sulfate solutions adjusted to a similar pH, suggesting there was no negative effect of uranium resulting from fluid dynamic conditions aggressive to the passive film. Corrosion of the candidate stainless steels was similarly modest across the entire range of exposures. However, some sensitivity to corrosion of the stainless steels was

  19. Collection of radiation irradiation study reports for the candidate materials and instruments in the J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the collected reports of radiation irradiation study for the candidate materials and instruments to be used in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility, J-PARC. The examinations were executed at the gamma-ray irradiation facility in JAEA Takasaki Institute. The effect of radiation damage by loss-beam or secondary particle beam of the accelerators influences the performance and the reliability of various instruments. The knowledge on the radiation resistivity of the materials is important to estimate the life of the equipments, the maintenance interval and dose evaluation for the personnel at the maintenance period. The radiation damage consists with mechanical property, electrical property and gas-evolution property. This report shows the subject of the instruments or the materials in the J-PARC facility, the theme of the irradiation study, the results of examination and the selected decision of the policy for usage. (author)

  20. Design studies of interaction processes between melt reactor core material composition, coolant and construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This effort presents results of the design studies performed for correct conducting of out-of-pile experiments at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan facilities to study interaction processes between the melt fuel composition and core materials, which might take place during accidents at the nuclear power plants. The design methods are considered to determine electromagnetic parameters of the facility melting unit - an induction melting furnace, to determine temperature fields in furnace construction component materials during the experiment process and at the moment of melt discharge. The methods are presented to calculate temperature fields and thermal flows in experimental device modelling a reactor vessel bottom when it contacts with the melt fuel composition. The results of thermal electric and hydraulic calculations are presented validating the experimental device operability designed to study the interaction processes between the melt fuel composition and reactor vessel bottom in simulating a residual energy release in the melt by direct current transmitting

  1. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials FY 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Xie, YuLong; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Campbell, Luke W.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    This annual report presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Dr. Fei Gao. This project is divided into three tasks, namely (1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; (2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and (3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonlinearity, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the findings and insights obtained in each of these three tasks are provided in this report. Additionally, papers published this fiscal year or currently in review are included in Appendix together with presentations given this fiscal year.

  2. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  3. In situ corrosion studies on candidate container materials for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK·CEN has developed in the early 1980's, with the support of NIRAS/ONDRAF and EC, an extensive in situ corrosion program to evaluate the long-term corrosion behavior of various candidate container materials for the disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. The in situ corrosion experiments were performed in the underground research facility, HADES, situated in the Boom Clay formation at a depth of 225 meters below ground level. These experiments place the samples either in direct contact with clay (type I), in a humid clay atmosphere (type 2), or in a concrete saturated clay atmosphere (type 3). During the period 1985--1994, twelve in situ corrosion experiments were installed in the underground laboratory. The exploitation of these experiments ended in 1996. All samples were recuperated and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the type 1 corrosion experiments (samples in direct contact with Boom Clay). Surface analyses tend to indicate that the so-called corrosion-resistant materials, e.g. stainless steels, Ni- and Ti-alloys, remain intact after exposure to Boom Clay between 16 and 170 C, whereas carbon steel presents significant pitting corrosion. Carbon steel seems to be unsuitable for the Belgian repository concept (pits up to 240microm deep are detected after direct exposure to the argillaceous environment for 2 years at 90 C). The stainless steels look very promising candidate container materials

  4. Search for a circum-planetary material and orbital period variations of short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Z; Budaj, J; Stellingwerf, R F

    2014-01-01

    A unique short-period Mercury-size Kepler exoplanet candidate KIC012557548b has been discovered recently by Rappaport et al. (2012). This object is a transiting disintegrating exoplanet with a circum-planetary material - comet-like tail. Close-in exoplanets, like KIC012557548b, are subjected to the greatest planet-star interactions. This interaction may have various forms. In certain cases it may cause formation of the comet-like tail. Strong interaction with the host star, and/or presence of an additional planet may lead to variations in the orbital period of the planet. Our main aim is to search for comet-like tails similar to KIC012557548b and for long-term orbital period variations. We are curious about frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates. We concentrate on a sample of 20 close-in candidates with a period similar to KIC012557548b from the Kepler mission.

  5. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  6. The Promotion Strategy of Green Construction Materials: A Path Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Fah Huang; Jung-Lu  Chen

    2015-01-01

    As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction material...

  7. A Novel Material for In Situ Construction on Mars: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Lin; Wendner, Roman; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    A significant step in space exploration during the 21st century will be human settlement on Mars. Instead of transporting all the construction materials from Earth to the red planet with incredibly high cost, using Martian soil to construct a site on Mars is a superior choice. Knowing that Mars has long been considered a "sulfur-rich planet", a new construction material composed of simulated Martian soil and molten sulfur is developed. In addition to the raw material availability for producin...

  8. Natural radioactivity in Slovak construction materials and the indoor dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For keeping the population exposure al low as reasonably achievable (recommended by the Slovak regulations), the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products have not to exceed 370 Bq kg-1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra. Samples of building materials (cement, stone, fly-ash, light concrete, slag, dross, sand dolomite. etc.) user for construction of the residential buildings were collected, milled and screened with 2-3 cm sieve. After drying, the samples were stored in 450 cm3 sealed polyethylene containers for a 30 day period. All samples were measured in a 4 π geometry usually for 60,000 seconds. Measurements of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations were carried out by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The primordial radionuclides 226 and 232Th were assessed through their progeny photo-peaks 214Bi (609 keV), 214Pb (295 keV, 351 keV) 228Ac (338 keV, 911 keV) and 212Pb (238 keV). The specific activity of both nuclides has been determined as weighted average of their photo-peaks. 40K was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. Until now, about 600 samples of building materials have been measured. The obtained radium equivalent activity in various types of building materials and mean annual effective doses of gamma radiation are presented. (J.K.)

  9. Report on Reactor Physics Assessment of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, Nathan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Maldonado, G. Ivan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-28

    This work focuses on ATF concepts being researched at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), expanding on previous studies of using alternate cladding materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The neutronic performance of two leading alternate cladding materials were assessed in boiling water reactors (BWRs): iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) cladding, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based composite cladding. This report fulfills ORNL Milestone M3FT-15OR0202332 within the fiscal year 2015 (FY15)

  10. Crevice Corrosion Behavior of Candidate Nuclear Waste Container Materials in Repository Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; J. Sarver; W. Mohn

    2001-11-08

    Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) have been proposed as the corrosion resistant materials for fabricating the waste package outer barrier and the drip shield, respectively for the proposed nuclear waste repository Yucca Mountain Project. In this work, the susceptibility of welded and annealed Alloy 22 (N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) to crevice corrosion was studied by the Multiple Crevice Assembly (ASTM G78) method combined with surface morphological observation after four and eight weeks of exposure to the Basic Saturated Water (BSW-12) in a temperature range from 60 to 105 C. The susceptibility of the materials to crevice corrosion was evaluated based on the appearance of crevice attack underneath the crevice formers and the weight loss data. The results showed that, after exposed to BSW-12 for four and eight weeks, no obvious crevice attack was observed on these materials. The descaled weight loss increased with the increase in temperature for all materials. The weight loss, however, is believed to be caused by general corrosion, rather than crevice corrosion. There was no significant difference between the annealed and welded materials either. On the other hand, to conclude that these materials are immune to crevice corrosion in BSW-12 will require longer term testing.

  11. Production of Construction Materials Using Advanced Recycling Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Waste reduction, material reuse, and use of recycle-content products can be focused on the management system somewhat. In contrast, material recycling is the technical issue how to create new materials using wastes. Thus, three advanced recycling technologies; 1) Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate technology (SLA), 2) Clean Coal Technology (CCT), and 3) RP-1 Polymer Identification System are introduced.

  12. Optically Active Hybrid Materials Constructed from Helically Substituted Polyacetylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanyu; Zhao, Biao; Deng, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Functional materials derived from synthetic helical polymers are attracting increasing interest. Helically substituted polyacetylenes (HSPAs) are especially interesting as typical artificial helical polymers. In recent years, we designed and prepared a series of functional materials based on HSPAs and inorganic materials. The target is to establish some novel hybrid materials that combine the superior properties of both. The examined inorganic materials include silica, graphene, and magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Such new functional materials hold great promise and are expected to find practical applications, for instance, as chiral absorbents, chiral sensors, chiral selectors for inducing enantioselective crystallization, chiral catalysts towards asymmetric catalysis, and chiral carriers for enantioselective release. The Personal Account summarizes our major achievements in preparing optically active hybrid materials. We hope it will speed up progress in chiral-related research areas. PMID:26991679

  13. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials: FY 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.

    2014-10-01

    This annual reports presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project is divided into three tasks: 1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; 2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and 3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonproportionality, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the three tasks is provided in this Annual Report. Furthermore, peer-reviewed articles published this FY or currently under review and presentations given this FY are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  14. Localized corrosion of a candidate container material for high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized corrosion is one of the important considerations in the design of metallic containers used for the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. This paper addresses the effect of environmental factors on the localized corrosion behavior of alloy 825, one of the candidate alloys for containers in the Yucca Mountain repository site. A two-level, full factorial experimental design was used to examine the main effects and interactions of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, and temperature. This was augmented by additional experiments involving chloride and temperature at several levels. Cyclic, potentiodynamic polarization tests were used to determine the relative susceptibility of the alloy to localized corrosion. Crevice corrosion was detected at chloride levels as low as 20 ppm, and both pitting and crevice corrosion were observed at higher chloride levels. Among the environmental factors, chloride and sulfate were found to be promoters of localized corrosion, while nitrate and fluoride were inhibitors of localized corrosion. The experiments indicated that the electrochemical parameters (e.g., pitting potential, repassivation potential, or the difference between them) were not sufficient indicators of localized corrosion. Instead, the visual observation and electrochemical parameters were combined into an index, termed localized corrosion index (LCI), to quantify the extent of localized corrosion

  15. Relativistic electron gas: A candidate for nature's left-handed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities for a relativistic electron gas are calculated from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature and density as functions of temperature, chemical potential, frequency, and wave vector. The polarization and the magnetization depend linearly on both electric and magnetic fields, and are the sum of a zero-temperature and zero-density vacuum part with a temperature- and chemical-potential-dependent medium part. Analytic calculations lead to generalized expressions that depend on three scalar functions. In the nonrelativistic limit, results reproduce the Lindhard formula. In the relativistic case, and in the long wavelength limit, we obtain the following: (i) for ω =0 , generalized susceptibilities that reduce to known nonrelativistic limits; (ii) for ω ≠0 , Drude-type responses at zero temperature. The latter implies that both the electric permittivity ɛ and the magnetic permeability μ may be simultaneously negative, a behavior characteristic of metamaterials. This unambiguously indicates that the relativistic electron gas is one of nature's candidates for the realization of a negative index of refraction system. Moreover, Maxwell's equations in the medium yield the dispersion relation and the index of refraction of the electron gas. Present results should be relevant for plasma physics, astrophysical observations, synchrotrons, and other environments with fast-moving electrons.

  16. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  17. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  18. Reuse of materials and byproducts in construction waste minimization and recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the reuse of materials and byproducts in the construction industry. It investigates the main building materials and their use. The book also offers an overview of new green design guides that will encourage best practice.

  19. Testing the homogeneity of candidate reference materials by solid sampling - AAS and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to quantify a natural material's homogeneity with respect to its elemental distribution prior to chemical analysis of a given aliquot is emphasised. Available instruments and methods to obtain the relevant information are described. Additionally the calculation of element specific, relative homogeneity factors, HE, and of a minimum sample mass M5% to achieve 5% precision on a 95% confidence level is given. Especially, in the production and certification of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) this characteristic information should be determined in order to provide the user with additional inherent properties of the CRM to enable more economical use of the expensive material and to evaluate further systematic bias of the applied analytical technique. (author)

  20. Quality assessment of organic coffee beans for the preparation of a candidate reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A random sampling was carried out in the coffee beans collected for the preparation of the organic green coffee reference material in view of assessing the homogeneity and the presence of soil as impurity. Fifteen samples were taken for the between-sample homogeneity evaluation. One of the samples was selected and 10 test portions withdrawn for the within-sample homogeneity evaluation. Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The F-test demonstrated that the material is homogeneous for Ca, Co, Cs, K and Sc, but not homogeneous for Br, Fe, Na, Rb and Zn. Results of terrigenous elements suggested negligible soil contamination in the raw material. (author)

  1. Fe-Au and Fe-Ag composites as candidates for biodegradable stent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Cheng, Jian; Bian, Dong; Zheng, Yufeng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Fe-Ag and Fe-Au composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy using spark plasma sintering. Their microstructures, mechanical properties, and biocorrosion behavior were investigated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, environment scanning electronic microscopy, compressive test, electrochemical measurements, and immersion tests. Microstructure characterization indicated that the as-sintered iron-based materials obtained much finer grains than that of as-cast pure iron. Phase analysis showed that the Fe-Ag composites were composed of α-Fe and pure Ag phases, and Fe-Au composites consisted of α-Fe and Au phases. Compressive test showed that the improved mechanical strengths were obtained in as-sintered iron-based materials, among which the Fe-5 wt %Ag exhibited the best mechanical properties. The electrochemical and immersion tests revealed that the addition of Ag and Au could increase the corrosion rate of the iron matrix and change the corrosion mode into more uniform one. Based on the results of cytotoxicity evaluation, it was found that all the experimental material extracts performed no significant toxicity on the L-929 cells and EA. hy-926 cells, whereas a considerable inhibition on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells was observed. The hemocompatibility tests showed that the hemolysis of all the experimental materials was within the range of 5%, which is the criteria value of biomaterials with good hemocomaptibility. The amount of platelet adhered on the surface of as-sintered iron-based materials was lower than that of as-cast pure iron, and the morphology of platelets kept smoothly spherical on the surface of all the experimental materials. PMID:25727071

  2. Effects of surface condition on the corrosion of candidate structural materials in a simulated HTGR-GT environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) helium environment was used to study the effects of surface finish conditions on the subsequent elevated-temperature corrosion behavior of key candidate structural materials. The environment contained helium with 500 μatm H2/50 μatm CO/50 μatm CH4/2O at 9000C with total test exposure durations of 3000 hours. Specimens with lapped, grit-blasted, pickled, and preoxidized surface conditions were studied. Materials tested included two cast superalloys, IN 100 and IN 713LC; one centrifugally cast high-temperature alloy, HK 40 one oxice-dispersion-strengthened alloy, Inconel MA 754; and three wrought high-temperature alloys, Hastelloy Alloy X, Inconel Alloy 617, and Alloy 800H

  3. Rationale for construction vibration for drying granular and granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Зозуляк, Ігор Анатолійович

    2014-01-01

    Various processing methods are used to bring grain to a steady state for storage, provide quantitative and qualitative grain characteristics, the most effective of which is grain drying. The results of experimental studies of vibration drying and industrial equipment operation experience showed the following benefits of using vibrations in drying dispersed materials: intensive mixing of material particles, intensive moisture removal due to constant renewal of moisture exchange surface, materi...

  4. A new candidate as the cathode material for intermediate and low temperature SOFCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; SUN Xueli; WEN Zhongsheng; SUN Juncai

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop the new cathode materials suitable for intermediate and low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT/LTSOFCs), LaNi1-xFexO3(x=0.4-0.8) (LNF) materials were synthesized using coprecipitation method. Their structures and morphologies were investigated by XRD and SEM, and their electronic conductivities at different temperatures were measured by dc four terminal method. Fuel cells were fabricated to evaluate the electrochemical properties of the LNF materials as cathodes at different temperatures. The performance of 450-497 mW·cm-2 was obtained in the temperature region of 580-650 ℃ for the LaNi0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode, and of 209-227 mW·cm-2 at 400-500 ℃ for the LaNi0.4Fe0.6O3. The excellent fuel cell performances indicate that the LNF materials are good cathodes for IT/LTSOFCs.

  5. Determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in a candidate reference materials using isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing demands placed on analytical laboratories to ensure the reliability of their results, due to the introduction of systems of quality and to the increasing use of metrology in chemical measurements has led most laboratories to validate their methodologies and to control them statistically. One of the techniques used most often for these purposes is based on the use of reference materials. The proper use of these materials means that laboratory results may be traced to the International System of Units, analytical methodologies can be validated, instruments calibrated and chemical measurements harmonized. One of the biggest challenges in developing reference materials is that of certifying their properties, a process that has been defined as assigning a concentration value that is as close as possible to the true value together with its uncertainty. Organizations that produce reference materials use several options for their certification process, and among these is the use of a primary method. Among the primary methods recognized by the International Office of Weights and Measures is the Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry technique. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, through its Reference Materials Program, has prepared a reference material of clam tissue, which has been chemically defined by different analytical methodologies applied in different national and international laboratories. This work describes the methodology developed with the CIEMAT for determining the elements lead, cadmium and zinc in the clam tissue reference material using the primary technique of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry. The calculation is described for obtaining the spike amounts to be added to the sample and the procedure is explained for carrying out the isotopic exchange. The isotopic relationships 204Pb/205Pb, 111Cd/114Cd and 66Zn/67Zn were determined in an atomic emission spectrometer with a plasma source with the following characteristics: plasma ionization

  6. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Introduction, history, and current candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is to evaluate Yucca Mountain for its suitability as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been occupied for a number of years with developing and evaluating the performance of waste packages for the potential repository. In recent years this work has been carried out under the guidance of and in collaboration with the Management and Operating contractor for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., which in turn reports to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes the history of the selection and characterization of materials to be used in the engineered barrier system for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, describes the current candidate materials, presents a compilation of their properties, and summarizes available corrosion data and modeling. The term ''engineered materials'' is intended to distinguish those materials that are used as part of the engineered barrier system from the natural, geologic materials of the site

  7. Homogeneity study on biological candidate reference materials: the role of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel P.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: dsilva.pereira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) is a mature nuclear analytical technique able to accurately determine chemical elements without the need of sample digestion and, hence, without the associated problems of analyte loss or contamination. This feature, along with its potentiality use as a primary method of analysis, makes it an important tool for the characterization of new references materials and in the assessment of their homogeneity status. In this study, the ability of the comparative method of INAA for the within-bottle homogeneity of K, Mg, Mn and V in a mussel reference material was investigated. Method parameters, such as irradiation time, sample decay time and distance from sample to the detector were varied in order to allow element determination in subsamples of different sample masses in duplicate. Sample masses were in the range of 1 to 250 mg and the limitations of the detection limit for small sample masses and dead time distortions for large sample masses were investigated. (author)

  8. Homogeneity study on biological candidate reference materials: the role of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) is a mature nuclear analytical technique able to accurately determine chemical elements without the need of sample digestion and, hence, without the associated problems of analyte loss or contamination. This feature, along with its potentiality use as a primary method of analysis, makes it an important tool for the characterization of new references materials and in the assessment of their homogeneity status. In this study, the ability of the comparative method of INAA for the within-bottle homogeneity of K, Mg, Mn and V in a mussel reference material was investigated. Method parameters, such as irradiation time, sample decay time and distance from sample to the detector were varied in order to allow element determination in subsamples of different sample masses in duplicate. Sample masses were in the range of 1 to 250 mg and the limitations of the detection limit for small sample masses and dead time distortions for large sample masses were investigated. (author)

  9. Glass: a candidate engineered material for management of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the commercial importance of glass is generally recognized, a few people are aware of extremely wide range of glass formulations that can be made and of the versatility of this engineered material. Some of the recent developments in the field of glass leading to various technological applications include glass fiber reinforcement of cement to give new building materials, substrates for microelectronics circuitry in form of semiconducting glasses, nuclear waste immobilization and specific medical applications. The present paper covers fundamental understanding of glass structure and its application for immobilization of high level radioactive liquid waste. High level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) arising during reprocessing of spent fuel are immobilized in sodium borosilicate glass matrix developed indigenously. Glass compositions are modified according to the composition of HLW to meet the criteria of desirable properties in terms. These glass matrices have been characterized for different properties like homogeneity, chemical durability, thermal stability and radiation stability. (author)

  10. Testing of candidate waste-package backfill and canister materials for basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is developing a multiple-barrier waste package to contain high-level nuclear waste as part of an overall system (e.g., waste package, repository sealing system, and host rock) designed to isolate the waste in a repository located in basalt beneath the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The three basic components of the waste package are the waste form, the canister, and the backfill. An extensive testing program is under way to determine the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of potential canister and backfill materials. The data derived from this testing program will be used to recommend those materials that most adequately perform the functions assigned to the canister and backfill

  11. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs

  12. Study of Clay Materials as Host Rock for Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally some rock types such as crystalline, volcanic and clay materials have been using as host rock for radwaste disposal site. Objective of the paper is to completing the clays study for radwaste disposal through literature study which has related to information of clay. The characteristic of clay rocks, both physically and chemically has good potential for radwaste disposal site, due to this reason the clay rocks has been used for radwaste disposal in another countries. (author)

  13. A Straightforward and Automated Open Database Analysis as a First Sweep for Candidate Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Breternitz; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2015-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is considered as the bottleneck in the implementation of portable fuel cell power generating systems. The necessary experimental studies to discover and develop appropriate storage materials are always time-limited. We discuss herein the approach of an uncomplicated and accessible computationally based analysis of database knowledge towards the identification of promising storage systems. The open access policy of the Crystallography Open Database (COD) invites researc...

