WorldWideScience

Sample records for candidate chemoreceptor subfamilies

  1. Role of Dickeya dadantii 3937 chemoreceptors in the entry to Arabidopsis leaves through wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río-Álvarez, Isabel; Muñoz-Gómez, Cristina; Navas-Vásquez, Mariela; Martínez-García, Pedro M; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2015-09-01

    Chemotaxis enables bacteria to move towards an optimal environment in response to chemical signals. In the case of plant-pathogenic bacteria, chemotaxis allows pathogens to explore the plant surface for potential entry sites with the ultimate aim to prosper inside plant tissues and to cause disease. Chemoreceptors, which constitute the sensory core of the chemotaxis system, are usually transmembrane proteins which change their conformation when sensing chemicals in the periplasm and transduce the signal through a kinase pathway to the flagellar motor. In the particular case of the soft-rot pathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937, jasmonic acid released in a plant wound has been found to be a strong chemoattractant which drives pathogen entry into the plant apoplast. In order to identify candidate chemoreceptors sensing wound-derived plant compounds, we carried out a bioinformatics search of candidate chemoreceptors in the genome of Dickeya dadantii 3937. The study of the chemotactic response to several compounds and the analysis of the entry process to Arabidopsis leaves of 10 selected mutants in chemoreceptors allowed us to determine the implications of at least two of them (ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680) in the chemotaxis-driven entry process through plant wounds. Our data suggest that ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680 may be candidate receptors of jasmonic acid and xylose, respectively. PMID:25487519

  2. Regulation of breathing and autonomic outflows by chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G

    2014-10-01

    Lung ventilation fluctuates widely with behavior but arterial PCO2 remains stable. Under normal conditions, the chemoreflexes contribute to PaCO2 stability by producing small corrective cardiorespiratory adjustments mediated by lower brainstem circuits. Carotid body (CB) information reaches the respiratory pattern generator (RPG) via nucleus solitarius (NTS) glutamatergic neurons which also target rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons thereby raising sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Chemoreceptors also regulate presympathetic neurons and cardiovagal preganglionic neurons indirectly via inputs from the RPG. Secondary effects of chemoreceptors on the autonomic outflows result from changes in lung stretch afferent and baroreceptor activity. Central respiratory chemosensitivity is caused by direct effects of acid on neurons and indirect effects of CO2 via astrocytes. Central respiratory chemoreceptors are not definitively identified but the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is a particularly strong candidate. The absence of RTN likely causes severe central apneas in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Like other stressors, intense chemosensory stimuli produce arousal and activate circuits that are wake- or attention-promoting. Such pathways (e.g., locus coeruleus, raphe, and orexin system) modulate the chemoreflexes in a state-dependent manner and their activation by strong chemosensory stimuli intensifies these reflexes. In essential hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea and congestive heart failure, chronically elevated CB afferent activity contributes to raising SNA but breathing is unchanged or becomes periodic (severe CHF). Extreme CNS hypoxia produces a stereotyped cardiorespiratory response (gasping, increased SNA). The effects of these various pathologies on brainstem cardiorespiratory networks are discussed, special consideration being given to the interactions between central and peripheral chemoreflexes. PMID:25428853

  3. To the theory of mechanisms subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, A.; Dvornikov, L.; Paramonov, M.; Jahr, A.

    2016-04-01

    The principles of formation of mechanisms subfamilies based on the usage of different kinds of kinematic pairs within the families of mechanisms are substantiated in the current paper. The division of mechanisms into subfamilies allows defining not only fundamental differences in the structure of mechanisms, but also provides the necessary foundation for the synthesis of new structures. 57 subfamilies of mechanisms have been totally distinguished. Among them, 31 subfamilies - within the zero family, 15 subfamilies - within the first family, 7 subfamilies - within the second family, 3 subfamilies - within the third family and 1 subfamily-within the fourth family. There were separately viewed planar mechanisms of the third family with three general imposed constraints and spatial mechanisms of the second family with two general imposed constraints in terms of their subfamilies. New methods of kinematical and dynamical investigations of mechanisms might be developed according to their analytical equations describing structural organization of different subfamilies of mechanisms.

  4. Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO2 : role of carotid body CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Curtis A; Blain, Grégory M; Henderson, Kathleen S; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2015-09-15

    We asked if the type of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor stimulus influenced the ventilatory gain of the central chemoreceptors to CO2 . The effect of CB normoxic hypocapnia, normocapnia and hypercapnia (carotid body PCO2 ≈ 22, 41 and 68 mmHg, respectively) on the ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of central chemoreceptors was studied in seven awake dogs with vascularly-isolated and extracorporeally-perfused CBs. Chemosensitivity with one CB was similar to that in intact dogs. In four CB-denervated dogs, absence of hyper-/hypoventilatory responses to CB perfusion with PCO2 of 19-75 mmHg confirmed separation of the perfused CB circulation from the brain. The group mean central CO2 response slopes were increased 303% for minute ventilation (V̇I)(P ≤ 0.01) and 251% for mean inspiratory flow rate (VT /TI ) (P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was hypercapnic vs. hypocapnic; central CO2 response slopes for tidal volume (VT ), breathing frequency (fb ) and rate of rise of the diaphragm EMG increased in 6 of 7 animals but the group mean changes did not reach statistical significance. Group mean central CO2 response slopes were also increased 237% for V̇I(P ≤ 0.01) and 249% for VT /TI (P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was normocapnic vs. hypocapnic, but no significant differences in any of the central ventilatory response indices were found between CB normocapnia and hypercapnia. These hyperadditive effects of CB hyper-/hypocapnia agree with previous findings using CB hyper-/hypoxia.We propose that hyperaddition is the dominant form of chemoreceptor interaction in quiet wakefulness when the chemosensory control system is intact, response gains physiological, and carotid body chemoreceptors are driven by a wide range of O2 and/or CO2 . PMID:26171601

  5. Signaling and sensory adaptation in Escherichia coli chemoreceptors: 2015 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John S; Hazelbauer, Gerald L; Falke, Joseph J

    2015-05-01

    Motile Escherichia coli cells track gradients of attractant and repellent chemicals in their environment with transmembrane chemoreceptor proteins. These receptors operate in cooperative arrays to produce large changes in the activity of a signaling kinase, CheA, in response to small changes in chemoeffector concentration. Recent research has provided a much deeper understanding of the structure and function of core receptor signaling complexes and the architecture of higher-order receptor arrays, which, in turn, has led to new insights into the molecular signaling mechanisms of chemoreceptor networks. Current evidence supports a new view of receptor signaling in which stimulus information travels within receptor molecules through shifts in the dynamic properties of adjoining structural elements rather than through a few discrete conformational states. PMID:25834953

  6. SOLITARY CHEMORECEPTOR CELL SURVIVAL IS INDEPENDENT OF INTACT TRIGEMINAL INNERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al., 2003). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al., 2003) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout m...

  7. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  8. Carotid body chemoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Idiaquez, Juan; Somers, Virend K.

    2016-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing...

  9. Chronic Interactions Between Carotid Baroreceptors and Chemoreceptors in Obesity Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Thomas E; Iliescu, Radu; Tudorancea, Ionut; Cazan, Radu; Cates, Adam W; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Irwin, Eric D

    2016-07-01

    Carotid bodies play a critical role in protecting against hypoxemia, and their activation increases sympathetic activity, arterial pressure, and ventilation, responses opposed by acute stimulation of the baroreflex. Although chemoreceptor hypersensitivity is associated with sympathetically mediated hypertension, the mechanisms involved and their significance in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unclear. We investigated the chronic interactions of these reflexes in dogs with sympathetically mediated, obesity-induced hypertension based on the hypothesis that hypoxemia and tonic activation of carotid chemoreceptors may be associated with obesity. After 5 weeks on a high-fat diet, the animals experienced a 35% to 40% weight gain and increases in arterial pressure from 106±3 to 123±3 mm Hg and respiratory rate from 8±1 to 12±1 breaths/min along with hypoxemia (arterial partial pressure of oxygen=81±3 mm Hg) but eucapnia. During 7 days of carotid baroreflex activation by electric stimulation of the carotid sinus, tachypnea was attenuated, and hypertension was abolished before these variables returned to prestimulation values during a recovery period. After subsequent denervation of the carotid sinus region, respiratory rate decreased transiently in association with further sustained reductions in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (to 65±2 mm Hg) and substantial hypercapnia. Moreover, the severity of hypertension was attenuated from 125±2 to 116±3 mm Hg (45%-50% reduction). These findings suggest that hypoxemia may account for sustained stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors in obesity and that this activation leads to compensatory increases in ventilation and central sympathetic outflow that contributes to neurogenically mediated hypertension. Furthermore, the excitatory effects of chemoreceptor hyperactivity are abolished by chronic activation of the carotid baroreflex. PMID:27160198

  10. Chemoreceptors and cardiovascular control in acute and chronic systemic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Marshall

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the ways in which the primary bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction evoked by selective stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors can be modified by the secondary effects of a chemoreceptor-induced increase in ventilation. The evidence that strong stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors can evoke the behavioural and cardiovascular components of the alerting or defence response which is characteristically evoked by novel or noxious stimuli is considered. The functional significance of all these influences in systemic hypoxia is then discussed with emphasis on the fact that these reflex changes can be overcome by the local effects of hypoxia: central neural hypoxia depresses ventilation, hypoxia acting on the heart causes bradycardia and local hypoxia of skeletal muscle and brain induces vasodilatation. Further, it is proposed that these local influences can become interdependent, so generating a positive feedback loop that may explain sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. It is also argued that a major contributor to these local influences is adenosine. The role of adenosine in determining the distribution of O2 in skeletal muscle microcirculation in hypoxia is discussed, together with its possible cellular mechanisms of action. Finally, evidence is presented that in chronic systemic hypoxia, the reflex vasoconstrictor influences of the sympathetic nervous system are reduced and/or the local dilator influences of hypoxia are enhanced. In vitro and in vivo findings suggest this is partly explained by upregulation of nitric oxide (NO synthesis by the vascular endothelium which facilitates vasodilatation induced by adenosine and other NO-dependent dilators and attenuates noradrenaline-evoked vasoconstriction.

  11. Lead toxicity promotes autonomic dysfunction with increased chemoreceptor sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Vera; Carvalho, Mafalda; Goncalves-Rosa, Nataniel; Tavares, Cristiano; Laranjo, Sérgio; Rocha, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Mortality and morbidity by toxic metals is an important issue of occupational health. Lead is an ubiquitous heavy metal in our environment despite having no physiological role in biological systems. Being an homeostatic controller is expected that the autonomic nervous system would show a degree of impairment in lead toxicity. In fact, sympathoexcitation associated to high blood pressure and tachypnea has been described together with baroreflex dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the autonomic dysfunction and the interplay between baro- and chemoreflex are not yet fully clarified. The angiotensinogenic PVN-NTS axis (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus - nucleus tractus solitarius axis) is a particularly important neuronal pathway that could be responsible for the autonomic dysfunction and the cardiorespiratory impairment in lead toxicity. Within the current work, we addressed in vivo, baro- and chemoreceptor reflex behaviour, before and after central angiotensin inhibition, in order to better understand the cardiorespiratory autonomic mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of long-term lead exposure. For that, arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and baro- and chemoreceptor reflex profiles of anaesthetized young adult rats exposed to lead, from foetal period to adulthood, were evaluated. Results showed increased chemosensitivity together with baroreceptor reflex impairment, sympathetic over-excitation, hypertension and tachypnea. Chemosensitivity and sympathetic overexcitation were reversed towards normality values by NTS treatment with A-779, an angiotensin (1-7) antagonist. No parasympathetic changes were observed before and after A-799 treatment. In conclusion, angiotensin (1-7) at NTS level is involved in the autonomic dysfunction observed in lead toxicity. The increased sensitivity of chemoreceptor reflex expresses the clear impairment of autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular and

  12. Carotid body chemoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Idiaquez, Juan; Somers, Virend K

    2016-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology. Indeed, the CB has been implicated in several diseases associated with increases in central sympathetic outflow. These include hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, ablation of the CB has been proposed for the treatment of severe and resistant hypertension in humans. In this review, we will analyze and discuss new evidence supporting an important role for the CB chemoreceptor in the progression of autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26920146

  13. Functional Gustatory Role of Chemoreceptors in Drosophila Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Hussein; Ferveur, Jean-François; Ledger, Neil; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2016-05-17

    Neuroanatomical evidence argues for the presence of taste sensilla in Drosophila wings; however, the taste physiology of insect wings remains hypothetical, and a comprehensive link to mechanical functions, such as flight, wing flapping, and grooming, is lacking. Our data show that the sensilla of the Drosophila anterior wing margin respond to both sweet and bitter molecules through an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Conversely, genetically modified flies presenting a wing-specific reduction in chemosensory cells show severe defects in both wing taste signaling and the exploratory guidance associated with chemodetection. In Drosophila, the chemodetection machinery includes mechanical grooming, which facilitates the contact between tastants and wing chemoreceptors, and the vibrations of flapping wings that nebulize volatile molecules as carboxylic acids. Together, these data demonstrate that the Drosophila wing chemosensory sensilla are a functional taste organ and that they may have a role in the exploration of ecological niches. PMID:27160896

  14. Fernando De Castro and the discovery of the arterial chemoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constancio eGonzalez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When De Castro entered the carotid body (CB field, the organ was considered to be a small autonomic ganglion, a gland, a glomus or glomerulus, or a paraganglion. In his 1928 paper, De Castro concluded: In sum, the Glomus caroticum is innervated by centripetal fibers, whose trophic centers are located in the sensory ganglia of the glossopharyngeal, and not by centrifugal [efferent] or secretomotor fibers as is the case for glands; these are precisely the facts which lead to suppose that the Glomus caroticum is a sensory organ. A few pages down, De Castro wrote: The Glomus represents an organ with multiple receptors furnished with specialized receptor cells like those of other sensory organs [taste buds?]…As a plausible hypothesis we propose that the Glomus caroticum represents a sensory organ, at present the only one in its kind, dedicated to capture certain qualitative variations in the composition of blood, a function that, possibly by a reflex mechanism would have an effect on the functional activity of other organs… Therefore, the sensory fiber would not be directly stimulated by blood, but via the intermediation of the epithelial cells of the organ, which, as their structure suggests, possess a secretory function which would participate in the stimulation of the centripetal fibers. In our article we will recreate the experiments that allowed Fernando de Castro to reach this first conclusion. Also, we will scrutinize the natural endowments and the scientific knowledge that drove De Castro to make the triple hypotheses: the CB as chemoreceptor [variations in blood composition], as a secondary sensory receptor which functioning involves a chemical synapse, and as a centre, origin of systemic reflexes. After a brief account of the systemic reflex effects resulting from the CB stimulation, we will complete our article with a general view of the cellular-molecular mechanisms currently thought to be involved in the functioning of this arterial

  15. Repellent response functions of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, K.; Macnab, R M; Imae, Y

    1990-01-01

    The chemoreceptors responsible for the repellent response of Escherichia coli to phenol were investigated. In the absence of all four known methyl-accepting chemoreceptors (Tar, Tsr, Trg, and Tap), cells showed no response to phenol. However, when Trg, which mediates the attractant response to ribose and galactose, was introduced via a plasmid, the cells acquired a repellent response to phenol. About 1 mM phenol induced a clear repellent response; this response was suppressed by 1 mM ribose. ...

  16. Oxygen-sensing by arterial chemoreceptors: Mechanisms and medical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barneo, José; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Macías, David; Pardal, Ricardo; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Acute O2 sensing is necessary for the activation of cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation), which permit the survival of individuals under hypoxic environments (e.g. high altitude) or medical conditions presenting with reduced capacity for gas exchange between the lung alveoli and the blood. Changes in blood O2 tension are detected by the arterial chemoreceptors, in particular the carotid body (CB), which act in concert with the adrenal medulla (AM) to facilitate rapid adaptations to hypoxia. The field of arterial chemoreception has undergone a considerable expansion in recent years, with many of the fundamental observations made at the molecular and cellular levels serving to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of numerous medical disorders, and even to propose advances in the treatment strategies. In this review, after a short historical preface, we describe the current model of chemosensory transduction based on the modulation of membrane K(+) channels by O2 in specialized chemoreceptor cells. Recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of ion channels by O2 tension, which involves mitochondrial complex I, is also discussed. The discovery in the last few years of a specific population of neural crest-derived stem cells in the CB explains the reversible growth of this organ, an intriguing and unusual property of this type of neuronal tissue that contributes to acclimatization under chronic hypoxia. The essential homeostatic role of the CB-AM axis is clearly evident in newly generated mouse models that reach adulthood, albeit with CB and AM atrophy. These animals exhibit a marked intolerance to even mild hypoxia. CB inhibition or over-activation can have important medical consequences. Respiratory depression by general anesthetics or by opioid use is a common clinical condition that frequently causes death in susceptible individuals. An exaggerated sympathetic outflow due to over

  17. Analysis of putative chemoreceptor proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Bang, Dang D.;

    are found to be colonized by C. jejuni and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this environment by chemotaxis. In order to explore the role of chemotaxis in C. jejuni colonization and to identify chemoreceptors with matching attractants and/or repellants we have constructed deletion mutants of five...... putative chemoreceptors (tlp1, tlp2, tlp3, docB and docC) in the sequenced strain C. jejuni NCTC11168. The chemotactic capacity of these mutants were investigated by quantifying bacterial accumulation in capillaries filled with attractants or repellants and by measuring migration zones towards or away from...

  18. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Flegel

    Full Text Available The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and ion channels, which are (potentially involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues.

  19. Rho GTPases of the RhoBTB subfamily and tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica BERTHOLD; Kristína SCHENKOV(A); Francisco RIVERO

    2008-01-01

    RhoBTB proteins constitute a subfamily of atypical members within the Rho fami-ly of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases).Their most salient feature is their domain architecture:a GTPase domain (in most cases,non-functional) is followed by a proline-rich region,a tandem of 2 broad-complex,tramtrack,bric hrac (BTB) domains,and a conserved C-terminal region.In humans,the RhoBTB subfamily consists of 3 isoforms:RhoBTB 1,RhoBTB2,and RhoBTB3.Orthologs are present in several other eukaryotes,such as Drosophila and Dictyostelium,but have been lost in plants and fungi.Interest in RhoBTB arose when RHOBTB2 was identified as the gene homozygously deleted in breast cancer samples and was proposed as a candidate tumor suppressor gene,a property that has been extended to RHOBTBI.The functions of RhoBTB proteins have not been defined yet,but may be related to the roles of BTB domains in the recruitment of cullin3,a component of a family of uhiquitin ligases.A model emerges in which RhoBTB proteins are required to maintain constant levels of putative substrates involved in cell cycle regulation or vesicle transport through targeting for degradation in the 26S proteasome.RhoBTB proteins are engrossing the list of Rho GTPases involved in tumorigenesis.Unlike typical Rho GTPases (usually overexpressed or hyperactive),RhoBTB proteins appear to play a part in the carcinogenic process through a mechanism that involves the decreased or abolished expression of the corresponding genes,or more rarely,mutations that result in impaired functioning of the protein,presumably leading to the accumulation of RhoBTB substrates and alterations of the cellular homeostasis.

  20. Influence of neonatally administered capsaicin on baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes in the adult rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, S. M.; Cervero, F; McQueen, D S

    1982-01-01

    1 Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex activity was studied in anaesthetized adult rats which had been treated neonatally with a single injection of capsaicin (50 mg/kg s.c.). 2 Pressor responses to bilateral carotid artery occlusion were significantly lower in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Pressor responses to intravenously injected noradrenaline were similar in the two groups of rats. 3 Resting respiratory minute volume and tidal volume were lower in anaest...

  1. Identification of a Vibrio cholerae chemoreceptor that senses taurine and amino acids as attractants

    OpenAIRE

    So-ichiro Nishiyama; Yohei Takahashi; Kentaro Yamamoto; Daisuke Suzuki; Yasuaki Itoh; Kazumasa Sumita; Yumiko Uchida; Michio Homma; Katsumi Imada; Ikuro Kawagishi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, was found to be attracted by taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a major constituent of human bile. Mlp37, the closest homolog of the previously identified amino acid chemoreceptor Mlp24, was found to mediate taxis to taurine as well as L-serine, L-alanine, L-arginine, and other amino acids. Methylation of Mlp37 was enhanced upon the addition of taurine and amino acids. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated that a purified periplasm...

  2. Caste-Specific and Sex-Specific Expression of Chemoreceptor Genes in a Termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Mikheyev, Alexander; Tin, Mandy M Y; Watanabe, Yutaka; Matsuura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The sophisticated colony organization of eusocial insects is primarily maintained through the utilization of pheromones. The regulation of these complex social interactions requires intricate chemoreception systems. The recent publication of the genome of Zootermopsis nevadensis opened a new avenue to study molecular basis of termite caste systems. Although there has been a growing interest in the termite chemoreception system that regulates their sophisticated caste system, the relationship between division of labor and expression of chemoreceptor genes remains to be explored. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we found several chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed among castes and between sexes in a subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. In total, 53 chemoreception-related genes were annotated, including 22 odorant receptors, 7 gustatory receptors, 12 ionotropic receptors, 9 odorant-binding proteins, and 3 chemosensory proteins. Most of the chemoreception-related genes had caste-related and sex-related expression patterns; in particular, some chemoreception genes showed king-biased or queen-biased expression patterns. Moreover, more than half of the genes showed significant age-dependent differences in their expression in female and/or male reproductives. These results reveal a strong relationship between the evolution of the division of labor and the regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression, thereby demonstrating the chemical communication and underlining chemoreception mechanism in social insects. PMID:26760975

  3. Gill chemoreceptors and cardio-respiratory reflexes in the neotropical teleost pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, C A C; Florindo, L H; Kalinin, A L; Milsom, W K; Rantin, F T

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the location and distribution of O(2) chemoreceptors involved in cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxia in the neotropical teleost, the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Intact fish and fish experiencing progressive gill denervation by selective transection of cranial nerves IX and X were exposed to gradual hypoxia and submitted to intrabuccal and intravenous injections of NaCN while their heart rate, ventilation rate and ventilation amplitude were measured. The chemoreceptors producing reflex bradycardia were confined to, but distributed along all gill arches, and were sensitive to O(2) levels in the water and the blood. Ventilatory responses to all stimuli, though modified, continued following gill denervation, however, indicating the presence of internally and externally oriented receptors along all gill arches and either in the pseudobranch or at extra-branchial sites. Chemoreceptors located on the first pair of gill arches and innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve appeared to attenuate the cardiac and respiratory responses to hypoxia. The data indicate that the location and distribution of cardio-respiratory O(2) receptors are not identical to those in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) despite their similar habitats and close phylogenetic lineage, although the differences between the two species could reduce to nothing more than the presence or absence of the pseudobranch. PMID:17680247

  4. Caste-Specific and Sex-Specific Expression of Chemoreceptor Genes in a Termite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Mitaka

    Full Text Available The sophisticated colony organization of eusocial insects is primarily maintained through the utilization of pheromones. The regulation of these complex social interactions requires intricate chemoreception systems. The recent publication of the genome of Zootermopsis nevadensis opened a new avenue to study molecular basis of termite caste systems. Although there has been a growing interest in the termite chemoreception system that regulates their sophisticated caste system, the relationship between division of labor and expression of chemoreceptor genes remains to be explored. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq, we found several chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed among castes and between sexes in a subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. In total, 53 chemoreception-related genes were annotated, including 22 odorant receptors, 7 gustatory receptors, 12 ionotropic receptors, 9 odorant-binding proteins, and 3 chemosensory proteins. Most of the chemoreception-related genes had caste-related and sex-related expression patterns; in particular, some chemoreception genes showed king-biased or queen-biased expression patterns. Moreover, more than half of the genes showed significant age-dependent differences in their expression in female and/or male reproductives. These results reveal a strong relationship between the evolution of the division of labor and the regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression, thereby demonstrating the chemical communication and underlining chemoreception mechanism in social insects.

  5. TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum

    OpenAIRE

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidum repeat) genes (tprE, tprG, and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs...

  6. The human VH3b gene subfamily is highly polymorphic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adderson, E.E.; Carroll, W.L. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Azmi, F.H.; Wilson, P.M.; Shackelford, P.G. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1993-07-15

    The authors have previously shown that human antibody (Ab) directed against the capsular polysaccharide of the important bacterial pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is encoded by a small group of VH3 gene family members. The majority of anti-Hib PS Ab use members of the smaller VH3b subfamily. To examine directly the available human VH3 repertoire, they have used PCR to amplify and clone candidate germ-line VH3b H chain V region genes from two unrelated subjects from whom anti-Hib polysaccharide mAb had been previously obtained. A single functional VH3b germ-line gene was obtained from one subject. This gene is identical throughout the coding region to the previously identified gene 9.1. Twelve distinct VH3b germ-line sequences, 87.6-99.8% homologous to one another, were obtained from the second subject. One of these genes, LSG1.1, is also identical to the 9.1 germ-line gene, and a second, LSG6.1 is identical to a previously reported cDNA, M85. These germ-line VH3b genes are 82.7-94.1% homologous to rearranged anti-Hib PS VH3b segments obtained from these subjects. These findings further demonstrate that considerable polymorphism of VH segments exists in the human population. Despite the presence of very highly homologous VH elements in the germ line, particular genes are highly conserved within the outbred human population. 52 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Do the carotid body chemoreceptors mediate cardiovascular and sympathetic adjustments induced by sodium overload in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrino, Gustavo R; Mourão, Aline A; Moreira, Marina C S; da Silva, Elaine F; Lopes, Paulo R; Fajemiroye, James O; Schoorlemmer, Guss H M; Sato, Mônica A; Reis, Ângela A S; Rebelo, Ana C S; Cravo, Sergio L

    2016-05-15

    Acute plasma hypernatremia induces several cardiovascular and sympathetic responses. It is conceivable that these responses contribute to rapid sodium excretion and restoration of normal conditions. Afferent pathways mediating these responses are not entirely understood. The present study analyses the effects of acute carotid chemoreceptor inactivation on cardiovascular and sympathetic responses induced by infusion of hypertonic saline (HS). All experiments were performed on anesthetized male Wistar rats instrumented for recording of arterial blood pressure (ABP), renal blood flow (RBF) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Animals were subjected to sham surgery or carotid chemoreceptor inactivation by bilateral ligation of the carotid body artery (CBA). In sham rats (n=8), intravenous infusion of HS (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml/kg b.wt.) elicited a transient increase (9±2mmHg) in ABP, and long lasting (30 min) increases in RBF (138±5%) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) (128±5%) with concurrent decrease in RSNA (-19±4%). In rats submitted to CBA ligation (n=8), the pressor response to HS was higher (24±2mmHg; p<0.05). However, RBF and RVC responses to HS infusion were significantly reduced (113±5% and 93±4%, respectively) while RSNA was increased (13±2%). When HS (3M NaCl, 200μl) was administrated into internal carotid artery (ICA), distinct sympathetic and cardiovascular responses were observed. In sham-group, HS infusion (3M NaCl, 200μl) into ICA promoted an increase in ABP (26±8mmHg) and RSNA (29±13%). In CBA rats, ABP (-3±5.6mmHg) remained unaltered despite sympathoinhibition (-37.6±5.4%). These results demonstrate that carotid body chemoreceptors play a role in the development of hemodynamic and sympathetic responses to acute HS infusion. PMID:27060222

  8. Ionic currents in dispersed chemoreceptor cells of the mammalian carotid body

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña, J; J. López López; González, Constancio; López-Barneo, J

    1989-01-01

    Ionic currents of enzymatically dispersed type I and type II cells of the carotid body have been studied using the whole cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. Type II cells only have a tiny, slowly activating outward potassium current. By contrast, in every type I chemoreceptor cell studied we found (a) sodium, (b) calcium, and (c) potassium currents. (a) The sodium current has a fast activation time course and an activation threshold at approximately -40 mV. At all voltages inactivation...

  9. Neural respiratory and circulatory interaction during chemoreceptor stimulation and cooling of ventral medulla in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E

    1986-01-01

    The effects on respiratory and sympathetic neural activity, measured as integrated phrenic and cervical nerve activities respectively, during changing input from the central chemoreceptors was studied in anaesthetized, paralysed cats whose carotid sinus nerves and vagus nerves had been cut. Central respiratory drive was altered either by graded cold block of the intermediate areas, located bilaterally near the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, or by step increases in end-tidal PCO2. Cervical nerve activity showed both a tonic (or mean) level of activity and a prominent cyclic discharge that was in phase with phrenic nerve activity. Graded focal cooling of the intermediate areas to 20 degrees C when end-tidal PCO2 was kept constant caused progressive decreases in phrenic activity, the amplitude of the inspiratory related discharge and mean arterial pressure, but only a small decrease in mean cervical nerve activity. Cooling the intermediate areas in the absence of the inspiratory related discharge (i.e. when phrenic activity was below the apnoeic threshold) led to a much smaller decrease in arterial pressure. Step increases of end-tidal PCO2 caused progressive increases of both cervical and phrenic nerve activities. The increase in cervical activity was due primarily, if not wholly, to a progressive increase in the amplitude of the inspiratory related discharge. These findings show that the predominant effect on sympathetic activity during stimulation of the central chemoreceptor and graded cold block of the intermediate areas is a change in the amplitude of the inspiratory related discharge and suggest that the change in arterial pressure that accompanies central chemoreceptor stimulation and graded cold block of the intermediate areas is mediated by the inspiratory related discharge rather than by an increase in the mean level of sympathetic activity. When phrenic activity was lowered to below apnoeic threshold by cooling the intermediate areas, step

  10. Identification of a Vibrio cholerae chemoreceptor that senses taurine and amino acids as attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, So-ichiro; Takahashi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Itoh, Yasuaki; Sumita, Kazumasa; Uchida, Yumiko; Homma, Michio; Imada, Katsumi; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, was found to be attracted by taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a major constituent of human bile. Mlp37, the closest homolog of the previously identified amino acid chemoreceptor Mlp24, was found to mediate taxis to taurine as well as L-serine, L-alanine, L-arginine, and other amino acids. Methylation of Mlp37 was enhanced upon the addition of taurine and amino acids. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated that a purified periplasmic fragment of Mlp37 binds directly to taurine, L-serine, L-alanine and L-arginine. Crystal structures of the periplamic domain of Mlp37 revealed that L-serine and taurine bind to the membrane-distal PAS domain in essentially in the same way. The structural information was supported by characterising the in vivo properties of alanine-substituted mutant forms of Mlp37. The fact that the ligand-binding domain of the L-serine complex had a small opening, which would accommodate a larger R group, accounts for the broad ligand specificity of Mlp37 and allowed us to visualise ligand binding to Mlp37 with fluorescently labelled L-serine. Taken together, we conclude that Mlp37 serves as the major chemoreceptor for taurine and various amino acids. PMID:26878914

  11. Minimal subfamilies and the probabilistic interpretation for modulus on graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Albin, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The notion of $p$-modulus of a family of objects on a graph is a measure of the richness of such families. We develop the notion of minimal subfamilies using the method of Lagrangian duality for $p$-modulus. We show that minimal subfamilies have at most $|E|$ elements and that these elements carry a weight related to their "importance" in relation to the corresponding $p$-modulus problem. When $p=2$, this measure of importance is in fact a probability measure and modulus can be thought as trying to minimize the expected overlap in the family.

  12. Expression of D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in the arterial chemoreceptor afferent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1992-11-01

    Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the arterial chemoreceptor pathway. In the present study we wished to determine if messenger RNAs for dopamine D1 and D2 receptor are expressed in carotid body (type I cells), in sensory neurons of the petrosal ganglion which innervate the carotid body and in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. We failed to detect D1 receptor mRNA in any of these tissues. However, we found that D2 receptor mRNA was expressed by dopaminergic carotid body type I cells. D2 receptor mRNA was also found in petrosal ganglion neurons that innervated the carotid sinus and carotid body. In addition, a large number of sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion expressed D2 receptor mRNA. PMID:1362730

  13. Identification and Characterization of the Populus AREB/ABF Subfamily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lexiang Ji; Jia Wang; Meixia Ye; Ying Li; Bin Guo; Zhong Chen; Hao Li; Xinmin An

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone that plays an important role in responses to abiotic stresses.The ABA-responsive element binding proteinlABRE-binding factor (AREB/ABF) gene subfamily contains crucial transcription factors in the ABA-mediated signaling pathway.In this study,a total of 14 putative AREB/ABF members were identified in the Populus trichocarpa Torr.& Gray.genome using five AREB/ABF amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana L.as probes.The 14 putative Populus subfamily members showed high protein similarities,especially in the basic leucine zipper (bZlP) domain region.A neighbor-joining analysis combined with gene structure data revealed homology among the 14 genes.The expression patterns of the Populus AREB/ABF subfamily suggested that the most abundant transcripts of 11 genes occurred in leaf tissues,while two genes were most transcribed in root tissues.Significantly,eight Populus AREB/ABF gene members were upregulated after treatment with 100 μM exogenous ABA,while the other six members were downregulated.We identified the expression profiles of the subfamily members in Populus tissues and elucidated different response patterns of Populus AREB/ABF members to ABA stress.This study provided insight into the roles of Populus AREB/ABF homologues in plant response to abiotic stresses.

  14. Revision of the subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Guimarães

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae is revised. Two genera are recognized: Rogenhofera Brauer (Type-species, trigonophora Brauer and Andinocutereba Guimarães (Type-species, fassleri Guimarães. Five species are recorded in Rogenhofera, one R. lopesi is described as new. Key to species, illustrations and distribution are presented.

  15. First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

  16. Review of the subfamily Aganainae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulziijargal Bayarsaikhan; Sol-Moon Na; Yang-Seop Bae

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Aganainae is reviewed for the first time from Cambodia. Fifteen species of five genera are recognized from Cambodia. Key and diagnoses for the genera and all species are provided. The adults and genitalia are illustrated for all examined species.

  17. Arterial chemoreceptor activation reduces the activity of parapyramidal serotonergic neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, A C; Moreira, T S

    2013-05-01

    The parapyramidal (ppy) region targets primarily the intermediolateral cell column and is probably involved in breathing and thermoregulation. In the present study, we tested whether ppy serotonergic neurons respond to activation of central and peripheral chemoreceptors. Bulbospinal ppy neurons (n=30) were recorded extracellularly along with the phrenic nerve activity in urethane/α-chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed, intact (n=7) or carotid body denervated (n=6) male Wistar rats. In intact animals, most of the ppy neurons were inhibited by hypoxia (n=14 of 19) (8% O2, 30s) (1.5 ± 0.03 vs. control: 2.4 ± 0.2 Hz) or hypercapnia (n=15 of 19) (10% CO2) (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. control: 2.2 ± 0.2 Hz), although some neurons were insensitive to hypoxia (n=3 of 19) or hypercapnia (n=4 of 19). Very few neurons (n=2 of 19) were activated after hypoxia, but not after hypercapnia. In carotid body denervated rats, all the 5HT-ppy neurons (n=11) were insensitive to hypercapnia (2.1 ± 0.1 vs. control: 2.3 ± 0.09 Hz). Biotinamide-labeled cells that were recovered after histochemistry were located in the ppy region. Most labeled cells (90%) showed strong tryptophan hydroxylase immunocytochemical reactivity, indicating that they were serotonergic. The present data reveal that peripheral chemoreceptors reduce the activity of the serotonergic premotor neurons located in the ppy region. It is plausible that the serotonergic neurons of the ppy region could conceivably regulate breathing automaticity and be involved in autonomic regulation. PMID:23403178

  18. The Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, John C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The Candidate is an attempt to marry elements of journalism and gaming into a format that both entertains and educates the player. The Google-AP Scholarship, a new scholarship award that is given to several journalists a year to work on projects at the threshold of technology and journalism, funded the project. The objective in this prototype version of the game is to put the player in the shoes of a congressional candidate during an off-year election, specificall...

  19. Inter-specific and developmental differences on the array of antennal chemoreceptors in four species of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gracco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the pattern of chemoreceptor sensilla in adults and fifth stage nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Triatoma infestans and T. sordida in order to study differences and similarities between genera and species. Three types of sensilla were analyzed by light microscopy: thin-walled trichoidea, thick-walled trichoidea and basiconica. The number of sensilla of each three types were counted. The length of the antennal segments were also used as a variable for the analysis. The statistical analysis showed that the number of these antennal chemoreceptors had significant differences between species and between adults and nymphs of each species. Discriminant analysis separates incompletely the fifth stage nymphs of the four species and showed similarity between them. Discriminant analysis performed with 12 variables of the antennae, allowed a complete separation of the adults of the four species.

  20. Expression of messenger RNAs for peptides and tyrosine hydroxylase in primary sensory neurons that innervate arterial baroreceptors and chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Bayliss, D A; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1991-08-01

    Retrograde fiber tracing and in situ hybridization were used to determine expression of mRNAs for preprotachykinin A (ppTA), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), preproenkephalin A (ENK), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and somatostatin (SOM) as well as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the petrosal ganglia primary sensory neurons which innervate carotid sinus baroreceptors and carotid body chemoreceptors. Perfusion of the carotid sinus with the retrogradely transported dye (Fluoro-Gold) labeled primary sensory neurons in petrosal ganglion. Numerous somata in the petrosal ganglion labeled with dye contained mRNAs for all the above peptides, except SOM. Moreover, TH mRNA was found in a substantial number of retrogradely labeled cells in the petrosal ganglion. This study provides information concerning which of the numerous peptides identified in sensory neurons of petrosal ganglion may be involved in modulation of the arterial baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. PMID:1681484

  1. Chemoreceptor Sensitivity ‘in Women Mountaineering Trainees of Different Altitudes Inducted by Trekking to 4350 m

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bhaumik; S.S Purkayastha; R P Sharma; Sharma, Y K; W. Selvamurthy; Banerjee, P. K.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted on women mountaineering trainees to evaluate the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and the precise nature of changes in the sensitivity of chemoreceptors on induction by trekking to 4350 m. Two groups of women belonging to different ethnic origins and residents of different altitudes, ie, moderate-altitude women (MAWMongolians) and low-altitude women (LAW-Caucasians) were the subjects in this study. Tests of sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia were car...

  2. Reductions in carotid chemoreceptor activity with low-dose dopamine improves baroreflex control of heart rate during hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, Michael T; Holbein, Walter W; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the contribution of the carotid body chemoreceptors to changes in baroreflex control of heart rate with exposure to hypoxia. We hypothesized spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (scBRS) would be reduced with hypoxia and this effect would be blunted when carotid chemoreceptor activity was reduced with low-dose dopamine. Fifteen healthy adults (11 M/4 F) completed two visits randomized to intravenous dopamine or placebo (saline). On each visit, subjects were exposed to 5-min normoxia (~99% SpO2), followed by 5-min hypoxia (~84% SpO2). Blood pressure (intra-arterial catheter) and heart rate (ECG) were measured continuously and scBRS was assessed by spectrum and sequence methodologies. scBRS was reduced with hypoxia (P dopamine (P dopamine (P dopamine did not attenuate the decrease in baroreflex sensitivity to falling pressures (scBRS "down-down"; P > 0.05). Present findings are consistent with a reduction in scBRS with systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, we show this effect is partially mediated by the carotid body chemoreceptors, given the fall in scBRS is attenuated when activity of the chemoreceptors is reduced with low-dose dopamine. However, the improvement in scBRS with dopamine appears to be specific to rising blood pressures. These results may have important implications for impairments in baroreflex function common in disease states of acute and/or chronic hypoxemia, as well as the experimental use of dopamine to assess such changes. PMID:27418545

  3. Axial helix rotation as a mechanism for signal regulation inferred from the crystallographic analysis of the E. coli serine chemoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Hedda U; Zeth, Kornelius; Hulko, Michael; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Lupas, Andrei N

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis receptors are elongated homodimeric coiled-coil bundles, which transduce signals generated in an N-terminal sensor domain across 15-20nm to a conserved C-terminal signaling subdomain. This signal transduction regulates the activity of associated kinases, altering the behavior of the flagellar motor and hence cell motility. Signaling is in turn modulated by selective methylation and demethylation of specific glutamate and glutamine residues in an adaptation subdomain. We have determined the structure of a chimeric protein, consisting of the HAMP domain from Archaeoglobus fulgidus Af1503 and the methyl-accepting domain of Escherichia coli Tsr. It shows a 21nm coiled coil that alternates between two coiled-coil packing modes: canonical knobs-into-holes and complementary x-da, a variant form related to the canonical one by axial rotation of the helices. Comparison of the obtained structure to the Thermotoga maritima chemoreceptor TM1143 reveals that they adopt different axial rotation states in their adaptation subdomains. This conformational change is presumably induced by the upstream HAMP domain and may modulate the affinity of the chemoreceptor to the methylation-demethylation system. The presented findings extend the cogwheel model for signal transmission to chemoreceptors. PMID:24680785

  4. Clustering requires modified methyl-accepting sites in low-abundance but not high-abundance chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybarger, Suzanne R; Nair, Usha; Lilly, Angela A; Hazelbauer, Gerald L; Maddock, Janine R

    2005-05-01

    Chemotaxis signalling complexes of Escherichia coli, composed of chemoreceptors, CheA and CheW, form clusters located predominantly at cell poles. As the only kind of receptor in a cell, high-abundance receptors are polar and clustered whereas low-abundance chemoreceptors are polar but largely unclustered. We found that clustering was a function of the cytoplasmic, carboxyl-terminal domain and that effective clustering was conferred on low-abundance receptors by addition of the approximately 20-residue sequence from the carboxyl terminus of either high-abundance receptor. These sequences are different but share a carboxyl-terminal pentapeptide that enhances adaptational covalent modification and allows a physiological balance between modified and unmodified methyl-accepting sites, implying that receptor modification might influence clustering. Thus we investigated directly effects of modification state on chemoreceptor clustering. As the sole receptor type in a cell, low-abundance receptors were clustered only if modified, but high-abundance receptors were clustered independent of extent of modification. This difference could mean that the two receptor types are fundamentally different or that they are poised at different positions in the same conformational equilibrium. Notably, no receptor perturbation we tested altered a predominant location at cell poles, emphasizing a distinction between determinants of clustering and polar localization. PMID:15853891

  5. Contribution of Individual Chemoreceptors to Sinorhizobium meliloti Chemotaxis Towards Amino Acids of Host and Nonhost Seed Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2016-03-01

    Plant seeds and roots exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil that attract bacteria to the spermosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti utilizes eight chemoreceptors (McpT to McpZ and IcpA) to mediate chemotaxis. Using a modified hydrogel capillary chemotaxis assay that allows data quantification and larger throughput screening, we defined the role of S. meliloti chemoreceptors in sensing its host, Medicago sativa, and a closely related nonhost, Medicago arabica. S. meliloti wild type and most single-deletion strains displayed comparable chemotaxis responses to host or nonhost seed exudate. However, while the mcpZ mutant responded like wild type to M. sativa exudate, its reaction to M. arabica exudate was reduced by 80%. Even though the amino acid (AA) amounts released by both plant species were similar, synthetic AA mixtures that matched exudate profiles contributed differentially to the S. meliloti wild-type response to M. sativa (23%) and M. arabica (37%) exudates, with McpU identified as the most important chemoreceptor for AA. Our results show that S. meliloti is equally attracted to host and nonhost legumes; however, AA play a greater role in attraction to M. arabica than to M. sativa, with McpZ being specifically important in sensing M. arabica. PMID:26713349

  6. Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jason R; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Barrett, Craig F; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Heyduk, Karolina; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2016-04-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. Resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. The focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily Arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. A targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the Arecoideae tribes and the other palm subfamilies. Species trees from the concatenated and coalescent based analyses recovered largely congruent topologies. Three major tribal clades were recovered: the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae, Sclerospermeae), the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae, Cocoseae), and the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae, Pelagodoxeae). Leopoldinieae was sister to the rest of the core arecoids (Geonomateae, Manicarieae+Pelagodoxeae, and Areceae+Euterpeae). The nuclear phylogeny supported a North American origin for subfamily Arecoideae, with most tribal progenitors diversifying within the Americas. The POS clade may have dispersed from the Americas into Africa, with tribe Oranieae subsequently spreading into the Indo-Pacific. Two independent dispersals into the Indo-Pacific were inferred for two tribes within the core arecoids (tribes Areceae and Pelagodoxeae). PMID:26748268

  7. Enzyme-linked acute oxygen sensing in airway and arterial chemoreceptors--invited article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, J Paul; Peers, C

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have speculated as to the molecular basis of O(2) sensing for decades. In more recent years, since the discovery of ion channels as identified effectors for O(2) sensing pathways, research has focussed on possible pathways coupling a reduction in hypoxia to altered ion channel activity. The most extensively studied systems are the K(+) channels which are inhibited by hypoxia in chemoreceptor tissues (carotid and neuroepithelial bodies). In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the involvement of well defined enzymes in mediating the regulation of K(+) channels by hypoxia. Specifically, we focus on the roles proposed for three enzyme systems; NADPH oxidase, heme oxygenase and AMP activated protein kinase. These systems differ in that the former two utilise O(2) directly (to form superoxide in the case of NADPH oxidase, and as a co-factor in the degradation of heme to carbon monoxide, bilirubin and ferrous iron in the case of heme oxygenase), but the third responds to shifts in the AMP:ATP ratio, so responds to changes in O(2) levels more indirectly. We consider the evidence in favour of each of these systems, and highlight their differential importance in different systems and species. Whilst the evidence for each playing an important role in different tissues is strong, there is a clear need for further study, and current awareness indicates that no one specific cell type may rely on a single mechanism for O(2) sensing. PMID:19536463

  8. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Marek L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The generic classification of the ant subfamily Dorylinae is revised, with the aim of facilitating identification of easily-diagnosable monophyletic genera. The new classification is based on recent molecular phylogenetic evidence and a critical reappraisal of doryline morphology. New keys and diagnoses based on workers and males are provided, along with reviews of natural history and phylogenetic relationships, distribution maps, and a list of valid species for each lineage. Twenty-eight genera (27 extant and 1 extinct) are recognized within the subfamily, an increase from 20 in the previous classification scheme. Species classified in the polyphyletic Cerapachys and Sphinctomyrmex prior to this publication are here distributed among 9 and 3 different genera, respectively. Amyrmex and Asphinctanilloides are synonymized under Leptanilloides and the currently recognized subgenera are synonymized for Dorylus. No tribal classification is proposed for the subfamily, but several apparently monophyletic genus-groups are discussed. Valid generic names recognized here include: Acanthostichus (= Ctenopyga), Aenictogiton, Aenictus (= Paraenictus, Typhlatta), Cerapachys (= Ceratopachys), Cheliomyrmex, Chrysapace gen. rev., Cylindromyrmex (= Holcoponera, Hypocylindromyrmex, Metacylindromyrmex), Dorylus (= Alaopone syn. n., Anomma syn. n., Cosmaecetes, Dichthadia syn. n., Rhogmus syn. n., Shuckardia, Sphecomyrmex, Sphegomyrmex, Typhlopone syn. n.), Eburopone gen. n., Eciton (= Camptognatha, Holopone, Mayromyrmex), Eusphinctus gen. rev., Labidus (= Nycteresia, Pseudodichthadia), Leptanilloides (= Amyrmex syn. n., Asphinctanilloides syn. n.), Lioponera gen. rev. (= Neophyracaces syn. n., Phyracaces syn. n.), Lividopone, Neivamyrmex (= Acamatus, Woitkowskia), Neocerapachys gen. n., Nomamyrmex, Ooceraea gen. rev. (= Cysias syn. n.), Parasyscia gen. rev., †Procerapachys, Simopone, Sphinctomyrmex, Syscia gen. rev., Tanipone, Vicinopone, Yunodorylus gen. rev., Zasphinctus

  9. Inhibition of the pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus reduces genioglossal activity elicited by stimulation of the retrotrapezoid chemoreceptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Josiane N; Lucena, Elvis V; Silva, Talita M; Damasceno, Rosélia S; Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S

    2016-07-22

    The Kölliker-Fuse (KF) region, located in the dorsolateral pons, projects to several brainstem areas involved in respiratory regulation, including the chemoreceptor neurons within the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). Several lines of evidence indicate that the pontine KF region plays an important role in the control of the upper airways for the maintenance of appropriate airflow to and from the lungs. Specifically, we hypothesized that the KF region is involved in mediating the response of the hypoglossal motor activity to central respiratory chemoreflex activation and to stimulation of the chemoreceptor neurons within the RTN region. To test this hypothesis, we combined immunohistochemistry and physiological experiments. We found that in the KF, the majority of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA)-labeled axonal varicosities contained detectable levels of vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGLUT2), but few contained glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67). The majority of the RTN neurons that were FluorGold (FG)-immunoreactive (i.e., projected to the KF) contained hypercapnia-induced Fos, but did not express tyrosine hydroxylase. In urethane-anesthetized sino-aortic denervated and vagotomized male Wistar rats, hypercapnia (10% CO2) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) injection (0.1mM) in the RTN increased diaphragm (DiaEMG) and genioglossus muscle (GGEMG) activities and elicited abdominal (AbdEMG) activity. Bilateral injection of muscimol (GABA-A agonist; 2mM) into the KF region reduced the increase in DiaEMG and GGEMG produced by hypercapnia or NMDA into the RTN. Our data suggest that activation of chemoreceptor neurons in the RTN produces a significant increase in the genioglossus muscle activity and the excitatory pathway is dependent on the neurons located in the dorsolateral pontine KF region. PMID:27126558

  10. Unequal subfamily proportions among honey bee queen and worker brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley; Oldroyd

    1997-12-01

    Queens from three colonies of feral honey bees, Apis mellifera were removed and placed in separate nucleus colonies. For each colony, eggs and larvae were taken from the nucleus and placed in the main hive on each of 3-4 consecutive weeks. Workers in the queenless parts selected young larvae to rear as queens. Queen pupae, together with the surrounding worker pupae, were removed from each colony and analysed at two to three microsatellite loci to determine their paternity. In all three colonies, the paternity of larvae chosen by the bees to rear as queens was not a random sample of the paternities in the worker brood, with certain subfamilies being over-represented in queens. These results support an important prediction of kin selection theory: when colonies are queenless, unequal relatedness within colonies could lead to the evolution of reproductive competition, that is some subfamilies achieving greater reproductive success than others. The mechanism by which such dominance is achieved could be through a system of kin recognition and nepotism, but we conclude that genetically based differential attractiveness of larvae for rearing as queens is more likely.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9521799

  11. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  12. Protein complex interactor analysis and differential activity of KDM3 subfamily members towards H3K9 methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brauchle

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play an important role in chromatin organization and gene regulation, and their interpretation is referred to as epigenetic control. The methylation levels of several lysine residues in histone tails are tightly controlled, and JmjC domain-containing proteins are one class of broadly expressed enzymes catalyzing methyl group removal. However, several JmjC proteins remain uncharacterized, gaps persist in understanding substrate recognition, and the integration of JmjC proteins into signaling pathways is just emerging. The KDM3 subfamily is an evolutionarily conserved group of histone demethylase proteins, thought to share lysine substrate specificity. Here we use a systematic approach to compare KDM3 subfamily members. We show that full-length KDM3A and KDM3B are H3K9me1/2 histone demethylases whereas we fail to observe histone demethylase activity for JMJD1C using immunocytochemical and biochemical approaches. Structure-function analyses revealed the importance of a single amino acid in KDM3A implicated in the catalytic activity towards H3K9me1/2 that is not conserved in JMJD1C. Moreover, we use quantitative proteomic analyses to identify subsets of the interactomes of the 3 proteins. Specific interactor candidates were identified for each of the three KDM3 subfamily members. Importantly, we find that SCAI, a known transcriptional repressor, interacts specifically with KDM3B. Taken together, we identify substantial differences in the biology of KDM3 histone demethylases, namely enzymatic activity and protein-protein interactions. Such comparative approaches pave the way to a better understanding of histone demethylase specificity and protein function at a systems level and are instrumental in identifying the more subtle differences between closely related proteins.