  14. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: Engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behavior of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armors exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from being complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper the authors elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known database for design purposes. Due to their strong anticipated implications on the design, attention is focused mainly on codeposition and neutron damage effects. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modeling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e., amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified

  15. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behaviour of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armours exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper we elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next-step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known data bases for design purposes. Owing to their strong anticipated implications on tritium uptake and release, attention is focused mainly on the interaction of tritium with neutron damage induced defects, on tritium codeposition with eroded carbon and on the effects of oxide and surface contaminants. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modelling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e. amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified. (orig.)

  16. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  17. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will be financed by RUS. These requirements are set forth in other RUS regulations, especially in 7 CFR..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All...

  18. Albedo calculations for candidate fusion reactor materials used in the inboard side of a compact tokamak reactor and the effects of using such materials on the tritium breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the total neutron albedo and associated energy distributions for 10 candidate fusion reactor materials have been calculated. The angular distributions of reflected neutrons for monodirectional 14.1 MeV neutrons incident on slabs of Pb, Be, and W are presented and the dependence of albedo on neutron energy and incident angle has been investigated. Finally, the impact on the tritium breeding of the outboard blanket of the choice of material used in the inboard side of the reactor has been assessed. Tritium breeding ratio (TBR) calculations have shown the inadequacy of the neutron albedo concept in predicting the impact of inboard materials on the TBR of the reactor. (author)

  19. Study of the Causes and Magnitude of Wastage of Materials on Construction Sites in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanim A. Bekr

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to study the causes and magnitude of wastage of construction materials on construction projects sites in Jordan. To achieve the research aim, the researcher had prepared a questionnaire form included questions about the causes of wastage and the estimated percentages of wastage of ten most popular kinds of materials used on construction sites in Jordan. Prior to the final formulation of the questionnaire form, a pilot survey was conducted. The form was revised in accordance ...

  20. Optimization on electrochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 as candidate catalytic material for Green diesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. W.; Nugraha, R. E.; Winarni, I. D.; Adreane, M.; Rahmawati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the effort to support the discovery of new renewable energy sources in Indonesia, biofuel is one of promising options. The conversion of vegetable oil into ready-biofuel, especially green diesel, needs several steps, one of which is a hydrogenation or hydro-deoxygenation reaction. In this case, the catalyst plays a very important role regarding to its activity and selectivity, and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) becoming a new generation of heterogeneous catalyst in this area. In this research, a preliminary study to optimize electrochemical synthesis of the catalytic material based on MOFs, namely HKUST-1 [Cu3(BTC)2], has been conducted. Some electrochemical reaction parameters were tested, for example by modifying the electrochemical synthetic conditions, i.e. by performing variation of voltages (12, 13, 14, and 15 Volt), temperatures (RT, 40, 60, and 80 °C) and solvents (ethanol, water, methanol and dimethyl-formamide (DMF)). Material characterization was carried out by XRD, SEM, FTIR, DTA/TG and SAA. The results showed that the optimum synthetic conditions of HKUST-1 are performed at room temperature in a solvent combination of water: ethanol (1: 1) and a voltage of 15 Volt for 2 hours. The XRD-analysis revealed that the resulted peaks are identical to the simulated powder pattern generated from single crystal data and comparable to the peaks of solvothermal method. However, the porosity of the resulting material through electrochemical method is still in the range of micro-pore according to IUPAC and 50% smaller than the porosity resulted from solvothermal synthesis. The corresponding compounds are thermally stable until 300 °C according to TG/DTA.

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper-based alloys --- CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni) --- are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement. The three copper-based alloys discussed here are being considered in addition to the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials discussed in Volume 3. The decay of radionuclides will result in substantial heat generation and in fluxes of gamma radiation. In this environment, container materials may degrade by atmospheric oxidation, uniform aqueous phase corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in tarnishing environments, or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in nontarnishing environments. This report is a critical survey of available data on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three copper-based alloys. The requisite conditions for TGSCC and IGSCC include combinations of stress, oxygen, ammonia or nitrite, and water. Note that nitrite is generated by gamma radiolysis of moisture films in air but that ammonia is not. TGSCC has been observed in CDA 102 and CDA 613 exposed to moist ammonia-containing environments whereas SCC has not been documented for CDA 715 under similar conditions. SCC is also promoted in copper by nitrite ions. Furthermore, phosphorus-deoxidized copper is unusually susceptible to embrittlement in such environments. The presence of tin in CDA 613 prevents IGSCC. It is believed that tin segregates to grain boundaries, where it oxidizes very slowly, thereby inhibiting the oxidation of aluminum. 117 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Microscopic construction wood in laboratory exercising subject materials and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is divided into theoretic and practical sections. The theoretic part, is based on study literature, representing the problematic microscopic wood construction, with the necessary graphics documentation and definition. Also including the technology of preparation and production samples of species for microscopical observation. The practical part includes a set of specimens for microscopical wood anatomy observation accordant to the fabrication and education needs in the subje...

  3. Feasibility Study of Construction of Building Using Reusable Material

    OpenAIRE

    Darade M.M,; Waghmare A.P

    2016-01-01

    Civil structures made of steel reinforced concrete normally suffer from corrosion of the steel by the salt, which results in the failure of those structures. Constant maintenance and repairing is needed to enhance the life cycle of those civil structures. There are many ways to minimize the failure of the concrete structures made of steel reinforce concrete. The Project aims to optimize the construction resources with applications to reduce, reuse and recycle to achieve the motive...

  4. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc.

  5. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc

  6. Modern Technologies of Nondestructive Testing of Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the modern methods of research of building materials (such as styrofoam, cement, concrete admixtures, etc.), applied in the Far Eastern Federal University. The latest equipment described for these studies and modern methods of testing.

  7. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Azra Korjenic; Sanela Klarić; Almedina Hadžić; Sinan Korjenic

    2015-01-01

    The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO 2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO 2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study...

  8. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Azra Korjenic; Sanela Klarić; Almedina Hadžić; Sinan Korjenic

    2015-01-01

    The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study ...

  9. New π-Conjugated Materials Based on Furylenevinylene Candidate for Organic Solar Cells Application: A DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Alamy Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific properties of organic-conjugated molecules and polymers are of great importance since they have become the most promising materials for the optoelectronic device technology such as solar cells. The use of low band gap materials is a viable method for better harvesting of the solar spectrum and increasing its efficiency. The control of the parameters of these materials is a research issue of ongoing interest. In this work, a quantum chemical investigation was performed to explore the optical and electronic properties of a series of different compounds based on furylenevinylene. Different electron side groups were introduced to investigate their effects on the electronic structure. The theoretical knowledge of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels of the components is basic in studying organic solar cells; so the HOMO, LUMO, Gap energy and open circuit voltage (Voc of the studied compounds have been calculated and reported. These properties suggest that these materials behave as good candidate for organic solar cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.763 

  10. Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  11. Method for producing fabrication material for constructing micrometer-scaled machines, fabrication material for micrometer-scaled machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method for producing fabrication material for use in the construction of nanometer-scaled machines is provided whereby similar protein molecules are isolated and manipulated at predetermined residue positions so as to facilitate noncovalent interaction, but without compromising the folding configuration or native structure of the original protein biomodules. A fabrication material is also provided consisting of biomodules systematically constructed and arranged at specific solution parameters.

  12. Hot carrier solar cell absorbers: investigation of carrier cooling properties of candidate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibeer, G.; Shrestha, Santosh; Huang, Shujuan; Patterson, Robert; Xia, Hongze; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Gupta, Neeti; Smyth, Suntrana; Liao, Yuanxun; Lin, Shu; Wang, Pei; Dai, Xi; Chung, Simon; Yang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The hot carrier cell aims to extract the electrical energy from photo-generated carriers before they thermalize to the band edges. Hence it can potentially achieve a high current and a high voltage and hence very high efficiencies up to 65% under 1 sun and 86% under maximum concentration. To slow the rate of carrier thermalisation is very challenging, but modification of the phonon energies and the use of nanostructures are both promising ways to achieve some of the required slowing of carrier cooling. A number of materials and structures are being investigated with these properties and test structures are being fabricated. Initial measurements indicate slowed carrier cooling in III-Vs with large phonon band gaps and in multiple quantum wells. It is expected that soon proof of concept of hot carrier devices will pave the way for their development to fully functioning high efficiency solar cells.

  13. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of nuclear fuel candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most reliable material for the research and test reactor fuel is found to be U3Si2 so far. Aluminum can be added to improve the corrosion resistance when the fuel is designed in rod shape and the fuel is restrained in compressive stress. It is proposed that further development should be put forward to the study of U3Six alloy with small addition of Cu. Thus, Seven different alloys were made and fabricated in our laboratory, and the fundamental techniques related to the variation of fabrication parameters were developed in this study. Results from the heat treatment, density measurement, hardness tests and the observation of the microstructures have shown to be very close to those of other countries. These data shall be applied as a fundamental to the development of the fabrication technology for the domestic supply of KMRR nuclear fuel. (Author)

  14. The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author)

  15. The future supply of and demand for candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of a literature survey carried out to assess the future world supply of and demand for titanium, copper and lead. These metals are candidate materials for the fabrication of containers for the immobilization and disposal of Canada's nuclear used-fuel waste for a reference Used-fuel Disposal Centre. Such a facility may begin operation by approximately 2020, and continue for about 40 years. The survey shows that the world has abundant supplies of titanium minerals (mostly in the form of ilmenite), which are expected to last up to at least 2110. However, for copper and lead the balance between supply and demand may warrant increased monitoring beyond the year 2000. A number of factors that can influence future supply and demand are discussed in the report

  16. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-03-15

    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is

  17. Haynes 230 Mini-Can Welding to Support Planned irradiation Testing of Candidate Space Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Space MICE-3B irradiation testing was to test uranium dioxide (UO2) and uranium nitride (UN) fuel pellets under conditions anticipated in a prototypic space reactor application. One goal of the test program was to optimize the accuracy of UN and UO2 fuel sample temperature measurement during testing. The fuel samples were required to be canned to (1) prevent sample dissociation, (2) prevent release of fission products in excess of test reactor emission thresholds, and (3) prevent chemical interaction with impurities in the helium-neon gas stream [A]. Haynes 230, a nickel-chromium-tungsten (Ni-Cr-W) high creep strength structural alloy was selected as the encapsulation material that could be easily hermetically sealed and meet material property requirements at 1550 F (1116 K), the maximum design temperature of the mini-can. Laser welding was pursued to minimize weld distortion and meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code weld qualification standards [2]. The mini-can design contained a 0.050 inch (1.3 mm) thick can lid that was to be welded to a 0.050 inch thick lip on the base can such that the lid overlapped the base lip as a lap joint (Figure la). The circumferential flat lap joint weld required a minimum depth of penetration of 0.050 inches (1.3 mm). Initially, a maximum diametrical distortion of 0.002-0.003 inches (50-75 microns) of the outside diameter of the can after welding was specified to allow for close proximity of a thermocouple near the external wall of the mini-can containing UN samples and result in improved fuel sample temperature measurement accuracy during testing. For the encapsulation of UO2 specimens a 0.01 0 inch (250 micron) diametrical distortion was allowed due to lower heat generation expected within the capsule and greater flexibility on thermocouple location. Manual gas tungsten arc welding was then developed with a V-groove weld lap joint design (Figures 1b). All welding was done in a high purity helium cover gas

  18. Formulation of a candidate glass for use as an acceptance test standard material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the authors discuss the formulation of a glass that will be used in a laboratory testing program designed to measure the precision of test methods identified in the privatization contracts for the immobilization of Hanford low-activity wastes. Tests will be conducted with that glass to measure the reproducibility of tests and analyses that must be performed by glass producers as a part of the product acceptance procedure. Test results will be used to determine if the contractually required tests and analyses are adequate for evaluating the acceptability of likely immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products. They will also be used to evaluate if the glass designed for use in these tests can be used as an analytical standard test material for verifying results reported by vendors for tests withg ILAW products. The results of those tests and analyses will be presented in a separate report. The purpose of this report is to document the strategy used to formulate the glass to be used in the testing program. The low-activity waste reference glass LRM that will be used in the testing program was formulated to be compositionally similar to ILAW products to be made with wastes from Hanford. Since the ILAW product compositions have not been disclosed by the vendors participating in the Hanford privatization project, the composition of LRM was formulated based on simulated Hanford waste stream and amounts of added glass forming chemicals typical for vitrified waste forms. The major components are 54 mass % SiO2, 20 mass % Na2O, 10 mass % Al2O3, 8 mass % B2O3, and 1.5 mass % K2O. Small amounts of other chemicals not present in Hanford wastes were also included in the glass, since they may be included as chemical additives in ILAW products. This was done so that the use of LRM as a composition standard could be evaluated. Radionuclides were not included in LRM because a nonradioactive material was desired

  19. Environmental Management of Waste Based on Road Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Koletnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the European Council adopted a revised framework for waste management in the EU, with an objective to encourage recycling and reuse of waste, in order to reduce landfills and potential environmental emissions. This framework also sets new recycling targets for construction and demolition waste by 2020, suggesting that at least 70 % of the waste should be recycled. Nigrad d.d. is a utility company providing services to several municipalities in North-East Slovenia. These services include repairs to public roads and pavements. This paper examines the origin, amount and fraction of construction waste produced, identifying current waste management practices. Based on the state-of-the art study new approaches are to be proposed, which will make it possible to decrease environmental impacts and costs, when providing public services and establishing sustainable service systems. To reach this objective a life-cycle analysis of the existing service has been carried out, which will help identify the system parts that have the most significant impact on the environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.681

  20. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for Fuel Cladding in Canadian SCWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yimin; Guzonas, David

    2016-02-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative next generation reactor that offers many promising features, but the high-temperature high-pressure coolant introduces unique challenges to the long-term safe and reliable operation of in-core components, in particular the fuel cladding. To achieve high thermal efficiency, the Canadian SCWR concept has a coolant core outlet temperature of 625°C at 25 MPa with a peak cladding temperature as high as 800°C. International and Canadian research programs on corrosion issues in supercritical water have been conducted to support the SCWR concept. This paper provides a brief review of corrosion in supercritical water and summarizes the Canadian corrosion assessment work on potential fuel cladding materials. Five alloys, SS 347H, SS310S, Alloy 800H, Alloy 625 and Alloy 214, have been shown to have sufficient corrosion resistance to be used as the fuel cladding. Additional work, including tests in an in-reactor loop, is needed to confirm that these alloys would work as the fuel cladding in the Canadian SCWR.

  1. Laboratory scale development of coating for improving characteristics of candidate materials for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of coatings of refractory low atomic number materials on to different components of Tokamak type controlled thermonuclear reactor are expected to provide a degree of design flexibility. The project envisages to deal with the challenging problem on laboratory scale. Coatings investigated include carbon, beryllium, boron, titanium carbide and alumina and substrates chosen have been 304, 316 stainless steels, monel-400, molybdenum, copper, graphite, etc. For their deposition, different techniques (e.g. evaporation, sputtering and their different variants) have been tried, appropriate ones chosen and their parameters optimized. The coating composition has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Surface morphology has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sebastian coating adherence tester has been used for adhesion measurement and Wilson's Tukon microhardness tester for their microhardness measurement. The coatings have been subjected to pulses from YAG laser to evaluate their thermal cycling behaviour. Deuterium ion bombardment (Energy: 20-120 keV; doses: 1019-9.3x1020 ions/cm2) behaviour has also been studied. In general, adherent and hard coatings capable of withstanding thermal cycling could be deposited. Out of the coatings studied, titanium carbide shows best results. The following pages are reprints and not mircrofiched: p. 25-32, 39-41, 57-81. Bibliographic description is on page 13

  2. Electric characterization of construction materials through radar data inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriarca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The non-destructive evaluation with the aim of characterizing objects before or after treatment has taken place, and the monitoring of long-term performance is analyzed in this thesis. Generally, these test methods measure material properties or changes in these properties that decision makers are i

  3. Impact property at cryogenic temperature of candidate materials for fusion reactor and their electron beam welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact properties at cryogenic temperature of candidate materials for fusion reactor and their electron beam welded joints are investigated by using instrumented Charpy impact testing apparatus. Material used are aluminum alloys (A7N01, A5083, A6061), JFMS (Japanese Ferritic Martensitic Steel) and two kinds of high manganese steels. Although JFMS is a steel for high temperature use, the impact test is conducted at low temperature same as the cases of the other materials. Testing results are obtained as follows. 1. Base metals and welded joint of aluminum alloys exhibit high absorbed energy at low temperature. Ductility of each base metal and welded joint gradually decreases with decreasing of testing temperature. 2. Base metal and welded joint of JFMS exhibit an absorbed energy transition temperature at near a room temperature. 3. Base metal and welded joint of high manganese steel A-T (18Mn) exhibit abrupt decreasing of absorbed energy at 77K, but base metal and welded joint of high manganese steel B-T (22Mn-0.2N) exhibit gradual increasing of maximum strength and decreasing of ductility with decreasing of testing temperature. (author)

  4. Transient Scuffing of Candidate Diesel Engine Materials at Temperatures up to 600oC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.

    2003-06-20

    This milestone report summarizes the general characteristics of scuffing damage to solid surfaces, then describes transient effects on scuffing observed during oscillating sliding wear tests of candidate material pairs for high-temperature diesel engine applications, like waste-gate bushings in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. It is shown that oxidation and the formation of wear particle layers influence the friction of such components. In the case of metallic materials in cylindrical contacts where there is a generous clearance, debris layers can form which reduce the torque over time. For ceramic combinations, the opposite effect is observed. Here, the accumulation of wear debris leads to an increase in the turning torque. High-temperature transient scuffing behavior is considered in terms of a series of stages in which the composition and morphology of the contact is changing. These changes are used to explain the behavior of 11 material pairs consisting of stainless steels, Ni-based alloys, Co-based alloys, and structural ceramics.

  5. Investigation on candidates of principal facilities for exposure dose to public for the facilities using nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HTTR holds the nuclear fuel material use facilities in its reactor facilities, for the purpose of study on the fracture behavior of fuel and release behavior of fission products, development of high-performance fuel, and measurement of neutron flux. Due to the revision of the 'Act on the regulation of nuclear source material, nuclear fuel material and reactor', the facilities having the 'Important safety-related facilities' among the facilities applicable to the Enforcement Ordinance Article 41 (Article 41 facilities) has come to need to conform to the 'Regulations concerning standards for the location, structure, and equipment of used facilities and others'. In this case, actions such as modification by all possible means are required. The nuclear fuel substance use facilities of HTTR correspond to Article 41 facilities. So, whether it is a candidate for the 'Important safety-related facilities' has been examined. As a result, it is confirmed that the facilities are not correspond to the 'Important safety-related facilities', and it has been concluded that modification measures for the purpose of conforming to this approval standard rule are not necessary as of the present. (A.O.)

  6. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg2+-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg2+ interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg2+ content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package

  7. Thermal emittance measurements on candidate refractory materials for application in nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a highly efficient General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) space power system requires that all of the available thermal energy from the GPHS modules be utilized in the most thermally efficient manner. This includes defining the heat transfer/thermal gradient profile between the surface of the GPHS's and the surface of the energy converter's hot end whose geometry is dependent on the converter technology selected. Control of the radiant heat transfer between these two surfaces is done by regulating how efficiently the selected converter's hot end surface can reject heat compared to a perfect blackbody, i.e. its infrared emittance. Several refractory materials of interest including niobium-1% zirconium, molybdenum-44.5% rhenium and L-605 (a cobalt-based alloy) were subjected to various surface treatments (grit blasting with either SiC or WC particulates) and heat treatments (up to 1198 K for up to 3000 hours). Room temperature infrared emittance values were then obtained using two different infrared reflectometers. Grit blasting with either SiC or WC tended to increase the emittance of flat or curved L-605 coupons by ∼0.2-0.3 independent of heat treatment. Heat treating L-605 coupons under 773 K for up to 2000 hours had only a slight effect on their emittance, while heat treating L-605 coupons at 973 K for over 150 hours appeared to significantly increase their emittance. For the temperatures and times studied here, the emittance values obtained on niobium-1% zirconium and molybdenum-44.5% rhenium coupons were independent of heat treat times and temperatures (except for the niobium-1% zirconium coupon that was heat treated at 1198 K for 150 hours)

  8. Measurements of the radioactivity of power plant by-products processed into construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the recycling of residual products comprising, inter alia, fly ash and slags accuring from the combustion of black and brown coal in modern coal dust boilers in the power industry has been topical for a number of years. Numerous discussions and articles in technical periodicals and the daily press have revolved around the problem of the radioactivity of construction materials or construction elements obtained from fly ash or slags of power plant. In Poland, this was a forbidden subject until the publication in 1980 by the Warsaw institute of construction technology of standard no. 234 entitled: 'Recommendations for establishing the natural radioactivity of products processed into construction materials'. (orig.)

  9. Feasibility Study of Construction of Building Using Reusable Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darade M.M,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil structures made of steel reinforced concrete normally suffer from corrosion of the steel by the salt, which results in the failure of those structures. Constant maintenance and repairing is needed to enhance the life cycle of those civil structures. There are many ways to minimize the failure of the concrete structures made of steel reinforce concrete. The Project aims to optimize the construction resources with applications to reduce, reuse and recycle to achieve the motive of saving planet, public and then profit. There is an unavoidable growth in the population for this, there is demand of urbanization. This consumes high amount of non-renewable resources and hence resources are getting exhausted creating a scarcity, which a major issue for present generation.