  13. Two new nematode species of the subfamily Brittonematinae (Dorylaimida: Actinolaimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrássy, I.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Two new species of actinolaimoid nematodes of the subfamily Brittonematinae are described and illustrated.Actinca marisae sp. n. from Brazil is characterized by the long (on average 2.92 mm and slender body, 30–32 distinct longitudinalridges on cuticle, narrow head, slender odontostyle, onchial tips facing each other, cylindrus occupying somewhat lessthan one-half of pharynx, broad vulval lips, and by medum long tail. Afractinca eburnea sp. n. from Côte d’Ivoire can bedistinguished by a relatively long body (on average 1.88 mm, thin cuticle provided with 14 longitudinal ridges, cap-like offsetlabial ring, very slender odontostyle, long prerectum, vulva sunk in body contour, and by the elongate-conoid female tail. Mainmorphological structures of Actinca and Afractinca species are summarized. Some comments on further brittonematine speciesare added.

  14. Morphology of Some Species in the Subfamily Papilionoideae

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    Joan Adeola OWOLABI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological study of ten species in the subfamily Papilionoideae was carried out with the view to documenting diagnostic characters that would distinguish or group the species. The species studied belong to four tribes, namely: tribe Desmodieae – Desmodium tortuosum (Sw. DC., Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw. Desv., Desmodium adscendens (Sw. DC., tribe Phaseoleae – Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Calopogonium mucunoides Desv., Centrosema molle (Mart. ex. Benth., Mucuna pruriens (Linn. Walp., Vigna unguiculata (Linn. Walp., tribe Crotalarieae – Crotalaria retusa Linn., tribe Robinieae – Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. Qualitative and quantitative traits which had not been documented in previous works, especially in Nigeria, were studied. These include plant life span; leaf/leaflet apex, base, margin and pubescence; stem type, colour, shape and pubescence; sepal colour and pubescence; nature of margin of petal standard and presence or absence of pedicel; fruit colour, pubescence, tip and shape; seed colour, shape, surface and presence or absence of prominent hilum on the seed; number of seeds per fruit; pedicel length; length and width of petal standard, keel and wing. Characters of taxonomic value documented in this study were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem type, seed shape, petal standard length, petal keel length and petal wing width. Data were subjected to one - way analysis of variance using Duncan’s multiple range test. It was noted that the important characters that can be used in establishing taxonomic relationship in the sub-family Papilionoideae were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem shape, petal colour, petal margin and seed shape.

  15. Cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum: chemoreceptor orientation and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Milsom, W K; Rantin, F T; Reid, S G; Perry, S F

    2005-03-01

    corresponding pH of the hypercarbic water (pH 6.3, 5.6, 5.3 or 4.9, respectively) generally did not stimulate cardiorespiratory responses. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that in tambaqui, externally oriented chemoreceptors that are predominantly activated by increases in water P(CO2), rather than by accompanying decreases in water pH, are linked to the initiation of cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia. PMID:15767310

  16. Extrabranchial chemoreceptors involved in respiratory reflexes in the neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum (the tambaqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Reid, Stephen G; Rantin, F Tadeu; Sundin, Lena

    2002-06-01

    In a previous study, complete denervation of the gills in the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum did not eliminate the increase in breathing amplitude seen during exposure of this species to hypoxia. The present study was designed to examine other sites of putative O(2)-sensitive receptors that could be involved in this reflex action. Superfusion of the exposed brain of decerebrate, spinalectomized fish did not reveal the presence of central chemoreceptors responsive to hyperoxic, hypoxic, hypercarbic, acidic or alkaline solutions. Subsequent central transection of cranial nerve IX and X, removing not only all innervation of the gills but also sensory input from the lateral-line, cardiac and visceral branches of the vagus nerve, did not eliminate the increase in breathing amplitude that remained following peripheral gill denervation alone. Administration of exogenous catecholamines (10 and 100 nmol kg(-1) adrenaline) to fish with intact brains and minimal surgical preparation reduced both respiratory frequency and amplitude, suggesting that humoral release of adrenaline also could not be responsible for the increase in breathing amplitude that remained following gill denervation. Denervation of the mandibular branches of cranial nerve V and the opercular and palatine branches of cranial nerve VII in gill-denervated fish (either peripheral gill denervation or central section of cranial nerves IX and X), however, did eliminate the response. Thus, our data suggest that hypoxic and hyperoxic ventilatory responses as well as ventilatory responses to internal and external injections of NaCN in the tambaqui arise from O(2)-sensitive receptors in the orobranchial cavity innervated by cranial nerves V and VII and O(2)-sensitive receptors on the gills innervated by cranial nerves IX and X. Our results also revealed the presence of receptors in the gills that account for all of the increase in ventilation amplitude and part of the increase in ventilation frequency during hyperoxic

  17. Phantoms of Gondwana?-phylogeny of the spider subfamily Mynogleninae (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    This is the first genus-level phylogeny of the subfamily Mynogleninae. It is based on 190 morphological characters scored for 44 taxa: 37 mynoglenine taxa (ingroup) representing 15 of the 17 known genera and seven outgroup taxa representing the subfamilies Stemonyphantinae, Linyphiinae (Linyphiin...

  18. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  19. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  20. Molecular systematics of selected genera of subfamily mimosoidae-fabaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups. (author)

  1. Genetic analysis of evolutionary relationships among deer (subfamily Cervinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, B C; Tate, M L

    1993-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships among 10 taxa of deer from the four genera of the subfamily Cervinae (Cervus, Elaphurus, Axis, and Dama) were examined by a comparison of their electrophoretic types for 22 proteins. We analyzed the data using both phenetic and cladistic methods and found that the genera of the Cervinae were not monophyletic. The genus Cervus was split into two distinct groups with red deer, wapiti (C. elaphus ssp.), and sika (C. nippon) in one clade and sambar (C. unicolor) and rusa (C. timorensis) in another. There was a close genetic relationship between the genus Elaphurus and the red deer, wapiti, sika group, whereas sambar and rusa were more similar to members of the genera Dama and Axis than to the other members of their own genus. These findings contrast with the taxonomy of the species that is based largely on studies of comparative morphology. Our samples (n = 5) showed fixed allelic differences between wapiti and red, wapiti and sika, and red and sika samples at 3, 6, and 7 loci, respectively. Analysis of these protein loci in a wider range of C. elaphus and C. nippon subspecies could resolve debate over the evolutionary relationships of these taxa. PMID:8340615

  2. The periplasmic sensing domain of Vibrio fischeri chemoreceptor protein A (VfcA): cloning, purification and crystallographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Flagella-mediated motility and chemotaxis towards nutrients are important characteristics of Vibrio fischeri that play a crucial role in the development of its symbiotic relationship with its Hawaiian squid host Euprymna scolopes. The V. fischeri chemoreceptor A (VfcA) mediates chemotaxis toward amino acids. The periplasmic sensory domain of VfcA has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitating agent. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.9, b = 57.0, c = 117.0 Å, α = 88.9, β = 80.5, γ = 89.7°. A complete X-ray diffraction data set has been collected to 1.8 Å resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. PMID:27139830

  3. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  4. *602106 POTASSIUM CHANNEL, INWARDLY RECTIFYING, SUBFAMILY J, MEMBER 15; KCNJ15 [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 602106 FIELD TI 602106 POTASSIUM CHANNEL, INWARDLY RECTIFYING, SUBFAMILY J, MEMBER 15; ... type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 125853) affecting lean ... individuals in 3 independent Japanese sample sets ...

  5. Four distinct alpha satellite subfamilies shared by human chromosomes 13, 14 and 21.

    OpenAIRE

    Vissel, B; Choo, K H

    1991-01-01

    We describe the characterisation of four alpha satellite sequences which are found on a subset of the human acrocentric chromosomes. Direct sequence study, and analysis of somatic cell hybrids carrying specific human chromosomes indicate a unique 'higher-order structure' for each of the four sequences, suggesting that they belong to different subfamilies of alpha DNA. Under very high stringency of Southern hybridisation conditions, all four subfamilies were detected on chromosomes 13, 14 and ...

  6. Protein interactions and ligand binding: From protein subfamilies to functional specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Rausell, A.; de Juan, D.; Pazos, F; Valencia, A.

    2010-01-01

    The divergence accumulated during the evolution of protein families translates into their internal organization as subfamilies, and it is directly reflected in the characteristic patterns of differentially conserved residues. These specifically conserved positions in protein subfamilies are known as “specificity determining positions” (SDPs). Previous studies have limited their analysis to the study of the relationship between these positions and ligand-binding specificity, demonstrating sign...

  7. Analysis of the features and source gene composition of the AluYg6 subfamily of human retrotransposons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brookfield John FY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu elements are a family of SINE retrotransposons in primates. They are classified into subfamilies according to specific diagnostic mutations from the general Alu consensus. It is now believed that there may be several retrotranspositionally-competent source genes within an Alu subfamily. To investigate the evolution of young Alu elements it is critical to have access to complete subfamilies, which, following the release of the final human genome assembly, can now be obtained using in silico methods. Results 380 elements belonging to the young AluYg6 subfamily were identified in the human genome, a number significantly exceeding prior expectations. An AluYg6 element was also identified in the chimpanzee genome, indicating that the subfamily is older than previously estimated, and appears to have undergone a period of dormancy before its expansion. The relative contributions of back mutation and gene conversion to variation at the six diagnostic positions are examined, and cases of complete forward gene conversion events are reported. Two small subfamilies derived from AluYg6 have been identified, named AluYg6a2 and AluYg5b3, which contain 40 and 27 members, respectively. These small subfamilies are used to illustrate the ambiguity regarding Alu subfamily definition, and to assess the contribution of secondary source genes to the AluYg6 subfamily. Conclusion The number of elements in the AluYg6 subfamily greatly exceeds prior expectations, indicating that the current knowledge of young Alu subfamilies is incomplete, and that prior analyses that have been carried out using these data may have generated inaccurate results. A definition of primary and secondary source genes has been provided, and it has been shown that several source genes have contributed to the proliferation of the AluYg6 subfamily. Access to the sequence data for the complete AluYg6 subfamily will be invaluable in future computational analyses investigating

  8. Chemotaxis to the Quorum-Sensing Signal AI-2 Requires the Tsr Chemoreceptor and the Periplasmic LsrB AI-2-Binding Protein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Manjunath; Englert, Derek L.; Schrock, Shanna; Cohn, William B.; Vogt, Christian; Wood, Thomas K.; Manson, Michael D.; Jayaraman, Arul

    2010-01-01

    AI-2 is an autoinducer made by many bacteria. LsrB binds AI-2 in the periplasm, and Tsr is the l-serine chemoreceptor. We show that AI-2 strongly attracts Escherichia coli. Both LsrB and Tsr are necessary for sensing AI-2, but AI-2 uptake is not, suggesting that LsrB and Tsr interact directly in the periplasm.

  9. Phylogenetic relationship and morphological evolution in the subfamily Limenitidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang; Enbo Ma; Yang Zhong; Tianwen Cao; Yupeng Geng; Yuan Zhang; Ke Jin; Zhumei Ren; Rui Zhang; Yaping Guo

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO1) gene and the nuclear elongation factor lα (EF-Iα) gene were sequenced from 29 species of Nymphalidae (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera). Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the sequences determined from the 29 species and sequences of other 36 species deposited in GenBank using the neighbor-joining (N J), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods with Libythea celtis (Libytheinae) as the outgroup. Our phylogenetic trees indicated four major clades. Clade A includes three subfamilies: Apaturinae, Nymphalinae, and Limenitidinae, excluding the tribe Limenitidini; Ciade B includes the subfamilies Heliconiinae and the tribe Limenitidini; Clade C includes Satyrinae, Calinaginae, Charaxinae and Morphinae; and Clade D includes subfamily Danainae. Our study suggested that the tribes Pseudergolini, Biblidini, Limenitidini and Cyrestidini should be considered as subfamilies and confirmed the interspecific relationships within the subfamily Pseudergolinae, namely Amnosia + (Pseudergolis + (Stibochiona + Dichorragia)). We then mapped three morphological characters (spot of anal angle, eyespots, and process from outer margin of hind wing) onto the phylogenetic tree constructed by ML analysis using the combined sequence data. Based on this the evolutionary patterns of these morphological characters were identified, they indicated that the three characters evolved repeatedly in the family Nymphalidae.

  10. Homologous subfamilies of human alphoid repetitive DNA on different nucleolus organizing chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of alphoid repeated sequences on human nucleolus-organizing (NOR) chromosomes 13, 21, and 22 has been investigated. Analysis of hybridization of alphoid DNA probes to Southern transfers of restriction enzyme-digested DNA fragments from hybrid cells containing single human chromosomes shows that chromosomes 13 and 21 share one subfamily of alphoid repeats, whereas a different subfamily may be held in common by chromosomes 13 and 22. The sequences of cloned 680-base-pair EcoRI fragments of the alphoid DNA from chromosomes 13 and 21 show that the basic unit of this subfamily is indistinguishable on each chromosome. The sequence of cloned 1020-base-pair Xba I fragments from chromosome 22 is related to, but distinguishable from, that of the 680-base-pair EcoRI alphoid subfamily of chromosomes 13 and 21. These results suggest that, at some point after they originated and were homogenized, different subfamilies of alphoid sequences must have exchanged between chromosomes 13 and 21 and separately between chromosomes 13 and 22

  11. Chemoreceptor Sensitivity ‘in Women Mountaineering Trainees of Different Altitudes Inducted by Trekking to 4350 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bhaumik

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on women mountaineering trainees to evaluate the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and the precise nature of changes in the sensitivity of chemoreceptors on induction by trekking to 4350 m. Two groups of women belonging to different ethnic origins and residents of different altitudes, ie, moderate-altitude women (MAWMongolians and low-altitude women (LAW-Caucasians were the subjects in this study. Tests of sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia were carried out initially at 2100 m, then during 4 to7 days of sojourn at 4350 m following induction by trekking, and re-tested on return to 2 100 m. The results indicate that there is a significant difference (P c 0.05 of hypoxic ventilatory response in women of two different ethnic groups: Both hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses increased significantly (P < 0.05 on induction to high altitude. On descent, hypoxic values reverted back to pre-induction levels, whereas hypercapnic ventilatory response showed relatively higher values (P < 0.05.

  12. Characterization of partial Hox gene sequences in annual fish of the subfamily Cynolebiatinae (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Gutiérrez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes encode a family of transcription factors implicated in conferring regional identity along the anteroposterior axis in developing animal embryos. These genes are organized in genomic clusters, expressed collinearly and highly conserved in vertebrates. Among teleost, South American annual killifishes of the Cynolebiatinae subfamily represent an excellent model in development studies because their embryos are capable of undergoing reversible developmental arrest (diapause at three well-defined morphological stages. They are also an excellent model for evolutionary studies due to the high rates of mutation of their mitochondrial genome, their karyotypic divergence and their morphological variability. In this study, three partial homeobox sequences were isolated from different species of the Cynolebiatinae subfamily. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons revealed that they belong to the anterior Hox complex group, specifically to paralogue groups 1 and 3. This is the first time that partial Hox genes have been described in species of the Cynolebiatinae subfamily.

  13. Essential-Oil Constituents and Alkanes of Cephalaria ambrosioides Roem. & Schult. (Family Caprifoliaceae, Subfamily Dipsacaceae) and (Chemo)taxonomic Discernment of the Subfamilies Dipsacaceae and Morinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukićević, Dušan R; Stevanović, Dragana D; Genčić, Marija S; Blagojević, Polina D; Radulović, Niko S

    2016-02-01

    Herein, the results of the first study of the volatile and alkane profiles of Cephalaria ambrosioides Roem. & Schult. (Caprifoliaceae, subfamily Dipsacaceae) were reported. The GC-FID and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from leaves and stems (CA1) and flowers (CA2) of C. ambrosioides allowed the identification of 284 different components. The main compounds of the studied oil samples were palmitic acid (24.3 and 32.5% for CA1 and CA2, resp.), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (1.4 and 10.8% for CA1 and CA2, resp.), (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (7.0 and genus Cephalaria and its infrageneric relations, especially concerning the subfamily Morinaceae (formerly a genus within Dipsacaceae). The results of multivariate statistical analyses (25 different essential-oil samples) supported the exclusion of Morina species from the Dipsacaceae subfamily. The relative abundances of alkanes from n-, iso-, and anteiso-series followed a (distorted) Gaussian-like distribution and suggested that the biosyntheses of n- and branched alkanes in C. ambrosioides are possibly not controlled by the same elongase. Also, the obtained results suggested that there was a difference in the biosynthesis/accumulation of alkanes in the vegetative and reproductive parts of C. ambrosioides. PMID:26880432

  14. Nine novel microsatellite markers for the army ant Simopelta pergandei (subfamily Ponerinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, D.J.C.; Boomsma, J.J.; Pierce, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Simopelta (subfamily Ponerinae) army ants are specialized predators of other ants in New World tropical forests. Although they show a striking convergence in overall life-history with the well known army ants of the subfamilies Aenictinae, Dorylinae, and Ecitoninae, the genus has been little.......0) and expected heterozygosities between 0.32 and 0.85 (mean: 0.65). These genetic markers will be useful in studying the sociobiology and molecular ecology of Simopelta army ants and in elucidating convergent evolutionary trajectories that have culminated in the army ant lifestyle...

  15. A young Alu subfamily amplified independently in human and African great apes lineages.

    OpenAIRE

    Zietkiewicz, E; Richer, C.; Makalowski, W; Jurka, J; Labuda, D

    1994-01-01

    A variety of Alu subfamilies amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. Alu Sb2 belongs to a group of young subfamilies with a characteristic two-nucleotide deletion at positions 65/66. It consists of repeats having a 7-nucleotide duplication of a sequence segment involving positions 246 through 252. The presence of Sb2 inserts was examined in five genomic loci in 120 human DNA samples as well as in DNAs of higher primates. The lack of the insertional polymorphism se...

  16. Morphological study of male genitalia of ichneumonidae (insecta: hymenoptera of subfamily pimplinae – I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak L Phand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The male genitalia of the genus of Eruga Townes and Coccygomimus Saussure (Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae are described in present study. The Pimplinae is one of the important subfamily of Ichneumonidae. This subfamily Pimplinae contains 62 genera with 927 species in the Indo-Australian region. In insects male genitalia are organs with the process of mating. The male genitalia are one of the sound character in classifying various genera and species of the Ichneumonidae. The male genitalia of the species of Eruga Townes and Coccygomimus Saussure (Ichneumonidae : Pimplinae are described.

  17. TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidum repeat) genes (tprE, tprG, and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs. The T. pallidum genome sequence has revealed a few open reading frames (ORFs) with similarity to known bacterial transcription factors (TFs), including four catabolite activator protein (CAP) homologs. In this work, sequences matching the E. coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding motif were identified in silico upstream of tprE, tprG, and tprJ. Using elecrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNaseI footprinting assay, recombinant TP0262, a T. pallidum CRP homolog, was shown to bind specifically to amplicons obtained from the tpr promoters containing putative CRP binding motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, binding of TP0262 to these promoters was shown to either increase (tprE and tprJ) or decrease (tprG) tpr promoter activity. This is the first characterization of a T. pallidum transcriptional modulator which influences tpr promoter activity. PMID:19432808

  18. TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidumrepeat) genes (tprE, tprG and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs. The T. pallidum genome sequence has revealed a few open reading frames with similarity to known bacterial transcription factors, including four catabolite activator protein homologues. In this work, sequences matching the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding motif were identified in silico upstream of tprE, tprG and tprJ. Using elecrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNaseI footprinting assay, recombinant TP0262, a T. pallidum CRP homologue, was shown to bind specifically to amplicons obtained from the tpr promoters containing putative CRP binding motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, binding of TP0262 to these promoters was shown to either increase (tprE and tprJ) or decrease (tprG) tpr promoter activity. This is the first characterization of a T. pallidum transcriptional modulator that influences tpr promoter activity. PMID:19432808

  19. Morphology of dental bones and teeth of selected representatives of the subfamily Anguinae (Squamata, Anguidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is focused on the comparative morphology of dental bones and teeth of all genuses of the subfamily Anguinae. The research did not show any relevant difference, which would serve as the basis for the return use of the original generic names. (authors)

  20. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  1. Flora of subfamily Prunoideae of family Rosaceae in botanical garden of Dnipropetrovsk university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Opanasenko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present state of genofond of the 24 taxa collection of subfamily Prunoideae Focke (family Rosaceae Juss in DNU botanical garden has been analysed. Valuable genotypes for practical use in the development of landscape, farm horticulture and further selection were marked out. The ways of further exploit was planned.

  2. Bayesian Inference for Concomitants based on Weibull Subfamily of Morgenstern Family Under Generalized Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mohie EL-Din

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for Weibull subfamily of Morgenstern family, the joint density of the concomitants of generalized order statistics (GOS's is used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE and Bayes estimates for the distribution parameters. Applications of these results for concomitants of order statistics are presented.

  3. A new genus and subgenus of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokobylskij, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three new taxa belonging to the subfamily Euphorinae Foerster (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) are described and illustrated. Mama mariae gen. nov. & spec. nov. from southern Far East Russia and two species of the subgenus Chaetocentistes nov. of the genus Centistes Haliday. A key to species (i.e. Centiste

  4. Circumscription and phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae based on chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Carolina I; Downie, Stephen R

    2007-07-01

    An estimate of phylogenetic relationships within Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae was inferred using data from the chloroplast DNA trnQ-trnK 5'-exon region to clarify the circumscription of the subfamily and to assess the monophyly of its constituent genera. Ninety-one accessions representing 14 genera and 82 species of Apiaceae were examined, including the genera Steganotaenia, Polemanniopsis, and Lichtensteinia which have been traditionally treated in subfamily Apioideae but determined in recent studies to be more closely related to or included within subfamily Saniculoideae. The trnQ-trnK 5'-exon region includes two intergenic spacers heretofore underutilized in molecular systematic studies and the rps16 intron. Analyses of these loci permitted an assessment of the relative utility of these noncoding regions (including the use of indel characters) for phylogenetic study at different hierarchical levels. The use of indels in phylogenetic analyses of both combined and partitioned data sets improves resolution of relationships, increases bootstrap support values, and decreases levels of overall homoplasy. Intergeneric relationships derived from maximum parsimony, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood analyses, as well as from maximum parsimony analysis of indel data alone, are fully resolved and consistent with one another and generally very well supported. We confirm the expansion of subfamily Saniculoideae to include Steganotaenia and Polemanniopsis (as the new tribe Steganotaenieae C.I. Calviño and S.R. Downie) but not Lichtensteinia. Sister group to tribe Steganotaenieae is tribe Saniculeae, redefined to include the genera Actinolema, Alepidea, Arctopus, Astrantia, Eryngium, Petagnaea, and Sanicula. With the synonymization of Hacquetia into Sanicula, all genera are monophyletic. Eryngium is divided into "Old World" and "New World" subclades and within Astrantia sections Astrantia and Astrantiella are monophyletic. PMID:17321762

  5. Crystallization and crystallographic analysis of the ligand-binding domain of the Pseudomonas putida chemoreceptor McpS in complex with malate and succinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization of the ligand-binding domain of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein chemoreceptor McpS (McpS-LBD) is reported. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) are transmembrane proteins that sense changes in environmental signals, generating a chemotactic response and regulating other cellular processes. MCPs are composed of two main domains: a ligand-binding domain (LBD) and a cytosolic signalling domain (CSD). Here, the crystallization of the LBD of the chemoreceptor McpS (McpS-LBD) is reported. McpS-LBD is responsible for sensing most of the TCA-cycle intermediates in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. McpS-LBD was expressed, purified and crystallized in complex with two of its natural ligands (malate and succinate). Crystals were obtained by both the counter-diffusion and the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion techniques after pre-incubation of McpS-LBD with the ligands. The crystals were isomorphous and belonged to space group C2, with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected at the ESRF synchrotron X-ray source to resolutions of 1.8 and 1.9 Å for the malate and succinate complexes, respectively

  6. ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10) are not primary resistance factors for cabazitaxel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rishil J Kathawala; Yi-Jun Wang; Suneet Shukla; Yun-Kai Zhang; Saeed Alqahtani; Amal Kaddoumi; Suresh V Ambudkar; Charles R Ashby Jr; Zhe-Sheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10) proteins are efflux transporters that couple the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to the translocation of toxic substances and chemotherapeutic drugs out of cells. Cabazitaxel is a novel taxane that differs from paclitaxel by its lower affinity for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Methods:We determined the effects of cabazitaxel, a novel tubulin-binding taxane, and paclitaxel on paclitaxel-resistant, ABCB1-overexpressing KB-C2 and LLC-MDR1-WT cells and paclitaxel-resistant, ABCC10-overexpressing HEK293/ABCC10 cells by calculating the degree of drug resistance and measuring ATPase activity of the ABCB1 transporter. Results:Decreased resistance to cabazitaxel compared with paclitaxel was observed in KB-C2, LLC-MDR1-WT, and HEK293/ABCC10 cells. Moreover, cabazitaxel had low efficacy, whereas paclitaxel had high efficacy in stimulating the ATPase activity of ABCB1, indicating a direct interaction of both drugs with the transporter. Conclusion:ABCB1 and ABCC10 are not primary resistance factors for cabazitaxel compared with paclitaxel, suggesting that cabazitaxel may have a low affinity for these efflux transporters.

  7. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. II. Domains of several subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, S.; Moncrief, N. D.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the first report in this series we described the relationships and evolution of 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand subfamilies. Here we add 66 additional proteins and define eight (CDC, TPNV, CLNB, LPS, DGK, 1F8, VIS, TCBP) new subfamilies and seven (CAL, SQUD, CDPK, EFH5, TPP, LAV, CRGP) new unique proteins, which we assume represent new subfamilies. The main focus of this study is the classification of individual EF-hand domains. Five subfamilies--calmodulin, troponin C, essential light chain, regulatory light chain, CDC31/caltractin--and three uniques--call, squidulin, and calcium-dependent protein kinase--are congruent in that all evolved from a common four-domain precursor. In contrast calpain and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) each evolved from its own one-domain precursor. The remaining 19 subfamilies and uniques appear to have evolved by translocation and splicing of genes encoding the EF-hand domains that were precursors to the congruent eight and to calpain and to SARC. The rates of evolution of the EF-hand domains are slower following formation of the subfamilies and establishment of their functions. Subfamilies are not readily classified by patterns of calcium coordination, interdomain linker stability, and glycine and proline distribution. There are many homoplasies indicating that similar variants of the EF-hand evolved by independent pathways.

  8. Dramatic Number Variation of R Genes in Solanaceae Species Accounted for by a Few R Gene Subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunhua; Chen, Jiongjiong; Kuang, Hanhui

    2016-01-01

    Most disease resistance genes encode nucleotide-binding-site (NBS) and leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domains, and the NBS-LRR encoding genes are often referred to as R genes. Using newly developed approach, 478, 485, 1,194, 1,665, 2,042 and 374 R genes were identified from the genomes of tomato Heinz1706, wild tomato LA716, potato DM1-3, pepper Zunla-1 and wild pepper Chiltepin and tobacco TN90, respectively. The majority of R genes from Solanaceae were grouped into 87 subfamilies, including 16 TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) and 71 non-TNL subfamilies. Each subfamily was annotated manually, including identification of intron/exon structure and intron phase. Interestingly, TNL subfamilies have similar intron phase patterns, while the non-TNL subfamilies have diverse intron phase due to frequent gain of introns. Prevalent presence/absence polymorphic R gene loci were found among Solanaceae species, and an integrated map with 427 R loci was constructed. The pepper genome (2,042 in Chiltepin) has at least four times of R genes as in tomato (478 in Heinz1706). The high number of R genes in pepper genome is due to the amplification of R genes in a few subfamilies, such as the Rpi-blb2 and BS2 subfamilies. The mechanism underlying the variation of R gene number among different plant genomes is discussed. PMID:26849045

  9. Cytotaxonomical investigations of the tribes asclepiadeae and ceropegieae of the subfamily asclepiadoideae-apocynaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, karyotype criteria of 27 accessions (17 taxa) of the two tribes Asclepiadeae (20 accessions) and Ceropegieae (7 accessions) from Egypt and Saudi Arabia belonging to subfamily Asclepiadoideae are described and polyploid variations are also discussed. Detailed karyotype features, i.e. total chromosome length (TCL), mean chromosome length (MCL) and karyotype asymmetry expressed as arm ratio (MAR), total form percent (TF %), intrachromosomal asymmetry (A1) and interchromosomal asymmetry (A2), are also described. Karyotype features of the studied accessions were used to assess the tribal relationships within the subfamily Asclepiadoideae to differentiate between taxa that belonging to the tribes Asclepiadeae and Ceropegieae in the light of the current systems of classification. In addition, new chromosome counts of 16 taxa or accessions are reported here for the first time. (author)

  10. Predaceous diving beetles in Maine: Faunal list and keys to subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobar, L.R.; Spangler, P.J.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Hopkins, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) collected in Maine are summarized. These records are augmented by field surveys of beetles in Aroostook Co., Maine during 1993-95. Keys to subfamilies are presented with color plates for selected species. A list of diving beetles that have been collected near Maine (state or province) is presented so that investigators will know what additional species might be expected in Maine. Basic taxonomy is presented to facilitate use of keys.

  11. Ombrophytum guayanensis, the first record of subfamily Lophophytoideae (Balanophoraceae) in the Guayana Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Delprete, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The family Balanophoraceae continues to be poorly known and rarely collected, mostly due to its partially or completely subterranean habit and its general aspect resembling a fungus. A recent collection from French Guiana was identified as a species of Ombrophytum unknown to science (O. guayanensis), which is here described and illustrated. This species also represents the first record of the subfamily Lophophytoideae for the Guayana Shield.

  12. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khaghaninia; Kazerani, F.

    2014-01-01

    Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae) [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767) and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical dist...

  13. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaghaninia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767 and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical distributions are discussed.

  14. Masitinib Antagonizes ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Member 10-Mediated Paclitaxel Resistance: A Preclinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kathawala, Rishil J; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Kang; PATEL, ATISH; Abuznait, Alaa H.; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Sun, Yue-Li; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ashby, Charles R.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel displays clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, resistance to paclitaxel significantly attenuates the response to chemotherapy. The ABC transporter subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10), also known as multi-drug resistance protein 7 (MRP7) efflux transporter, is a major mediator of paclitaxel resistance. In this study, we show that masitinib, a small molecule stem-cell growth factor receptor (c-Kit) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, at non-toxic concentrations, signif...

  15. Modulation of the Rat Hepatic Cytochrome P4501A Subfamily Using Biotin Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ronquillo-Sánchez, M. D.; Camacho-Carranza, R.; C. Fernandez-Mejia; S. Hernández-Ojeda; Elinos-Baez, M.; Espinosa-Aguirre, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have found that biotin favors glucose and lipid metabolism, and medications containing biotin have been developed. Despite the use of biotin as a pharmacological agent, few studies have addressed toxicity aspects including the possible interaction with cytochrome P450 enzyme family. This study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on the expression and activity of the cytochrome P4501A subfamily involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Wistar rats were treated dail...

  16. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Species Representing Six Subfamilies in the Family Tenebrionidae

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Li Zhang; Bing-Bing Liu; Xiao-Yang Wang; Zhi-Ping Han; Dong-Xu Zhang; Cai-Na Su

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T ri...

  17. A faunal study of the subfamily Doryctinae in Turkey (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    BEYARSLAN, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    From the serial studies of the Braconidae fauna of Turkey, the subfamily Doryctinae was treated. Adult specimens were collected from various habitats of Turkey between 1979 and 2013. In total, 58 species belonging 25 genera were reported for the studied region, among which 52 species were recorded for the first time from Turkey. The numbers of species of each genus are as follows: Clinocentrus Haliday, 1833: 1; Coeloides Wesmael, 1838: 1; Colastes Haliday, 1833: 6; Dendrosoter Wesmael, 1838: ...

  18. Characterization of partial Hox gene sequences in annual fish of the subfamily Cynolebiatinae (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Gutiérrez; María José Arezo; Graciela García

    2007-01-01

    Hox genes encode a family of transcription factors implicated in conferring regional identity along the anteroposterior axis in developing animal embryos. These genes are organized in genomic clusters, expressed collinearly and highly conserved in vertebrates. Among teleost, South American annual killifishes of the Cynolebiatinae subfamily represent an excellent model in development studies because their embryos are capable of undergoing reversible developmental arrest (diapause) at three wel...

  19. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of eleven species of subfamilies Neoplecostominae and Hypostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anderson Luís; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2005-07-01

    The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world's largest fish families. Recent studies have shown the existence of several problems in the definition of natural groups in the family, which has made the characterization of the subfamilies and even of some genera quite difficult. With the main objective of contributing for a better understanding of the relationships between loricariids, cytogenetic analysis were conducted with two species of Neoplecostominae and nine species of Hypostominae that, according to morphological and molecular data, may belong to a new monophyletic unit. The results obtained showed a marked chromosomal conservation with the presence of 2n = 54 chromosomes and single interstitial Ag-NORs in all species analyzed. Considering that Neoplecostominae is the primitive sister-group of all other loricariids, with exception of Lithogeneinae, this karyotypic structure may represent the primitive condition for the family Loricariidae. The cytogenetic characteristics partaken by the species of Neoplecostominae and Hypostominae analyzed in the present study reinforce the hypothesis that the species of both these subfamilies might belong to a natural group. PMID:16134327

  20. Clonal Expansion and Cytotoxicity of TCRVβ Subfamily T Cells Induced by CML and K562 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YupingZHang; YangqiuLi; ShaohuaChen; LijianYang; GengxinLuo; XueliZhang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the anti-leukemia effect, the distribution and clonal expansion of TCRVβ subfamily T cells in T cells from cord blood and adult peripheral blood induced by CML cells and K562 cells in vitro. METHODS Peripheral blood T cells from one adult donor and 3 cases of cord blood were stimulated with CML cells and K562 cells and further amplified by a suspended T cell-bulk culture,in order to induce CML specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The induced T cells were further analyzed for the specific cytotoxicity in CML by LDH assay, the phenotype identification by indirect immunofiuorescence technique and the distribution and clonal expansion of TCRVβ subfamily by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genescan analysis, respectively. RESULTS Oligoclonal and oligoclonal tendency T cells with higher specific cytotoxicity from cord blood and adult peripheral blood could be induced by stimulation with CML cells and K562 cells. CONCLUSIONS Specific cytotoxic T cells for an anti-CML effect could be induced by CML cells and K562 cells .The induced T cells which have the characteristic of specific cytotoxicity against CML cells may come from the clonal expansion of TCRVβ subfamily T cells.

  1. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies using a mathematical paradigm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sk Sarif Hassan; Pabitra Pal Choudhury; Amita Pal; R L Brahmachary; Arunava Goswami

    2010-09-01

    Ligands for only two human olfactory receptors are known. One of them, OR1D2, binds to Bourgeonal, a volatile chemical constituent of the fragrance of the mythical flower, Lily of the valley or Our Lady’s tears, Convallaria majalis (also the national flower of Finland). OR1D2, OR1D4 and OR1D5 are three full-length olfactory receptors present in an olfactory locus in the human genome. These receptors are more than 80% identical in DNA sequences and have 108 base pair mismatches among them. Apparently, these mismatch positions show no striking pattern using computer pattern recognition tools. In an attempt to find a mathematical rule in those mismatches, we find that an L-system generated sequence can be inserted into the OR1D2 subfamily-specific star model and novel full-length olfactory receptors can be generated. This remarkable mathematical principle could be utilized for making new subfamily olfactory receptor members from any olfactory receptor subfamily. The aroma and electronic nose industry might utilize this rule in future.

  2. Gene Structures, Classification, and Expression Models of the DREB Transcription Factor Subfamily in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified 75 dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB protein genes in Populus trichocarpa. We analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplications, genome localizations, and expression profiles. The phylogenic construction suggests that the PtrDREB gene subfamily can be classified broadly into six subtypes (DREB A-1 to A-6 in Populus. The chromosomal localizations of the PtrDREB genes indicated 18 segmental duplication events involving 36 genes and six redundant PtrDREB genes were involved in tandem duplication events. There were fewer introns in the PtrDREB subfamily. The motif composition of PtrDREB was highly conserved in the same subtype. We investigated expression profiles of this gene subfamily from different tissues and/or developmental stages. Sixteen genes present in the digital expression analysis had high levels of transcript accumulation. The microarray results suggest that 18 genes were upregulated. We further examined the stress responsiveness of 15 genes by qRT-PCR. A digital northern analysis showed that the PtrDREB17, 18, and 32 genes were highly induced in leaves under cold stress, and the same expression trends were shown by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analyses to unravel the biological roles of Populus’ DREB genes.

  3. Organization and evolution of two SIDER retroposon subfamilies and their impact on the Leishmania genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringaud Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently identified two large families of extinct transposable elements termed Short Interspersed DEgenerated Retroposons (SIDERs in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania major. The characterization of SIDER elements was limited to the SIDER2 subfamily, although members of both subfamilies have been shown to play a role in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Apparent functional domestication of SIDERs prompted further investigation of their characterization, dissemination and evolution throughout the Leishmania genus, with particular attention to the disregarded SIDER1 subfamily. Results Using optimized statistical profiles of both SIDER1 and SIDER2 subgroups, we report the first automated and highly sensitive annotation of SIDERs in the genomes of L. infantum, L. braziliensis and L. major. SIDER annotations were combined to in-silico mRNA extremity predictions to generate a detailed distribution map of the repeat family, hence uncovering an enrichment of antisense-oriented SIDER repeats between the polyadenylation and trans-splicing sites of intergenic regions, in contrast to the exclusive sense orientation of SIDER elements within 3'UTRs. Our data indicate that SIDER elements are quite uniformly dispersed throughout all three genomes and that their distribution is generally syntenic. However, only 47.4% of orthologous genes harbor a SIDER element in all three species. There is evidence for species-specific enrichment of SIDERs and for their preferential association, especially for SIDER2s, with different metabolic functions. Investigation of the sequence attributes and evolutionary relationship of SIDERs to other trypanosomatid retroposons reveals that SIDER1 is a truncated version of extinct autonomous ingi-like retroposons (DIREs, which were functional in the ancestral Leishmania genome. Conclusion A detailed characterization of the sequence traits for both SIDER subfamilies unveils

  4. The status of the genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847, with description of a new subfamily (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Breure

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The status of the genus Bostryx is discussed and, based on morphological and molecular data, restricted to a group of species related to Bostryx solutus , for which the new subfamily name Bostrycinae is introduced.

  5. Genesis of the vertebrate FoxP subfamily member genes occurred during two ancestral whole genome duplication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Tang, Yezhong; Wang, Yajun

    2016-08-22

    The vertebrate FoxP subfamily genes play important roles in the construction of essential functional modules involved in physiological and developmental processes. To explore the adaptive evolution of functional modules associated with the FoxP subfamily member genes, it is necessary to study the gene duplication process. We detected four member genes of the FoxP subfamily in sea lampreys (a representative species of jawless vertebrates) through genome screenings and phylogenetic analyses. Reliable paralogons (i.e. paralogous chromosome segments) have rarely been detected in scaffolds of FoxP subfamily member genes in sea lampreys due to the considerable existence of HTH_Tnp_Tc3_2 transposases. However, these transposases did not alter gene numbers of the FoxP subfamily in sea lampreys. The coincidence between the "1-4" gene duplication pattern of FoxP subfamily genes from invertebrates to vertebrates and two rounds of ancestral whole genome duplication (1R- and 2R-WGD) events reveal that the FoxP subfamily of vertebrates was quadruplicated in the 1R- and 2R-WGD events. Furthermore, we deduced that a synchronous gene duplication process occurred for the FoxP subfamily and for three linked gene families/subfamilies (i.e. MIT family, mGluR group III and PLXNA subfamily) in the 1R- and 2R-WGD events using phylogenetic analyses and mirror-dendrogram methods (i.e. algorithms to test protein-protein interactions). Specifically, the ancestor of FoxP1 and FoxP3 and the ancestor of FoxP2 and FoxP4 were generated in 1R-WGD event. In the subsequent 2R-WGD event, these two ancestral genes were changed into FoxP1, FoxP2, FoxP3 and FoxP4. The elucidation of these gene duplication processes shed light on the phylogenetic relationships between functional modules of the FoxP subfamily member genes. PMID:27188254

  6. Highly conserved salt bridge stabilizes a proteinase K subfamily enzyme, Aqualysin I, from Thermus aquaticus YT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Osaku, Kanae; Maejima, Susumu; Ohno, Nao; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2014-01-01

    The proteinase K subfamily enzymes, thermophilic Aqualysin I (AQN) from Thermus aquaticus YT-1 and psychrophilic serine protease (VPR) from Vibrio sp. PA-44, have six and seven salt bridges, respectively. To understand the possible significance of salt bridges in the thermal stability of AQN, we prepared mutant proteins in which amino acid residues participating in salt bridges common to proteinase K subfamily members and intrinsic to AQN were replaced to disrupt the bridges one at a time. Di...

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Stevardiinae Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae): classification and the evolution of reproductive traits

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaz, Andréa T.; Arcila, Dahiana; Ortí, Guillermo; Luiz R. Malabarba

    2015-01-01

    Background The subfamily Stevardiinae is a diverse and widely distributed clade of freshwater fishes from South and Central America, commonly known as “tetras” (Characidae). The group was named “clade A” when first proposed as a monophyletic unit of Characidae and later designated as a subfamily. Stevardiinae includes 48 genera and around 310 valid species with many species presenting inseminating reproductive strategy. No global hypothesis of relationships is available for this group and cur...

  8. Frames of exponentials:lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies, and approximation of the inverse frame operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Lindner, Alexander M

    We give lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies of a frame of exponentials {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ in L-2(-pi,pi). We also present a method for approximation of the inverse frame operator corresponding to {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ, where knowledge of the frame bounds for...... finite subfamilies is crucial. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  9. Phylogenetic analyses of peanut resistance gene candidates and screening of different genotypes for polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Osman E; Ahmed, Talaat A; Knapp, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich-repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding gene family has attracted much research interest because approximately 75% of the plant disease resistance genes that have been cloned to date are from this gene family. Here, we describe a collection of peanut NBS-LRR resistance gene candidates (RGCs) isolated from peanut (Arachis) species by mining Gene Bank data base. NBS-LRR sequences assembled into TIR-NBS-LRR (75.4%) and non-TIR-NBS-LRR (24.6%) subfamilies. Total of 20 distinct clades were identified and showed a high level of sequence divergence within TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS subfamilies. Thirty-four primer pairs were designed from these RGC sequences and used for screening different genotypes belonging to wild and cultivated peanuts. Therefore, peanut RGC identified in this study will provide useful tools for developing DNA markers and cloning the genes for resistance to different pathogens in peanut. PMID:23961057

  10. The role of branchial and orobranchial O2 chemoreceptors in the control of aquatic surface respiration in the neotropical fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum): progressive responses to prolonged hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Luiz H; Leite, Cléo A C; Kalinin, Ana L; Reid, Stephen G; Milsom, William K; Rantin, F Tadeu

    2006-05-01

    The present study examined the role of branchial and orobranchial O(2) chemoreceptors in the cardiorespiratory responses, aquatic surface respiration (ASR), and the development of inferior lip swelling in tambaqui during prolonged (6 h) exposure to hypoxia. Intact fish (control) and three groups of denervated fish (bilateral denervation of cranial nerves IX+X (to the gills), of cranial nerves V+VII (to the orobranchial cavity) or of cranial nerves V alone), were exposed to severe hypoxia (Pw(O)2=10 mmHg) for 360 min. Respiratory frequency (fr) and heart rate (fh) were recorded simultaneously with ASR. Intact (control) fish increased fr, ventilation amplitude (V(AMP)) and developed hypoxic bradycardia in the first 60 min of hypoxia. The bradycardia, however, abated progressively and had returned to normoxic levels by the last hour of exposure to hypoxia. The changes in respiratory frequency and the hypoxic bradycardia were eliminated by denervation of cranial nerves IX and X but were not affected by denervation of cranial nerves V or V+VII. The V(AMP) was not abolished by the various denervation protocols. The fh in fish with denervation of cranial nerves V or V+VII, however, did not recover to control values as in intact fish. After 360 min of exposure to hypoxia only the intact and IX+X denervated fish performed ASR. Denervation of cranial nerve V abolished the ASR behavior. However, all (control and denervated (IX+X, V and V+VII) fish developed inferior lip swelling. These results indicate that ASR is triggered by O(2) chemoreceptors innervated by cranial nerve V but that other mechanisms, such as a direct effect of hypoxia on the lip tissue, trigger lip swelling. PMID:16621951

  11. Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS) variant subfamily 6 is involved in cervical cancer stemness and can be a target of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Takuya; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Mariya, Tasuku; Horibe, Ryota; Kuroda, Takafumi; Tabuchi, Yuta; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Takahashi, Akari; Asanuma, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Cervical cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and CSCs/CICs are thought to be responsible for recurrence. Eradication of CSCs/CICs is thus essential to cure cervical cancer. In this study, we isolated cervical CSCs/CICs by sphere culture, and we identified a cancer testis (CT) antigen, CTCFL/BORIS, that is expressed in cervical CSCs/CICs. BORIS has 23 mRNA isoform variants classified by 6 subfamilies (sfs), and they encode 17 different BORIS peptides. BORIS sf1 and sf4 are expressed in both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs, whereas BORIS sf6 is expressed only in CSCs/CICs. Overexpression of BORIS sf6 in cervical cancer cells increased sphere formation and tumor-initiating ability compared with those in control cells, whereas overexpression of BORIS sf1 and BORIS sf4 resulted in only slight increases. Thus, BORIS sf6 is a cervical CSC/CIC-specific subfamily and has a role in the maintenance of cervical CSCs/CICs. BORIS sf6 contains a specific c-terminal domain (C34), and we identified a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted antigenic peptide, BORIS C34_24(9) encoded by BORIS sf6. A BORIS C34_24(9)-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clone showed cytotoxicity for BORIS sf6-overexpressing cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, the CTL clone significantly suppressed sphere formation of CaSki cells. Taken together, the results indicate that the CT antigen BORIS sf6 is specifically expressed in cervical CSCs/CICs, that BORIS sf6 has a role in the maintenance of CSCs/CICs, and that BORIS C34_24(9) peptide is a promising candidate for cervical CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. PMID:26849232

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel gene differentially expressed in zebrafish cross-subfamily cloned embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species nuclear transfer has been shown to be a potent approach to retain the genetic viability of a certain species near extinction. However, most embryos produced by cross-species nuclear transfer were compromised because that they were unable to develop to later stages. Gene expression analysis of cross-species cloned embryos will yield new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in cross-species nuclear transfer and embryonic development. Results A novel gene, K31, was identified as an up-regulated gene in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos using SSH approach and RACE method. K31 complete cDNA sequence is 1106 base pairs (bp in length, with a 342 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a putative protein of 113 amino acids (aa. Comparative analysis revealed no homologous known gene in zebrafish and other species database. K31 protein contains a putative transmembrane helix and five putative phosphorylation sites but without a signal peptide. Expression pattern analysis by real time RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH shows that it has the characteristics of constitutively expressed gene. Sub-cellular localization assay shows that K31 protein can not penetrate the nuclei. Interestingly, over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality in the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC cells in cell culture, which gave hint to the inefficient reprogramming events occurred in cloned embryos. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicated that K31 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos and over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality of cultured fish cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of novel genes involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction of fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.

  13. Control of postnatal apoptosis in the neocortex by RhoA-subfamily GTPases determines neuronal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanno, Hitomi; Shen, Xiao; Kuru, Nilgün; Bormuth, Ingo; Bobsin, Kristin; Gardner, Humphrey A R; Komljenovic, Dorde; Tarabykin, Victor; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Tucker, Kerry L

    2010-03-24

    Apoptosis of neurons in the maturing neocortex has been recorded in a wide variety of mammals, but very little is known about its effects on cortical differentiation. Recent research has implicated the RhoA GTPase subfamily in the control of apoptosis in the developing nervous system and in other tissue types. Rho GTPases are important components of the signaling pathways linking extracellular signals to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the role of the RhoA GTPase subfamily in neocortical apoptosis and differentiation, we have engineered a mouse line in which a dominant-negative RhoA mutant (N19-RhoA) is expressed from the Mapt locus, such that all neurons of the developing nervous system are expressing the N19-RhoA inhibitor. Postnatal expression of N19-RhoA led to no major changes in neocortical anatomy. Six layers of the neocortex developed and barrels (whisker-related neural modules) formed in layer IV. However, the density and absolute number of neurons in the somatosensory cortex increased by 12-26% compared with wild-type littermates. This was not explained by a change in the migration of neurons during the formation of cortical layers but rather by a large decrease in the amount of neuronal apoptosis at postnatal day 5, the developmental maximum of cortical apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of RhoA in cortical neurons was seen to cause high levels of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that RhoA-subfamily members play a major role in developmental apoptosis in postnatal neocortex of the mouse but that decreased apoptosis does not alter cortical cytoarchitecture and patterning. PMID:20335457

  14. Reassessment of Species Diversity of the Subfamily Denticollinae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) through DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghwan; Park, In Gyun; Park, Haechul

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Denticollinae is a taxonomically diverse group in the family Elateridae. Denticollinae includes many morphologically similar species and crop pests, as well as many undescribed species at each local fauna. To construct a rapid and reliable identification system for this subfamily, the effectiveness of molecular species identification was assessed based on 421 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences of 84 morphologically identified species. Among the 84 morphospecies, molecular species identification of 60 species (71.4%) was consistent with their morphological identifications. Six cryptic and/or pseudocryptic species with large genetic divergence (>5%) were confirmed by their sympatric or allopatric distributions. However, 18 species, including a subspecies, had ambiguous genetic distances and shared overlapping intra- and interspecific genetic distances (range: 2.12%–3.67%) suggesting incomplete lineage sorting, introgression of mitochondrial genome, or affection by endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia infection, between species and simple genetic variation within species. In this study, we propose a conservative threshold of 3.6% for convenient molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU) identification in the subfamily Denticollinae based on the results of pairwise genetic distances analyses using neighbor-joining, mothur, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analysis, and tree-based species delimitation by Poisson Tree Processes analysis. Using the 3.6% threshold, we identified 87 MOTUs and found 8 MOTUs in the interval between 2.5% to 3.5%. Evaluation of MOTUs identified in this range requires integrative species delimitation, including review of morphological and ecological differences as well as sensitive genetic markers. From this study, we confirmed that COI sequence is useful for reassessing species diversity for polymorphic and polytypic species occurring in sympatric and allopatric distributions, and for a single species having an

  15. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  16. Data supporting the nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jason R; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Barrett, Craig F; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Heyduk, Karolina; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2016-06-01

    This data article provides data and supplemental materials referenced in "Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae)" (Comer et al., 2016) [1]. Raw sequence reads generated for this study are available through the Sequence Read Archive (SRA Study Accession: SRP061467). An aligned supermatrix of 168 nuclear genes for 35 taxa (34 palms and one outgroup taxon) is provided. Also provided are individual maximum likelihood gene trees used for the coalescent based analyses, output from the maximum parsimony analyses, and two figures. PMID:27054154

  17. Discovery and Characterization of the Short κA-Conotoxins: A Novel Subfamily of Excitatory Conotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Teichert, Russell W.; Jacobsen, Richard; Terlau, Heinrich; Yoshikami, Doju; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized the defining members of a novel subfamily of excitatory conotoxins, the short κA-conotoxins (κAS-conotoxins). κA-conotoxins PIVE and PIVF (κA-PIVE and κA-PIVF) were purified from Conus purpurascens venom. Both peptides elicited excitatory activity upon injection into fish. κA-PIVE was synthesized for further characterization. The excitatory effects of κA-PIVE in vivo were dose dependent, causing hyperactivity at low doses and rapid immobilization at high doses, symptomat...