  10. Elaboration of construction materials from mineral residues, properties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction in 1887 of the leaching process of metals, using the sodium cyanides revolutionized the techniques for the obtaining of gold and silver. Starting from then it is a method used in the entire world for the recovery of these and other metals. The mining activity generates the accustomed to residuals known popularly like 'jales' (voice derived nahuatl of the xalli that means sand). An important case, is it related with those 'jales' whose pyre content (FeS2) it is high and wherefore they are subject to chemical reactions, caused by the intemperateness in 'jales'. Before this panorama, it is important to process the 'jales' to use them for the construction. (Author)

  11. Biotechnologies and bioinspired materials for the construction industry : an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; J. A. Labrincha

    2014-01-01

    Published online: 16 Oct 2013 Looking back to less than three centuries of industrialization, responsible for alarming levels of pollution and consumption of non-renewable resources that has led to the exhaustion of the earth’s capacity, the humankind only now begins to grasp the overwhelming potential of natural systems. During almost 40 million centuries, Nature has developed materials and processes with optimal performance which are totally biodegradable. Analysis of bioinspire...

  12. Construction of irradiated material examination facility-basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic design of the hot cell facility which has the main purpose of doing mechanical and physical property tests of irradiated materials, the examination process, and the annexed facility has been made. Also basic and detall designs for the underground excavation work have been performed. The project management and tasks required for the license application have been carried out in due course. The facility is expected to be completed by the end of 1992, if the budgetary support is sufficient. (Author)

  13. Tritium interactions with steel and construction materials in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on the interactions of tritium and tritiated water with metals, glasses, ceramics, concrete, paints, polymers and other organic materials is reviewed in this report Some of the processes affecting the amount of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and the conversion of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and conversion of elemental tritium (T2) to tritiated water (HTO), are also briefly outlined. Tritium permeation in steels is fairly well understood, but effects of surface preparation and coatings on sorption are not yet clear. Permeation of T2 into other metals with cleaned surfaces has been studied thoroughly at high temperature, and the effect of surface oxidation has also been explored. The room-temperature permeation rates of low-permeability metals with cleaned surfaces are much faster than indicated by high-temperature results, because of grain-boundary diffusion. Elastomers have been studied to a certain extent, but some mechanisms of interaction with tritium gas and sorbed tritium are unclear. Ceramics have some of the lowest sorption and permeation rates, but ceramic coatings on stainless steels do not lower permeation or tritium as effectively as coatings obtained by oxidation of the steel, probably because of cracking caused by differences in thermal expansion coefficient. Studies on concrete are in their early stages; they show that sorption of tritiated water on concrete is a major concern in cleanup of releases of elemental tritium into air in tritium handling facilities. Some of the codes for modelling releases and sorption of T2 and HTO contain unproven assumptions about sorption and T2 → HTO conversion. Several experimental programs will be required in order to clear up ambiguities in previous work and to determine parameters for materials which have not yet been investigated. (146 refs., tab.)

  14. Non-destructive examination of helium implanted HTRs construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High chromium steels belong to the most prospective materials for reactor pressure vessel of High Temperature Reactors as well as for more components used in GEN IV facilities. Radiation resistance of GEN IV materials is a significant attribute. Therefore the process of microstructure deterioration due to irradiation followed by degradation of mechanical properties must be consistently investigated. This paper is focused on microstructure study of 9% chromium steels (T91, P91) and observation of residual stress as well as open volume defect accumulation after helium ion implantation performed at room temperature. Helium ion implantation should simulate changes of structure due to knocking-out of atoms during neutron irradiation. Investigated materials were studied by non-destructive experimental techniques based on the positron annihilation in the matter (Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy, Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy) and magnetic properties of iron alloys (Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Measurement). Results indicate higher resistance of T91 to defect formation during implantation than P91, although T91 shows higher residual stress in microstructure prior to implantation.

  15. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  16. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Oliver [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Geography and Geoecology, Adenauerring 20, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bayer, Peter, E-mail: bayer@erdw.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Geological Institute, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Juraske, Ronnie [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Verones, Francesca [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hellweg, Stefanie [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  17. Characterisation of bentonites from Kutch, India and Milos, Greece - some candidate tunnel back-fill materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decades comprehensive investigations have been made on bentonite clays in order to find optimal components of the multi-barrier system of repositories for radioactive waste. The present study gives a mineralogical characterisation of some selected bentonites, in order to supply some of the necessary background data on the bentonites for evaluating their potential as tunnel back-fill materials. Two bentonites from the island of Milos, Greece (Milos BF 04 and BF 08), and two bentonites from Kutch, India (Kutch BF 04 and BF 08) were analysed for their grain size distribution, cation exchange properties and chemical composition. The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and evaluated quantitatively by use of the Siroquant software. Both the bulk bentonite and the 63 μm. The bentonite is distinguished by a high content of dolomite and calcite, which make up almost 25% of the bulk sample. The major accessory minerals are K-feldspars and plagioclase, whereas the content of sulphur-bearing minerals is very low (0.06% total S). Smectite makes up around 60% of the bulk sample, which has a CEC value of 73 meq/100 g. The pool of interlayer cations has a composition Mg>Ca>>Na>>K. The X-ray diffraction characteristics and the high potassium content (1.03% K2O) of the Na>Mg>>K. The 2O) which indicates that also this smectite may be interstratified with a few percent illitic layers. Based on the charge distribution the smectite should be classified as montmorillonite but in this case Fe predominates over Mg in the octahedral sheet. The structural formula suggests that this smectite has the lowest total layer charge of the smectites examined. Kutch BF 04 contains essentially no particles >63 μm. The bentonite has a high content of titanium and iron-rich accessory minerals, such as anatase, magnetite, hematite and goethite. Other accessory minerals of significance are feldspars and quartz, whereas the content of sulphur

  18. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  19. Characterisation of bentonites from Kutch, India and Milos, Greece - some candidate tunnel back-fill materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    During the past decades comprehensive investigations have been made on bentonite clays in order to find optimal components of the multi-barrier system of repositories for radioactive waste. The present study gives a mineralogical characterisation of some selected bentonites, in order to supply some of the necessary background data on the bentonites for evaluating their potential as tunnel back-fill materials. Two bentonites from the island of Milos, Greece (Milos BF 04 and BF 08), and two bentonites from Kutch, India (Kutch BF 04 and BF 08) were analysed for their grain size distribution, cation exchange properties and chemical composition. The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and evaluated quantitatively by use of the Siroquant software. Both the bulk bentonite and the <1mum fraction were analyzed when relevant. Prior to the chemical analyses the <1 mum fractions were converted to homo-ionic clays and purified by dialysis. The chemical data were used for calculating the structural formula of the smectites. Milos BF 04 contains ca. 10% particles >63 mum. The bentonite is distinguished by a high content of dolomite and calcite, which make up almost 25% of the bulk sample. The major accessory minerals are K-feldspars and plagioclase, whereas the content of sulphur-bearing minerals is very low (0.06% total S). Smectite makes up around 60% of the bulk sample, which has a CEC value of 73 meq/100 g. The pool of interlayer cations has a composition Mg>Ca>>Na>>K. The X-ray diffraction characteristics and the high potassium content (1.03% K{sub 2}O) of the <1 mum fraction suggest that the smectite is interstratified with ca. 10% illitic layers. Based on the charge distribution the smectite should be classified as montmorillonite and according to the structural formula, Mg predominates over Fe in the octahedral sheet. However, remnants of Mg-carbonates, if present, may be a source of error in the formula calculation. Milos BF 08 has a

  20. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  1. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  2. The distribution of common construction materials sensitive to atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on about 1100 buildings including residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional types, derived from field surveys in four Northeastern cities, are presented and compared. The sampling was based on a stratified random sampling scheme, with strata defined on the basis of an urban spatial model imcorporating land-use and census data. A methodology is presented for extrapolating and findings to nonsampled areas, both within the same cities and within the region. For the regional extrapolation, a U.S. Department of Energy survey of primary residential wall materials is used, since the vast majority of buildings are residential

  3. Sustainable material selection for construction industry - A hybrid multi criteria decision making approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization and globalization has led to a rapid development in the construction industry. Many strategies have been proposed to improve cost effectiveness in this sector. Over the last decade, cost concerns have been balanced with a growing debate on the necessity for sustainable construction...... practices. Because of depleting resources and environmental concerns, researchers and practitioners have begun to explore sustainable construction strategies. Among these strategies is the selection of sustainable materials which play a vital role in a building's environmental footprint. In the UAE in...... particular, there is an ongoing demand to select the best sustainable construction materials because the industry is growing so rapidly in this nation. Thus, the main intent of this paper is to propose a model to evaluate the best sustainable construction material based on sustainable indicators through a...

  4. Development of construction materials using coal fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Yoo, Jang Han; Lee, Moo Sung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The research is intended to find out the possibilities for utility of building materials such as brick with various mixtures of the kaolin and clay. The kaolin belong to the PD, PC and WC grades which from the fly ash of the Honam and the Samcheonpo thermal power plants and clay (HD) from the Hwangdeung, Hadong and Sancheong areas. 1) -200 mesh grain size of fly ash shows higher alkali contents than +200 mesh grains. Especially, alkali components such as CaO (10.58 %), MgO (1.67 %) and Na{sub 2}O (0.53 %) have contributed to make dense structure because of the alkalis are fusion materials. For example, 50 % mixture ratio of fly ash and clay shows the compressional strength of 1,700 kg/cm{sup 2}. The higher mixture ratio of fly ash and clay, the higher compressional intensity is found in general. 2) As the result of the reaction between CaO and Na{sub 2}O compositions in the Honam fly ash, and SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in clay at the 1,200 deg. C has shown the formation of plagioclase crystal. 3) Fly ash in the Samcheonpo thermal power plants has lower contents of alkali component than the fly ash in the Honam. If the mixture ratio of fly ash is 10 % the compressional strength is found to be 600-720 kg/cm{sup 2}, that is because of the higher concentrations of uncombustible carbon in the Samcheonpo plant. The compressional intensity decreases as the fly ash contents are increased. When the ratio of mixture in the fly ash is 50 %, the compressional intensity shows 270-300 kg/cm{sup 2}. 4) Mixture experiments among PD, PC and WC grades of kaolin, the sintering has not formed in the grains at the 1,200 deg. C and the compressional strength is rather low with 60{approx}125 kg/cm{sup 2}. At the temperature of sintering is 1250 deg. C the sintering in the grains has been taken place with 210 kg/cm{sup 2}. But the temperature of 1,300 deg. C, the surface of sintering materials shows cracks. 5) The possibilities for usage of fly ash to develop the bricks with various

  5. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys

  6. High-strength reaction-sintered SiC: a new candidate material for large spaceborne telescope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Yukari Y.; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Tange, Yoshio

    2004-11-01

    The high-strength reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) developed and manufactured by Toshiba and NEC-Toshiba Space Systems, NT-SiC, is one of the most promising, excellent and feasible candidates for light-weighted large-diameter space-borne optics that are applied to geostationary earth observations and astronomical observations. Small NT-SiC sample mirrors were manufactured to study basic physical parameters and features, and optical performances of the material, such as the surface conditions of polished NT-SiC, the condition of inner crystal grains, the correlation between the surface roughness and polishing, scattering characteristics, absorbance of solar light and infrared emissivity, and adhesiveness of metal coating. The current state of the art of the development of the NT-SiC mirror and the feasibility of light-weighted large-diameter NT-SiC mirrors for space-borne optics are described. Although technical challenges to achieve the surface roughness that is applicable to ultraviolet mirrors still remain, the optical performance and the physical properties of the present NT-SiC show that it is one of the most excellent mirror material in optical-infrared wavelength region.

  7. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors, such as material qualities, construction types and soil types. In our work, we consider a broad range of parameter values in the modeling of leaching and fate. This allows distinguishing between the impacts of various road constructions, as well as sites with different soil properties. The findings of this study promote the quantitative consideration of environmental impacts of long-term leaching in Life Cycle Assessment, complementing site-specific risk

  8. cDNA library construction and isolation of genes for candidate vaccine antigens from Chrysomya bezziana (the Old World Screwworm fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Voucolo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of cDNA libraries for the isolation of genes encoding candidate antigens for use in a recombinant vaccine against Chrysomya bezziana is described. RNA was isolated and mRNA purified from first and third instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana and used in the synthesis of two cDNA libraries in the bacteriophage vector λ ZAP express®. These libraries were screened using Digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes obtained from two independent approaches. First, a homolog approach used probes designed from previously characterized peritrophic membrane genes identified from the related myiasis fly, Lucilia cuprina. Secondly, a de novo approach used amino-terminal and internal peptide sequence information derived from purified Chrysomya bezziana peritrophic membrane proteins to generate DNA probes. Three peritrophic membrane genes were identified and characterized. Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-48 was identified using the homolog approach and, Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-15 and Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-42 were identified using the de novo approach. The identification of these genes as encoding candidate antigens against Chrysomya bezziana has allowed the production of recombinant proteins for use in vaccination trials

  9. Materials of construction for civil engineering structures important to safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to provide guidance on specification of major materials to be used in construction work of civil engineering structures important to safety of nuclear facilities and to furnish approaches for their implementation

  10. Construction of a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate and its protective efficacy against fowl typhoid in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Atul A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to develop a novel, safe and immunogenic fowl typhoid (FT vaccine candidate, a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with controlled expression of the bacteriophage PhiX174 lysis gene E was constructed using pMMP99 plasmid in this study. The formation of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with tunnel formation and loss of cytoplasmic contents was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No viable cells were detectable 24 h after the induction of gene E expression by an increase in temperature from 37 °C to 42 °C. The safety and protective efficacy of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost vaccine was tested in chickens that were divided into four groups: group A (non-immunized control, group B (orally immunized, group C (subcutaneously immunized and group D (intramuscularly immunized. The birds were immunized at day 7 of age. None of the immunized animals showed any adverse reactions such as abnormal behavior, mortality, or signs of FT such as anorexia, depression, or diarrhea. These birds were subsequently challenged with a virulent Salmonella Gallinarum strain at 3 weeks post-immunization (wpi. Significant protection against the virulent challenge was observed in all immunized groups based on mortality and post-mortem lesions compared to the non-immunized control group. In addition, immunization with the Salmonella Gallinarum ghosts induced significantly high systemic IgG response in all immunized groups. Among the groups, orally-vaccinated group B showed significantly higher levels of secreted IgA. A potent antigen-specific lymphocyte activation response along with significantly increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes found in all immunized groups clearly indicate the induction of cellular immune responses. Overall, these findings suggest that the newly constructed Salmonella Gallinarum ghost appears to be a safe, highly immunogenic, and efficient non-living bacterial vaccine

  11. The material problems connected with the construction of high temperature helium-cooled loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure and very high temperature in the planned in IAE high temperature helium-cooled loop will be the input to using the new materials in this construction. In the future the advantage of experimental research will be taken in the construction of the reactor loop and of the high temperature gas cooled reactor. (author)

  12. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction; Aspekty wdrazania nowych materialow w budowie kotlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, R. [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  13. Construction and commissioning of workrooms for handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements prescribed for planning, design and construction of type II and III workrooms for handling of unsealed sources are outlined. The 'Guide Concerning Construction and Equipment of Rooms for Handling of Radioactive Materials' is explained and supplemented in part. Furthermore, problems of radiation protection organization and measuring techniques are discussed. (author)

  14. An exploration of structural material choice processes in Irish residential construction

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Maurice W

    2000-01-01

    This study is important in terms of applying organisational buying behaviour theory to structural material choice processes in the Irish residential construction sector, at a time when as the construction industry is awakening to the benefits and necessity of marketing. Structural material choice processes are explored within a framework developed from the organisational buying behaviour literature including seminal such Robinson, Ferris and Wind (1967), Webster and Wind (1972) and Sheth ...

  15. A platform for communicating construction material information between e-commerce systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen C W Kong; LI Heng; SHEN Qi-ping

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce systems for construction material procurement are becoming increasingly important in Hong Kong. These E-commerce systems are non-interoperable and create problems for the buyers who use these systems to purchase construction materials. This paper presents the mobile agent-based approach and Web serv-ices-based approach for enabling interoperation of these systems in the E-Union environment.

  16. Development of shot-clay system to construct high-quality buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the result of an experiment of shot-clay method which has been developed to construct the high-quality buffer materials in a radioactive waste disposal facility. The shot-clay method is a construction method which is conducted by shooting particle-like bentonite material with the supplied energy of high-pressured air. This paper includes a basic idea of this method, features, and results of its key experiments. (authors)

  17. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Arman Hashemi; Heather Cruickshank; Ali Cheshmehzangi

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and defo...

  18. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  19. Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected net-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma erosion and redeposition behavior of selected candidate materials for plasma-facing components in the NET-machine have been investigated using the PISCES-A facility. Materials studied include SiC-impregnated graphite, 2D graphite weaves with and without CVD- SiC coatings, and isotropic graphite. These specimens were exposed to continuous hydrogen or deuterium plasmas under the following conditions: electron temperature range from 5 to 35eV; plasma density range from 5 x 1011 to 1 x 1012 cm-3; flux range from 5 x 1017 to 2 x 1018 ions cm-2 s-1; fluence of the order from 1021 to 1022 ions/cm2; bombarding energies of 50 and 100eV; target temperature range from 300 to 1000/degree/C. The erosion yield of SiC-impregnated graphite due to deuterium plasma bombardment is found to be a factor of 2 to 3 less than that of isotropic graphite materials. A further factor of 2-3 reduction in the erosion yield is observed in when redeposition associated with reionization of sputtered particle becomes significant. From postbombardment surface analysis with AES, the surface composition in terms of the Si/C of SiC-impregnated graphite ratio is found to increase from 0.15 to 0.7 after hydrogen plasma bombardment to a fluence around 4 x 1021 ions/cm2 at 350/degree/C. However, the final surface composition appears to remain unchanged up to 4 x 1022 ions/cm2, the highest fluence in the present study. Significant surface morphological modifications of SiC-impregnated graphite are observed after the high-fluence plasma exposure. Several structural problems such as coating-substrate adhesion have been pointed out for SiC-coated 2D graphite weave. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  1. Quality control of three main materials for civil construction of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and operation of nuclear power plant is a systematic engineering. To ensure quality and safety of nuclear power plants, each work from design to operation can have certain impact on the quality and safety of the project. The quality of each related work shall be controlled. Starting from the quality control over raw materials for the civil construction of nuclear power plant, this article mainly analyzes how to control the quality and manage the three main materials of steel, concrete and modular parts in the civil construction. (author)

  2. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Byun, Thak Sang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maloy, Stuart A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-11-01

    The high resistance of cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure is one of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate such deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisted of a high-resolution video camera, light filtering unit, and monochromatic light sources, and the in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. In this study eleven (11) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., 6 FeCrAl alloys and 5 nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800°C while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys and/or for relatively thick wall specimens.

  3. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  4. Impact of phase stability on the corrosion behavior of the austenitic candidate materials for NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is responsible for the development of the waste package design to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing requirements for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The metallic container component of the waste package is required to assist in providing substantially complete containment of the waste for a period of up to 1000 years. Long term phase stability of the austenitic candidate materials (304L and 316L stainless steels and alloy 825) over this time period at moderate temperatures (100-2500C) can impact the mechanical and corrosion behavior of the metal barrier. A review of the technical literature with respect to phase stability of 304L, 316L and 825 is presented. The impact of martensitic transformations, carbide precipitation and intermediate (σ, chi, and eta) phase formation on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of these alloys at repository relevant conditions is discussed. The effect of sensitization on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of each alloy is also addressed. A summary of the impact of phase stability on the degradation of each alloy in the proposed repository environment is included. 32 refs., 6 figs

  5. Narrow gap HST welding process and its application to candidate pipe material for 700 C USC boiler component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuji [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Lab.; Mitsuhata, Koichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing steam temperature and pressure conditions of 700 C USC (Ultra Super Critical) power plants under consideration require the adoption of Ni-based alloys. One of the most crucial issues for the application of 700 C USC power plants is the establishment of welding technology for the thick-walled components. This paper reports the research results on the practicability of candidate material for the thickwalled components. The weld test was conducted on Ni-based Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr- 13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) by using the narrow gap HST (Hot wire Switching TIG) welding process developed by Babcock-Hitachi K.K with the matching filler wire of Alloy617. The weldability and strength properties of weld joint were examined. The sound weld joint was achieved. The advantages of narrow gap HST welding process for the thick-walled components of Ni-based alloy were discussed from the viewpoints of weld metal chemical composition and creep rupture strength. Due to the good shielding effect, the melting loss of alloy elements in the weld consumable during the narrow gap HST welding procedure was suppressed successfully. The narrow gap HST weld joint showed comparable strength with the parent metal. (orig.)

  6. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction. PMID:16343890

  7. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Construction Electrician, 3-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course contains materials for both classroom (and shop) instruction and independent study in the skills needed by construction electricians. It was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. Students completing the course will be able to perform apprentice duties pertaining to the installation of overhead…

  8. Model criterion and basic principles of construction bank data abrasive materials durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Вишневський

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available  The generalized model is created and the criterion of an abrasive wear of surfaces of materials is determined at not hard-mounted corpuscles. The principle of construction of a data bank of an abrasive wear resistance of materials of friction units is determined. 

  9. Materials of construction and corrosion history for a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has been operating a production-scale incineration system since 1976. Following the completion of initial testing, the system was modified over time to accept low and high caloric value liquids and slurries. Combustion testing of difficult waste forms continues for the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Army, the Navy, and private companies. Anticipation of the wide range of feed compositions prompted a selection of system materials processing satisfactory corrosion resistance. This paper presents these design considerations, the system construction materials. Description of corrosion incidents, and planned materials tests to guide future construction

  10. Law Absence and System Construction of Equal Material Assistance Rights of Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,conception of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is introduced from the aspects of equal rights,material assistance rights,and farmers’ equal material assistance rights.Value function of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is pointed out,which can eliminate the partial policies with urban priority orientation.It is a necessary condition for maintaining the legal and institutional authority,as well as an inevitable choice to realize the social justice and harmony.Current status of the law absence of farmers’ equal material assistance rights in China is introduced,which is reflected in the lack of theoretical research on farmers’ equal material assistance rights in the law circle,the lack of procedural legal system of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present,and the lack of actual law effectiveness of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present.System construction is a turning point to change the law absence of farmers’ material assistance rights.Government should promote the economic development,provide material bases for the system construction of farmers’ material assistance rights,enhance the legal consciousness of farmers,cultivate the ability of farmers to participate in equal material assistance rights,strengthen the procedural legislation and judicial justice,and ensure the farmers’ material assistance rights.

  11. Shock-treated lunar soil simulant: Preliminary assessment as a construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  12. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means...

  13. Nanotechnology : advantages and drawbacks in the field of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology seems to hold the key that allows construction and building materials to replicate the features of natural systems improved until perfection during millions of years. This paper reviews current knowledge about nanotechnology and nanomaterials used by the construction industry. It covers the nanoscale analysis of Portland cement hydration products, the use of nanoparticles to increase the strength and durability of cimentitious composites, the photocatalytic capacity of nanomate...

  14. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  15. Utilization of stabilized municipal waste combustion ash residues as construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilized municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash residues were investigated for their potential as construction material that can be beneficially used in terrestrial and marine environments. End-use products, such as patio stones, brick pavers, solid blocks, and reef units, were fabricated and tested for their engineering and chemical characteristics. engineering feasibility and environmental acceptability of using stabilized ash residues as construction material are discussed in this paper. Ash samples were collected from two mass-burn facilities and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) facility in Florida

  16. Trends in development of tribotechnological materials used in vehicle construction. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czichos, H.; Woydt, M.

    1988-05-01

    The paper gives a survey on the present state-of-technology of materials as well as on trends in material research and development as far as the following tribosystems used in automobile construction are concerned: Bearing (rolling and sliding), gear components (synchronizing ring), breakes and clutches, handle parts and engine parts (cam/follower and piston/liner). Depending on the functional task of the single tribosystem and its relevant characteristic requirement profile, the application of advanced and newly developed materials of all important material types - metal alloys, polymers, fine ceramics - can be noticed. This follows clearly from present developments in industry, which became known in public, as well as from results of laboratory research work. In part 2 the detailed analysis of the present stage of development in the application of fine ceramics in engine construction is discussed.

  17. Cost effective manufacturing processes and materials used for the construction of the Superbus

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, A; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Superbus, rendered in Figure 1, is a new concept for public transportation. It is sustainable, fast, economic, and appealing and transports passengers and goods from point to point and drives at high speed (250 km/h) on its dedicated and relatively cheap infrastructure. In this paper the material used, the cost effective tooling and manufacturing processes for the construction of the Superbus are presented. First, the materials used for the achievement of the structural design targets in ...

  18. Assessment of electrophoresis and electroosmosis in construction materials: effect of enhancing electrolytes and heavy metals contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Castellote Armero, Marta Maria; Botija, S.; Andrade Perdrix, Maria del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic effects are those that take place by application of an electric field to porous materials, with the zeta potential as the key parameter. Specifically, in the case of contaminated construction materials, the generation of an electroosmotic flux, with the corresponding dragging due to water transport, is a crucial mechanism to succeed in the treatment of decontamination. Therefore, it is of great interest trying to optimize the treatment by the addition of specific electrolytes e...

  19. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  20. Stimulating The Use Of Secondary Materials In The Construction Industry: The Role Of Certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van R.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of secondary materials in the construction industry is quite difficult and has not always been successful, even when they satisfy all necessary product demands and environmental (leaching) conditions. Besides the financial and commercial aspects the main problem is convincing the user o

  1. Radon diffusion through sandy construction materials: effect of temperature and grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion process from the point of origin, say, under ground soil and building materials used in construction of house following alpha decay of radium. The radon diffusion through different building construction materials can be compared by calculating radon diffusion coefficient for them. In the present work, we studied the effect of temperature and grain size on radon diffusion of coarse sand as construction material. The coarse sand was collected from Yamuna river bed, originated from Himalayas. For this study, a steel pipe of diameter 10 cm and length 30 cm., divided into four sectors of equal size, was filled in different sectors with different grain sized (800, 600 and 425 μm) sand as building construction material. A number LR-115 type-II particle track detectors were placed with inter-detector distance of 10 cm in the sectorial compartments. The bottom end of steel pipe assembly was fixed with a radon chamber containing radon source with upper end sealed with a cap. The whole arrangement was then placed into a sand-clay pipe wrapped around by a controlled heating filament, resulting into temperature variations from 25℃ to 60℃. After 100 days interval, the detectors were retrieved processed, and the α - tracks counted for the calculation of radon concentration. It is observed that the radon diffusion coefficient increases with the increase in temperature and decreases with decrease in grain size of the coarse sand. (author)

  2. Construction Surveying, 3-27. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This short course on construction surveying was developed from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. Students completing the course should be able to perform engineering surveys related to area and route surveying (knowledge of basic survey techniques is a prerequisite). The course is divided into…

  3. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property construction. 779.336 Section 779.336 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED...

  4. Application of aging methods to estimate long term performance of secondary materials for road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarnejad, S.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Long term performance of secondary materials is becoming a challenging aspect in road construction since due to their benefits they are being used on a large scale, but on the other hand their future behaviors are difficult to estimate. In this study, aging is proposed as a means of exploring the lo

  5. Material waste in the China construction industry: Minimization strategies and benefits of recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulala M.Z.F. Al-Hamadani, ZENG Xiao-lan, M.M.Mian, Zhongchuang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste minimization strategies and the relative importance of benefits of material waste recognition were examined using a survey of construction companies operating in Chongqing city China. The results showed that a remarkable proportion of respondent companies have specific policies for minimizing construction waste. Amongst the strategies, minimizing waste at source of origin is practiced to a large degree by construction companies with specific waste minimization strategies. However, considerable quantities of construction waste are generated. These quantities need to be reused or recycled or combination of them. The study also revealed that recycling is not highly practiced because it needs a lot of capital and an area, except for those high scrap value recycling materials like steel, whereas other non-profitable will be sent to C-and-D landfills directly. Respondents’ perceptions towards the benefits of material waste recognition revealed that materials waste is primarily considered an environmental and financial problem and its minimization a cost cutting activity and protection of the environment. In contrast, the contractual benefits were considered less important by surveyed companies.

  6. Application of TDR measurement technology for construction materials in semi-scale experiments: A practical example

    OpenAIRE

    Černý R.; Pavlík Z.

    2005-01-01

    A practical example of the application of TDR (Time-Domain Reflectometry) measurement technology for investigation of hygric performance of systems of construction materials in a semi-scale experiment is presented. An interior thermal insulation system based on mineral wool applied on a brick wall is tested for the time period of six months.

  7. Application of TDR measurement technology for construction materials in semi-scale experiments: A practical example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Černý R.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A practical example of the application of TDR (Time-Domain Reflectometry measurement technology for investigation of hygric performance of systems of construction materials in a semi-scale experiment is presented. An interior thermal insulation system based on mineral wool applied on a brick wall is tested for the time period of six months.

  8. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Analysis of Passive House with Variable Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baďurová, Silvia; Ponechal, Radoslav; Ďurica, Pavol

    2013-11-01

    The term "passive house" refers to rigorous and voluntary standards for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. There are many ways how to build a passive house successfully. These designs as well as construction techniques vary from ordinary timber constructions using packs of straw or constructions of clay. This paper aims to quantify environmental quality of external walls in a passive house, which are made of a timber frame, lightweight concrete blocks and sand-lime bricks in order to determine whether this constructional form provides improved environmental performance. Furthermore, this paper assesses potential benefit of energy savings at heating of houses in which their external walls are made of these three material alternatives. A two storey residential passive house, with floorage of 170.6 m2, was evaluated. Some measurements of air and surface temperatures were done as a calibration etalon for a method of simulation.

  9. Materials requirements for the ITER vacuum vessel and in-vessel components - approaching the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The ITER activities are fully devoted toward its construction. In accordance with the ITER integrated project schedule, the procurement specifications for the manufacturing of the Vacuum Vessel should be prepared by March 2008 and the procurement specifications for the in-vessel components (first wall/blanket, divertor) by 2009. To update the design, considering design and technology evolution, the ITER Design Review has been launched. Among the various topics being discussed are the important issues related to selection of materials, material procurement, and assessment of performance during operation. The main requirements related to materials for the vacuum vessel and the in-vessel components are summarized in the paper. The specific licensing requirements are to be followed for structural materials of pressure and nuclear pressure equipment components for construction of ITER. In addition, the procurements in ITER will be done mostly 'in-kind' and it is assumed that materials for these components will be produced by different Parties. However, in accordance with the regulatory requirements and quality requirements for operation, common specifications and the general rules to fulfill these requirements are to be adopted. For some ITER components (e.g. first wall, divertor high heat flux components), the ultimate qualification of the joining technologies (Be/Cu, SS/Cu, CFC/Cu, W/Cu) is under final evaluation. Successful accomplishment of the qualification program will allow to proceed with procurements of the components for ITER. The criteria for acceptance of these components and materials after manufacturing are described and the main results will be reported. Additional materials issues, which come from the on-going manufacturing R and D program, will be also described. Finally, further materials activity during the construction phase, needs for final qualification and acceptance of materials are discussed. (authors)

  10. Construction of a medium-sized Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: development of the optical alignment system

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, D; Humensky, B; Kaaret, P; Limon, M; Mognet, I; Peck, A; Petrashyk, A; Ribeiro, D; Rousselle, J; Stevenson, B; Vassiliev, V; Yu, P

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-size candidate telescope model features a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of a wide field-of-view with significantly improved imaging resolution as compared to the traditional Davis-Cotton optics design. Achieving this imaging resolution imposes strict alignment requirements to be accomplished by a dedicated alignment system. In this contribution we present the status of the development of the SC optical alignment system, soon to be materialized in a full-scale prototype SC medium-size telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern ...

  11. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  12. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Maha; Grimaldi, Michel; Lerch, Thomas Z.; Pando, Anne; Gigon, Agnès; Blouin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    There is no information on how organisms influence hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols and how such influence will be affected by the parent-material composition factor. In a laboratory experiment, parent materials, which were excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC), were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, but not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass, resulting in positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affected the hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  13. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.; Vonbank, R.;

    2011-01-01

    construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the......Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in...... predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 μg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials...

  14. Comparative researches concerning cleaning chosen construction materials surface layer using UV and IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents comparative research studies of cleaning out of deposits and pollution disposals on different constructional materials like; steel, cast iron, aluminium, copper by using UV and IR laser radiation of wavelength λ =1.064 μm; λ = 0.532 μm; λ = 0.355 μm and λ = 0.266 μm and also impulse laser TEA CO2 at radiation λ = 10.6 μm were used for the experiments. Achieved experimental results gave us basic information on parameters and conditions and application of each used radiation wavelength. Each kind of pollution and base material should be individually treated, selecting the length of wave and radiation energy density. Laser microtreatment allows for broad cleaning application of the surface of constructional materials as well as may be used in future during manufacturing processes as: preparation of surface for PVD technology, galvanotechnics, cleaning of the surface of machine parts etc. (author)

  15. Sulphur polymer concrete - a corrosion-resistant material for Middle East construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vroom, A.H.; Vroom, C.H. [Starcrete Technologies Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Hyne, J.B [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The Canadian development of sulphur polymer concrete (SPC) and its applications as a construction material, was described. The process for producing SPC uses a stable concentrate of polymeric sulphur (SRX polymer) to modify and stabilize additional elemental sulphur. The characteristics of sulphur-based concretes include high strength, corrosion resistance, complete resistance to salt, impermeability and fast setting. Although these concretes have shown poor durability on exposure to changing temperatures, this does not impair their usefulness in areas such as the Middle East. The raw materials for SPC include sulphur, aggregates which can be unwashed desert sand and other salt-containing aggregates, mineral fillers, and SRX polymer. The mix requires no water. Some of the applications for the material include construction block, marine structures, roads, bridges, building foundations, sewer pipes, railway ties and hazardous waste containers. 2 tabs.

  16. Utilization of ashes as construction materials in landfills; Askanvaendning i deponier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav [Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Ifwer, Karin [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Large amounts of material will be needed to cover landfill sites in Sweden and other EU states over the next ten years. It is estimated that more than one hundred million tons of material will be required in Sweden alone in order to comply with the EU Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC). Suitable natural materials to be used in landfill cover constructions are not available on site. This report summarises the present use of secondary construction material in waste management with a focus on incineration ash. Information from eleven landfill sites has been compiled and includes the practical experience of using ash as the primary material in landfill cover. Other applications of using ash on landfill sites are also discussed. According to Swedish law, a complete cover of a landfill site consists of five different layers, each having its own specific function. The permeability of the total cover should then satisfy the permeability requirements of 50 litres per square meter and year for non-hazardous waste landfill sites and 5 litres per square meter and year for those with hazardous waste. The main purpose of this report is to describe how ash is used in the different layers and discuss the advantages or disadvantages of the techniques applied. Various landfill sites have submitted information ranging from small test areas on a pilot scale to full scale application of techniques on several hectares. Each project is part of the general Vaermeforsk research program for 2003-2005, Environmentally proper use of ash. The overall results show that incineration ash is a suitable material for use in liner constructions, either alone, or mixed with sewage sludge. Data from water percolating below the liner has indicated that the liners can meet permeability requirements. Special techniques for applying the various layers have been described. It is important to have materials readily available for an area, in order to avoid long period of exposure to dry or wet weather. Some

  17. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran

  18. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead-lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety and required research and development program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeder and coolant. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between the liquid metal and the duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and tolerance to radiation-induced electrical degradation, have not yet been demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. Study on measurement and quantitative analysis of Radon-222 emitted from construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The concentrations of radon and thoron emitted from brick, tile, red clay tile, and gypsum tile were measured. ► Cement brick showed the highest levels of radon emission. ► Red clay tile showed the highest levels of thoron emission. -- Abstract: The air concentrations of radon and thoron (Rn-220) emitted to the atmosphere from 4 types of construction materials (brick, tile, red clay tile, and gypsum tile) were measured and analyzed using continuous radon monitoring equipment (RTM 1688-2). Of the four samples examined, the cement brick showed the highest levels of radon emission, whereas the red clay tile showed the highest level of thoron emission. Gypsum tile showed the lowest radon and thoron emission. The level of radon emission was estimated based on the materials required for the construction per unit area (3.3 m2) in an actual construction. The values for cement brick were highest at 10,875.0 Bq/m3 for radon and 1,508.3 Bq/m3 for thoron. The value for gypsum tile was lowest for radon (24.6 Bq/m3), whereas the value for tile was lowest for thoron (21.0 Bq/m3). This study suggests methods to examine the effects of radon and reduce the personal radiation exposure dose. Government should be active in publicizing and encouraging the use of construction materials with lower levels of radon emission.

  20. Application of Nanotechnology-Based Thermal Insulation Materials in Building Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozsaky, David

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology-based materials have previously been used by space research, pharmaceuticals and electronics, but in the last decade several nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials have appeared in building industry. Nowadays they only feature in a narrow range of practice, but they offer many potential applications. These options are unknown to most architects, who may simply be afraid of these materials owing to the incomplete and often contradictory special literature. Therefore, they are distrustful and prefer to apply the usual and conventional technologies. This article is intended to provide basic information about nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials for designers. It describes their most important material properties, functional principles, applications, and potential usage options in building construction.

  1. Road construction replaceable materials. An alternative to oil-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some time the world has been subjected enormous upheavals with regard to energy resources: on one hand there is the steep rise in the price of oil and the other energy sources whose price depends on it; on the other hand, the prospects are that during the next 25 to 30 years oil resources will become increasingly scarce, which raises the problem of its replacement. This situation obviously raises the vital question of the present and future energy needs of each country, and, consequently, what type of energy. These are not only political issues but also issues for society. How could the roads sector help to find at least partial solutions? This paper will describe a policy adopted by a private sector construction company which is determined to apply the criteria of sustainable development and green chemistry in its products. Bitumen is a derivative of oil, can it be replaced? Most of the chemical products used in roads are petrochemical in nature, can they be replaced? Turning towards vegetable resources provides one way of reducing energy dependency. The paper demonstrates how this could be done, and at what price and with what precautions. This topic inevitably involves a discussion of the criteria of life-cycle analysis and an examination of how they can be applied in a clear manner. This response from industry has already provided some excellent results, which are described in this paper. It also attempts to show how vegetable resources may provide an opportunity for both developing and developed countries. The first could produce a new energy resource and increase their standard of living. The second could be a partial solution to their energy resources problems. Roads, which provide a universal link between different peoples, may still provide a future and hope. (authors)

  2. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Joost de

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe{sup 2+} and the other rich in Fe{sup 3+}, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (T{sub CO} {proportional_to}320K) and ferro magnetism (T{sub N}{proportional_to}240 K) LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The

  3. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  4. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  5. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Four appendices are included. The first covers applications of low-temperature geothermal energy including industrial processes, agricultural and related processes, district heating and cooling, and miscellaneous. The second discusses hydrogeologic factors affecting the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells: water quality, withdrawal rate, water depth, water temperature, basic well designs, and hydrogeologic provinces. In the third appendix, properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials are described, including: specific gravity, mechanical strength properties, resistance to physical and biological attack, thermal properties of nonmetallics, fluid flow characteristics, corrosion resistance, scaling resistance, weathering resistance of nonmetallics, and hydrolysis resistance of nonmetallics. Finally, special considerations in the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells using nonmetallics materials are covered. These include; drilling methods, joining methods, methods of casing and screen installation, well cementing, and well development. (MHR)

  6. The future of construction materials research and the seventh UN Millennium. Development Goa l: a few insights

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Labrincha, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the unsustainability of the human civilization has been recognized long ago, little has ever been done to change it. During the last century, materials use increased 8-fold and as a result Humanity currently uses almost 60 billion tons (Gt) of materials per year. The construction industry alone consumes more raw materials than any other economic activity. However, research on construction materials still is excessively focused on their mechanical properties with minor con...

  7. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

    2015-01-01

    In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

  8. Influence of boron impurity in aluminium alloy construction material at criticality of RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluations of criticality benchmark cores of RB reactor are prepared in 1999-2001 for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project. It was shown that the greatest contribution to uncertainty of the calculations and experimental data for criticality arose from uncertainty of contents of boron impurity in Yugoslav produced aluminium alloy (YuAl) of reactor construction material. Study of that particular issue was carried out in recent years and the results are shown in this paper with recommendation that new value for boron concentration in the YuAl material composition has to be used in criticality calculation, based on results of experimental and calculation evaluations. (author)

  9. New Construction and Catalyst Support Materials for Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    in question are those for bipolar plates, gas diusion layers (GDLs), catalysts and catalyst supports. This work is focused on developing bipolar plate, GDL and catalyst support materials for the anode compartment of PEM electrolyzers, operating at elevated temperatures. The thesis starts with Chapter...... electrolysis. Chapter 4 reports results of testing dierent types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials for HTPEMEC. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions of high...

  10. Construction projects using alternative materials: a framework to assess their sustainability.

    OpenAIRE

    Fevre-Gautier, Anne-Lise; Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Michel, Pascale; Brullot, Sabrina; Lannou, Grégory; Stoos, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of alternative materials and local solutions for construction projects raises questions about success conditions and criteria for the economic feasibility and global sustainability of such projects. Among others, how can design conditions - especially regarding the decision process - determine their success? We will present the results of a two-years project conducted from February 2010 to March 2012 in collaboration with ADEME (French agency of environment and energy contr...

  11. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    OpenAIRE

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2016-01-01

    Problem statement: Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material a...

  12. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of = enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustai...

  13. Nondestructive indication of fatigue damage and residual lifetime in ferromagnetic construction materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, O.; Vértesy, G.; Kadlecová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2014), "065601-1"-"065601-10". ISSN 0957-0233. [International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments /11./ (ISMTII). Aachen, 01.07.2013-03.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fatigue * residual lifetime * magnetic nondestructive evaluation * ferromagnetic construction materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2014

  14. Nanosensors for embedded monitoring of construction materials: the '2D conformable' route

    OpenAIRE

    Lebental, Bérengère; GHADDAB, Boutheina; MICHELIS, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to embedded monitoring of construction materials relying on 2D, conformable architectures that are expected to be lower cost and more robust than their 3D counterparts. In this article, we present two examples: a RFID-enabled carbon nanotube strain sensor on plastic for microcrack monitoring in concrete and a nanoparticle-asphalt sandwich for weigh-in-motion applications.