  18. Chromosome phylogeny of the subfamily Pitheciinae (Platyrrhini, Primates) by classic cytogenetics and chromosome painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The New World monkey (Platyrrhini) subfamily Pitheciinae is represented by the genera Pithecia, Chiropotes and Cacajao. In this work we studied the karyotypes of Pithecia irrorata (2n = 48) and Cacajao calvus rubicundus (2n = 45 in males and 2n = 46 in females) by G- and C-banding, NOR staining and chromosome painting using human and Saguinus oedipus whole chromosome probes. The karyotypes of both species were compared with each other and with Chiropotes utahicki (2n = 54) from the literature. Results Our results show that members of the Pitheciinae have conserved several chromosome forms found in the inferred ancestral Platyrrhini karyotype (associations of human homologous segments 3a/21, 5/7a, 2b/16b, 8a/18, 14/15a and 10a/16a). Further, the monophyly of this subfamily is supported by three chromosomal synapomorphies (2a/10b, an acrocentric 15/14 and an acrocentric human 19 homolog). In addition, each species presents several autapomorphies. From this data set we established a chromosomal phylogeny of Pitheciinae, resulting in a single most parsimonious tree. Conclusions In our chromosomal phylogeny, the genus Pithecia occurred in a more basal position close to the inferred ancestor of Platyrrhini, while C. c. rubicundus and C. utahicki are closely related and are linked by exclusive synapomorphies. PMID:20565908

  19. Karyotype differentiation patterns in species of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Sárah Gomes; Ramos, Ituza Celeste; de Moura, Rita de Cássia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the karyotype of species belonging to the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and to compile the conventional cytogenetic data available in the literature for this group. The karyotypes of ten species belonging to the tribes Canthonini, Coprini, Onthophagini and Phanaeini were analyzed by conventional staining. Eight of these species were described for the first time (Canthon aff carbonarius, Canthon chalybaeus, Coprophanaeus dardanus, Deltochilum aff amazonicum, Dichotomius geminatus, Oxysternon silenus, Phanaeus chalcomelas and Malagoniella aff astyanax) and two were redescribed (Diabroctis mimas and Digitonthophagus gazella) since their karyotypes differed from those previously published in the literature. Four species studied showed a diploid number of 2n=20 and a parachute type sex determining system and the karyotype was 2n=20,Xy in two species and 2n=18,Xy(p), 2n=19,X0, 2n=12,XY and 2n=14,neoXY in one each. The chromosome morphology of the different species varied, with the observation of metacentric, submetacentric, subacrocentric and acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was predominantly meta or submetacentric in the species analyzed, whereas the y chromosome presented two arms or was punctiform. In conclusion, the subfamily Scarabaeinae comprises 120 species analyzed cytogenetically, and are observed the occurrence of five chromosome rearrangements (autosome-autosome and X-autosome fusions, pericentric inversions, fissions and loss of the y chromosome) that are related to the chromosome variability and evolution in the group. PMID:18495484

  20. A subfamily of PLP-dependent enzymes specialized in handling terminal amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiroli, Davide; Peracchi, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    The present review focuses on a subfamily of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, belonging to the broader fold-type I structural group and whose archetypes can be considered ornithine δ-transaminase and γ-aminobutyrate transaminase. These proteins were originally christened "subgroup-II aminotransferases" (AT-II) but are very often referred to as "class-III aminotransferases". As names suggest, the subgroup includes mainly transaminases, with just a few interesting exceptions. However, at variance with most other PLP-dependent enzymes, catalysts in this subfamily seem specialized at utilizing substrates whose amino function is not adjacent to a carboxylate group. AT-II enzymes are widespread in biology and play mostly catabolic roles. Furthermore, today several transaminases in this group are being used as bioorganic tools for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines. We present an overview of the biochemical and structural features of these enzymes, illustrating how they are distinctive and how they compare with those of the other fold-type I enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. PMID:25770684

  1. Characteristics of the LrhA subfamily of transcriptional regulators from Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsheng Qi; Li Luo; Haiping Cheng; Jiabi Zhu; Guanqiao Yu

    2008-01-01

    In our previous work, we identified 94 putative genes encoding LysR-type transcriptional regulators from Sinorhizobium meliloti. All of these putative lysR genes were mutagenized using plasmid insertions to determine their phenotypes. Six LysR-type regulators, encoded by mutants SMa1979, SMb20715, SMc00820, SMc04163, SMc03975,and SMc04315, showed similar amino acid sequences (30%)and shared the conserved DNA-binding domain with LrhA,HexA, or DgdR. Phenotype analysis of these gene mutants indicated that the regulators control the swimming behaviors of the bacteria, production of quorum-sensing signals, and secretion of extracellular proteins. These characteristics are very similar to those of LrhA, HexA, and DgdR.Thus, we refer to this group as the LrhA subfamily. Sequence analysis showed that a great number of homologous genes of the LrhA subfamily were distributed in the α,β, and γsubdivisions of proteobacteria, and a few in actinobacteria. These findings could provide new clues to the roles of the LysR gene family.

  2. Subfamilial relationships within solanaceae as inferred from atp beta-rbcl intergenic spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phylogenetic analysis of family Solanaceae was conducted using sequence data from the chloroplast intergenic atp beta-rbcL spacer. Sequence data was generated from 17 species representing 09 out of 14 genera of Solanaceae from Pakistan. Cladogram was constructed using maximum parsimony method and results indicate that Solanaceae is mainly divided into two subfamilies; Solanoideae and Cestroideae. Four major clades within Solanoideae represent tribes; Physaleae, Capsiceae, Datureae and Solaneae are supported by high bootstrap value and the relationships among them are not corroborating with the previous studies. The findings established that subfamily Cestroideae comprised of three genera; Cestrum, Lycium and Nicotiana with high bootstrap support. Position of Nicotiana inferred with atp beta-rbcL sequence is congruent with traditional classification, which placed the taxa in Cestroideae. In the current study Lycium unexpectedly nested with Nicotiana with 100% bootstrap support and identified as a member of tribe Nicotianeae. Expanded sampling of other genera from Pakistan could be valuable towards improving our understanding of intrafamilial relationships within Solanaceae. (author)

  3. Nonlinear interaction of intense hypergeometric Gaussian subfamily laser beams in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, H.; Vaziri (Khamedi), M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian laser beam in a nonlinear plasma medium is investigated by considering the Source Dependent Expansion method. A subfamily of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams with a non-negative, even and integer radial index, can be expressed as the linear superposition of finite number of Laguerre-Gaussian functions. Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams in a nonlinear plasma medium depends on the value of radial index. The bright rings' number of these beams is changed during the propagation in plasma medium. The effect of beam vortex charge number l and initial (input) beam intensity on the self-focusing of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams is explored. Also, by choosing the suitable initial conditions, Hypergeometric-Gaussian subfamily beams can be converted to one or more mode components that a typical of mode conversion may be occurred. The self-focusing of these winding beams can be used to control the focusing force and improve the electron bunch quality in laser plasma accelerators.

  4. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  5. Particle Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    I give a short overview on some of the favorite particle Cold Dark Matter candidates today, focusing on those having detectable interactions: the axion, the KK-photon in Universal Extra Dimensions, the heavy photon in Little Higgs and the neutralino in Supersymmetry. The neutralino is still the most popular, and today is available in different flavours: SUGRA, nuSUGRA, sub-GUT, Mirage mediation, NMSSM, effective MSSM, scenarios with CP violation. Some of these scenarios are already at the level of present sensitivities for direct DM searches.

  6. Crystal Structure of Proteus mirabilis Lipase, a Novel Lipase from the Proteus/Psychrophilic Subfamily of Lipase Family I.1

    OpenAIRE

    Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipases from family I.1 and I.2 catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol between 25–45°C and are used extensively as biocatalysts. The lipase from Proteus mirabilis belongs to the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of lipase family I.1 and is a promising catalyst for biodiesel production because it can tolerate high amounts of water in the reaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase, a member of the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of I.1lipases. Th...

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Zacco platypus, Huangshan, China (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae, subfamily Daninninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuang-Huai; Yan, Jin-Jin; Yan, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Xia, Meng-Ning; Liu, Ying-Long; Lu, Yan-Mei

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae, subfamily Daninninae) is a circular molecule of 16,611 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a D-loop region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most fish mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATG codon except for COI which use GTG as start codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA or TAG, except for the COII which use single T as stop codon. The D-loop region is 928 bp long, located between tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the Cyprinidae. PMID:24409889

  8. TSH increases synthesis of hepatic ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 in hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Cong Cong; Shi, Hong; Zhou, Xinli

    2016-07-22

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that thyrotropin (TSH) levels are closely correlated with the severity of hypercholesterolemia. Reverse cholesterol transfer (RCT) plays an important role in regulating bloodcholesterol. However, the molecular mechanism of hypercholesterolemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has not been fully clarified. The SCH mouse model, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a significant increase in plasma cholesterol compared with controls. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, with normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, showed lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with their wild-type littermates. ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1(ABCA1) is a member of the ABC superfamily, which induces transfer of intracellular cholesterol to extracellular apolipoprotein. TSH upregulated hepatic ABCA1 to promote the efflux of intercellular cumulative cholesterol, resulting in increased plasma cholesterol. These data might partially explain the pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemia in SCH. PMID:27179782

  9. An automated stochastic approach to the identification of the protein specificity determinants and functional subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmaninova Aleksandra B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent progress in sequencing and 3 D structure determination techniques stimulated development of approaches aimed at more precise annotation of proteins, that is, prediction of exact specificity to a ligand or, more broadly, to a binding partner of any kind. Results We present a method, SDPclust, for identification of protein functional subfamilies coupled with prediction of specificity-determining positions (SDPs. SDPclust predicts specificity in a phylogeny-independent stochastic manner, which allows for the correct identification of the specificity for proteins that are separated on a phylogenetic tree, but still bind the same ligand. SDPclust is implemented as a Web-server http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/SDPfoxWeb/ and a stand-alone Java application available from the website. Conclusions SDPclust performs a simultaneous identification of specificity determinants and specificity groups in a statistically robust and phylogeny-independent manner.

  10. A Taxonomic Review of the Sword-tailed Cricket Subfamily Trigonidiinae (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Gryllidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Korean population of the sword-tailed cricket subfamily Trigonidiinae is reviewed for the first time. Four members of the crickets are confirmed based on the examined material, those are Metioche japonica (Ichikawa, 2001, Svistella bifasciata (Shiraki, 1911, Homoeoxipha obliterata (Caudell, 1927 and Natula matsuurai Sugimoto, 2001, each of them belonging to a different genera. Among them, the former two are reconfirmed since earlier records, and latter two are newly recognized genera and species from the far southern provinces Jeollanam-do and Jeju-do Island in Korea. The type locality of both crickets is Japan, and are also only previously referred to in Japan, but their distributional ranges include neighboring South Korea. A key to the species, descriptions, photographs, figures, and oscillograms of male’s calling sounds are provided to aid their identification.

  11. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Species Representing Six Subfamilies in the Family Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T rich codons which significantly correlated with the G + C content of protein coding genes (PCGs. Evolutionary rate analyses reveal that all PCGs have been subjected to a purifying selection, whereas 13 PCGs displayed different evolution rates, among which ATPase subunit 8 (ATP8 showed the highest evolutionary rate. We inferred the secondary structure for all RNA genes of Tenebrio molitor (Te2 and used this as the basis for comparison with the same genes from other Tenebrionidae mitogenomes. Some conserved helices (stems and loops of RNA structures were found in different domains of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs and the cloverleaf structure of transfer RNAs (tRNAs. With regard to the AT-rich region, we analyzed tandem repeat sequences located in this region and identified some essential elements including T stretches, the consensus motif at the flanking regions of T stretch, and the secondary structure formed by the motif at the 3′ end of T stretch in major strand, which are highly conserved in these species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using mitogenomic data strongly support the relationships among six subfamilies: ((Tenebrionidae incertae sedis + (Diaperinae + Tenebrioninae + (Pimeliinae + Lagriinae, which is consistent with phylogenetic results based on morphological traits.

  12. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Species Representing Six Subfamilies in the Family Tenebrionidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Li; Liu, Bing-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Han, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Dong-Xu; Su, Cai-Na

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T rich codons which significantly correlated with the G + C content of protein coding genes (PCGs). Evolutionary rate analyses reveal that all PCGs have been subjected to a purifying selection, whereas 13 PCGs displayed different evolution rates, among which ATPase subunit 8 (ATP8) showed the highest evolutionary rate. We inferred the secondary structure for all RNA genes of Tenebrio molitor (Te2) and used this as the basis for comparison with the same genes from other Tenebrionidae mitogenomes. Some conserved helices (stems) and loops of RNA structures were found in different domains of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and the cloverleaf structure of transfer RNAs (tRNAs). With regard to the AT-rich region, we analyzed tandem repeat sequences located in this region and identified some essential elements including T stretches, the consensus motif at the flanking regions of T stretch, and the secondary structure formed by the motif at the 3' end of T stretch in major strand, which are highly conserved in these species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using mitogenomic data strongly support the relationships among six subfamilies: ((Tenebrionidae incertae sedis + (Diaperinae + Tenebrioninae)) + (Pimeliinae + Lagriinae)), which is consistent with phylogenetic results based on morphological traits. PMID:27258256

  13. Whole genome identification, phylogeny and evolution of the cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP2) sub-families in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 novel avian who...

  14. Plastid and nuclear DNA markers reveal intricate relationships at subfamilial and tribal levels in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerki, Sven; Forest, Félix; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Callmander, Martin W; Nylander, Johan A A; Harrington, Mark; Sanmartín, Isabel; Küpfer, Philippe; Alvarez, Nadir

    2009-05-01

    The economically important soapberry family (Sapindaceae) comprises about 1900 species mainly found in the tropical regions of the world, with only a few genera being restricted to temperate areas. The infrafamilial classification of the Sapindaceae and its relationships to the closely related Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae - which have now been included in an expanded definition of Sapindaceae (i.e., subfamily Hippocastanoideae) - have been debated for decades. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Sapindaceae based on eight DNA sequence regions from the plastid and nuclear genomes and including 85 of the 141 genera defined within the family. Our study comprises 997 new sequences of Sapindaceae from 152 specimens. Despite presenting 18.6% of missing data our complete data set produced a topology fully congruent with the one obtained from a subset without missing data, but including fewer markers. The use of additional information therefore led to a consistent result in the relative position of clades and allowed the definition of a new phylogenetic hypothesis. Our results confirm a high level of paraphyly and polyphyly at the subfamilial and tribal levels and even contest the monophyletic status of several genera. Our study confirms that the Chinese monotypic genus Xanthoceras is sister to the rest of the family, in which subfamily Hippocastanoideae is sister to a clade comprising subfamilies Dodonaeoideae and Sapindoideae. On the basis of the strong support demonstrated in Sapindoideae, Dodonaeoideae and Hippocastanoideae as well as in 14 subclades, we propose and discuss informal groupings as basis for a new classification of Sapindaceae. PMID:19405193

  15. Two new species and a new genus of neotropical mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae Swainson, 1838 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new monotypic genus and two new species of South American mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae are described and figured. A discussion of and comparative notes on related taxa are added. Ricola genus novum is established for the species originally described by Regan (1904) as Loricaria (

  16. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  17. THE GRK4 SUBFAMILY OF G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASES: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, GENE ORGANIZATION, AND SEQUENCE CONSERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GRK4 subfamily of G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Alternative splicing, gene organization, and sequence conservation.Premont RT, Macrae AD, Aparicio SA, Kendall HE, Welch JE, Lefkowitz RJ.Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke Univer...

  18. Evolution of a novel nuclear receptor subfamily with emphasis on the member from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Li, Juan; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-08-10

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) belong to the transcription factor superfamily that regulates development, homeostasis, differentiation, and reproduction in metazoans via control of gene expression. Recently, rapid advances in genome projects on various metazoans have provided new opportunities for studying the evolution and function of NRs. Typically structured NRs are divided into six subfamilies. Here, the gene for a typically structured NR (CgNR8A1) was cloned from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. However, this novel receptor could not be assigned to a known NR subfamily. By data mining, nine other CgNR8A1 gene homologs were identified in metazoans such as cnidarians, mollusks, annelids, echinoderms, hemichordates, and cephalochordates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these receptors belonged to a novel NR subfamily, hereafter designated as NR8. Evolutionary analysis revealed that the NR8 subfamily was phylogenetically the third-oldest NR subfamily, and it originated from a common ancestor of Eumetazoa; several gene loss events occurred independently in ancestors of vertebrates, ecdysozoans, and platyhelminths, which do not have NR8 members. Furthermore, the function of CgNR8A1 was investigated to provide an insight into the functions of this novel NR subfamily. A nuclear localization signal peptide, GKHRNKKPRLD, was identified in CgNR8A1, and a recombinant full-length protein of CgNR8A1 was localized in the nuclei of HeLa cells. The mRNA expression profile of CgNR8A1 suggested that it might be involved in the embryogenesis of C. gigas. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that CgNR8A1 binds strongly to conserved DNA core motifs DR0, DR2, and DR4 and weakly to DR1, DR3, DR5, Half, and Pal0. In summary, the novel NR8 subfamily identified in this study improves our understanding of NR evolution, and the functional analysis of CgNR8A1 provided further insights into the functions of NR8A1s. PMID:25956376

  19. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds. PMID:26979796

  20. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds. PMID:26979796

  1. Pollen morphology of selected species of the subfamily Bombacoideae (Malvaceae sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Holanda Righetti de Abreu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the pollen grains of 11 species within the subfamily Bombacoideae. The pollen grains were acetolyzed, after which they were analyzed and photographed under light microscopy. Unacetolyzed pollen grains were analyzed and photomicrographed under scanning electron microscopy. We studied pollen characters such as shape, size, exine ornamentation and aperture type. The species were separated by a pollen key, which considers the presence or absence of "calotte" in the pollen grains. This attribute separated Ceiba and Eriotheca from the other genera. Some species are differentiated by specific characters: in Bombacopsis glabra and B. stenopetala, the sexine is rugulate or "vermiculate" with isolated pilate elements; in B. calophylla, the pollen grains are sinu-aperturate; Ceiba speciosa show atypical, duplicolumellate sexine; C. erianthos is the only species with 5-colporate pollen grains and a pentagonal amb; in Pachira aquatica the reticulum has muri with spiculaspinulose muri ("reticulum cristate". The variation in the pollen morphology confirms the eurypalynous status of the genera studied here.

  2. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the weevil subfamily Platypodinae reveals evolutionarily conserved range patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Bjarte H

    2015-11-01

    Platypodinae is a peculiar weevil subfamily of species that cultivate fungi in tunnels excavated in dead wood. Their geographical distribution is generally restricted, with genera confined to a single continent or large island, which provides a useful system for biogeographical research. This study establishes the first detailed molecular phylogeny of the group, with the aim of testing hypotheses on classification, diversification, and biogeography. A phylogeny was reconstructed based on 3648 nucleotides from COI, EF-1α, CAD, ArgK, and 28S. Tree topology was well resolved and indicated a strong correlation with geography, more so than predicted by previous morphology-based classifications. Tesserocerini was paraphyletic, with Notoplatypus as the sister group to a clade consisting of three main lineages of Tesserocerini and the recently evolved Platypodini. Austroplatypus formed the sister group to all remaining Platypodini and hence confirmed its separate status from Platypus. The Indo-Australian genera of Platypodini were strikingly paraphyletic, suggesting that the taxonomy of this tribe needs careful revision. Ancestral-area reconstructions in Lagrange and S-DIVA were ambiguous for nodes roughly older than 80 Ma. More recent events were firmly assessed and involved post-Gondwanan long-distance dispersal. The Neotropics was colonized three times, all from the Afrotropical region, with the latest event less than 25 Ma that included the ancestor of all Neotropical Platypodini. PMID:26190520

  3. Biodiversity of Food Species of the Solanaceae Family: A Preliminary Taxonomic Inventory of Subfamily Solanoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Samuels

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years there has been a continual reduction in horticultural and agricultural biodiversity of nutritionally important plants, including those of the Solanaceae family. To add to this, the broad range of traditional crops, previously grown on a sustainable scale in some parts of the world, has been replaced by a narrow range of major crops grown as large-scale monocultures. In order to counteract this trend, and to help maintain a broad wealth of genetic resources, conservation is essential. This, in turn, helps to safeguard food security. A taxonomic inventory, covering the diversity of species in a plant group, is an important first step in conservation. The Solanaceae is one of the major plant families providing food species. A survey of the biodiversity, ethnobotany and taxonomy of subfamily Solanoideae was undertaken and is presented here as an inventory of food species. Fifteen genera provide species that are utilised for food across the world. Of these, only four genera contain economically significant cultivated food cropspecies. The majority of these are in the genus Solanum, whilst Capsicum, Physalis and Lycium contribute the remainder of cultivated crop species. These genera and others also comprise species that are semi-cultivated, tolerated as useful weeds, or gathered from the wild.

  4. Evolution of the "OR37" subfamily of olfactory receptors: a cross-species comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Reiner; Lambert, Thomas D; Samollow, Paul B; Breer, Heinz; Strotmann, Joerg

    2006-04-01

    Genes encoding the olfactory receptors of the "OR37" subfamily of the mouse are characterized by special features including a clustered expression pattern, assembly in two distinct gene clusters, and highly conserved putative promoter motifs. Mining the rat and dog databases revealed that these two species possess highly conserved clusters of OR37 genes at two syntenic genomic loci. In a prototherian mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), none of the characteristic OR37 genes were found. Examination of a metatherian mammal, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) revealed seven canonical OR37 genes, all phylogenetically related to cluster II genes and also organized similar to cluster II of eutherian species. In addition, their 5' upstream regions comprised sequence motifs related to the putative regulatory sequences of cluster II genes. Typical cluster I OR37 genes were identified only in the eutherian mammals examined, including the evolutionary ancient anteater, wherein OR37 genes related to both clusters were present. Together, these results reveal novel information concerning the phylogenetic origin and important evolutionary steps of the mammalian-specific OR37 olfactory receptor family. PMID:16547640

  5. Modulation of the Rat Hepatic Cytochrome P4501A Subfamily Using Biotin Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ronquillo-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found that biotin favors glucose and lipid metabolism, and medications containing biotin have been developed. Despite the use of biotin as a pharmacological agent, few studies have addressed toxicity aspects including the possible interaction with cytochrome P450 enzyme family. This study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on the expression and activity of the cytochrome P4501A subfamily involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Wistar rats were treated daily with biotin (2 mg/kg, i.p., while the control groups were treated with saline. All of the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 1, 3, 5, or 7 days of treatment. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs were modified by biotin while enzyme activity and protein concentration were not affected. The lack of an effect of biotin on CYP1A activity was confirmed using other experimental strategies, including (i cotreatment of the animals with biotin and a known CYP1A inducer; (ii the addition of biotin to the reaction mixtures for the measurement of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activities; and (iii the use of an S9 mixture that was prepared from control and biotin-treated rats to analyze the activation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP into mutagenic metabolites using the Ames test. The results suggest that biotin does not influence the CYP1A-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics.

  6. Out of Africa:Miocene Dispersal, Vicariance, and Extinction within Hyacinthaceae Subfamily Urgineoideae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Shujait Ali; Martin Pfosser; Wolfgang Wetschnig; Mario MartnezAzorn; Manuel B. Crespo; Yan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Disjunct distribution patterns in plant lineages are usually explained according to three hypotheses:vicariance, geodispersal, and long-distance dispersal. The role of these hypotheses is tested in Urgineoideae (Hyacinthaceae), a subfamily disjunctly distributed in Africa, Madagascar, India, and the Mediterranean region. The potential ancestral range, dispersal routes, and factors responsible for the current distribution in Urgineoideae are investigated using divergence time estimations. Urgineoideae originated in Southern Africa approximately 48.9 Mya. Two independent dispersal events in the Western Mediterranean region possibly occurred during Early Oligocene and Miocene (29.9-8.5 Mya) via Eastern and Northwestern Africa. A dispersal from Northwestern Africa to India could have occurred between 16.3 and 7.6 Mya. Vicariance and extinction events occurred approximately 21.6 Mya. Colonization of Madagascar occurred between 30.6 and 16.6 Mya, after a single transoceanic dispersal event from Southern Africa. The current disjunct distributions of Urgineoideae are not satisfactorily explained by Gondwana fragmentation or dispersal via boreotropical forests, due to the younger divergence time estimates. The flattened winged seeds of Urgineoideae could have played an important role in long-distance dispersal by strong winds and big storms, whereas geodispersal could have also occurred from Southern Africa to Asia and the Mediterranean region via the so-called arid and high-altitude corridors.

  7. Identification of the Alternative Promoters of the KChIP4 Subfamily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yun DENG; Jia-Hui XIA; Fang CAI; Kun XIA; Qian PAN; Zhi-Gao LONG; Ling-Qian WU; De-Sheng LIANG; He-Ping DAI; Zhuo-Hua ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The subfamily of voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channel interacting protein 4 (KChIP4)is made up of the auxiliary interacting protein of voltage-dependent potassium channels. In this study, the structure of four splicing variants of the human KChIP4 gene was analyzed. Three of the four isoforms of the KChIP4 gene, KChIP4.1, KChIP4.2 and KChIP4.4, were amplified from mouse and human fetal brain tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and then identified. Based on the bioinformatics analysis of the genomic sequences of the gene, we cloned and characterized two promoter fragments from the KChIP4 gene. One was a 325 bp fragment upstream of the 5' end of the KChIP4.1 mRNA sequence and the other was an 818 bp fragment located immediately at the 5' end of the KChIP4.4 variant. Both of them can initiate the transcription of the reporter gene in HT1080 cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat fetal brain neurons, and they contain C+G islands, except typical TATA boxes and CAAT boxes. This shows that the KChIP4 gene expression is regulated by an alternative promoter.

  8. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  9. A BAYES COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT CANCER THERAPIES UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF WEIBULL SURVIVAL MODEL OR ITS SUBFAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Arora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a group of patients suffering from leukemia B non-small lung cancer. Suchpatients are generally suggested to undergo for either radiotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.The objective of the paper is to compare the two therapies based on survival functions of the patients assumingWeibull survival model for each therapy. The paper further examines the feasibility of a subfamily of Weibullmodel, namely the exponential distribution, for a date set available from a clinical trial experiment. Thisfeasibility is judged based on Bayes information criterion by comparing the Weibull model with its subfamily.The model compatibility study with the data based on posterior p-values has also been given to ensure thesuitability of the two models. Finally, the recommendations are made accordingly.