  15. On a new approach to the creation of construction materials of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceleration of the recombination of vacancies and interstitial atoms upon neutron irradiation is a decisive factor of an increase in the radiation resistance of construction materials of nuclear reactors. The highest efficiency of the implementation of these processes is achieved when distortions appearing under the synergetic action of neutron radiation and short-range ordering of the crystal lattice are used as traps of vacancies and interstitial atoms

  16. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of cementless construction materials from thermal engineering wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to solve environment problems of ceramics industry new compositions of materials were developed from three types of porcelain production tails – fired wastes (FW), unfired wastes (UW) and wastewater treatment plant sludge (WTPS) – as the main raw materials of new compositions of cementless building materials. The binder material used here was lime production waste (LPW), i.e., incompletely burned lime. The uniaxial compressive strength of the new materials containing 15 wt% of LPW at one year of age increased up to 14.2 MPa and the materials with 5% LPW content increased up to 8.6 MPa, exceeding the specifications of Brazilian standards for hollow concrete blocks. The water absorption (WA) coefficient of different compositions at the age of 28 days ranged from 17.9 to 24.6%, but this does not affect the values of the water resistance coefficient (0.71–0.85). X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses indicated that the strength of the new materials increases due to the synthesis of amorphous and crystalline compounds. The feasibility of the new materials based on the use of four types of industrial wastes for the production of new building materials with high mechanical properties, which meet the requirements of national standards. - Highlights: • New construction material from three types of Porcelain industry wastes. • Lime production waste was used as binder material. • Uniaxial resistance strength at the age of one year reached 14 MPa. • Structure formation processes were determined by XRD, SEM and EDS methods. • Utilization of industrial wastes has high economical and environment efficiency

  18. Measurement of color in different construction materials. The restoration in sandstone buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pascua, N.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of construction materials and their subsequent repair purposes include a search of knowledge and preservation of their original appearance. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to determine a color range which does not change with the possible actions on a building, both when restoration works which imply the use and repair of "ancient" materials are carried out, and when construction is carried out with new materials. It is necessary to obtain the quantification of this property in order to check its variation over the passage of time. Each construction material must be taken into account as an isolated problem, since the color is different in each case.

    El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso y reparación de materiales "viejos", o bien cuando se llevan a cabo trabajos de construcción con materiales nuevos. Es necesario cuantificar dicha propiedad para poder controlar el paso del tiempo. Cada material de construcción debe ser considerado como un problema aislado, ya que el color es distinto en cada caso.

  19. The Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, John C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The Candidate is an attempt to marry elements of journalism and gaming into a format that both entertains and educates the player. The Google-AP Scholarship, a new scholarship award that is given to several journalists a year to work on projects at the threshold of technology and journalism, funded the project. The objective in this prototype version of the game is to put the player in the shoes of a congressional candidate during an off-year election, specificall...

  20. Laser welding of dissimilar materials for lightweight construction and special applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Mitja; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Against the background of climate objectives and the desired reduction of CO2-emissions, optimization of existing industrial products is needed. To counter rising raw material costs, currently used materials are substituted. This will places new requirements on joining technologies for dissimilar material classes. The main difficulty lies in joining these materials cohesively without changing the properties of the base materials. Current research work at the LZH on joining dissimilar materials is being carried out for the automotive sector and for solar absorbers. For the automotive industry, a laser welding process for joining steel and aluminum without using additives is being investigated, equipped with a spectroscopic welding depth control to increase tensile strength. With a specially constructed laser processing head, it is possible to regulate welding penetration depth in the aluminum sheet, reducing the formation of intermetallic phases. Flat plate solar collectors are favorable devices for generating heat from solar energy. The solar absorber is the central part of a collector, consisting of an aluminum sheet and a copper tube which is attached to the aluminum sheet. Research on new laser welding processes aims at reducing the amount of energy required for production of these solar absorbers. In the field of joining dissimilar materials, laser joining processes, especially for special applications, will complement established joining techniques.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degaltseva Z. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the integration development of accounting systems is the adoption of uniform valuation of building materials and structures. It is proved that the most rational combination of these types of records achieved by an adapted classification and measurement of building materials and structures to the conditions of formation of the budget for the project volume of construction works and the reflection of the actual volume of work in the financial accounting system. On the basis of the accounting policies and the organizational structure of the object of investigation of "Kubanstroykompleks" we have identified responsibility centers (sites for costs related to the material flow: Department of logistics and packaging and warehousing, which consists of a central and railroad warehouse

  2. Importance of material evaluation prior to the construction of devices for in vitro techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jessica; Halter, Beat; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2013-11-01

    The development and validation of new in vitro methods in the field of toxicology have gained more importance in recent years due to stricter guidelines for animal testing, especially in the European Union. Consequently, advances in the construction of technical devices for the exposure of cell or tissue cultures to test substances are necessary. Here, to obtain reliable results, it is important to exclusively use materials that do not interfere with the cell viability. Thus, similar to the biomaterials testing of medical devices which is regulated in the Directive 93/42/EEC, the biocompatibility of the materials has to be verified prior to the construction of such devices. We present here a novel approach for biomaterials testing which allows the quantitative and qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity of material samples. Stainless steel and silicone are often used for laboratory equipment, due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. However, our results highlight that some types of silicone may have adverse effects on cultured cells. Moreover, special methods for the surface treatment of metals may also be a critical factor for in vitro devices. Therefore, the testing of all materials coming in contact with cell cultures is highly recommended. PMID:23452617

  3. Materials-of-Construction Radiation Sensitivity for a Fission Surface Power Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Sayir, Ali; Shin, Eugene E.; Sutter, James K.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2007-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with a free-piston Stirling convertor is one of many credible approaches for producing electrical power in space applications. This study assumes dual-opposed free-piston Stirling engines/linear alternators that will operate nominally at 825 K hot-end and 425 K cold-end temperatures. The baseline design options, temperature profiles, and materials of construction discussed here are based on historical designs as well as modern convertors operating at lower power levels. This notional design indicates convertors primarily made of metallic components that experience minimal change in mechanical properties for fast neutron fluences less than 10(sup 20) neutrons per square centimeter. However, these radiation effects can impact the magnetic and electrical properties of metals at much lower fluences than are crucial for mechanical property integrity. Moreover, a variety of polymeric materials are also used in common free-piston Stirling designs for bonding, seals, lubrication, insulation and others. Polymers can be affected adversely by radiation doses as low as 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 10) rad. Additionally, the absorbing dose rate, radiation hardness, and the resulting effect (either hardening or softening) varies depending on the nature of the particular polymer. The classes of polymers currently used in convertor fabrication are discussed along possible substitution options. Thus, the materials of construction of prototypic Stirling convertor engines have been considered and the component materials susceptible to damage at the lowest neutron fluences have been identified.

  4. Behaviour of materials of construction of equipment for sea water service at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) has two power generating units each of which requires 855,000 litres of cooling water per minute from the sea for cooling the condensers and the auxiliary equipment. The Circulatory Water System (CWS) is for the condensers and the Salt Service Water System (SSWS) is for the auxiliary equipment. Behaviour of various materials of construction used in these two sea water systems, CWS and SSWS, during the first ten years of operation since the commissioning of TAPS in 1969 is discussed in detail. The details of construction materials used for the various components of pumps, heat exchangers and condensers, piping and valves of CWS and SSWS are given. Data on quality of sea water available for cooling are also given. It has been observed that the corrosive effects of sea water on materials varies considerably depending upon the location. These effects necessitated certain changes in the system design and materials. These changes are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  5. Spanish experiences with marginal and special materials on the construction of road embankments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of existing materials along the alignment of a road is an essential problem within the Sustainable Development policies, which is being promoting worldwide since a long time. In the Word road Association (PIARC-AIPCR) this subject has being investigated by different Technical Committees during last decades. Additionally, the review of the article 330 Embankment of PG-3 (FOM 1382/2002) has opened the door to new non-conventional materials, as wastes and artificial materials, to be used on embankments. This could come to adequate solutions, technically, and environmentally, contributing with national legislation on valorisation policies. In this sense, the use of marginal materials and wastes con represent and important save on natural resources and dumping sites. In Spain, some experiences with marginal materials and wastes have being carried out. The work presented has consisted in compiling and analysing the experiences executed with marginal materials and wastes on Spanish road embankments. Although there are many other cases, 24 cases published with adequate information have being analysed, summarising aspects as: materials problems arrangement solutions or treatments employed. Analysing these experiences and making them public can be a way to transmit confidence, help to improve knowledge, and progress on the preparation of recommendations. This work has being carried out on the frame of the Project Geotechnical Engineering, Materials and Structures and Impact of Infrastructure in Civil engineering (TTIGEM), within the frame Program Border Cooperation Spain-External Borders (POCTEFEX); particularly in the Activity 2 related to Technology Transfer of Construction Materials, including marginal materials and wastes. (Author)

  6. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  7. Quantitative mineralogy and preliminary pore-water chemistry of candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative mineralogy of seven candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is presented. Two of the materials were coarse grained: one a blended very pure silica sand, and the other a crushed plagioclase-rich granite or granodiorite. Five materials were fine-grained soils containing abundant clay minerals. Of these, three were fairly pure, Cretaceous, ash-derived bentonites that contained up to 3 percent of soluble sulphates; one was a freshwater glacial clay containing 59 percent interlayered smectite-illite; and one was a crushed Paleozoic shale containing abundant illite and chlorite. The adsorbed cation regimes and the pore-water chemistry of the clays are discussed

  8. An Overview of the Use of Absolute Dating Techniques in Ancient Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the chronology of historical buildings is a tricky issue, as usually there are not historical documents that allow the assessment of construction phases, and some materials are hardly reliable for the use of dating techniques (e.g., stone. However, in the last two decades, important advances on the use of absolute dating methods on building materials have increased the possibilities of reconstructing building chronologies, although some advances are still scarcely known among archaeologists and architects. Recent studies performed on several kinds of mortars, fired bricks, mud-bricks, and even stone surfaces have shown that it is possible to date them. Both radiocarbon and luminescence dating have been the most frequently used techniques but others such as archaeomagnetism can also be used in some cases. This paper intends to give an overview of the recent achievements on the use of absolute dating techniques for building materials.

  9. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Edward T Mee; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; ,; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtai...

  10. The quality of Muntilan sand (Central Java) as construction material, a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endroyo, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    Muntilan sand is a volcanic sand generated by the volcanic activities of Mount Merapi which excavated from Muntilan district. Mount Merapi located at Central Java, Indonesia, is still active until now and erupts almost every 5-10 years. It's eruptions produced the form of lava which later get cold, perched around the peak, and forming lava domes. Furthermore, a part of lava dome avalanches will be slide down through the rivers on the the foot of the mountain. One of several districts which have rivers that containing volcanic materials is Muntilan. Muntilan sand has been used widely as a construction material. The prospects of thiruses were very good and may not be substituted by the other local sand. As a construction material, Muntilan sand must fulfill technical standard (durability number, fineness modulus, unit weight, silt content, organic content, and chemical content). But as a nature material, Muntilan sands also are influenced by circumstance of the environment. The research was conducted to describe the quality of Muntilan sand in a long term (the past until future). The method used was descriptive in longitudinal study and also a meta analysis. The result may useful for contractors and consultants (local, national and international/foreign) which will get a several projects in Central Java. The research conclusions are: (1) Until several years which will come, Muntilan sand was suitable for the construction works,(2) The durability, fineness modulus, unit weight, silt content, and organic content was in a constant rate, and have tend to increase for future, and (3) The chemical content was not in constant rate but varies in long term.

  11. Cost effective heat exchanger network design with mixed materials of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a simple methodology for cost estimation of a near optimal heat exchanger network, which comprises mixed materials of construction. In traditional pinch technology and mathematical programming it is usually assumed that all heat exchangers in a network obey a single cost model. This implies that all heat exchangers in a network are of the same type and use the same materials of construction (an assumption that is unwarranted). The method introduced in this article enables the designer to decomposes the total cost of a heat exchanger into two elements, namely cost of the tubes and cost of the shell, thereby predict a more reliable cost for the network. By subsequent use of the binary variables and evaluation of the physical conditions of the streams, one can assign the streams to pass either through shell or tubes. Whereby, shell and tubes can be of different materials and therefore different cost models can be applied. Another advantage of the approach is that the pressure drop in each side of the exchanger (shell or tubes) can be assessed leading to more accurate evaluation of corresponding heat transfer coefficient for each individual stream. Finally an objective function (total cost) can be defined based on mixed materials of construction and different values of heat transfer coefficients. The proposed model has been utilized in three different case studies and the results are compared with those of a commercially available software (Super Target). The comparison shows reductions of more than 17% and 14% in total annual costs in the two cases, and 2.5% reduction in third, confirming the fact that more accurate evaluation of heat transfer coefficient for each individual stream can lead to better network design

  12. THE COMPLEX USE OF LOCAL TYPES OF FUEL IN THE POROUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  13. Construction & characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials for applications in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikhil

    The use of soft matter to direct the organization of hard materials into functional geometries has been a paradigm inspired by nature. Polymer based systems can be engineered to reproducibly adopt nano-scale architectures. Designing interactions between such polymer templates and inorganic nanoparticles gives rise to nano-scale hybrid materials that may be deployable in applications ranging from magnetism to optoelectronics and lasing. In particular, hybrid one dimensional nanostructures exhibit a strong anisotropy in their physical properties. This anisotropy may be utilized for applications that require a directional transfer of signals or an orientation dependent physical response. The construction of one dimensional nanoparticle arrays via polymer based templates is detailed. Nano-scale arrays have been created using self-assembling peptide templates. Peptides adopt secondary and higher order hierarchical conformations in solution. The ability to engineer different types of functionality at precise locations in the assembled architecture presents possibilities of patterning matter at length scales inaccessible by lithographic techniques. Micro-scale particle arrays have been constructed via electrospinning, an electric-field assisted solution spinning technique. Correlations between the structural morphology and the optical behavior of these polymer-particle hybrid arrays have been investigated. Magnetic nanoparticle arrays displaying orientation dependent magnetic behavior have been constructed by coaxial electrospinning.

  14. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  15. Feasibility for the use of coal tar as a new material for road surfaces (pavement) construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Farfán, M. A.; Murillo Vega, H. E.; Trujillo Pinto, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stabilization products often used to improve the support of granular layers in the construction of road surfaces may be expensive and difficult to get. Therefore, it is necessary to test different materials, which are cheap and easy to obtain, and which will enhance the physical and mechanical properties of pavement layers. This document evaluates the use of coal tar, as a stabilizer for granular subbase. Initially, with a description of tar properties, determining the optimal conditions for the granular subbase material compaction, by means of modified proctor tests and the calculation of the resistance of the unaltered material by using CBR lab tests (California Bearing Ratio). Afterwards, with the design and development of granular material mixes with different percentages of coal tar and determining its CBR as comparative parameter with that of the unaltered material. Finally, by calculating the optimal coal tar percentage in order to stabilize the subbase granular, the results showed an improvement in the resistance of the granular material and a decrease in its expansion due to the use of coal tar.

  16. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M. [South China Agricultural University, Guangdong (China)

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  17. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  18. ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF CONSTRUCTION OF A BIODIESEL MICRO PLANT USING SCRAP MATERIAL AND RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARA FERNANDES MARTINS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, which comes from renewable source, is suitable for usage in engines of internal combustion through ignition or compression or even to generate other king of energy such as electrical generators for instance when totally or partially substituting all fossil origin sources. Currently in Brazil there are few companies which have technological knowledge for developing and building bioldiesel plants and most of them have great production capacity and high value what makes them inaccessible for small producers, settlements and researchers. This paper aims at evaluating economical viability for constructing a micro biodiesel plant projected in a hypothetical scenario (according to Resolution 25 of Sept, 2, 2008 of ANP – National Petroleum Agency, producers are not authorized to sell their production directly to third, using scrap material and/or recycling, projecting costs for material purchasing, manpower, and raw material as well as defining balance production, return rate and payback. Within established conditions the construction of the micro plant showed viability of monthly balance of 1757 liters, monthly income of R$ 4.269,51 and monthly rentability of 3,39%, profit of 4,62% and payback of 2 to 6 years.

  19. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon gas (222Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm-3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm-3, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm-3. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm-3

  20. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  1. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, M.; Grimaldi, M.; Lerch, T. Z.; Pando, A.; Gigon, A.; Blouin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed Technosols provide an opportunity to recycle urban waste, and are an alternative to the uptake of topsoil from the countryside. Despite potential problems of erosion, compaction or water holding capacity, their physical properties and the resulting water regulation services are poorly documented. In a laboratory experiment, excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC) were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass and the resulting positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials thus positively affected the hydro-structural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  2. Measurement of the thermal conductivity from construction materials; Medicion de conductividad termica de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Cortes, Leonel; Xaman Villasenor, Jesus P; Chavez Chena, Yvonne [CENIDET: Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to improve the calculation of thermal loads that allows to model the thermal behavior of constructions with aims of energy saving, it is necessary to count on the thermophysical properties of the materials used in the construction industry. Nevertheless at present in Mexico do not exist reported data of the materials that are made and used in our country, reason why it is chosen to take the results reported in the literature, whose values in their majority do not correspond to Mexican materials. In order to cover this necessity, at the CENIDET an instrument was developed to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating and construction materials. To date they have come with studies of different materials, which are provided by the manufacturers, with the intention of obtaining real data of thermal conductivity and to apply them with whole confidence in simulations of calculations of thermal loads. In this paper the results of measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two different materials from construction are presented, pumice stone block and block of tezontle (a porous volcanic rock).The measurement was made with an absolute and primary instrument according to norm ANSI/ASTM C-177-97. The operation principle of the apparatus is based on the technique of heat transference by conduction in permanent state between two plates, the experiment is carried out using an apparatus of hot plate with guard (APCG). Given the geographic zone where the studied materials are to be used, it is concluded that the obtained results show better properties for both with respect to reported values of similar materials, by virtue that these materials are intended to be applied in a humid climate as it is in the state of Puebla, Mexico. [Spanish] Para mejorar el calculo de cargas termicas que permita modelar el comportamiento termico de edificaciones con fines de ahorro de energia, es necesario contar con las propiedades termofisicas de los materiales utilizados

  3. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg-1, respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  4. The introduction of teaching innovations into the traditional teaching of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Pozo, Encarnación; Gálvez Ruíz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The traditional teaching methods used for training civil engineers are currently being called into question as a result of the new knowledge and skills now required by the labor market. In addition, the European Higher Education Area is requesting that students be given a greater say in their learning. In the subject called Construction and Building Materials at the Civil Engineering School of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, a path was set three academic years ago to lead to an improve...

  5. Quality and safety of construction materials; Calidad y seguridad de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodulfo Zabala, L.

    2015-07-01

    CEPCO represents 20 industrial sectors, which take charge of construction materials production, and whose expectations of European and Spanish legislation observance (specially the articles related to quality, security and environmental respect) reach a very high level. This performance is equally taken to their internal competitiveness and to their huge international enlargement produced on the recent years. In addition to this principle, the Confederation includes its own this principle, the Confederation includes its own doctrine of trying to consolidate important heights of quality related to the evolution of the product trough I+D+i. (Author)

  6. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  7. The LDCE Particle Impact Experiment as flown on STS-46. [limited duration space environment candidate materials exposure (LDCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Carl R.; Tanner, William G.; Borg, Janet; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Alexander, W. Merle; Maag, Andrew J.

    1992-01-01

    Many materials and techniques have been developed by the authors to sample the flux of particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Though regular in-site sampling of the flux in LEO the materials and techniques have produced data which compliment the data now being amassed by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) research activities. Orbital debris models have not been able to describe the flux of particles with d sub p less than or = 0.05 cm, because of the lack of data. Even though LDEF will provide a much needed baseline flux measurement, the continuous monitoring of micron and sub-micron size particles must be carried out. A flight experiment was conducted on the Space Shuttle as part of the LDCE payload to develop an understanding of the Spatial Density (concentration) as a function of size (mass) for particle sizes 1 x 10(exp 6) cm and larger. In addition to the enumeration of particle impacts, it is the intent of the experiment that hypervelocity particles be captured and returned intact. Measurements will be performed post flight to determine the flux density, diameters, and subsequent effects on various optical, thermal control and structural materials. In addition to these principal measurements, the Particle Impact Experiment (PIE) also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g., thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen, etc. The experiment will measure the optical property changes of mirrors and will provide the fluence of the ambient atomic oxygen environment to other payload experimenters. In order to augment the amount of material returned in a form which can be analyzed, the survivability of the experiment as well as the captured particles will be assessed. Using Sandia National Laboratory's hydrodynamic computer code CTH, hypervelocity impacts on the materials which comprise the experiments have been investigated and the progress of these studies are reported.

  8. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Mačková, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  9. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  10. Alternate materials of construction for geothermal applications. Progress report No. 19, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A program to develop nonmetallic materials for use in geothermal processes is described. To date, several high temperature polymer and polymer concrete systems were formulated, laboratory and field tests were performed in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F), and economic studies were started. Laboratory data for exposure times > 2 years are available. Results are also available from field exposures of up to 24 months in five geothermal environments. Good durability is indicated. Testing at two of these sites is continuing and plan to initiate tests at other sites are being implemented. Construction of full-scale pipe sections by a commercial firm has started. Work has also been started to develop materials for use in high temperature seals for well drilling, logging and energy extraction processes.