  10. Using reduced amino acid composition to predict defensin family and subfamily: Integrating similarity measure and structural alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yong-Chun; Li, Qian-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Defensins are essentially ancient natural antibiotics with potent activity extending from lower organisms to humans. They can inhibit the growth or virulence of micro-organisms directly or indirectly enhance the host's immune system. The successful prediction of defensin peptides will provide very useful information and insights for the basic research of defensins. In this study, by selecting the N-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) obtained from structural alphabet named Protein Blocks as the feature parameters, the increment of diversity (ID) is firstly developed to predict defensins family and subfamily. The jackknife test based on 2-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) with 13 reduced amino acids shows that the overall accuracy of prediction are 91.36% for defensin family, and 94.21% for defensin subfamily. The results indicate that ID_RAAA is a simple and efficient prediction method for defensin peptides. PMID:19591890

  11. A contribution to the tachinid flies of the subfamilies Exoristinae and Tachininae (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Fars province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    GHEIBI, Mehdi; Ostovan,Hadi; KAMALI, KARIM

    2010-01-01

    Data are given on the distribution of 40 species belonging to the subfamilies Exoristinae and Tachininae that were collected by the first author in Fars province, Iran, during 2006-2007. In all, 22 species were recorded for the first time from Iran and 34 species from Fars province. Erynniopsis antennata (Rondani, 1861) was reared for the first time on the host Diorhabda elongate (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

  12. Citrus (Rutaceae) SNP Markers Based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR; Transferability Across the Aurantioideae Subfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Garcia-Lor; Gema Ancillo; Luis Navarro; Patrick Ollitrault

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASPar) were developed from sequences of three Citrus species. Their transferability was tested in 63 Citrus genotypes and 19 relative genera of the subfamily Aurantioideae to estimate the potential of SNP markers, selected from a limited intrageneric discovery panel, for ongoing broader diversity analysis at the intra- and intergeneric levels and systematic germplasm bank characteriza...

  13. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Ren; Hong Zhang; Chao Qi; Mei-ling Gao; Hong Wang; Xia-qing Li

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes befo...

  14. Enzymatic characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 7 (GH5_7) mannanase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Vilaplana, Francisco; Brumer, Harry; Aspeborg, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Each plant genome contains a repertoire of β-mannanase genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 7 (GH5_7), putatively involved in the degradation and modification of various plant mannan polysaccharides, but very few have been characterized at the gene product level. The current study presents recombinant production and in vitro characterization of AtMan5-1 as a first step towards the exploration of the catalytic capacity of Arabidopsis thaliana β-mannanase. The target enzyme...

  15. Plastid and nuclear DNA markers reveal intricate relationships at subfamilial and tribal levels in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Buerki, S; Forest, F.; Acevedo-Rodríguez, P; Callmander, M. W.; Nylander, Johan; Harrington, M; Sanmartín, I.; Küpfer, P.; Alvarez, N

    2009-01-01

    The economically important soapberry family (Sapindaceae) comprises about 1900 species mainly found in the tropical regions of the world, with only a few genera being restricted to temperate areas. The infrafamilial classification of the Sapindaceae and its relationships to the closely related Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae – which have now been included in an expanded definition of Sapindaceae (i.e., subfamily Hippocastanoideae) – have been debated for decades. Here we present a phylogenetic...

  16. RINL, Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Rab5-Subfamily, Is Involved in the EphA8-Degradation Pathway with Odin

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kajiho; Shinichi Fukushima; Kenji Kontani; Toshiaki Katada

    2012-01-01

    The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs). Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference)-like (RINL), which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that R...

  17. Alternative splicing produces two transcripts encoding female-biased pheromone subfamily receptors in the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella

    OpenAIRE

    Garczynski, Stephen F.; Walter S. Leal

    2015-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are key sensors of environmental odors and members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily are thought to play important roles in mate finding by recognizing sex pheromones. Much research has been done to identify putative pheromone receptors in lepidopteran males, but little attention has been given to female counterparts. In this study, degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed against a conserved amino acid region in the C-terminus of lepidopteran ...

  18. Systematics of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae with descriptions of Mikeiinae, new subfamily, two new genera, and three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Paretas-Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Thrasorinae are revised and Mikeius is transferred to Mikeiinae Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar, subfam. n., and M. clavatus Pujade-Villar & Restrepo-Ortiz, sp. n., is described. Two new genera of Thrasorinae are erected: Cicatrix Paretas-Martínez, gen. n., including C. pilosiscutum (Girault, comb. n. from Amblynotus, C. schauffi (Buffington, comb. n. from Mikeius, and C. neumannoides Paretas-Martínez & Restrepo-Ortiz, sp. n.; and Palmiriella Pujade-Villar & Paretas-Martínez, gen. n., including P. neumanni (Buffington, comb. n. from Mikeius, Thrasorus rieki Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar, sp. n., is also described. A phylogenetic analysis of 176 morphological and biological characters, including all these new taxa and all genera previously included in Thrasorinae, was conducted. All subfamilies were recovered as monophyletic, with the following relationships: Parnipinae (Euceroptrinae (Mikeiinae (Plectocynipinae (Thrasorinae. A worldwide key to the subfamilies of Figitidae is provided that includes the new subfamily, as well as a key to genera Thrasorinae.

  19. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  20. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G. [Michigan; (Oxford)

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  1. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Pavia); (Lund); (Southern Research)

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  2. Dynamic Distribution and Interaction of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 Subfamily Splicing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Nancy; Schloesser, Marie; Joris, Marine; Sauvage, Eric; Hanikenne, Marc; Motte, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Ser/Arg-rich (SR) proteins are essential nucleus-localized splicing factors. Our prior studies showed that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RSZ22, a homolog of the human SRSF7 SR factor, exits the nucleus through two pathways, either dependent or independent on the XPO1 receptor. Here, we examined the expression profiles and shuttling dynamics of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 subfamily (SR30, SR34, SR34a, and SR34b) under control of their endogenous promoter in Arabidopsis and in transient expression assay. Due to its rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and high expression level in transient assay, we analyzed the multiple determinants that regulate the localization and shuttling dynamics of SR34. By site-directed mutagenesis of SR34 RNA-binding sequences and Arg/Ser-rich (RS) domain, we further show that functional RRM1 or RRM2 are dispensable for the exclusive protein nuclear localization and speckle-like distribution. However, mutations of both RRMs induced aggregation of the protein whereas mutation in the RS domain decreased the stability of the protein and suppressed its nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, the RNA-binding motif mutants are defective for their export through the XPO1 (CRM1/Exportin-1) receptor pathway, but retain nucleocytoplasmic mobility. We performed a yeast two hybrid screen with SR34 as bait and discovered SR45 as a new interactor. SR45 is an unusual SR splicing factor bearing two RS domains. These interactions were confirmed in planta by FLIM-FRET and BiFC and the roles of SR34 domains in protein-protein interactions were further studied. Altogether, our report extends our understanding of shuttling dynamics of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors. PMID:26697894

  3. Identification of a novel pentatricopeptide repeat subfamily with a C-terminal domain of bacterial origin acquired via ancient horizontal gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Sam; Barth, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are a large family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins involved in organelle RNA metabolism. Very little is known about the origin and evolution of these proteins, particularly outside of plants. Here, we report the identification of a novel subfamily of PPR proteins not found in plants and explore their evolution. Results We identified a novel subfamily of PPR proteins, which all contain a C-terminal tRNA guanine methyltransferase (TGM...

  4. Discovery of a linear cyclotide from the bracelet subfamily and its disulfide mapping by top-down mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Wei; Wong, Clarence Tsun Ting; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Tam, James P

    2011-12-30

    Cyclotides are heat-stable macrocyclic peptides from plants that display a wide range of biological activities. They can be divided into two subfamilies: Möbius or bracelet, based on the presence or absence of a cis-proline residue in loop 5, respectively. Currently, over 150 cyclotides have been discovered, but only four linear variants of the Möbius subfamily have been hitherto isolated. In this study, we report the discovery of two novel cyclotides, hedyotide B1 and hedyotide B2, from the aerial parts of Hedyotis biflora. Hedyotide B1 has a cyclic cystine knot structure typical of cyclotides. Interestingly, hedyotide B2 possesses a linear backbone and is the first linear representative of the bracelet subfamily. Disulfide mapping of hedyotide B2 by a top-down MS/MS approach showed that it shares the same knotted disulfide arrangement as conventional cyclotides. Its unfolding pathway also showed that the penetrating disulfide bond Cys III-VI is the most stable disulfide linkage. Cloning of the gene encoding hedyotide B2 revealed a nonsense mutation that introduces a premature stop codon at the conserved Asn residue position, which is essential for an end-to-end backbone ligation. Biophysical characterization showed that hedyotide B2 was more susceptible to exopeptidase degradation as compared with hedyotide B1. Hedyotide B2 was also inactive against all four tested bacterial strains, whereas hedyotide B1 was bactericidal to Escherichia coli and Streptococcus salivarius at low micromolar concentration. Our results provide a deeper understanding of the structures, functions, and biosynthetic processing of cyclotides and uncyclotides in plants. PMID:21979955

  5. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  6. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of the mammalian germinal center kinase III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M;

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  7. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate Laura; Guinea, Michael L; Amey, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes (Elapidae, subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) reach high species richness in the South China Sea and in the Australian region; however, most countries in the two regions still lack up-to-date checklists and identification tools for these snakes. We present an updated reviewed...... checklist and a new complete identification key to sea snakes in Australian waters. The identification key includes 29 species documented and 4 possibly occurring taxa and is based mostly on easy-to-use external characters. We find no evidence for breeding populations of Laticauda in Australian waters, but...

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper Subfamily IV (HDZ IV) Gene Family from Musa accuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Misra, Prashant; Alok, Anshu; Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Shivani; Lakhwani, Deepika; Asif, Mehar H.; Tiwari, Siddharth; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP) of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV) has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present w...

  9. Genome wide identification and expression analysis of Homeodomain leucine zipper subfamily IV (HDZ IV) gene family from Musa accuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Ashutosh ePandey; Prashant eMisra; Anshu eAlok; Navneet eKaur; Shivai eSharma; Deepika eLakhwani; Mehar H Hasan; Siddhartha eTiwari; Prabodh KUMAR Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    The homedodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP) of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV) has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present ...

  10. Evolution of the parasitic wasp subfamily Rogadinae (Braconidae: phylogeny and evolution of lepidopteran host ranges and mummy characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokoblylskij Sergey A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The braconid subfamily Rogadinae is a large, cosmopolitan group of endoparasitoid wasps characterised by 'mummifying' their lepidopteran host larvae, from which the adult subsequently emerges. Rogadines attack a variety of both macro- and microlepidopteran taxa, although the speciose genus Aleiodes almost exclusively attacks macrolepidopterans. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic history of the Rogadinae, revise their higher-level classification and assess the evolution of their host ranges and mummy types. We also assess the divergence times within the subfamily and discuss the reasons for the extraordinary evolutionary diversification of Aleiodes. Results Our Bayesian analyses weakly support the monophyly of the subfamily. A clade comprising all Aleiodes species and some other taxa is not nested within the tribe Rogadini as previously supposed, but instead is recovered as sister to the Yeliconini, with the remaining Rogadini genera being recovered as sister to the Stiropiini. The Rogadinae is estimated to have originated during the mid to late Eocene, 36.1–51.62 MYA. Molecular dating gives a more recent origin for the Aleiodes clade (17.98–41.76 MYA compared to the origins proposed for two of its principal lepidopteran host groups (Noctuidae: 60.7–113.4 MYA; Geometridae 48–62 MYA. The Bayesian ancestral reconstruction of the emergence habits from the mummified hosts weakly recovered an anterior emergence as the ancestral condition for the subfamily. Producing a hard mummy has evolved at various times independently, though most of the species with this biology belong to the Aleiodes clade. Conclusion Based on our results, we erect the tribe Aleiodini nov. to include Aleiodes and Heterogamus stat. rev. Cordylorhogas, Pholichora and Hemigyroneuron are synonymised with Aleiodes. The molecular dating of clades and the ancestral reconstruction of host ranges support the hypothesis that radiation within Aleiodes s. s

  11. Length of guanosine homopolymeric repeats modulates promoter activity of subfamily II tpr genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum

    OpenAIRE

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Lukehart, Sheila; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    In Treponema pallidum, homopolymeric guanosine repeats of varying length are present upstream of both Subfamily I (tprC, D, F and I) and II (tprE, G and J) tpr genes, a group of potential virulence factors, immediately upstream of the +1 nucleotide. To investigate the influence of these poly-G sequences on promoter activity, tprE, G, J, F and I promoter regions containing homopolymeric tracts with different numbers of Gs, the ribosomal binding site and start codon were cloned in frame with th...

  12. A genome-wide survey of expansive NLR-C subfamily in miiuy croaker and characterization of the NLR-B30.2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrui; Chu, Qing; Xu, Tianjun

    2016-08-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are essential intracellular pattern-recognition receptors that respond to pathogens and regulate innate immunity. NLRs include three distinct subfamilies: NLR-A, NLR-B and NLR-C, thereinto, NLR-C as a large subfamily is unique to bony fish and little research about it has been done. In the current study, we identified the members of NLR-B and NLR-C subfamilies containing 2 and 48 genes respectively in miiuy croaker. Compared with other teleosts except for zebrafish, NLR-C subfamily genes occurred expansion in miiuy croaker. The gene expansions of NLR-C subfamily may illustrate adaptive genome evolution in response to specific aquatic environments. Structural analysis showed that the N-terminus of NLR-C subfamily receptors has different characteristics of the domains including RING domain, FISNA domain or PYRIN domain. Interestingly, the C-terminus of 18 NLR-C subfamily members contains an extra B30.2 domain (named NLR-B30.2 genes) which plays an important role in antiviral immune recognition. Simultaneously, molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that the positively sites in miiuy croaker are mainly located in NACHT domain which was the vital region for signal transduction in immune response. Significantly, pathogens challenge in spleen and macrophages demonstrated that NLR-B30.2 genes exhibited more sensitive response to virus than bacteria, suggesting these genes play enhanced roles in innate antiviral immunity, which may represent a new family used for antiviral infection. PMID:26979266

  13. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  14. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  15. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  16. Whole genome identification, phylogeny and evolution of the cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP2) sub-families in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS......0, SRS2_SRS3 and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of...... plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J and CYP2K) and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate...

  17. Analysis of Comparative Sequence and Genomic Data to Verify Phylogenetic Relationship and Explore a New Subfamily of Bacterial Lipases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Masomian

    Full Text Available Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents.

  18. Analysis of Comparative Sequence and Genomic Data to Verify Phylogenetic Relationship and Explore a New Subfamily of Bacterial Lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masomian, Malihe; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2016-01-01

    Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+)-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents. PMID:26934700

  19. PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2), encoding a SEPALLATA subfamily MADS-box protein, positively controls spikelet meristem identity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Maekawa, Masahiko; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kyozuka, Junko

    2010-01-01

    In rice panicle development, new meristems are generated sequentially in an organized manner and acquire their identity in a time- and position-dependent manner. In the panicle of the panicle phytomer2-1 (pap2-1) mutant, the pattern of meristem initiation is disorganized and newly formed meristems show reduced competency to become spikelet meristems, resulting in the transformation of early arising spikelets into rachis branches. In addition, rudimentary glumes and sterile lemmas, the outermost organs of the spikelet, elongate into a leafy morphology. We propose that PAP2 is a positive regulator of spikelet meristem identity. Map-based cloning revealed that PAP2 encodes OsMADS34, a member of the SEPALLATA (SEP) subfamily of MADS-box proteins. PAP2/OsMADS34 belongs to the LOFSEP subgroup of MADS-box genes that show grass-specific diversification caused by gene duplication events. All five SEP subfamily genes in rice are expressed exclusively during panicle development, while their spatial and temporal expression patterns vary. PAP2 expression starts the earliest among the five SEP genes, and a low but significant level of PAP2 mRNA was detected in the inflorescence meristem, in branch meristems immediately after the transition, and in glume primordia, consistent with its role in the early development of spikelet formation. Our study provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the genes of the LOFSEP subgroup control developmental processes that are unique to grass species. PMID:19933267

  20. Resolution of phylogenetic relationships of the major subfamilies of the Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) using the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDDY DIJKSTRA; MICHEL A. SLOTMAN; RORY J. POST

    2006-01-01

    Delphacid relationships from the genus level to the subfamily have been completely resolved (among those taxa examined) using sequence data from the 3' end of the 12S gene. Monophyly of the non-asiracine subfamilies was strongly supported and the asiracine Ugyops was placed in the most basal position of the tree. Support levels for monophyly of the Delphacini increased after weighting transversions more heavily than transitions and after removing the cixiid outgroup from the dataset. Among the Delphacini,Conomelus and Megamelus were more closely related to each other than either was to Chloriona. These results are in agreement with the tree based on morphological characters. However, in contrast to morphological data our results strongly supported a sister group relationship between the Stenocraninae and the Kelisiinae. Although the 12S gene fragment gave some information about the species relationships within Chloriona, neither this fragment nor the 5' end of the 16S gene appear to be very useful for this level. Molecular evolutionary patterns provided evidence that there has been a shift in base composition from T to A during the early evolution of the non-Asiracinae. The non-Asiracinae also had comparatively fast substitution rates and these two observations are possibly correlated. In the 'modern' delphacid Chloriona, the AT content was comparatively low in regions free of constraints but this was not the case for 'non-modern' delphacids. The tRNA for valine has been translocated elsewhere, probably before the Delphacidae and Cixiidae diverged from each other.

  1. Length of guanosine homopolymeric repeats modulates promoter activity of subfamily II tpr genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Lukehart, Sheila; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2007-11-01

    In Treponema pallidum, homopolymeric guanosine repeats of varying length are present upstream of both Subfamily I (tprC, D, F and I) and II (tprE, G and J) tpr genes, a group of potential virulence factors, immediately upstream of the +1 nucleotide. To investigate the influence of these poly-G sequences on promoter activity, tprE, G, J, F and I promoter regions containing homopolymeric tracts with different numbers of Gs, the ribosomal binding site and start codon were cloned in frame with the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (GFP), and promoter activity was measured both as fluorescence emission from Escherichia coli cultures transformed with the different plasmid constructs and using quantitative RT-PCR. For tprJ, G and E-derived clones, fluorescence was significantly higher with constructs containing eight Gs or fewer, while plasmids containing the same promoters with none or more Gs gave modest or no signal above the background. In contrast, tprF/I-derived clones induced similar levels of fluorescence regardless of the number of Gs within the promoter. GFP mRNA quantification showed that all of the promoters induced measurable transcription of the GFP gene; however, only for Subfamily II promoters was message synthesis inversely correlated to the number of Gs in the construct. PMID:17683506

  2. Carotid chemoreceptor development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shirahata, Machiko; Kostuk, Eric W.; Pichard, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    Mice are the most suitable species for understanding genetic aspects of postnatal developments of the carotid body due to the availability of many inbred strains and knockout mice. Our study has shown that the carotid body grows differentially in different mouse strains, indicating the involvement of genes. However, the small size hampers investigating functional development of the carotid body. Hypoxic and/or hyperoxic ventilatory responses have been investigated in newborn mice, but these r...

  3. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  4. VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    YAPICI, Asım; KUTLU, M.Oğuz; BİLİCAN, F.Işıl

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined the change in values in time among teacher candidates. The Schwartz Values Inventory was administered to 708 freshmen and senior students studying at Cukurova University, Education Faculty. The results have shown that the students at the department of Science Education valued power, achievement, stimulation; the department of English Teaching Education valued hedonism; and the department of Education of Religious Culture valued un...

  5. Kbot55, purified from Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom, represents the first member of a novel α-KTx subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElFessi-Magouri, Rym; Peigneur, Steve; Khamessi, Oussema; Srairi-Abid, Najet; ElAyeb, Mohamed; Mille, Bea Garcia; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan; Kharrat, Riadh

    2016-06-01

    Kbot55 is a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the Tunisian scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus. This peptide is cross-linked by 3 disulfide bridges and has a molecular mass of 4128.65Da. Kbot55 is very low represented in the venom and thus represents a challenge for biochemical characterization. In this study, Kbot55 has been subjected to a screening on ion channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. It was found that Kbot55 targets voltage-gated potassium channels with high affinity. Kbot55 shows very low amino acid identity with other scorpion potassium toxins and therefore was considered a bona fide novel type of scorpion toxin. Sequence alignment analysis indicated that Kbot55 is the first representative of the new α-Ktx31 subfamily and therefore was classified as α-Ktx31.1. PMID:26079392

  6. Cyclophilins of a novel subfamily interact with SNW/SKIP coregulator in Dictyostelium discoideum and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skruzný, M; Ambrozková, M; Fuková, I; Martínková, K; Blahůsková, A; Hamplová, L; Půta, F; Folk, P

    2001-10-31

    We screened the Dictyostelium discoideum two-hybrid cDNA library with the SNW/SKIP transcription coregulator SnwA and identified a novel cyclophilin CypE. Independently, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cDNA library was screened with the SnwA ortholog Snw1 and the ortholog of CypE (named Cyp2) was found. Both cyclophilins bind the respective SNW protein in their autologous systems. The interaction was localized to the N-terminal part of SnwA as well as of Snw1. CypE was confirmed in vitro to be a cyclosporin A-sensitive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Remarkably, both SNW proteins bind the cyclophilins in a cyclosporin A independent manner, possibly serving as adaptors for these novel isomerases. These results are the first characterization of the members of a novel cyclophilin subfamily, which includes the human CGI-124/PPIL1 protein. PMID:11690648

  7. Identification of mariner-like elements belonging to the cecropia subfamily in two closely related Helicoverpa species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Wang; Thomas A. Miller; Yoonseong Park

    2011-01-01

    Mariner transposons are widespread in eukaryote genomes and have been used as transposon vectors in insect transgenesis.We examined two closely related Helicoverpa species,the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and corn earworm Helicoverpa zea,for the presence of mariner-like elements (MLEs).Multiple copies of two distinct MLEs,Hamarl and Hamar2,were isolated in H.armigera,and a MLE showing a high degree of conservation to Hamarl was detected in H.zea and was named Hzmarl.These MLEs belong to the cecropia subfamily,containing indels in the transposase coding region.Sequence analysis indicated the earlier invasion of Hamarl and relatively recent activity of Hamar2.

  8. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. PMID:22410205

  9. Structural and Functional Analysis of a New Subfamily of Glycosyltransferases Required for Glycosylation of Serine-rich Streptococcal Adhesins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fan; Erlandsen, Heidi; Ding, Lei; Li, Jingzhi; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Meixian; Liang, Xiaobo; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Hui (UAB)

    2011-09-16

    Serine-rich repeat glycoproteins (SRRPs) are a growing family of bacterial adhesins found in many streptococci and staphylococci; they play important roles in bacterial biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Glycosylation of this family of adhesins is essential for their biogenesis. A glucosyltransferase (Gtf3) catalyzes the second step of glycosylation of a SRRP (Fap1) from an oral streptococcus, Streptococcus parasanguinis. Although Gtf3 homologs are highly conserved in SRRP-containing streptococci, they share minimal homology with functionally known glycosyltransferases. We report here the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of Gtf3. The structural analysis indicates that Gtf3 forms a tetramer and shares significant structural homology with glycosyltransferases from GT4, GT5, and GT20 subfamilies. Combining crystal structural analysis with site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro glycosyltransferase assays, we identified residues that are required for UDP- or UDP-glucose binding and for oligomerization of Gtf3 and determined their contribution to the enzymatic activity of Gtf3. Further in vivo studies revealed that the critical amino acid residues identified by the structural analysis are crucial for Fap1 glycosylation in S. parasanguinis in vivo. Moreover, Gtf3 homologs from other streptococci were able to rescue the gtf3 knock-out mutant of S. parasanguinis in vivo and catalyze the sugar transfer to the modified SRRP substrate in vitro, demonstrating the importance and conservation of the Gtf3 homologs in glycosylation of SRRPs. As the Gtf3 homologs only exist in SRRP-containing streptococci, we conclude that the Gtf3 homologs represent a unique subfamily of glycosyltransferases.

  10. Prevalent Exon-Intron Structural Changes in the APETALA1/FRUITFULL, SEPALLATA, AGAMOUS-LIKE6, and FLOWERING LOCUS C MADS-Box Gene Subfamilies Provide New Insights into Their Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianxian; Duan, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Xuehao; Ye, Lingling; Kong, Hongzhi; Xu, Guixia; Shan, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    AP1/FUL, SEP, AGL6, and FLC subfamily genes play important roles in flower development. The phylogenetic relationships among them, however, have been controversial, which impedes our understanding of the origin and functional divergence of these genes. One possible reason for the controversy may be the problems caused by changes in the exon-intron structure of genes, which, according to recent studies, may generate non-homologous sites and hamper the homology-based sequence alignment. In this study, we first performed exon-by-exon alignments of these and three outgroup subfamilies (SOC1, AG, and STK). Phylogenetic trees reconstructed based on these matrices show improved resolution and better congruence with species phylogeny. In the context of these phylogenies, we traced evolutionary changes of exon-intron structures in each subfamily. We found that structural changes have occurred frequently following gene duplication and speciation events. Notably, exons 7 and 8 (if present) suffered more structural changes than others. With the knowledge of exon-intron structural changes, we generated more reasonable alignments containing all the focal subfamilies. The resulting trees showed that the SEP subfamily is sister to the monophyletic group formed by AP1/FUL and FLC subfamily genes and that the AGL6 subfamily forms a sister group to the three abovementioned subfamilies. Based on this topology, we inferred the evolutionary history of exon-intron structural changes among different subfamilies. Particularly, we found that the eighth exon originated before the divergence of AP1/FUL, FLC, SEP, and AGL6 subfamilies and degenerated in the ancestral FLC-like gene. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the AP1/FUL, FLC, SEP, and AGL6 subfamilies. PMID:27200066

  11. Sensitivity to chemical stimuli plays a fundamental role in the food preferences. Examples in the evolutionary scale: 1. Role of the walking leg chemoreceptors in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus Clarkii 2. PROP bitter taste sensitivity and its nutritional implications in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Melania

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied two examples of the sensitivity to chemical stimuli and its role in the food preferences in two models of the evolutionary scale. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) (Crustacea: Decapoda) is an invasive species of freshwater habitats that has spread worldwide. In crayfish, like in other decapod crustaceans, reception of chemical cues occurs by way of peripheral chemoreceptors grouped within sensory hairs and typically located on the cuticle ...