  11. Natural radioactivity in phosphogypsum and radiological impact assessment for its utilization in building construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the natural radioactivity levels in phosphogypsum, brick blocks and calcium carbonate, produced from phosphogypsum. 226Ra levels in phosphogypsum, bricks and calcium carbonate were ranging 343 to 1258 Bq/kg, 629 to 1080 Bq/kg and 515 to 815 Bq/kg respectively. Activity of 228Ra were about 10% of 226Ra, while 228Th activity in the samples was about 10% of 226Ra. 40K and 238U levels were in most of the samples were lower than the minimum detection limit of the gamma ray spectrometer. The dose rates have been also evaluated inside a room constructed by using brick blocks and cement produced from phosphogypsum. The assessed increment in external dose rate inside a 5 m x 4 m x 2.8 m room constructed by the phosphogypsum based materials was between 164 to 211 nSv/h with respect to the estimated levels when the room was constructed with clay bricks and natural gypsum based cement. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  12. Monitoring of concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs, drinking water and construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foodstuff, drinking water and construction materials are the most important sources of exposure except for indoor radon. Monitoring of radioactivity in these bodies are performed in Lithuania with the aim of determination of exposure and comparison of levels of activity in samples taken in vicinity of Ignalina NPP and other areas. Concentrations of man-made radionuclides in main foodstuffs (potatoes, milk, meat, cereals, leafy vegetables, fish) and mushrooms are controlled. The mean total annual effective dose due to 90Sr, 137Cs and 40K in foodstuff is 0.19 mSv. 40K is responsible for 99% of this dose. Conservative estimation of dose due to 137Cs in wild mushrooms gives 0.085 mSv of annual effective dose. No differences between concentrations of man-made radionuclides in foodstuff taken in Ignalina NPP 50 km area and foodstuff taken in other locations of Lithuania are detected. No samples with concentrations of man-made radionuclide 137Cs higher than permitted limits taken from foodstuff for import or for export were detected in 2001. Construction materials with activity indexes close or higher than 1 are identified

  13. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Riahi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff'sbases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  14. Radiometric analysis of construction materials using HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M U; Jojo, P J; Kassim, H A; Amin, Y M

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of primordial radionuclides in common construction materials collected from the south-west coastal region of India were determined using a high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. Average specific activities (Bq kg(-1)) for (238)U((226)Ra) in cement, brick, soil and stone samples were obtained as 54 ± 13, 21 ± 4, 50 ± 12 and 46 ± 8, respectively. Respective values of (232)Th were obtained as 65 ± 10, 21 ± 3, 58 ± 10 and 57 ± 12. Concentrations of (40)K radionuclide in cement, brick, soil and stone samples were found to be 440 ± 91, 290 ± 20, 380 ± 61 and 432 ± 64, respectively. To evaluate the radiological hazards, radium equivalent activity, various hazard indices, absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose have been calculated, and compared with the literature values. Obtained data could be used as reference information to assess any radiological contamination due to construction materials in future. PMID:22887119

  15. Long term integrity of spent fuel and construction materials for dry storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, two dry storage facilities at reactor sites have already been operating since 1995 and 2002, respectively. Additionally, a large scale dry storage facility away from reactor sites is under safety examination for license near the coast and desired to start its operation in 2010. Its final storage capacity is 5,000tU. It is therefore necessary to obtain and evaluate the related data on integrity of spent fuels loaded into and construction materials of casks during long term dry storage. The objectives are: - Spent fuel rod: To evaluate hydrogen migration along axial fuel direction on irradiated claddings stored for twenty years in air; To evaluate pellet oxidation behaviour for high burn-up UO2 fuels; - Construction materials for dry storage facilities: To evaluate long term reliability of welded stainless steel canister under stress corrosion cracking (SCC) environment; To evaluate long term integrity of concrete cask under carbonation and salt attack environment; To evaluate integrity of sealability of metal gasket under long term storage and short term accidental impact force.

  16. Well-constructed silicon-based materials as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Lyu, Jing; Li, Tiehu; Zhao, Tingkai

    2015-12-01

    Silicon has been considered as one of the most promising anode material alternates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, because of its high theoretical capacity, environmental friendliness, high safety, low cost, etc. Nevertheless, silicon-based anode materials (especially bulk silicon) suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from their low intrinsic electrical conductivity and great volume variation during lithiation/delithiation processes. To address this challenge, a few special constructions from nanostructures to anchored, flexible, sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures, have been well designed and fabricated to effectively improve the cycling performance of silicon-based anodes. In view of the fast development of silicon-based anode materials, we summarize their recent progress in structural design principles, preparation methods, morphological characteristics and electrochemical performance by highlighting the material structure. We also point out the associated problems and challenges faced by these anodes and introduce some feasible strategies to further boost their electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we give a few suggestions relating to the developing trends to better mature their practical applications in next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  18. Well-constructed silicon-based materials as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Lyu, Jing; Li, Tiehu; Zhao, Tingkai

    2016-01-14

    Silicon has been considered as one of the most promising anode material alternates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, because of its high theoretical capacity, environmental friendliness, high safety, low cost, etc. Nevertheless, silicon-based anode materials (especially bulk silicon) suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from their low intrinsic electrical conductivity and great volume variation during lithiation/delithiation processes. To address this challenge, a few special constructions from nanostructures to anchored, flexible, sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures, have been well designed and fabricated to effectively improve the cycling performance of silicon-based anodes. In view of the fast development of silicon-based anode materials, we summarize their recent progress in structural design principles, preparation methods, morphological characteristics and electrochemical performance by highlighting the material structure. We also point out the associated problems and challenges faced by these anodes and introduce some feasible strategies to further boost their electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we give a few suggestions relating to the developing trends to better mature their practical applications in next-generation lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26666682

  19. AMS method for depth profiling of trace elements concentration in materials - Construction and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2015-10-01

    The need to investigate the behavior of solid state materials on the impact/retention/repulsion/contamination/impregnation with special trace elements or radioactive elements has driven us to develop a modified Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analyzing method that is able to perform the measurement of the concentration depth profile of an element in a host material. This upgraded method that we call AMS-depth profiling method (AMS-DP) measures continuously the concentration of a trace element in a given sample material as a function of the depth from the surface (e.g., tritium in carbon, deuterium in tungsten, etc.). However, in order to perform depth profiling, common AMS facilities have to undergo several changes: a new replaceable sample target-holder has to be constructed to accept small plates of solid material as samples; their position has to be adjusted in the focus point of the sputter beam; crater rim effects of the produced hole in the sample have to be avoided or removed from the registered events in the detector; suitable reference samples have to be prepared and used for calibration. All procedures are presented in the paper together with several applications.

  20. ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS AS A SUBSOIL AND MATERIAL FOR BASIC HYDRO-TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Wierzbicki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of geotechnical parameters of the alluvial deposit (the areas of the Vistula and Warta river valleys with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (cone penetration test and DMT (flat dilatometer test methods, as well as by the vane test (VT. The article includes the analysis of overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 4 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne’s formula (1995 was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefulness of the alluvial deposit as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterized by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition. On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  1. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  2. Materials for Fusion Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  3. ACCELERATED CARBONATION OF STEEL SLAG COMPACTS: DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke eQuaghebeur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral carbonation involves the capture and storage of carbon dioxide in carbonate minerals. Mineral carbonation presents opportunities for the recycling of steel slags and other alkaline residues that are currently landfilled. The Carbstone process was initially developed to transform non-hydraulic steel slags (stainless steel slag and basic oxygen furnace slags in high quality construction materials. The process makes use of accelerated mineral carbonation by treating different types of steel slags with CO2 at elevated pressure (up to 2 MPa and temperatures (20 to 140°C. For stainless steel slags raising the temperature from 20 to 140°C had a positive effect on the CO2 uptake, strength development and the environmental properties (i.e. leaching of Cr and Mo of the carbonated slag compacts. For BOF slags raising the temperature was not beneficial for the carbonation process. Elevated CO2 pressure and CO2 concentration of the feed gas had a positive effect on the CO2 uptake and strength development for both types of steel slags. In addition also the compaction force had a positive effect on the strength development. The carbonates that are produced in-situ during the carbonation reaction act as a binder, cementing the slag particles together. The carbonated compacts (Carbstones have technical properties that are equivalent to conventional concrete products. An additional advantage is that the carbonated materials sequester 100 to 150 g CO2/kg slag. The technology was developed on lab scale by optimisation of process parameters with regard to compressive strength development, CO2 uptake and environmental properties of the carbonated construction materials. The Carbstone technology was validated using (semi-industrial equipment and process conditions.

  4. Experimental studies on interactions of molten LiF-NaF salt with some candidate structural materials for components of advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of molten 60 LiF - 40 NaF (% mol) salt with candidate structural materials for components of advanced nuclear reactors has been studied using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The corrosion of structural materials (stainless steel, Ni base alloy, nickel), which was induced by the molten salt melt, has been examined in dependence on the time of exposure at operating temperature of 680 deg C. The above choice of the two analytical techniques made it possible to assess on the whole the extent of corrosion. The corrosion phenomena in structural materials were investigated using EPMA. Corrosion-released elements dissolved in solidified molten salt were determined after salt dissolution by means of ICP-OES. The LiF-NaF melt produced corrosion, which proved as a surficial modification of a structural material and a trace contamination of the melt itself. The X-ray maps by EPMA with its 1-μm lateral resolution revealed compositional changes in structural materials, such as, e. g. regular depletion of Cr in alloy A686 to the depth of 10 - 25 μm. While the lateral resolution of LA-ICP-MS with the applied laser spot diameter of 25 μm was not exactly adequate to mapping of the corroded material section and, consequently, yielded less information in comparison with EPMA, this technique was quite sufficient for the mapping of elemental content changes in solidified salt profile. Finally, nickel was proved to be the most resistant material. It was concluded that: (i) EPMA study, involving semi-quantitative elemental mapping / content profiling and detailed spot quantitative analyses makes it possible to obtain quantitative assessment of the corrosion process; (ii) qualitative profiles are provided by LA-ICP-MS, which needs further development on quantification procedure based on matched calibration samples. (author)

  5. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Spišáková Marcela; Mačková Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using...

  6. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute α grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase (α and β) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase α and near-α (Ti Gr 12) alloys

  7. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  8. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  9. Synthesis of Narrow Molecular Weight Distribution Norbornene-Lactone Functionalized Polymers by Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization: Candidates for 193-nm Photoresist Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Jun Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One hundred ninety three-nanometer candidate photoresist materials were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP. Statistical copolymerizations of 5-methacryloyloxy-2,6-norboranecarbolactone (NLAM with 5–10 mol% of controlling co-monomers (which are necessary for controlled polymerizations of methacrylates by NMP with the initiator used in the feed, such as styrene (ST, p-acetoxystyrene (AcOST, 2-vinyl naphthalene (VN and pentafluorostyrene (PFS, using the unimolecular BlocBuilder® initiator in 35 wt% dioxane solution at 90 °C were performed. As little as 5 mol% controlling comonomer in the feed was demonstrated to be sufficient to lead to linear evolution of number average molecular weight  with respect to conversion up to 50%, and the resulting copolymers had dispersities  of ~1.3 in most cases, an attractive feature for reducing line width roughness (LWR in photoresists. The copolymers generally showed relatively low absorbance at 193 nm, comparable to other 193-nm candidate photoresists reported previously, despite the inclusion of a small amount of the styrenic co-monomers in the copolymer.

  10. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rabiega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  11. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed. PMID:27020344

  12. Validation of induced radioactivity calculations for candidate fusion materials through measurements in a graphite-centered assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced radioactivity measurements were carried out jointly by the USA and Japan in a graphite-centered assembly, in the framework of ITER Task T-218 entitled 'Shielding Blanket Neutronics Experiments'. An intense, accelerator-based D-T rotating target neutron source JAERI, with a nominal intensity of 5 x 1012 s-1, was used. Two locations, providing different neutron energy spectra, were chosen for irradiating samples of a range of materials of interest to ITER. Three independent experimental campaigns were conducted so as to accommodate a large number of samples, on one hand, and as many short and long half-life products as possible, on the other. The total neutron fluence ranged from 4.7 x 1011 to 1.5 x 1014 n cm-2. Altogether, samples of Mg, Al, SiO2, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, FH82 steel, SS316LN steel (ITER grade), Cu, Zn, KCl, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, ln, Sn, Dy, Ta, Hf, Re, Au, Ir, and Pb were irradiated. The irradiated samples were cooled for variable periods ranging from 30 s to 250 days before their decay gamma-ray spectra were counted on high purity intrinsic germanium detectors. The half lives of the observed radioisotopes have ranged from 18.7 s (46mSc from Ti) to 5.3 years (60Co from Ni). The neutron energy spectra for the two locations were calculated using Monte Carlo code MCNP with FENDL-1 and ENDF/B-VI data libraries. The analysis of isotopic activities, expressed in Bq cc-1, of the irradiated materials has been carried out using REAC-3 radioactivity code, with FENDL-2A and FENDL-1A activation cross-section and decay data libraries. Typically, C/E lies in a band of 0.5-1.5 for the results being reported. (orig.)

  13. Validation of a liquid chromatographic method for determination of related substances in a candidate certified reference material of captopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the validation of a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method (RP-HPLC with diode array detection (DAD for determination of related substances (impurities from organic synthesis and degradation products of captopril according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia IV. The aim of this study was to guarantee the method accuracy for quantification of related substances, an essential requisite to determine, using the mass balance approach, the captopril content in the first Brazilian certified reference material (CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, developed by Inmetro. The captopril instability in solution is discussed and the captopril content determined by mass balance is compared to the results from titration and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.Este artigo descreve a validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em fase reversa (CLAE-RP com detector de fotodiodos (DAD para determinação de substâncias relacionadas (impurezas orgânicas de síntese e produtos de degradação de captopril segundo Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Este estudo teve como objetivo garantir que o método é capaz de quantificar com exatidão o teor de substâncias relacionadas, um requisito essencial para que o teor de captopril seja determinado por balanço de massa no primeiro material de referência certificado (MRC de fármacos brasileiro, o qual foi desenvolvido pelo Inmetro. A instabilidade do captopril em solução é discutida em detalhes e o teor de captopril determinado por balanço de massa é comparado com aqueles obtidos por titulação e por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC.

  14. Assessment of homogeneity of candidate reference material at the nanogram level and investigation on representativeness of single particle analysis using electron probe X ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate samples of a candidate reference material are evaluated on their homogeneity from bottle to bottle using electron probe X ray microanalysis technique. The evaluation on the homogeneity is done by the utilization of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics to the processing of the quantitative electron probe X ray microanalysis data. Due to a limitation, existing even in computer controlled electron probe X ray microanalysis, in terms of analysis time and expenses, the number of particles analyzed is much smaller compared to that in the sample. Therefore, it is investigated whether this technique provides representative analysis results for the characteristics of the sample, even though a very small portion of the sample is really analyzed. Furthermore, the required number of particles for the analysis, to insure a certain level of reproducibility, e.g. 5% relative standard deviation, is determined by the application of the Ingamells sampling theory. (author)

  15. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on selection of a proper material for construction elements of water electrolysers, which make use of a 85% phosphoric acid as an electrolyte at temperature of 150 8C and which might be loaded with anodic polarization up to 2.5 V versus a saturated Ag/AgCl electrode (SSCE......% phosphoric acid at 150 8C and at polarization of 2.5 V/SSCE is tantalum. In that case, even a gentle cathodic polarization is harmful in such an acidic environment. Hydrogen reduction leads to tantalum hydride formation, to loss of mechanical properties and to complete disintegration of the metal. Contrary...... to tantalum, titanium is free of any corrosion resistance in hot phosphoric acid. Its corrosion rate ranges from tens of millimetres to metres per year depending on temperature of the acid. Alloy bonded tantalum coating was recognized as an effective corrosion protection for both titanium and stainless steel...

  16. Application of Idealized Materials Data for Calculation of Fire Exposed Concrete Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    The author has developed a system of methods for calculation of the load bearing capacity of concrete constructions at any time of any fully developed fire including the time of maximum temperature of a standard fire as a special case. The methods have been derived based on materials data from 180...... these data can be applied for deriving reduced cross sections and for calculating the anchorage capacity of reinforcing bars. The paper does not intent to be a full reference for the methods, but to introduce the basis of them, indicating sources of further information and discussing the differences...... test series from the literature and test series of 300 specimens made by the author and heated slowly in traditional ovens or rapidly by means of microwave power. Furthermore the methods have been compared to a great number of full-scale tests including 50 column tests and additional tests of slabs and...

  17. Fly ash utilization in constructions-materials production - on the basis of Polish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatymowicz, H.

    1984-06-01

    Fossil-fueled power plants in India produce 600,000 tons of fly ash a year that takes up 6 hectares of land for storage. Poland uses its fly ash to make low-strength construction materials, with most going into the production of autoclaved cellular concrete. They further reduce the costs of storage and dumping by locating cellular concrete plants close to power stations to take advantage of direct pneumatic transport and the waste steam from the plant, which is used for processing the concrete. The author describes Poland's production techniques and the physical characteristics of the product. A note at the beginning of the article states that India's Ministry of Energy sees no present market demand for fly ash from the New Delhi plant, but suggests its use for soil improvement as an alternative. 3 tables.

  18. Physical properties and hydrological response of green roof substrates based on recycled construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Hayas, Antonio; Jiménez-Quiñones, Daniel; Peña, Adolfo; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs in urban areas improve the building's energy efficiency and provide a wide array of additional environmental benefits. Characterizing and predicting the physical properties and hydrological response of green roofs is necessary to understand the roof's heat balance, which is controlled to a large extent by the substrate's water content, to predict the runoff response and functioning as a part of sustainable urban drainage systems and to plan irrigation of the plants in drier climates. This study examines 10 different extensive green roof substrates, based on recycled construction materials. Green roof simulation decks were installed in boxes of 0,6 m x 0,4 m to a depth of 70 mm, 10 with and 10 without plants. Total water holding capacity of the substrates varied between 10,4 - 23,9 %, with an additional 19 % retained by the drainage layer and geotextiles used in the simulation deck. An important compaction of 30 % on average was observed after 1,5 months. Final bulk densities are between 1457 - 1993 kg m-3. In an evaporation experiment, it was shown that the water evaporated from the green roofs is controlled mainly by the relative moisture content. Substrate properties exerted only a secondary control, with the lowest evaporation rates from the substrates with highest coarse crushed aggregate content and with the highest clay content. The evaporation model proposed here was shown to work well to simulate the evolution of the water balance and therefore the specific unit weight over longer time periods in all substrates, with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.989. Finally, plants were found to grow satisfactorily in all substrates. Therefore, when regular irrigation is provided, it was concluded that green roofs based on recycled construction materials are a viable option. Future research will have to explore the long-term plant dynamics under water-limited conditions.

  19. Advanced construction materials for thermo-chemical hydrogen production from VHTR process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (very) high temperature reactor concept ((V)HTR) is characterized by its potential for process heat applications. The production of hydrogen by means of thermo-chemical cycles is an appealing example, since it is more efficient than electrolysis due to the direct use of process heat. The sulfur-iodine cycle is one of the best studied processes for the production of hydrogen, and solar or nuclear energy can be used as a heating source for the high temperature reaction of this process. The chemical reactions involved in the cycle are: I2 (l) + SO2 (g) +2 H2O (l) → 2HI (l) + H2SO4 (l) (70-120 deg. C); H2SO4 (l) → H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g) (800-900 deg. C); 2HI (l) → I2 (g) + H2 (g) (300-450 deg. C) The high temperature decomposition of sulphuric acid, which is the most endothermic reaction, results in a very aggressive chemical environment which is why suitable materials for the decomposer heat exchanger have to be identified. The class of candidate materials for the decomposer is based on SiC. In the current study, SiC based materials were tested in order to determine the residual mechanical properties (flexural strength and bending modulus, interfacial strength of brazed joints), after exposure to an SO2 rich environment, simulating the conditions in the hydrogen production plant. Brazed SiC specimens were tested after 20, 100, 500 and 1000 hrs exposure to SO2 rich environment at 850oC under atmospheric pressure. The gas composition in the corrosion rig was: 9.9 H2O, 12.25 SO2, 6.13 O2, balance N2 (% mol). The characterization involved: weight change monitoring, SEM microstructural analysis and four-point bending tests after exposure. Most of the specimens gained weight due to the formation of a corrosion layer as observed in the SEM. The corrosion treatment also showed an effect on the mechanical properties. In the four-point bending tests performed at room temperature and at 850 deg. C, a decrease in bending modulus with exposure time was observed

  20. Temperature Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Candidate SNS Target Container Materials after Proton and Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, T.S.

    2001-11-09

    This report presents the tensile properties of EC316LN austenitic stainless steel and 9Cr-2WVTa ferritic/martensitic steel after 800 MeV proton and spallation neutron irradiation to doses in the range 0.54 to 2.53 dpa. Irradiation temperatures were in the range 30 to 100 C. Tensile testing was performed at room temperature (20 C) and 164 C to study the effects of test temperature on the tensile properties. Test materials displayed significant radiation-induced hardening and loss of ductility due to irradiation. The EC316LN stainless steel maintained notable strain-hardening capability after irradiation, while the 9Cr-2WVTa ferritic/martensitic steel posted negative strain hardening. In the EC316LN stainless steel, increasing the test temperature from 20 C to 164 C decreased the strength by 13 to 18% and the ductility by 8 to 36%. The tensile data for the EC316LN stainless steel irradiated in spallation conditions were in line with the values in a database for 316 stainless steels for doses up to 1 dpa irradiated in fission reactors at temperatures below 200 C. However, extra strengthening induced by helium and hydrogen contents is evident in some specimens irradiated to above about 1 dpa. The effect of test temperature for the 9Cr-2WVTa ferritic/martensitic steel was less significant than for the EC316LN stainless steel. In addition, strain-hardening behaviors were analyzed for EC316LN and 316L stainless steels. The strain-hardening rate of the 316 stainless steels was largely dependent on test temperature. It was estimated that the 316 stainless steels would retain more than 1% true stains to necking at 164 C after irradiation to 5 dpa. A calculation using reduction of area (RA) measurements and stress-strain data predicted positive strain hardening during plastic instability.

  1. UTILIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL BYPRODUCT AS RAW MATERIAL IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAISHALI SAHU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A large quantity of sludge rich in nutrients and microorganisms is generated every year from water and wastewater treatment plants, the final destination of which affects the environment. Generally, dewatered sludge is disposed of by spreading on the land or by land filling. However, space limitations on existing landfill sites and problems of waste stabilization have prompted investigation into alternative reuse techniques and disposal routes for sludge. A more reasonable approach is to view the sludge as a resource that can be recycled or reused. Many researchers have exploited the reuse of lime sludge from water treatment plant and sewage sludge ash as an inexpensive source of soil stabilizer in sub grade stabilization and soft cohesive soil respectively. Sewage sludge pellets (SSP has replaced sand in concrete manufacturing for pavements. The use of SSP as substituting material in raw mix formulation in Portland cement manufacturing has been studied by many researchers. Experimental results showed the feasibility of the partial replacement (15 and 30% of cement by sewage sludge ash (SSA in mortars. This paper highlights the potential of dried sludge, sludge pellets and sludge ash in various building materials for construction.

  2. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement. PMID:20154026

  3. EVALUATION OF THERMAL INSULATION FOR THREE DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION OF EXTERNAL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summers increasingly hot are bringing large thermal problems within homes and businesses, leading to increased demand for installation of air conditioners and the consequent high energy consumption. Constructions with thermal insulation on its external walls thatcould reduce energy use or even supply the use of such equipment. Due to these factors the present study was to evaluate the insulation in three boxes built with different materials, one made of wooden boards with plain walls, and two built with plywood, wall insulation andinterior walls filled with rice husk and Styrofoam®. The boxes were built after placed in drying oven at 40 °C, then noted the temperature inside the same interval every five minutes using a digital thermometer. The box with inner Styrofoam® showed the lowest variation among the three evaluated, followed by the box of rice husk. These two materials also showed good thermal initial, unlike the box built only with wood, which showed a large interiorheating, lay in a drying oven.

  4. Alternate materials of construction for geothermal applications. Progress report No. 15, October 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1978-03-01

    A program to determine if non-metallic materials such as polymers, concrete polymer composites, and refractory cements can be utilized as materials of construction in geothermal processes is in progress. To date, several high temperature polymer concrete systems have been formulated, laboratory and field tests performed in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F), and economic studies started. Laboratory data for exposure times > 2 years are available. Test results indicate that polymer concrete (PC) containing mixtures of styrene--acrylonitrile--acrylamide or methacrylamide produces composites with the best high temperature and chemical resistance obtained to date. The results show that the use of a 12 wt % concentration of a 55 wt % styrene--35 wt % acrylonitrile--5 wt % acrylamide--5 wt % trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate monomer mixture in conjunction with 88 wt % of a 70 wt % silica sand--30 wt % Portland cement aggregate produces a composite with a compressive strength at 20/sup 0/C (68/sup 0/F) in the range 25,000 to 30,000 psi. The PC is thermally stable to approximately 240/sup 0/C (464/sup 0/F). Results are also available from field exposures of up to 24 months in four geothermal environments. Good durability is indicated. Work at four of these sites is continuing, and plans to initiate tests at other sites are being implemented.

  5. Study of the radiological impact of the construction materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some countries have established specific regulations on the radioactivity content of the construction materials (MC), while others are considering if its are necessary specific regulations. The purpose of limiting these radioactivity levels, it is to restrict the exposure to the radiation due to the natural or increased content of the natural radionuclides. All the used materials for the construction possess variable quantities of natural radionuclides. The materials derived of the rocks and soils contain mainly the radionuclides of the natural chains of the U-238 and of the Th-232 and the K-40 radionuclide. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority is carrying out studies of the concentration of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in different MC with the final purpose of providing recommendations that apply its to control the levels of radioactivity of the same ones. However, it should be kept in mind that restrictions on the use of certain MC could have important economic, environmental or social consequences so much in the regional as national confines. Such consequences should be evaluated and considered together with the radioactivity levels when establishing recommendations or regulations. The exposure to the radiation coming from the MC can be divided in external and internal. The external exposure is caused by direct gamma irradiation, coming from the radioactive decay of the natural radionuclides. The internal irradiation is caused by the inhalation of Rn-222 (radon), Rn-220 (thoron) and its offspring. The radon is part of the decay series of the uranium that is present in the MC. The biggest source of radon production is undoubtedly the soil, but in some cases the MC can to produce an outstanding contribution. These can also be an important source of thoron production when they contain high concentrations of Thorium. In this work the results of the measurements of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 carried out in leader trademarks of cements and plasters of national origin that are

  6. Gridshells in composite materials: Construction of a 300 m² forum for the solidays' festival in Paris

    OpenAIRE

    BAVEREL, Olivier; CARON, Jean-François; Tayeb, Frédéric; du Peloux, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are well known for their low density, high strength and high resistance against corrosion and fatigue; but so far only few constructions have been built with these materials. This article shows how composite materials might be an original and profitable solution for lightweight structures called gridshells. In this paper, the principal characteristics of gridshells are recalled first and a demonstration that glass fiber reinforced polymers are suitable for these structures...

  7. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  8. Radon emanation rate in construction materials and various design of house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality are important factors that need to be addressed because it can affect the health and comfort of occupants in it. Among the major sources of indoor air pollution are radon gas. Radiological risk due to radon gas due to its intake into the human body is the major cause of lung cancer. This study was conducted to determine the radon emanation rate that occurs naturally in the building materials and its contains in several kinds of house. Construction materials studied are sand, gravel, cement and bricks. Terrace houses, double storey terrace houses, flats and wooden houses were studied in radon emanation in various types of houses. Radon emanation rates in building materials in a variety of home and the home measured using Sun Nuclear radon monitor (model 1029) and radon gas concentrations are measured in units of Bq m-3. From the results, granites have recorded the highest radon emissions that is 2.67 μBq kg-1s-1, followed by sand with 2.53 μBq kg-1s-1. The bricks emission rate were recorded was 2.47 μBq kg-1s-1, while Cement recorded the lowest with only 1.46 μBq kg-1s-1. In study of radon in a variety of home, the results showed that the single storey terrace houses recorded the highest reading of 25.67 ± 4.96 Bq m-3. First level Double storey terrace houses recorded 23.24 ± 3.72 Bq m-3 compared with a second level of two-storey terrace house which recorded emission rate of 16.43 ± 2.53 Bq m-3. Flats were recorded the second lowest with only 13.07 ± 2.38 Bq m-3. House that recorded the lowest reading was wooden houses that recorded 9.53 ± 1.96 Bq m-3. (author)

  9. Permittivity Investigations of the Road Construction Raw Materials for Purposes of GPR Data Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    Permittivity is the major material property governing the formation of GPR response signal in diagnostic measurements. Every quantitative interpretation refers explicitly or implicitly to discussion of permittivity values. Thus, the recognition of permittivity for materials typical of the given technological area is necessary to make use of diagnostic measurements. Collection of several tens of stone cores representing different outcrops was investigated in order to obtain cross-sectional view of permittivity for stone materials being in use in Polish road construction industry as components of stone-asphalt mixtures. The main task was to estimate the typical permittivity values for stone materials treated as representation of several major petrological types. The capacimetry (at 50 MHz) was used as major and very efficient method of permittivity assessment and formation of the samples was subordinated to demands of this method. This method allows for determination of permittivity variability on the lateral surface of the cylindrical sample, giving the insight into the major features of the permittivity spatial distribution characteristic for the given rock. For the most homogeneous samples (in terms of permittivity distribution) the permittivity was measured also on the core top at frequency 2 GHz using impulse GPR reflectometry. No clear proofs for considerable permittivity frequency dependence were found (in the frame of the two methods precision) for these rocks. This conclusion can be related generally to major rock-forming minerals at least in dry igneous rocks. Only solid rocks obtained from regular massive outcrops were included to this first cross-sectional sampling, while artificial synthetic materials and natural gravels of postglacial origin were omitted since additional problems occur in these cases. This first experience allowed to recognize practical problems related to the sampling procedure. The collected data allow for provisional identification

  10. Activities for data base construction by Technical Committee for Investigation of Dielectric and Insulating Material in Radioactive Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee for Investigation of Dielectric and Insulating Material in Radioactive Environment in May 1990 started activities for the collection of information and surveys and studies for the construction of a data base. The studies cover the mechanism of deterioration in electric mediums, communications equipment, materials and devices in a special environment; simulation of material in a special environment; prediction of the service life of material in a special environment; and feasibility of the construction of a data base. These surveys and studies are intended to determine the resistance of dielectric and insulating materials and devices to special environments, to achieve an increase in their reliability and service life, to provide techniques for accurate life prediction, to establish a data base from collected information, and to study the feasibility of the construction of an expert system. In particular, the report describes the activities for the construction of the data base, focusing on the data format, problems to be solved to permit its construction, etc. (N.K.)

  11. Preventive measures for radioactive contamination in iron and steel used as construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of July 1992, Atomic Energy Council (AEC) received tips-off from Taipei local residents, saying some buildings in Taipei had their rebar been contaminated by radioactive materials. Regarding causes and sources of those radioactively contaminated rebar, views from every aspects were pointing toward that scraps mixed with radioactive source smelting in the steel mill as the most possible reason. After investigating houses and constructors, AEC found that most contaminated buildings were constructed during the period of 1982 and 1984. For protection of public rights, AEC then actively undertook nation-wide survey of more than forty thousand buildings constructed between 1982 and 1984. Thermal Luminescent Dosimeters (TLD) and house by house surveying were major methods to investigate houses contamination. Finally, it was found that radiation contaminated houses are concentrated in Taipei City, Taipei County, Tauoyen County, Keelung County. According to data collected up to December 31, 1999, there were 180 cases, with a total of 1601 contaminated housing units. Based on information data of dose assessment, distribution of annual dose are as the following: higher than 15 mSv -143 housing units (9.21%), 5-15 mSv -117 housing units (7.53%), less than 5 mSv -1293 housing units (83.26%). Except actively conducting remodeling of contaminated houses and granting compensation to house owners, AEC has established following measures to prevent rebars from being radioactively contaminated. (1) Radiation detection training of iron and steel detectors (2) Strengthening controls over radioactive sources (3) Enforcing examination of radioactive levels for imported rebars (4) Requesting domestic steel companies establish radiation detection capability (5) Promoting installation of portal type radiation detectors for steel companies having smelting furnace (6) Enforcing no-radioactive contamination certificate system. The radiation detection training of iron and steel

  12. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  13. Concrete containments in Swedish nuclear power plants. A review of construction and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    attention. Current investigation shows that the documentation on the concrete containment structures of the Swedish nuclear power stations is fairly complete after the authors have obtained new information through a survey during 2001 and included these data in the report. The target group of this report are structural engineers and other people interested in knowing how the prestressed concrete containments in the Swedish nuclear power stations are designed, detailed and constructed. Uprising questions regarding the structural behaviour of the containment structures ought to be evaluated by using present material properties and not the data describing the used building materials at the design stage. The aim of this research project is to gain new knowledge on life span questions regarding prestressing steel in concrete structures, partly generally and partly with focus on Swedish nuclear power stations and Swedish bridges. The project covers both bonded and un bonded prestressing steel. This report describes the containment structures for all Swedish nuclear power stations. The information is both given in Chapters 5 through 16 and assembled in tables in Appendix A. The intention is that the documentation shall grow and be supplemented as soon as new information, either new data describing the containment structures or new measuring results, will be obtained or produced within current research project. Design and detailing of prestressed concrete structures are among others based on the knowledge of time-dependent material changes regarding concrete (creep and shrinkage) and prestressing steel (relaxation). The intention is that the following items will treated: general evaluation; testing of prestressing steel and concrete properties; assessment of the risk of a time-dependent increase of brittleness of the prestressing steel; comparisons with codes; modelling of steel relaxation; unidimensional modelling of prestressing losses; regard to elevated temperatures

  14. The Testing and Management of Construction Materials%工程建筑材料试验和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝花红

    2013-01-01

    Construction materials testing and management is the key link of quality control and engineering project cons-truction completion acceptance evaluation, but also the core of building engineering construction management part. This pap-er discusses the importance of engineering construction materi-als testing and management, and how to strengthen the constr-uction materials testing and management measures.%  工程建筑材料试验与管理是工程建筑施工的质量控制、工程竣工验收评定的关键环节,也是工程建筑施工管理的核心组成环节。本文将对工程建筑材料试验和管理的重要性进行论述,同时对如何加强工程建筑材料试验和管理的措施进行探讨。

  15. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD, physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity, chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses, and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  16. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of construction materials using a thin film probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasayapanand, N.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to develop a thin film thermal conductivity probe for measuring thermal property of construction materials. This probe was developed based on the line heat sourceprinciple. The thermal conductivity can be determined from the slope of linear relation between the temperature differences ΔT and logarithm of time ln(t. The probe was tested by measuring the thermal conductivityof three kinds of specimens comprising of polystyrene foam (PS, autoclaved aerated concrete (ACC and gypsum board (GB The range of electrical power supply rate for the probe was varied from 0.15 to1.59 W. The thermal conductivity values obtained with this method were greater compared to the results obtained using the ASTM C 177. The difference of thermal conductivity between line two methods decreasedwith the increase of the power supply rate. The mean difference for PS, ACC and GB was 4.33%, 6.15% and 42.34% respectively. According to the restriction of minimum thickness requirement of specimen for testingwith the guard hot plate apparatus (ASTM C 177, it was necessary to overlay one GB slab on another. As a result, the mean difference of thermal conductivity for GB was considerably high.

  17. USE OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos-Triantafyllos Galbenis; Stamatis Tsimas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the possibility of utilizing Construction and Demolition(C&D) wastes as substitutes of Portland cement raw meal. The C&D wastes that were so used, were the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and the Recycled Masonry Aggregates (RMA) derived from demolished buildings in Attica region, Greece. RCA and RMA samples were selected because of their calcareous and siliceous origin respectively,which conformed the composition of the ordinary Portland cement raw meal. For that reason, six samples of cement raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample, and five by mixing the reference sample with RCA and RMA in appropriate proportions. The effect on the reactivity of the generated mixtures, was evaluated on the basis of the free lime content (fCaO) in the mixtures sintered at 1350℃, 1400℃ and 1450℃. Test showed that the added recycled aggregates improved the burnability of the cement raw meal without affecting negatively the cement clinker properties. Moreover, the formation of the major components (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF) of the produced clinkers(sintered at 1450℃) was corroborated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  18. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  19. Impact resistance of sustainable construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced geogrid concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete slab with geogrid reinforcement of 300mm × 300mm size with 20mm, 30mm and 40 mm thick casted with different geogrid orientation and boundary conditions subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance the slab thickness, boundary conditions and geogrid reinforcement orientation. Test results indicate that the used of the geogrid reinforcement increased the impact resistance under service (first) limit crack up to 5.9 times and at ultimate limit crack up to 20.1 times against the control sample (without geogrid). A good linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against the slab thickness. The orientation of the geogrid has minor significant to the crack resistance of the OPS concrete slab. OPS geogrid reinforced slab has a good crack resistance properties that can be utilized as a sustainable impact resistance construction materials.

  20. Sulfate removal and sulfur transformation in constructed wetlands: The roles of filling material and plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Huang, Jingang; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sulfate in effluent is a challenging issue for wastewater reuse around the world. In this study, sulfur (S) removal and transformation in five batch constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluent were investigated. The results showed that the presence of the plant cattail (Typha latifolia) had little effect on sulfate removal, while the carbon-rich litter it generated greatly improved sulfate removal, but with limited sulfide accumulation in the pore-water. After sulfate removal, most of the S was deposited with the valence states S (-II) and S (0) on the iron-rich gravel surface, and acid volatile sulfide was the main S sink in the litter-added CWs. High-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfobacter) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (i.e. Thiobacillus) were dominant in the litter-added CWs, which led to a sustainable S cycle between sulfate and sulfide. Overall, this study suggests that recycling plant litter and iron-rich filling material in CWs gives an opportunity to utilize the S in the wastewater as both an electron acceptor for sulfate reduction and as an electron donor for nitrate reduction coupled with sulfide oxidation. This leads to the simultaneous removal of sulfate, nitrate, and organics without discharging toxic sulfide into the receiving water body. PMID:27423407

  1. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Raeq), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Raeq in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material. (author)

  2. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  3. Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, Part II: Sealing glass stability, microstructure and interfacial reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2014-03-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing methods under realistic conditions. Part II of the work examined the sealing glass stability, microstructure development, interfacial reaction, and volatility issues of a 3-cell stack with LSM-based cells. After 6000 h of testing, the refractory sealing glass YSO7 showed desirable chemical compatibility with YSZ electrolyte in that no discernable interfacial reaction was identified. In addition, no glass penetration into the thin electrolyte was observed. At the aluminized AISI441 interface, the protective alumina coating appeared to be corroded by the sealing glass. Air side interactions appeared to be more severe than fuel side interactions. Metal species such as Cr, Mn, and Fe were detected in the glass, but were limited to the vicinity of the interface. No alkaline earth chromates were found at the air side. Volatility was also studied in a similar glass and weight loss in a wet reducing environment was determined. Using the steady-state volatility data, the life time weight loss of refractory sealing glass YSO77 was estimated to be less than 0.1 wt%.

  4. Use of neutron activation analysis and LC-ICP-MS in the development of candidate reference materials for As species determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) is widely found in marine organisms, mainly as organic arsenical compounds. With the introduction of regulations for As species in foodstuffs and for environmental control, it has become more important to quantify the amount of arsenic species present. To address this concern new reference materials (RMs) for validation and quality assurance of As speciation measurements are being developed, including a tuna fish tissue and a robalo liver tissue. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is used in this work as a proven analytical tool for As determinations and for validating the As mass fraction determined by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) in extracts of the candidate RMs and other fish samples including certified RMs. Various methods for the extraction of water-soluble As species were evaluated. The best results were acquired after methanol/acetone/water extraction yielding in 93 % extractable As in the tuna RM. This procedure was used for the LC-ICP-MS studies. The results demonstrate that INAA can account for 100 % of the distribution of As species in analytical processes. It complements LC-ICP-MS for the validation of the characterization of As species in the development of RMs for such species. Excellent agreement of measured results in certified RMs with the reported values confirms the validity of the applied procedures. (author)

  5. Effects of a range of machined and ground surface finishes on the simulated reactor helium corrosion of several candidate structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the corrosion behavior of several candidate reactor structural alloys in a simulated advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) environment over a range of lathe-machined and centerless-ground surface finishes. The helium environment contained 50 Pa H2/5 Pa CO/5 Pa CH4/2O (500 μatm H2/50 μatm CO/50 μatm CH4/2O) at 9000C for a total exposure of 3000 h. The test alloys included two vacuum-cast superalloys (IN 100 and IN 713LC); a centrifugally cast austenitic alloy (HK 40); three wrought high-temperature alloys (Alloy 800H, Hastelloy X, and Inconel 617); and a nickel-base oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy (Inconel MA 754). Surface finish variations did not affect the simulated advanced-HTGR corrosion behavior of these materials. Under these conditions, the availability of reactant gaseous impurities controls the kinetics of the observed gas-metal interactions. Variations in the near-surface activities and mobilities of reactive solute elements, such as chromium, which might be expected to be affected by changes in surface finish, do not seem to greatly influence corrosion in this simulated advanced HTGR environment. 18 figures, 4 tables

  6. Study of the effects of interleakage of ammonia and seawater on corrosion and scaling of candidate materials for OTEC heat exchngers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, W D; Schrieber, C F; Manning, J A

    1980-07-01

    Assessment has been made on the effect of small concentrations of ammonia in seawater and varying concentrations of seawater in anhydrous ammonia upon corrosion and scaling of candidate OTEC heat exchanger materials - A1-5052, Alclad 3003, copper alloys 706, 715 and 722, AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium. Results are presented. AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium showed exceptional corrosion resistance to all test environments. Alclad alloy 3003 showed satisfactory performance in seawater and seawater plus ammonia environments. Only minimal pitting was observed and this was limited to the sacrificial cladding in seawater plus ammonia only. Cladding alloy 7072 showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in anhydrous ammonia containing low seawater concentrations. Al-5052 tubes showed unsatisfactory corrosion behavior in the presence of seawater flow with ammonia interleakage. Copper alloys considered showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in all seawater environments containing ammonia. Low pressure differentials between seawater and anhydrous ammonia in the tube testing unit resulted in scaling and moderately efficient plug seal formation at the artificial leak sites of the tubes. It is recommended that Alclad 3003, CP titanium and AL-6X stainless steel tubes be assessed for suitability in the presence of probable OTEC cleaning systems.