  12. Promising new cryogenic seal candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the five seal candidates considered for the main propellant system of the Space Shuttle, only one candidate, the fluoroplastic Halar, satisfied all tests including the critical LO2 impact test and the cryogenic compression sealability test. Radiation-cross-linked Halar is a tough, strong thermoplastic that not only endured one hundred 2200 N compression cycles at 83 K while mounted in a standard military O-ring gland without cracking or deforming, but improved in sealability as a result of this cycling. Although these Halar O-rings require much higher sealing forces (approximately 500 N) at room temperature than rubber O-rings, on cooling to cryogenic temperatures the required sealing force only doubles, whereas the sealing force for rubber O-rings increases eightfold. Although these Halar O-rings were inadequately cross-linked, they still exhibited promise as LO2-compatible cryogenic seals. It is expected that their high-temperature properties can be greatly improved by higher degrees of cross-linking (e.g., by 20 mrad of radiation) without compromising their already excellent low-temperature properties. A direct comparison should then be obtained between the best of the cross-linked Halar compounds and the current commercial cryogenic seal materials, filled Teflon and Kel-F

  13. Transfer of All Cybalomiinae to other Subfamilies (Crambidae: Pyraloidea: Lepidoptera: Elusia Schaus, Dichochroma Forbes, Schacontia Dyar, Cybalomia extorris Warren, and C. lojanalis Dognin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cybalomiinae contained 4 genera and 9 species in the Western Hemisphere, according to Munroe (1995). These species were morphologically compared with the type species, Cybalomia pentadalis Lederer, of Cybalomiinae. All species were found to belong to other subfamilies and the following new com...

  14. Discovery of a living fossil: a new xylastodorine species from New Caledonia (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) and first record of the subfamily from the eastern Hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.; Cassis, G.; Monteith, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Proxylastodoris Heiss & Popov, 2002, P. kuscheli spec. nov., of the subfamily Xylastodorinae Barber, 1920 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) is described from New Caledonia. It is the first recent record outside the western Hemisphere of the Xyalstodorinae and is th

  15. The molecular phylogeny of the digenean family Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925 and the value of morphological characters, with the erection of a new subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Large and small rDNA sequences of 41 species of the family Opecoelidae are utilised to produce phylogenetic inference trees, using brachycladioids and lepocreadioids as outgroups. Sequences were newly generated for 13 species. The resulting Bayesian trees show a monophyletic Opecoelidae. The earliest divergent group is the Stenakrinae, based on two species which are not of the type-genus. The next well-supported clade to diverge is constituted of three species of Helicometra Odhner, 1902. Based on this tree and the characters of the egg and uterus, a new subfamily, the Helicometrinae, is erected and defined to include the genera Helicometra, Helicometrina Linton, 1910 and Neohelicometra Siddiqi et Cable, 1960. The subfamily Opecoelinae is found to be monophyletic, but the Plagioporinae is paraphyletic. The single representative of the Opecoelininae (not of the type genus) is nested within a group of deep-sea 'plagioporines'. The two representatives of the Opistholebetidae are embedded within a group of shallow-water 'plagioporine' species. The Opistholebetidae is reduced to subfamily status pro tem as its morphological and biological characteristics are distinctive. This implies that as opecoelid systematics develops with more molecular evidence, several further subfamilies will be recognised. Many of the morphological characters were found to be homoplasious, but the characters defining the Helicometrinae and Opecoelinae, such as filamented eggs, reduced cirrus-sac and uterine seminal receptacle, are closely correlated with the inferred phylogeny. PMID:27189270

  16. Phylogeny of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA loci reveals the evolution of the tank habit within the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Katharina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Zizka, Georg

    2009-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within subfamily Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae, Poales) were inferred using DNA sequence data from the low-copy nuclear gene phosphoribulokinase (PRK) and five plastid loci (matK gene, 3'trnK intron, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, atpB-rbcL spacer). The PRK dataset exhibited a considerably higher proportion of potentially informative characters than the plastid dataset (16.9% vs. 3.1%), leading to a higher resolution and improved nodal support of the resulting phylogenies. Bromelia is resolved as sister to the remainder of the subfamily, albeit this relationship receives only weak nodal support. The basal position of Bromelia, as well as Deinacanthon, Greigia, Ochagavia, Fascicularia and Fernseea within the subfamily is corroborated and the remainder of the subfamily forms a highly supported clade (the eu-bromelioids). By the inclusion of nuclear data the sister group position of Fernseea to the eu-bromelioids is now highly supported. Within the eu-bromelioids the resolution of the clade representing the more advanced core bromelioids has increased and further demonstrates the highly problematic generic concept of Aechmea as well as Quesnelia. Moreover, the data were used to examine the evolution of sepal symmetry and the tank habit. Tracing of character transitions onto the molecular phylogeny implies that both characters have undergone only few transitions within the subfamily and thus are not as homoplasious as previously assumed. The character state reconstruction reveals the great importance of the evolution of the tank habit for the diversification of the core bromelioids. PMID:19236934

  17. The unique ligand binding features of subfamily-II iLBPs with respect to bile salts and related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Filippo; Ceccon, Alberto; Zanzoni, Serena; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Ragona, Laura; Molinari, Henriette; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) are a family of evolutionarily related small cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the transcellular transport of lipophilic ligands. Subfamily-II iLBPs include the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and the ileal and the liver and ileal bile acid binding proteins (L-BABP and I-BABP). Atomic-level investigations during the past 15-20 years have delivered relevant information on bile acid binding by this protein group, revealing unique features including binding cooperativity, promiscuity, and site selectivity. Using NMR spectroscopy and other biophysical techniques, our laboratories have contributed to an understanding of the molecular determinants of some of these properties and their generality among proteins from different animal species. We focused especially on formation of heterotypic complexes, considering the mixed compositions of physiological bile acid pools. Experiments performed with synthetic bile acid derivatives showed that iLBPs could act as targets for cell-specific contrast agents and, more generally, as effective carriers of amphiphilic drugs. This review collects the major findings related to bile salt interactions with iLBPs aiming to provide keys for a deeper understanding of protein-mediated intracellular bile salt trafficking. PMID:25468388

  18. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.

  19. An Efficient Approach for Candidate Set Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nawar Malhis; Arden Ruttan; Hazem H. Refai

    2005-01-01

    When Apriori was first introduced as an algorithm for discovering association rules in a database of market basket data, the problem of generating the candidate set of the large set was a bottleneck in Apriori's performance, both in space and computational requirements. At first, many unsuccessful attempts were made to improve the generation of a candidate set. Later, other algorithms that out performed Apriori were developed that generate association rules without using a candidate set. They...

  20. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  1. Comparative analysis of serine/arginine-rich proteins across 27 eukaryotes: insights into sub-family classification and extent of alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale N Richardson

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which include plants, animals, fungi and "basal" eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. Using RNA recognition motifs (RRMs as a phylogenetic marker, we classified 272 SR genes into robust sub-families. The SR gene family can be split into five major groupings, which can be further separated into 11 distinct sub-families. Most flowering plants have double or nearly double the number of SR genes found in vertebrates. The majority of plant SR genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, in all paralogous SR genes in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and maize, one of the two paralogs is preferentially expressed throughout plant development. We also assessed the extent of AS in SR genes based on a splice graph approach (http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/gmap_SRgenes. AS of SR genes is a widespread phenomenon throughout multiple lineages, with alternative 3' or 5' splicing events being the most prominent type of event. However, plant-enriched sub-families have 57%-88% of their SR genes experiencing some type of AS compared to the 40%-54% seen in other sub-families. The SR gene family is pervasive throughout multiple eukaryotic lineages, conserved in sequence and domain organization, but differs in gene number across lineages with an abundance of SR genes in flowering plants. The higher number of alternatively spliced SR genes in plants emphasizes the importance of AS in generating splice variants in these organisms.

  2. The expression of T-cell receptor Vβ subfamily in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of T-cell receptor(TCR)Vβsubfamily in hepatitis B virus(HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liverfailure(HBV-ACLF)patients.Methods Twenty-eight patients with HBV-ACLF(HBV-ACLF group)and 32patients with chronic hepatitis B flare(CHB-F group),who were treated in The Second People’s Hospital from

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the Cricetinae subfamily based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes and the nuclear vWF gene

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, K.; Michaux, Johan,; Lebedev, V.; N Yigit; Colak, E.; Ivanova, N.; Poltoraus, A.; Surov, A.; Markov, G.; Maak, S.; Neumann, S.; Gattermann, R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite some popularity of hamsters as pets and laboratory animals there is no reliable phylogeny of the subfamily Cricetinae available so far. Contradicting views exist not only about the actual number of species but also concerning the validity of several genera. We used partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA) and one partial nuclear gene (von Willebrand Factor exon 28) to provide a first gene tree of the Cricetinae based on 15 taxa comprising six genera: Accordi...

  4. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 expressing corneal sensory neurons can be subdivided into at least three subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhakeem eAlamri; Romke eBron; James Alexander Brock; Jason eIvanusic

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is innervated by three main functional classes of sensory neurons: polymodal nociceptors, pure mechano-nociceptors and cold-sensing neurons. Here we explored transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) expression in guinea pig corneal sensory neurons, a widely used molecular marker of polymodal nociceptors. We used retrograde tracing to identify corneal afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and double label in situ hybridization and/or immuno...

  5. Genome-wide analysis of major intrinsic proteins in the tree plant Populus trichocarpa: Characterization of XIP subfamily of aquaporins from evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Anjali; Sankararamakrishnan Ramasubbu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) include water-conducting aquaporins and glycerol-transporting aquaglyceroporins. MIPs play important role in plant-water relations. The model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize contain more than 30 MIPs and based on phylogenetic analysis they can be divided into at least four subfamilies. Populus trichocarpa is a model tree species and provides an opportunity to investigate several tree-specific traits. In this study, we ...

  6. Genome-wide analysis of major intrinsic proteins in the tree plant Populus trichocarpa: Characterization of XIP subfamily of aquaporins from evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anjali Bansal; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2009-01-01

    Background Members of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) include water-conducting aquaporins and glycerol-transporting aquaglyceroporins. MIPs play important role in plant-water relations. The model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize contain more than 30 MIPs and based on phylogenetic analysis they can be divided into at least four subfamilies. Populus trichocarpa is a model tree species and provides an opportunity to investigate several tree-specific traits. In this study, we have inve...

  7. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  8. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates invo...

  9. Enzymatic characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 7 (GH5_7) mannanase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Vilaplana, Francisco; Brumer, Harry; Aspeborg, Henrik

    2014-03-01

    Each plant genome contains a repertoire of β-mannanase genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 7 (GH5_7), putatively involved in the degradation and modification of various plant mannan polysaccharides, but very few have been characterized at the gene product level. The current study presents recombinant production and in vitro characterization of AtMan5-1 as a first step towards the exploration of the catalytic capacity of Arabidopsis thaliana β-mannanase. The target enzyme was expressed in both E. coli (AtMan5-1e) and P. pastoris (AtMan5-1p). The main difference between the two forms was a higher observed thermal stability for AtMan5-1p, presumably due to glycosylation of that particular variant. AtMan5-1 displayed optimal activity at pH 5 and 35 °C and hydrolyzed polymeric carob galactomannan, konjac glucomannan, and spruce galactoglucomannan as well as oligomeric mannopentaose and mannohexaose. However, the galactose-rich and highly branched guar gum was not as efficiently degraded. AtMan5-1 activity was enhanced by Co(2+) and inhibited by Mn(2+). The catalytic efficiency values for carob galactomannan were 426.8 and 368.1 min(-1) mg(-1) mL for AtMan5-1e and AtMan5-1p, respectively. Product analysis of AtMan5-1p suggested that at least five substrate-binding sites were required for manno-oligosaccharide hydrolysis, and that the enzyme also can act as a transglycosylase. PMID:24327260

  10. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Species discrimination in the subfamily Ostertagiinae of Northern China: assessment of DNA barcode in a taxonomically challenging group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jizhou; Zhang, Yongning; Feng, Chunyan; Yuan, Xiangfen; Sun, Degang; Deng, Junhua; Wang, Caixia; Wu, Shaoqiang; Lin, Xiangmei

    2016-03-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes within the subfamily Ostertagiinae (Teladorsagia, Ostertagia, and Marshallagia et al.) are among the most common infections of domesticated livestock. These parasites are of particular interest, as many of the species within this group are of economic importance worldwide. Traditionally, nematode species designations have been based on morphological criteria. However, this group possesses poorly defined species. There is an urgent need to develop a reliable technique that can distinguish species of Ostertagiinae. DNA barcoding has been proved to be a powerful tool to identify species of birds, mammals, and arthropods, but this technique has not yet been examined for identifying species of Ostertagiinae. In this study, a total of 138 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from individuals representing 11 species of Ostertagiinae were acquired by PCR for the first time. The specimens were collected from pastoral area of northern China. Genetic divergence analyses showed that mean interspecific Kimura two-parameter distances of COI (13.61 %) were about four times higher than the mean value of the intraspecific divergence (3.69 %). Then, the performance of the COI to identify species of Ostertagiinae was evaluated by identification success rates using nearest neighbor (NN) and BLASTn. The results indicated that the rates of correct sequence identification for COI were high (>80 %) when using the NN and BLASTn methods. Besides, the deep lineage divergences are detected in Teladorsagia circumcincta. Meanwhile, the analyses also detected no genetic differentiation between some species such as Ostertagia hahurica and Ostertagia buriatica. These results indicate that the traditional status of species within Ostertagiinae should be closely examined based on the molecular data. PMID:26584827

  12. A novel fractal approach for predicting G-protein-coupled receptors and their subfamilies with support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guoping; Li, Yong; Wang, Feichi; Wang, Siwen; Hu, Xuehai

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven membrane-spanning proteins and regulate many important physiological processes, such as vision, neurotransmission, immune response and so on. GPCRs-related pathways are the targets of a large number of marketed drugs. Therefore, the design of a reliable computational model for predicting GPCRs from amino acid sequence has long been a significant biomedical problem. Chaos game representation (CGR) reveals the fractal patterns hidden in protein sequences, and then fractal dimension (FD) is an important feature of these highly irregular geometries with concise mathematical expression. Here, in order to extract important features from GPCR protein sequences, CGR algorithm, fractal dimension and amino acid composition (AAC) are employed to formulate the numerical features of protein samples. Four groups of features are considered, and each group is evaluated by support vector machine (SVM) and 10-fold cross-validation test. To test the performance of the present method, a new non-redundant dataset was built based on latest GPCRDB database. Comparing the results of numerical experiments, the group of combined features with AAC and FD gets the best result, the accuracy is 99.22% and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) is 0.9845 for identifying GPCRs from non-GPCRs. Moreover, if it is classified as a GPCR, it will be further put into the second level, which will classify a GPCR into one of the five main subfamilies. At this level, the group of combined features with AAC and FD also gets best accuracy 85.73%. Finally, the proposed predictor is also compared with existing methods and shows better performances. PMID:26405954

  13. Evolution of a novel subfamily of nuclear receptors with members that each contain two DNA binding domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hirohisa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear receptors (NRs are important transcriptional modulators in metazoans which regulate transcription through binding to the promoter region of their target gene by the DNA binding domain (DBD and activation or repression of mRNA synthesis through co-regulators bound to the ligand binding domain (LBD. NRs typically have a single DBD with a LBD. Results Three nuclear receptors named 2DBD-NRs, were identified from the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni that each possess a novel set of two DBDs in tandem with a LBD. They represent a novel NR modular structure: A/B-DBD-DBD-hinge-LBD. The 2DBD-NRs form a new subfamily of NRs, VII. By database mining, 2DBD-NR genes from other flatworm species (Schmidtea mediterranea and Dugesia japonica, from Mollusks (Lottia gigantean and from arthropods (Daphnia pulex were also identified. All 2DBD-NRs possess a P-box sequence of CEACKK in the first DBD, which is unique to 2DBD-NRs, and a P-box sequence of CEGCKG in the second DBD. Phylogenetic analyses of both DBD and ligand binding domain sequences showed that 2DBD-NR genes originate from a common two DBD-containing ancestor gene. A single 2DBD-NR orthologue was found in Arthropoda, Platyhelminths and Mollusca. Subsequent 2DBD-NR gene evolution in Mollusks and Platyhelminths involved gene duplication. Chromosome localization of S. mansoni 2DBD-NR genes by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH suggests that 2DBD-NR genes duplicated on different chromosomes in the Platyhelminths. Dimerization of Sm2DBDα indicates that 2DBD-NRs may act as homodimers, suggesting either that two repeats of a half-site are necessary for each DBD of 2DBD-NRs to bind to its target gene, or that each 2DBD-NR can recognize multiple sites. Conclusion 2DBD-NRs share a common ancestor gene which possessed an extra DBD that likely resulted from a recombination event. After the split of the Arthropods, Mollusks and Platyhelminths, 2DBD-NR underwent a recent duplication in a

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea Silvia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense

  15. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.Biodiversidade na Alyssinae subfamília (Hymenoptera, Braconidae no Parque Natural Peñas de Aya (Espanha. O estudo dos himenópteros parasitóides é significativo para uma avaliação da diversidade em determinada área por causa do seu papel no controle das populações de insetos. O presente trabalho analisa a diversidade no taxon Alysiinae (Himenóptero, Braconidae na área de floresta de Artikutza, localizada no Parque Natural de Peñas de Aya, Pirinéus ocidentais, Espanha. A coleta de espécimes dividiu-se em dois anos e foi realizada em dois habitats diferentes: floresta mista e floresta de faias. No total, foram capturados 2.270 exemplares pertencentes a 22 gêneros distintos. Subsequentemente, as variedades alfa, beta e gama foram analisadas, comprovando-se que a floresta de faias apresenta uma diversidade maior que a floresta mista. Adotou-se a estratégia de amostra para análise da fenologia da Alysiinae e da sua relação com

  16. Identification and characterization of three TLR1 subfamily members from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host

  17. A REVISION OF THE PLIOCENE NATICIDS OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ITALY.III. THE SUBFAMILIES POLINICEINAE AND SININAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PEDRIALI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the third in the series and concludes the revision of the Pliocene naticids of northern and central Italy. It expands to 31 the total number of species and subspecies of this family recovered so far from the Pliocene deposits of the investigated area. Of the thirteen taxa covered in this study, eight (bononiensis, exturbinoides, grossularia, guillemini, helicina helicina, magenesi, notabilis and pulchella belong to the genus Euspira Agassiz in J. Sowerby, 1837, one (olla belongs to the genus Neverita Risso, 1826, two others (fasciolata and intricata are members of Payraudeautia Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1883, and the last two (perregulare and striatum belong to the genus Sinum Röding, 1798. All thirteen taxa considered in this paper are described and commented on in the systematic account. Since species herein recorded under Euspira were often assigned to Polinices Montfort, 1810 by earlier workers, both genera are discussed and their characters are defined on the basis of their respective type species. A significant output is that the tropical genus Polinices, well represented in Late Oligocene and Miocene naticid assemblages of Europe, disappeared from that area and there are no reliable records of it subsequent to the Tortonian. Also the relations between Polinices and Neverita are discussed and their respective distinguishing characters are pointed out.This study demonstrates that the taxonomic relevance of a particular character may change greatly depending on the subfamily considered, and cannot be extended to Naticidae as a whole. Naticine species are confidently identifiable primarily by characters of their opercula. These latter can be combined with protoconch characters and color patterns, umbilical callus and umbilical characters in descending order of importance. Poliniceine and sinine species are readily and univocally distinguished by a combination of protoconch and umbilical characters, the larval shell

  18. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec,Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  19. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these...... genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these...... genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  20. Scattering Properties of Candidate Planetary Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory investigation of the scattering properties of candidate planetary regolith materials is an important technique for understanding the physical properties of a planetary regolith. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  2. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A., E-mail: smlandi@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  3. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION:...

  4. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non- federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request...

  5. Vaccine candidates for malaria: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Although it is more than a decade since the parasite genome information was obtained, standardized novel genome-wide selection/prioritization strategies for candidacy of malaria vaccine antigens are still sought. In the quest to systematically identify candidates, it is impossible to overemphasize the usefulness of wheat germ cell-free technology in expressing quality proteins for the post-genome vaccine candidate discovery. PMID:26559316

  6. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  7. Formyl peptide receptors are candidate chemosensory receptors in the vomeronasal organ

    OpenAIRE

    Liberles, Stephen D.; Horowitz, Lisa F.; Kuang, Donghui; Contos, James J.; Wilson, Kathleen L.; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Liberles, David A; Buck, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of receptors that detect environmental stimuli lays a foundation for exploring the mechanisms and neural circuits underlying sensation. The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO), which detects pheromones and other semiochemicals, has 2 known families of chemoreceptors, V1Rs and V2Rs. Here, we report a third family of mouse VNO receptors comprising 5 of 7 members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family. Unlike other FPRs, which function in the immune system, these FPRs are selec...

  8. A new subfamily of penaeidin with an additional serine-rich region from kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) contributes to antimicrobial and phagocytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Yu; Gao, Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-06-01

    Penaeidins are an important family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in penaeid shrimp. To date, five groups of penaeidins have been identified in penaeid shrimp. All are composed of a proline-rich N-terminus and a C-terminus containing six cysteine residues engaged in three disulfide bridges. In this study, a new type of penaeidin from Marsupenaeus japonicus was identified. The full-length penaeidin contains a unique serine-rich region and a penaeidin domain, which consists of a proline-rich region and a cysteine-rich region. Here, we classify all penaeidins into two subfamilies. All reported penaeidins are in subfamily I, and the new penaeidin identified in M. japonicus is designated as Penaeidin subfamily II (MjPen-II). MjPen-II was expressed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach and intestine, and was upregulated after bacterial challenge. A liquid bacteriostatic assay showed that MjPen-II had antibacterial activity to some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MjPen-II could bind to bacteria by binding to polysaccharides on the surface of bacteria, thus promoting bacterial agglutination. The serine-rich region enhanced the agglutination activity of MjPen-II. The proline-rich domain had a stronger bacterial-binding activity and polysaccharide-binding activity than the cysteine-rich domain. MjPen-II was also found to be involved in the phagocytosis of bacteria and efficiently improved the phagocytosis rate. Therefore, MjPen-II eliminates bacteria through direct bacterial inhibition as well as by promoting phagocytosis in shrimp. PMID:26855016

  9. First record of the subfamily Proctolabinae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Acrididae from Argentina Primer registro de la subfamilia Proctolabinae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Acrididae para la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution records for the first time the subfamily Proctolabinae from Argentina. This subfamily contains 29 genera and 209 species restricted to the Neotropics with only one genus, Eucephalacris Descamps, reaching south as far as Mato Grosso in Brazil and northern Paraguay. Specimens belonging to Eucephalacris borellii (Giglio-Tos were collected in Misiones province. The presence of this species registered herein raises to eleven the number of Acrididae subfamilies known to occur in the country, and highlights the importance of conducting surveys of Acridoidea and Orthoptera in general, in diverse regions of Argentina. Brief diagnoses and illustrations of the characters that allowed the identification of the genus and species are also given in this contribution.Esta contribución registra por primera vez la subfamilia Proctolabinae para la Argentina. La subfamilia Proctolabinae contiene 29 géneros y 209 especies restringidas a la región Neotropical, con sólo uno de sus géneros, Eucephalacris Descamps, que llega al sur hasta Mato Grosso en Brasil y el norte de Paraguay. Ejemplares pertenecientes a Eucephalacris borellii (Giglio-Tos fueron colectados en el departamento de Guaraní, provincia de Misiones. La presencia de Eucephalacris borellii, registrada en este trabajo, eleva a once el número de subfamilias de Acrididae presentes en la Argentina, y destaca la necesidad de realizar relevamientos sobre la diversidad de Acridoidea y de Orthoptera en general, en diversas regiones de nuestro país. También se brindan en esta contribución una breve diagnosis e ilustraciones de los caracteres que permiten la identificación del género y de la especie.

  10. Fourfold polyphyly of the genus formerly known as Upucerthia, with notes on the systematics and evolution of the avian subfamily Furnariinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R.T.; Barker, F.K.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional avian subfamily Furnariinae, a group of terrestrial ovenbirds typical of the Andean and Patagonian arid zones, consists of the genera Furnarius, Cinclodes, Geositta, Upucerthia, Chilia, and Eremobius. We investigated phylogenetic relationships within the Furnariinae, with particular attention to the nine species of the genus Upucerthia, using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from all genera in the subfamily. Upucerthia was found to be highly polyphyletic, its constituent species forming four non-sister clades: (1) a basal lineage consisting of two Upucerthia species, U. ruficaudus and U. andaecola, as well as the monotypic genera Eremobius and Chilia; (2) a lineage consisting of U. harterti and U. certhioides, two species behaviorally divergent from other Upucerthia species; (3) a lineage consisting of U. serrana, which is not closely related to any other Upucerthia species; and (4) a lineage, sister to Cinclodes, consisting of the four Upucerthia species U. dumetaria, U. albigula, U. validirostris, and U. jelskii. The larger Furnariinae was also found to be highly polyphyletic; the terrestrial open country ecotype characteristic of this subfamily occurs in four unrelated clades in the family Furnariidae, including a basal lineage as well as derived lineages. Although the large degree of divergence among Upucerthia clades was not previously recognized, owing to ecological, behavioral, and morphological similarities, the groupings correspond closely to relationships suggested by plumage. This is in contrast to studies of other avian genera in which plumage patterns have been shown to be extensively convergent. The generic names Upucerthia and Ochetorhynchus are available for two of the former Upucerthia clades; new generic names may be warranted for the other two.