  7. DVM meeting 2000: Materials and methods in competition - lightweight construction in vehicle construction. Lectures; DVM-Tag 2000: Werkstoffe und Verfahren im Wettbewerb - Leichtbau im Fahrzeugbau. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The DVM 2000 meeting focused on lightweight construction in motor car engineering. There is a conflict in this industry between the developers' goals of long life and high safety on the one hand and the users' demand for high comfort on the other hand, while both parties agree on the importance of low cost. The meeting was accompanied by an exhibition of lightweight components. The programme comprised five sections: Lightweight construction in transportation systems, lightweight construction materials, construction principles and processes, and selected examples to illustrate the many available synergy options from an application-oriented point of view. The meeting addressed managers of the vehicle and component industries, universities and development institutes as well as materials experts. [German] Der DVM-Tag im Jahre 2000 befasst sich erneut mit dem Thema 'Leichtbau', diesmal unter dem neuen Motto 'Werkstoffe und Verfahren im Wettbewerb', und richtet sich gezielt an den Fahrzeugbau. Gerade in diesem Industriezweig sind fuer die Entwickler der Zielkonflikt zwischen Lebensdauer und Sicherheit auf der einen, fuer den Kunden besonders der Komfort auf der anderen und fuer alle Beteiligten die Kostenseite von grosser Bedeutung. Es findet gleichzeitig eine Praesentation 'Leichtbau-Bauteile' statt. Das Programm umfasst fuenf Abschnitte: Leichtbau in Verkehrssystemen, Leichtbauwerkstoffe, Konstruktionsprinzipien und Verfahren, anschliessend werden ausgewaehlte Beispiele vorgetragen, die anwendungsorientiert eine Fuelle von Synergiemoeglichkeiten aufzeigen. Zielgruppen des DVM-Tages 2000 sind das untere und mittlere Management der Fahrzeugindustrie (Fahrzeughersteller und Zulieferer), Hochschulen und Institute, die sich mit Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekten im Vorstadium einer Produktionsreife befassen und natuerlich aller Werkstoffler, die 'ihren' Werkstoff im Wettbwerb mit anderen Werkstoffen innerhalb des Themas

  8. Prepackaged polymer - modified mortar proves effective construction material - field and laboratory observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hi-Bond - prepackaged polymer - modified mortar described in this paper is a revolutionary, multifunctional, high-tech, high performance, sustainable, durability improving group of construction materials with a high cost - benefit ratio. Hi-Bond has been developed by Dadabhoy Construction Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., (DCTL), Karachi, after extensive studies and research both locally and abroad. It can be used in floorings and pavings, integral waterproofing, adhesive applications, protective and decorative coatings, repairs, renovation, rehabilitation, anti corrosive linings, deck coverings, durability and efficiency improvement of canal linings and other hydraulic structures. Hi-Bond has been applied in various projects of national importance with great success for their repairs, renovation and rehabilitation and has also been tested and evaluated at various laboratories with highly encouraging results. Some examples include: (i) earthquake damaged bridge at Lora Nallah on Brewery Road, Quetta, (ii) fire damaged building of the daily Business Recorder House, Karachi, (iii) 200 - year old main dome of the tomb of Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhitshah, Hyderabad, (iv) RCC shell roofs of Mehtab Biscuit and Wafers Factory, Sahiwal, (v) repair of newly built concrete floor on structural slab in a factory building at Karachi, (vi) Mohatta Palace, Clifton, Karachi, (vii) swimming pool at Okara Cantt, and (viii) numerous leaking basements, underground and overhead water reservoirs at and around Karachi including those of new vegetable market on super highway. Building Research Station, Government of the Punjab, Lahore also recommended the use of Hi-Bond in the applications mentioned above after testing and evaluation. The product was found easy in application and offered numerous technical and economical advantages, over conventional products, in variety of applications. It is important to note that shortly after the repairs and renovation of the building of the daily

  9. Measurement of the hydrogen concentration profile in nuclear constructional materials by NERD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the axis center of a source of neutrons - center of analyzed sample. The telescope of detectors was displaced away from the axis. So the recoils are detected under a small angle (∼15 deg) relatively to this axis, and the flux of fast neutrons can't hit directly the detectors of telescope. These improvements allow us to increase the sensitivity on 1H isotope practically up to a level of sensitivity on 2D and 3T of the NERD-method. The method is planned to use for testing the reactor constructional materials on hydrogen content and profiles of the surface concentration. (author) Reference: 1. P.K.Khabibullaev, B.G.Skorodumov. Nuclear Physics Methods, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics -Vol.117, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer - 1989, 87 p.; 2. S.V. Artemov, Ya.S. Abdullaeva, A.A. Karakhodzhaev Results of the NERD Installation Upgrading. Presentations of the Fourth Euras. Conf Nucl. Sci. and its Application. 31 Oct. - 03 Nov. 2006, Baku, Azerbaijan, p.173

  10. Natural radioactivity in geological and processed materials used for construction and radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine natural radioactivity in geological and processed materials used for construction and radon in buildings within the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. This involved the measurement of 238U, 232Th, 40K, 222Rn, hazards indices, absorbed doses rate, effective doses, excess lifetime cancer risk estimated and correlation between NORMs and engineering properties. The building materials considered for this study were gravels, beach sand, rocks, soil, sand, tiles, clay bricks, sandcrete and concrete blocks. A brief description of the methods and instrumentation used is presented. Radiation hazards associated with building materials were found to be in the range; 238U (3.60 – 47.00 Bq/kg), 232Th (3.61 - 43.00 Bq/kg) and 40K (62.75 - 1222.21 Bq/kg), radium equivalent (15.72.66 Bq/kg to 174.32 Bq/kg), internal hazard index (0.05-0.52), external hazard index (0.02-0.23), activity concentration index (0.06 to 0.64 mSv/y) absorbed dose rate (9.46 to 77.81 nGy/h), outdoor effective doses (7.20 μSv/y to 95.49 μSv/y), indoor effective doses (7.20 μSv/y to 95.49 μSv/y) and excess lifetime cancer risk (0.03× 10-3 to 0.33× 10-3). The radon concentrations range from offices (11.152-537.050 Bq/m3), Laboratories (11.696 - 212 Bq/m3), conference rooms (110.623 - 229.363 Bq/m3), Bedroom (13.391- 41.989 Bq/m3), Hall (10.087 - 38.197 Bq/m3) and kitchen (11.878 - 36.00 Bq/m3). The experimental radon exhalation varied from (3.54 × 10-5 to 11.43 × 10-5 Bq/m2h) and theoretical values (4.56 × 10-5 to 13.9×10-5 Bq/m2 h). The engineering properties associated with rock aggregates were also found to vary in the following range from bulk density (2207 - 3006 g/cm3), apparent density (2001 – 3040 g/cm3), Los Angeles Abrasion Test (45.67- 79.89 %) and water absorption content (0.33-1.98 %). The correlation between NORMs and engineering properties are R2 (0.57-0.88) negative and R2 (0.18-0.81) positive. The highest exhalation rate was observed

  11. Compound soil-tyre chips modified by cement as a road construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Promputthangkoon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to overcome the two problems of low-quality soil and a growing number of discarded tyres bymixing low-CBR soil with recycled tyre chips. The compound soil-tyre chips was then stabilised by Portland cement with theaim of using them as a new material in road construction in order to reduce the occurrence of shrinkage cracks. To achievethe purposes of this research three standard geotechnical testing programmes were employed: (1 modified compaction tests,(2 California Bearing Ratio tests (CBR, and (3 unconfined compression tests. The modified compaction test results provedthat for the mixtures having very low tyre chips and cement content, the behaviour is very complex. It was also observed thatthe greater the percentage of rubber added the lower the global density. However, this is predictable as the specific gravityof the rubber is much lower than that of the soil. For the relationship between the optimum moisture content (OMC and thecement content, it was observed that there is no clear pattern.For the specimens having no cement added, the CBR for unsoaked specimens was observed to be greater than that forsoaked specimens. However, when the cement was introduced the CBR test showed that the resistance to penetration for thesoaked specimens was significantly greater, indicating the effects of cement added on the strength. In addition, it was foundthat the CBR values for both soaked and unsoaked specimens gradually increased with the increase of cement content.Lastly, the unconfined compressive strength progressively increased with the increased percentage of cement.

  12. Construction of electron accelerator for studying secondary emission in dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acelerator for the generation of low energy electrons (in the 0.4 to 20 keV range) was constructed. The accelerator is equipped with some devices especially designed for the investigation of the electrical properties of electron-irradiated dielectrics. In this work we have employed it for the study of the secondary electron emission of irradiated polymers. Reference is made to a method proposed by H. von Seggern (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, p.1503 (1985)] which was intended for the determination of the electron emission yield especially between the two cross-over points in a single run, here called the dynamical method. We have been able to prove that, contrary to expectation, this method does not give correct results over the entire emission curve. Rather it gives yield values which are too low by 25% in the region where the emission exhibits a maximum, due to the interaction between the electron emission process and the positive surface charge of the dielectric. However the method needs not to be dismissed entirely. As it is, it can be used advantageously for the precise determination of the energy of the second cross-over point. In addition, with the same set up, the method could be improved by replacing the continuous irradiation of the sample by a pulsed irradiation, leading to results essentially the same as those shown in the literature. Finally analysing the process of interaction between the positive charge of the dielectric and the mechanism of electron emission in several situations, we were able: I) to determine the maximum value and the average value of the escape depth of the emitted electrons; II) for a sample with a net positive charge, to show that the positive charge resides very near the surface of incidence; III) for a sample with a net negative charge, to show that the positive charge also resides near the surface while the (prevalent) negative charge resides in the bulk of the material. (author)

  13. 19 CFR 123.18 - Equipment and materials for constructing bridges or tunnels between the United States and Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment and materials for constructing bridges or tunnels between the United States and Canada or Mexico. 123.18 Section 123.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO...

  14. Antenna Construction & Propagation of Radio Waves, 5-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps, Washington, DC.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of five individualized, self-paced chapters dealing with antenna construction and propagation of radio waves. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: basic electricity; antenna transmission-line fundamentals; quarter-wave antennas, half-wave antennas, and associated radio…

  15. Study of radon exhalation rate from different types of building construction materials using SSNTDds and estimation of lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a radiotoxic element found in trace quantities in almost all naturally occurring materials like soil, rock and sand etc. Building materials are derived from these materials. Radon, an inert radioactive gas whose predecessor is uranium is emitted from soil beneath the house and from building materials. Building materials are the main source of radon inside the dwellings. Because of low level of radon emanation from these materials, long term measurements are needed. Can technique using LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detector has been employed for the measurement of radon activity and radon exhalation rate from a number of building materials commonly used for construction in Kerala. Radon activity is found to vary from 75.0 to 2212.7 Bqm-3 with an average value of 477.7 Bqm-3, radon exhalation rate from 44.0 to 1337.7 mBqm-2h-1 with an average value of 286.3 mBqm-2h-1 and effective dose equivalent from 5.2 to 157.7 μSv y-1 with an average value 33.7 μSv y-1 for different building construction materials. Radon emanation from granite is found to be maximum while cement brick (hollow) and Kadappa stone give minimum radon emanation. In the case of plastered bricks covered with sealants, radon exhalation is found to increase slightly with acrylic exterior and acrylic emulsion while it decreases with others. (author)

  16. [Constructing images and territories: thinking on the visuality and materiality of remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the question of the image in science, thinking about how visual practices contribute towards the construction of knowledge and territories. The growing centrality of the visual in current scientific practices shows the need for reflection that goes beyond the image. The object of discussion will be the scientific images used in the monitoring and visualization of territory. The article looks into the relations between visuality and a number of other factors: the researchers that construct it; the infrastructure involved in the construction; and the institutions and policies that monitor the territory. It is argued that such image-relations do not just visualize but help to construct the territory based on specific forms. Exploring this process makes it possible to develop a more complex understanding of the forms through which sciences and technology help to construct realities. PMID:26038863

  17. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  18. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  19. Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, Part II: sealing glass stability, microstructure and interfacial reactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2014-03-15

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing methods under realistic conditions. Part I of the work addressed the stack fixture, seal system and cell performance of a 3-cell short stack tested at 800oC for 6000h. Commercial NiO-YSZ anode-supported thin YSZ electrolyte cells with LSM cathodes were used for assessment and were tested in constant current mode with dilute (~50% H2) fuel versus air. Part II of the work examined the sealing glass stability, microstructure development, interfacial reactions, and volatility issues. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell degradation. After 6000h of testing, the refractory sealing glass YSO77 (Ba-Sr-Y-B-Si) showed desirable chemical compatibility with YSZ electrolyte in that no discernable interfacial reaction was identified, consistent with thermodynamic calculations. In addition, no glass penetration into the thin electrolyte was observed. At the aluminized AISI441 interface, the protective alumina coating appeared to be corroded by the sealing glass. Air side interactions appeared to be more severe than fuel side interactions. Metal species such as Cr, Mn, and Fe were detected in the glass, but were limited to the vicinity of the interface. No alkaline earth chromates were found at the air side. Volatility was also studied in a similar glass and weight loss in a wet reducing environment was determined. Using the steady-state volatility data, the life time (40,000h) weight loss of refractory sealing glass YSO77 was estimated to be less than 0.1 wt%.

  20. Localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers in the US: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1988-11-04

    Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including: undesirable phase transformations due to lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This paper is an analysis of data from the literature relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of these alloys. Though all three austenitic candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these forms of localized attack. Both types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented for Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma irradiation has been found to enhance SCC of Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while microbiologically induced corrosion effects have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. Of the copper-based alloys, CDA 715 has the best overall resistance to localized attack. Its resistance to pitting is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. Observed rates of dealloying in CDA 715 are less than those observed in CDA 613 by orders of magnitude. The resistance of CDA 715 to SCC in tarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 102 and superior to that of CDA 613. Its resistance to SCC in nontarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. 22 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers in the US: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including: undesirable phase transformations due to lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This paper is an analysis of data from the literature relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of these alloys. Though all three austenitic candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these forms of localized attack. Both types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented for Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma irradiation has been found to enhance SCC of Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while microbiologically induced corrosion effects have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. Of the copper-based alloys, CDA 715 has the best overall resistance to localized attack. Its resistance to pitting is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. Observed rates of dealloying in CDA 715 are less than those observed in CDA 613 by orders of magnitude. The resistance of CDA 715 to SCC in tarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 102 and superior to that of CDA 613. Its resistance to SCC in nontarnishing ammonical environments is comparable to that of CDA 613 and superior to that of CDA 102. 22 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated

  3. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-10-31

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated. (FS)

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Degaltseva Z. V.; Shulepina S. A.; Ovsiyenko E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the ...

  5. Characterization of organic materials in civil engineering by chemical and physicochemical methods, chapter 25 In : Yves Mouton (Eds), Organic Materials for Sustainable Construction

    OpenAIRE

    FARCAS, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    From the domain of roads to the domain of construction, the organic materials used are very diverse (bitumens, paints, cements, etc), but studying their chemical structure and their composition generally uses the same analysis techniques. Without claiming to be exhaustive, this chapter completes and brings up to date the presentation of chemical, physicochemical, physicomechanical and thermomechanical properties previously offered through research studying the chemical structure of basic orga...

  6. Application of Nanotechnology-Based Thermal Insulation Materials in Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Bozsaky David

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based materials have previously been used by space research, pharmaceuticals and electronics, but in the last decade several nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials have appeared in building industry. Nowadays they only feature in a narrow range of practice, but they offer many potential applications. These options are unknown to most architects, who may simply be afraid of these materials owing to the incomplete and often contradictory special literature. Therefore, ...

  7. Selection of construction materials for equipment in an experimental reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the most significant corrosion problems that may be present in different stages of the process in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. The influence of different variables is analyzed: concentration of nitric acid and other oxidizing species, temperature, etc., in corrosion of materials of most frequent use in pipings and equipment. The materials are austenitic stainless steels and refractory metals, especially zirconium and its alloys. Both general and localized corrosion phenomena are analyzed for these materials. Selection criteria for the use of adequate material in different components of the plant are also discussed. (author). 32 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia

    2016-04-01

    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  9. Steel fibre concrete, a safer material for reactor construction - a general theory for rupture prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of steel fibre reinforcement on the mechanical behaviour of concrete reactor structures is studied. It is shown that this material leads to a higher safety factor for highly stressed concrete structures like prestressed concrete pressure vessels. The reinforcement of concrete with short steel fibres results clearly in a fundamental change of the material properties. The study comprises basic experiments, the elaboration of an expression of the material laws, the development of a general computer program and the comparison of computational results with more elaborate experiments. (Auth.)

  10. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY ON RECYCLING OF CONSTRUCTION SLUDGES AS GROUND MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazumi, Shinya; Ohtsu, Hiroyasu; Isoda, Takayuki; Shigematsu, Yuji

    Although waste recycling has been promoted in response to increasing environmental awareness in Japan, its marketability is being questioned due to the recycling cost. The ultimate goal of waste recycling is to reduce the environmental load. In this paper, we examined the evaluation method for social environmental efficiency to socially evaluate waste recycling, by incorporating environmental load as an environmental cost in addition to the direct cost. Specifically, by applying sensitivity analysis and Monte-Carlo Simulation, we conducted the social environmental efficiency evaluation including consideration of uncertainties, because waste recycling involves various uncertain elements. As a result, we were able to quantitatively evaluate the social environmental significance of construction sludge recycling while focusing on the particular construction sludge with a lower recycling rate.

  11. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction. PMID:23827538

  12. Development of damage evaluation method on the brittle materials for constructions using microscopic structural dynamics and probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional stress analysis evaluation of the ceramic apparatuses is due to a perfect model of continuous mechanical materials. Such approximate and simplified treatment is thought to be unsufficient with the following two reasons. At first, because of changes of materials mechanical properties with manufacturing conditions and presence of limit in experimentalismic understanding, establishment of quantitative guideline for improvement of materials and structures and general understanding of thermo-mechanical property change due to neutron radiation becomes difficult. The second, because of statistical change of mechanical property and others containing fracture condition at various loading types, judgement standard of conventional deterministic evaluation is apt to be conservative and causes inferior performance and economics of the constructions under their using conditions. Therefore, in this study, following two basic approaches are planned; 1) Preparation of material deformation and fracture model considering correlation between microscopic/mesoscopic damage and macroscopic behavior, and 2) Improvement of the finite element method calculation due to parallel treatment for soundness and reliability evaluation of the construction. (G.K.)

  13. National differences in materialism - Using alternative research strategies to explore the construct

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf R Sinkovics; Holzmüller, Hartmut H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the core objectives in cross-national marketing research is to establish research results which are comparable across national entities. Nevertheless certain national idiosyncrasies (unique meaning of constructs, distinctive expressions) may hamper these cross-national research endeavors. Two different approaches have been introduced in the social sciences, in order to cope with this comparability-dilemma. The "emic" and the "etic" school of thought. These can be seen as two extremes o...

  14. Phosphorus sorption in subsurface constructed wetlands: investigations focused on calcareous materials and their chemical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Molle, P.; Liénard, A.; Grasmick, A.; Iwema, A.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus removal from wastewater has been of growing interest for some decades to avoid eutrophication in surface water. In subsurface constructed wetlands precipitation and adsorption are the main mechanisms responsible of P uptake. The use of calcareous media is attractive because of p-ca interactions. Two media (calcite and recycled crushed concrete (rcc)) were examined in batch and continuous systems. They show attractive sorption capacities using batch experiments, however experiments ...

  15. Phosphorus retention in subsurface constructed wetlands: investigations focused on calcareous materials and their chemical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Molle, P.; Liénard, A.; Grasmick, A.; Iwema, A.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus removal from wastewater has been of growing interest for some decades to avoid eutrophication in surface water. In subsurface constructed wetlands precipitation and adsorption are the main mechanisms responsible of P uptake. Two media (calcite and recycled crushed concrete (RCC)) were examined in batch and continuous systems. Batch experiments show attractive sorption capacities, however experiments carried out in open reactors pointed out some limitation in retention capacities an...

  16. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group (www.zerowaste.byg.dtu.dk) at the Department of Civil Engineering was established in 2012 and covers the broad range of expertise required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have developed methods for removal of heavy metals...... and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes [1], providing the basis to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector.The amount of waste increases and it is both difficult and expensive to handle many waste types as e.g.different ashes. At the...... same time there are fewer natural resources and the general consumption increases. We wish to utilize alternative and new ash types as raw material in concrete, similarly to what was previously seen with fly ash from coal combustion and microsilica, which were both transformed from problematic waste to...

  17. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part II specializations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains three reports about the visits and training of the experts involved in VISA-2 project to Saclay. All the documents include technical description about methods for fabrication and testing the materials under different irradiation conditions

  18. Functional Inorganic Materials with Complex Form: Construction, Self-assembly Principles and Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuhong; YANG Jian; LIU Biao; GUO Xiaohui; CUI Xianjin

    2011-01-01

    There is a rich and long history of gaining inspiration from the nature for the design of practical materials and systems.Biominerals are well-known composites of inorganic and organic materials in the form of fascinating shapes and highly ordered structures existing in the natural world, such as pearl, oyster shells, corals, ivory, sea urchin spines, cuttlefish bone, limpet teeth, magnetic crystals in bacteria and human bones that are created by living organisms.During the past few decades, it has become one of the most influencing subjects in materials proteins, which involve in all the processes of multicell organisms, such as fertilization, differentiation, development, immunity, infection, and cancer.chemistry to explore new bio-inspired strategies for selfassembling or surface-assembling molecules or colloids to generate materials with controlled morphologies,

  19. Procedures for the determination of stable elements in construction materials from the nuclear reactors at Risoe National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the accurate determination of stable isotopes of elements in construction materials with relevance to the work of the Danish Decommissioning have been developed. Prior to the analysis the elements of interest must be released from the construction materials and this is done with several different digestion methods. For the analysis of aluminium, lead, graphite and steels the samples are digested with mineral acids and microwave heating at increased pressures in a sealed teflon vessel. The aluminium, lead and steel are fully dissolved after the digestion procedure whereas graphite is chemically inert to the acid treatment used, but the elements of interest are extracted from the graphite quite efficiently. Concrete is digested with open-vessel heating in a ModblockTM digesting unit in a two step procedure involving 40% HF followed by 32% HNO3. The heavy barite concrete is first treated as the concrete samples but a large residue of poorly soluble sulphates (mainly BaSO4) is left. The residue is fused with NaOH/Na2CO3 at 575 deg. C and after some work up the product from the fusion is dissolved in dilute HNO3. After the release of the elements from the materials, the samples are analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS multi-element analysis. In general the following elements are of interest to DD; Ag, Ba, Ca, Co, Eu, Fe, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Sm, Th and U. For graphite, steel, concrete and heavy concrete, analytical methods for the determination of all 13 elements have been developed (except Ca in steel). For aluminium and lead methods for the determination of Ag, Co, Li, Nb, Ni and U, as well as Ba in the lead have been developed. When possible the methods have been verified against certified reference materials and calibration with standards additions and internal standard corrections have been used to correct for matrix effects most efficiently. The accuracy has also been checked with spikes when reference materials are not available. For the aluminium, lead

  20. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models