  11. A New Subfamily of Aphids(Hemiptera,Aphidomorpha)from the Early Cretaceous Lebanese Amber with a Description of the Oldest Apterous Morphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr WEGIEREK; David A.GRIMALDI

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are marked by their high polymorphism,but species reported from the Early Cretaceous are known only from alate morphs.The discovery of an apterous adult morph in Lebanese amber and a larva of the same species are very important for the understanding of both the morphological and biological evolution of this insect group at the very early stage of development.Gondvanoaphis estephani new subfamily,new genus and species of the recent aphids family Thelaxidae is described.The characters of the new genus in respect to other genera placed in Thelaxidae are reviewed.The palaeoecologicai and palaeogeographical data concerning Gondvanoaphis new genus are also discussed.

  12. Modelling and mutational analysis of Aspergillus nidulans UreA, a member of the subfamily of urea/H+ transporters in fungi and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sanguinetti, Manuel; Amillis, Sotiris; Pantano, Sergio; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Ramón, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We present the first account of the structure–function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/H+ membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using Aspergillus nidulans UreA as a study model. Based on the crystal structures of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT) and of the Nucleobase-Cation-Symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from Microbacterium liquefaciens (Mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of UreA which, combined with site-directed and ...

  13. The subfamily-specific interaction between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 subunits is determined by interactions between the N- and C-termini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The "silent" voltage-gated potassium (KvS channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form electrically functional homotetramers at the plasma membrane but assembles with Kv2.1 subunits, generating functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramers. The N-terminal T1 domain determines the subfamily-specific assembly of Kv1-4 subunits by preventing interactions between subunits that belong to different subfamilies. For Kv6.4, yeast-two-hybrid experiments showed an interaction of the Kv6.4 N-terminus with the Kv2.1 N-terminus, but unexpectedly also with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. We confirmed this interaction by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP using N-terminal Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 fragments. However, full-length Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 subunits do not form heterotetramers at the plasma membrane. Therefore, additional interactions between the Kv6.4 and Kv2.1 subunits should be important in the Kv2.1/Kv6.4 subfamily-specificity. Using FRET and co-IP approaches with N- and C-terminal fragments we observed that the Kv6.4 C-terminus physically interacts with the Kv2.1 N-terminus but not with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. The N-terminal amino acid sequence CDD which is conserved between Kv2 and KvS subunits appeared to be a key determinant since charge reversals with arginine substitutions abolished the interaction between the N-terminus of Kv2.1 and the C-terminus of both Kv2.1 and Kv6.4. In addition, the Kv6.4(CKv3.1 chimera in which the C-terminus of Kv6.4 was replaced by the corresponding domain of Kv3.1, disrupted the assembly with Kv2.1. These results indicate that the subfamily-specific Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramerization is determined by interactions between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 that involve both the N- and C-termini in which the conserved N-terminal CDD sequence plays a key role.

  14. Evaluation of nine candidate genes in patients with normal tension glaucoma: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinthal Eva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal tension glaucoma is a major subtype of glaucoma, associated with intraocular pressures that are within the statistically normal range of the population. Monogenic forms following classical inheritance patterns are rare in this glaucoma subtype. Instead, multigenic inheritance is proposed for the majority of cases. The present study tested common sequence variants in candidate genes for association with normal tension glaucoma in the German population. Methods Ninety-eight SNPs were selected to tag the common genetic variation in nine genes, namely OPTN (optineurin, RDX (radixin, SNX16 (sorting nexin 16, OPA1 (optic atrophy 1, MFN1 (mitofusin 1, MFN2 (mitofusin 2, PARL (presenilin associated, rhomboid-like, SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial and CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1. These SNPs were genotyped in 285 cases and 282 fully evaluated matched controls. Statistical analyses comprised single polymorphism association as well as haplogroup based association testing. Results Results suggested that genetic variation in five of the candidate genes (RDX, SNX16, OPA1, SOD2 and CYP1B1 is unlikely to confer major risk to develop normal tension glaucoma in the German population. In contrast, we observed a trend towards association of single SNPs in OPTN, MFN1, MFN2 and PARL. The SNPs of OPTN, MFN2 and PARL were further analysed by multimarker haplotype-based association testing. We identified a risk haplotype being more frequent in patients and a vice versa situation for the complementary protective haplotype in each of the three genes. Conclusion Common variants of OPTN, PARL, MFN1 and MFN2 should be analysed in other cohorts to confirm their involvement in normal tension glaucoma.

  15. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from Hunan (China, including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Hunan (Oriental China are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., C. postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., O. monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P.angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg, P. striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., R. obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Areotetes carinuliferus sp. n. and Coleopioides van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Coleopioides

  16. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P; Owen, M J; Ophoff, R A; O'Donovan, M C; Corvin, A; Cichon, S; Sullivan, P F

    2015-05-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why historical candidate gene studies did not achieve their primary aims is inadequate statistical power. However, the considerable efforts embodied in these early studies unquestionably set the stage for current successes in genomic approaches to schizophrenia. PMID:25754081

  17. Closing the door on dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold dark matter candidates - if they exist - will be present in, and perhaps dominate the mass density of, the halo of our Galaxy. As they pass the vicinity of the Sun, such halo particles will be focussed gravitationally, pass through the Sun and - occasionally - be captured and accumulate in the solar core. When the density in the core of the Sun of dark matter candidates has increased sufficiently, they will annihilate and among the annihilation products will be energetic (≥ GeV) ''ordinary'' neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) which are detectable in deep underground experiments. The event rates in such detectors from the capture and annihilation of various dark matter candidates (Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, Sneutrinos and Photinos) are presented and it is shown how comparison with data may lead to constraints on (or, the exclusion of) the masses of these particles. 6 refs

  18. SLIDE, the Protein Interacting Domain of Imitation Switch Remodelers, Binds DDT-Domain Proteins of Different Subfamilies in Chromatin Remodeling Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqiang Dong; Zheng Gao; Shujing Liu; Guang Li; Zhongnan Yang; Hai Huang; Lin Xu

    2013-01-01

    The Imitation Switch (ISWI) type adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling factors are conserved proteins in eukaryotes, and some of them are known to form stable remodeling complexes with members from a family of proteins, termed DDT-domain proteins. Although it is well documented that ISWIs play important roles in different biological processes in many eukaryotic species, the molecular basis for protein interactions in ISWI complexes has not been fully addressed. Here, we report the identification of interaction domains for both ISWI and DDT-domain proteins. By analyzing CHROMATIN REMODELING11 (CHR11) and RINGLET1 (RLT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana ISWI (AtISWI) and AtDDT-domain protein, respectively, we show that the SLIDE domain of CHR11 and the DDT domain together with an adjacent sequence of RLT1 are responsible for their binding. The Arabidopsis genome contains at least 12 genes that encode DDT-domain proteins, which could be grouped into five subfamilies based on the sequence similarity. The SLIDE domain of AtISWI is able to bind members from different AtDDT subfamilies. Moreover, a human ISWI protein SNF2H is capable of binding AtDDT-domain proteins through its SLIDE domain, suggesting that binding to DDT-domain proteins is a conserved biochemical function for the SLIDE domain of ISWIs in eukaryotes.

  19. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  20. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  1. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  2. The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toremen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates' responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstructured interview method…

  3. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  4. FAME's Search for Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.

    FAME is a five year survey mission to observe the positions, proper motions, and parallaxes of 40,000,000 stars down to 15th magnitude with accuracies of 50 microarcseconds at 9th magnitude. In addition to producing an astrometric and photometric catalog unparalleled for its accuracy and size, the survey will provide significant astrophysics results and search for extrasolar planet candidates.

  5. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  6. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  7. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  8. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  9. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  10. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Ying; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Ji-Cai

    2013-01-01

    The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Hunan (Oriental China) are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Apodesmia melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Opius monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma depressiclypealisLi & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg,Phaedrotoma striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Rhogadopsis obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes van

  11. 22 CFR 11.8 - Travel expenses of candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of candidates. 11.8 Section 11... Travel expenses of candidates. The travel and other personal expenses of candidates incurred in... Department may issue round-trip invitational travel orders to bring candidates to Washington at...

  12. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations. PMID:20672542

  13. Genome-wide analysis of major intrinsic proteins in the tree plant Populus trichocarpa: Characterization of XIP subfamily of aquaporins from evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs include water-conducting aquaporins and glycerol-transporting aquaglyceroporins. MIPs play important role in plant-water relations. The model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize contain more than 30 MIPs and based on phylogenetic analysis they can be divided into at least four subfamilies. Populus trichocarpa is a model tree species and provides an opportunity to investigate several tree-specific traits. In this study, we have investigated Populus MIPs (PtMIPs and compared them with their counterparts in Arabidopsis, rice and maize. Results Fifty five full-length MIPs have been identified in Populus genome. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Populus has a fifth uncharacterized subfamily (XIPs. Three-dimensional models of all 55 PtMIPs were constructed using homology modeling technique. Aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filters, characteristics of loops responsible for solute selectivity (loop C and gating (loop D and group conservation of small and weakly polar interfacial residues have been analyzed. Majority of the non-XIP PtMIPs are similar to those in Arabidopsis, rice and maize. Additional XIPs were identified from database search and 35 XIP sequences from dicots, fungi, moss and protozoa were analyzed. Ar/R selectivity filters of dicots XIPs are more hydrophobic compared to fungi and moss XIPs and hence they are likely to transport hydrophobic solutes. Loop C is longer in one of the subgroups of dicot XIPs and most probably has a significant role in solute selectivity. Loop D in dicot XIPs has higher number of basic residues. Intron loss is observed on two occasions: once between two subfamilies of eudicots and monocot and in the second instance, when dicot and moss XIPs diverged from fungi. Expression analysis of Populus MIPs indicates that Populus XIPs don't show any tissue-specific transcript abundance. Conclusion Due to whole genome duplication, Populus has the

  14. Candidate Species Selection: Cultural and Photosynthetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cultural information is provided for a data base that will be used to select candidate crop species for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Lists of food crops which will satisfy most nutritional requirements of humans and also fit within the scope of cultural restrictions that logically would apply to a closed, regenerating system were generated. Cultural and environmental conditions that will allow the most rapid production of edible biomass from candidate species in the shortest possible time are identified. Cultivars which are most productive in terms of edible biomass production by (CE) conditions, and which respond to the ever-closed approach to optimization realized by each shortened production cycle are selected. The experimental approach with lettuce was to grow the crop hydroponically in a growth chamber and to manipulate such variables as light level and duration, day/night temperature, and nutrient form and level in the solution culture.

  15. New drug candidates in tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Evranos Aksöz

    2014-12-01

    makes them quit the treatment. From these problems emerges the need for development of effective new drugs, with smaller duration of therapy, less side effects and without the problem of resistance. After a long period such as 40 years, a new drug molecule bedaquiline was approved in December 2012 by FDA while the drug was in phase II research. Bedaquiline will be used in multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy. When the chemical structures of bedaquilline and other candidate drugs were examined, the structures such as diarylquinoline, oxazolidinone, nitroimidazole, ethylenediamine drew attention. These common structures will be directive in designing new molecules. In this review, bedaquiline and other candidate drug molecules such as sutezolide, linezolide, PA-824, delamanide, rifapentine, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, BTZ-043, TBA-354, CPZEN-45, DC-159a, Q201, SQ-609, SQ-641 were mentioned.

  16. Optical Nova Candidate in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 14.46 and 16.46 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.7. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h42m37.72s, Dec = +41d12'30.0"(J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 1'14" west and 3'39" south of the core of M 31. All magnitudes given are obtained from a photometric solution using R magnitudes of the Local Group Survey M 31 catalogue (Massey et al.

  17. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars and not...... planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  18. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H;

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cDNA cloning, two-dimensional gel immunoblotting, and amino acid microsequencing identified three sequence-unique and distinct proteins that constitute a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins corresponding to hnRNPs H, H', and F. These proteins share......%, respectively. The three proteins contain three repeats, which we denote quasi-RRMs (qRRMs) since they have a remote similarity to the RNA recognition motif (RRM). The three qRRMs of hnRNP H, with a few additional NH2-terminal amino acids, were constructed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and used for...... keratinocytes. In normal human keratinocytes, the expression level of H was unaffected by treatment with several substances tested including two second messengers and seven cytokines. Likewise the expression level of F was independent of these substances, although it was strikingly down-regulated by long term...

  19. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam Aliya; Brohan Elaine; Thornicroft Graham; Lewis-Holmes Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  20. Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, Monica; Weyant, C. M.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Faber, K. T.

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) oxide, due to its high-temperature capabilities and thermal expansion coefficient similar to silicon nitride, is a promising candidate for environmental barriers for silicon (Si) nitride-based ceramics. This paper focuses on the development of plasma-sprayed Ta oxide as an environmental barrier coating for silicon nitride. Using a D-optimal design of experiments, plasma-spray processing variables were optimized to maximize coating density. The effect of processing variables on c...

  1. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  2. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...

  3. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  4. Comparing Candidate Selection : A Feminist Institutionalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnegard, Elin; Kenny, Meryl

    2016-01-01

    This contribution evaluates the theoretical and methodological challenges ofresearching the gendered dynamics of candidate selection in comparativeperspective. It argues that comparative studies should take into account not only thegendered nature of political parties and their wider institutional context, but mustalso investigate the informal aspects of the selection process and their genderedconsequences. The article explores these dynamics by revisiting original in-depthresearch on the can...

  5. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF ALLOSENSITIZED CARDIAC TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Mauricio; Johnson, Maryl R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation remains the best treatment in advanced heart failure patients with a high risk of death. However, an inadequate supply of donor hearts decreases the likelihood of transplantation for many patients. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are being increasingly used as a bridge to transplant in patients who may not survive long enough to receive a heart. This expansion in VAD use has been associated with increasing rates of allosensitization in cardiac transplant candidates. A...

  7. Critical Thinking Tendencies of Music Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu PİJİ KÜÇÜK; Yusuf Barış UZUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, determining critical thinking and education levels, which are in sub-dimensions, of music teacher candidates, determining critical thinking tendency and the relations between sub dimensions and detecting if or if not critical thinking tendency creates a difference in terms of gender, class and what type of school they graduated from are aimed. Work group composes of 274 students being educated in the Departments of Music Education GSEB of Education Faculty of Bolu Abant İzzet B...

  8. Preoperative Anxiety in Candidates for Heart Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi, Mehdi; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Joudi, Marjan; Joudi, Mitra; Mahdikhani, Helia; Ferasatkish, Rasool; Bakhshandeh, Houman; Jabbari Nooghabi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate preoperative anxiety and its predisposing factors in a group of adult patients who were candidate for any kind of heart surgery. Methods: We evaluated preoperative anxiety in 300 patients undergoing heart surgery whose ages ranged between 18-65 years. Relationship of probable demographic factors like gender, educational level, marital status, number of children, family support, opium addiction, occupational status, and left ventricular ejectio...

  9. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  10. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  11. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report

  12. Have giant lobelias evolved several times independently? Life form shifts and historical biogeography of the cosmopolitan and highly diverse subfamily Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonelli Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tendency of animals and plants to independently develop similar features under similar evolutionary pressures - convergence - is a widespread phenomenon in nature. In plants, convergence has been suggested to explain the striking similarity in life form between the giant lobelioids (Campanulaceae, the bellflower family of Africa and the Hawaiian Islands. Under this assumption these plants would have developed the giant habit from herbaceous ancestors independently, in much the same way as has been suggested for the giant senecios of Africa and the silversword alliance of Hawaii. Results Phylogenetic analyses based on plastid (rbcL, trnL-F and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] DNA sequences for 101 species in subfamily Lobelioideae demonstrate that the large lobelioids from eastern Africa the Hawaiian Islands, and also South America, French Polynesia and southeast Asia, form a strongly supported monophyletic group. Ancestral state reconstructions of life form and distribution, taking into account phylogenetic uncertainty, indicate their descent from a woody ancestor that was probably confined to Africa. Molecular dating analyses using Penalized Likelihood and Bayesian relaxed clock approaches, and combining multiple calibration points, estimate their first diversification at ~25-33 million years ago (Ma, shortly followed by several long-distance dispersal events that resulted in the current pantropical distribution. Conclusion These results confidently show that lobelioid species, commonly called 'giant', are very closely related and have not developed their giant form from herbaceous ancestors independently. This study, which includes the hitherto largest taxon sampling for subfamily Lobelioideae, highlights the need for a broad phylogenetic framework for testing assumptions about morphological development in general, and convergent evolution in particular.

  13. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 expressing corneal sensory neurons can be subdivided into at least three subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ivanusic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is innervated by 3 main functional classes of sensory neurons: polymodal nociceptors, pure mechano-nociceptors and cold-sensing neurons. Here we explored transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1 expression in guinea pig corneal sensory neurons, a widely used molecular marker of polymodal nociceptors. We used retrograde tracing to identify corneal afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and double label in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry to determine their molecular profile. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to reveal the neurochemistry and structure of TRPV1 expressing nerve endings in the corneal epithelium. Approximately 45% of corneal afferent neurons expressed TRPV1, 28% expressed Piezo2 (a marker of putative pure mechano-nociceptors and 8% expressed the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8; a marker of cold-sensing neurons. There was no co-expression of TRPV1 and Piezo2 in corneal afferent neurons, but 6% of TRPV1 neurons co-expressed TRPM8. The TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons could be divided into 3 subpopulations on the basis of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and/or or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha3 (GFRα3 co-expression. In the corneal epithelium, the TRPV1 axons that co-expressed CGRP and GFRα3 ended as simple unbranched endings in the wing cell layer. In contrast, those that only co-expressed GFRα3 had ramifying endings that branched and terminated in the squamous cell layer, whereas those that only co-expressed CGRP had simple endings in the basal epithelium. This study shows that the majority of TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons (>90% are likely to be polymodal nociceptors. Furthermore, TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons can be subdivided into specific subpopulations based on their molecular phenotype, nerve terminal morphology and distribution in the corneal

  14. Identification and initial characterization of the 3' end of gene transcripts encoding putative members of the pheromone receptor subfamily in Lepidoptera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen F. Garczynski; Kevin W. Wanner; Thomas R. Unruh

    2012-01-01

    Semiochemicals,including pheromones and kairomones,used in pest management programs reduce the need for chemical insecticides,and understanding their interactions with their membrane receptors may help make them more effective in the field.Identification of odorant receptors in the Lepidoptera has mainly been achieved using bioinformatics to search DNA sequences generated by genome or expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing projects.This study reports a rapid method to identify members of the pheromone receptor subfamily in Lepidoptera.Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed against a conserved amino acid sequence in the carboxyl terminus of known lepidopteran pheromone receptors,and the primers were used in a 3' rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends procedure.Polymerase chain reaction products generated from seven different lepidopteran species were TA cloned and sequenced.The eDNA sequences of 25 transcripts were determined to encode potential members of the pheromone receptor subfamily.These cDNAs ranged from 238 to 642 bp and encoded 49-54 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus.Analysis of the 3' untranslated region reveals that most of the transcripts contain multiple polyadenylation signal sequences,and in the case ofManduca sexta,an alternate polyadenylation signal appears to be used in transcript processing.The 3' untranslated region was also useful in determining unique receptors encoded by transcripts having highly similar nucleotide and amino acid sequences.Overall,this technique provides a complementary method of pheromone receptor identification in EST sequencing projects,or can be used as a stand-alone method in conjunction with 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedures.

  15. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae) On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião José de Oliveira; Maria da Conceição Messias; Adenildo da Silva-Vasconcelos

    1992-01-01

    A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  16. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  17. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  18. Optical Nova Candidates in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Pietsch, W.; Updike, A.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of an optical nova candidate in M 31 on two 11x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA). The object was first detected on 2008 June 06.47 and 07.47 UT with respective magnitudes of 18.0 and 17.9.

  19. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  20. Dark Matter and its Particle Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bottino, A

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures we first briefly review the main observational facts which imply that most part of matter in the Universe is not visible and some recent intriguing experimental data which would point to a significant contribution to Omega due to a cosmological constant. We subsequently discuss some particle candidates for dark matter, with particular emphasis for the neutralino. We present the main properties of this particle, also in the light of the most recent experimental results in direct search for relic particles; furthermore, we discuss the perspectives for their indirect searches.

  1. Assessment of candidate accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of candidate accident management strategies, whose purpose is to prevent or mitigate in-vessel core damage, were identified from various Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry reports. These strategies have been grouped in this report by the challenges they are intended to meet, and assessed to provide information which may be useful to individual licensees for consideration when they perform their Individual Plant Examinations. Each assessment focused on describing and explaining the strategy, considering its relationship to existing requirements and practices as well as identifying possible associated adverse effects. 10 refs

  2. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  3. Candidate gene effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerljung, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of five candidate genes to the variation in meat tenderness, pH, colour, marbling and water holding capacity (WHC) was analysed in muscle samples from 243 young bulls of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, or Simmental breed, raised in Swedish commercial herds. The animals were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding calpain 1 (CAPN1:c.947G>C), calpastatin, (CAST:c.155C>T), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), leptin (UASMS2C>T) a...

  4. Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Günthardt, G I; Camperi, J A; Díaz, R J; Gomez, P L; Bosch, G; Schirmer, M

    2015-01-01

    NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object i...

  5. Tracking quintessence and cold dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the generation of a kination-dominated phase in the context of a quintessential model with an inverse-power-law potential and a Hubble-induced mass term for the quintessence field. The presence of kination is associated with an oscillating evolution of the quintessence field and the barotropic index. We find that, in sizeable regions of the parameter space, a tracker scaling solution can be reached sufficiently early to alleviate the coincidence problem. Other observational constraints originating from nucleosynthesis, the inflationary scale, the present acceleration of the universe and the dark-energy-density parameter can be also met. The impact of this modified kination-dominated phase on the thermal abundance of cold dark matter candidates is also investigated. We find that: 1. the enhancement of the relic abundance of the WIMPs with respect to the standard paradigm, crucially depends on the hierarchy between the freeze-out temperature and the temperature at which the extrema in the evolution of the quintessence field are encountered, and; 2. the relic abundance of e-WIMPs takes its present value close to the temperature at which the earliest extremum of the evolution of the quintessence field occurs and, as a consequence, both gravitinos and axinos arise as natural cold dark matter candidates. In the case of unstable gravitinos, the gravitino constraint can be satisfied for values of the initial temperature well above those required in the standard cosmology

  6. Pulsar Candidates Toward Fermi Unassociated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Jagannathan, P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for steep spectrum radio sources within the 95% confidence error ellipses of the Fermi unassociated sources from the Large Array Telescope (LAT). Using existing catalogs and the newly released GMRT all-sky survey at 150 MHz we identify compact radio sources that are bright at MHz frequencies but faint or absent at GHz frequencies. Such steep spectrum radio sources are rare and constitute a sample of pulsar candidates, selected independently of period, dispersion measure, interstellar scattering and orbital parameters. We find point-like, steep spectrum candidates toward 11 Fermi sources. Based on the gamma-ray/radio positional coincidence, the rarity of such radio sources, and the properties of the 3FGL sources themselves, we argue that many of these sources could be pulsars. They may have been missed by previous radio periodicity searches due to interstellar propagation effects or because they lie in an unusually tight binary. If this hypothesis is correct, then renewed gamma-ray and ra...

  7. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  8. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Eisele

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  9. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  10. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  11. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  12. CASE via MS: Ranking Structure Candidates by Mass Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Adalbert; Meringer, Markus; Rücker, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Two important tasks in computer-aided structure elucidation (CASE) are the generation of candidate structures from a given molecular formula, and the ranking of structure candidates according to compatibility with an experimental spectrum. Candidate ranking with respect to electron impact mass spectra is based on virtual fragmentation of a candidate structure and comparison of the fragments’ isotope distributions against the spectrum of the unknown compound, whence a structure–spectrum compat...

  13. Identity Functions and Empathetic Tendencies of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Alpaslan; Kadi, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research is to investigate identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. Sample consists of 232 teacher candidates in social studies teacher education. Survey model is preferred to investigate the difference between identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. And also correlational…

  14. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  15. Perceptions of Candidate Teachers about Concept of the Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate candidate teachers' metaphors about project concept in Turkey. Study group of research is 171 candidate teachers enrolled 2011-2012 educational terms one of the faculty of education in Turkey. Data was obtained from the candidate teachers' completion of the sentence "Project is like ..., because ...".…

  16. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  17. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 3rd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : Hauviller First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  18. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : HAUVILLER First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  19. Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-09-01

    The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

  20. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 4th candidate

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  1. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 4

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  2. Radion Candidate for the LHC Diphoton Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Chakraborty, Amit; Maitra, Ushoshi; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Samui, Tousik

    2015-01-01

    The recent observation of a modest excess in diphoton final states at the LHC, by both the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, has sparked off the expected race among theorists to find the right explanation for this proto-resonance, assuming that the signal will survive and not prove to be yet another statistical fluctuation. We carry out a general analysis of this `signal' in the case of a scalar which couples only to pairs of gluons (for production) and photons (for diphoton decay modes), and establish that an explanation of the observed resonance, taken together with the null results of new physics searches in all the other channels, requires a scalar with rather exotic behaviour. We then demonstrate that a fairly simple-minded extension of the minimal Randall-Sundrum model can yield a radion candidate which might reproduce this exotic behaviour.

  3. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R

    2009-09-01

    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease. PMID:19446931

  4. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Gong-He; REN Zhao-Yu; GUO Ping; ZHENG Ji-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments,frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors.

  5. UCD Candidates in the Hydra Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Wehner, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    NGC 3311, the giant cD galaxy in the Hydra cluster (A1060), has one of the largest globular cluster systems known. We describe new Gemini GMOS (g',i') photometry of the NGC 3311 field which reveals that the red, metal-rich side of its globular cluster population extends smoothly upward into the mass range associated with the new class of Ultra-Compact Dwarfs (UCDs). We identify 29 UCD candidates with estimated masses > 6x10^6 solar masses and discuss their characteristics. This UCD-like sequence is the most well defined one yet seen, and reinforces current ideas that the high-mass end of the globular cluster sequence merges continuously into the UCD sequence, which connects in turn to the E galaxy structural sequence.

  6. CRISPLD2: a novel NSCLP candidate gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, Brett T; Lidral, Andrew C; Stal, Samuel; Mulliken, John B; Moreno, Lina M; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Arco-Burgos, Mauricio; Valencia-Ramirez, Consuelo; Blanton, Susan H; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2007-09-15

    Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) results from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Candidate gene analysis and genome scans have been employed to identify the genes contributing to NSCLP. In this study, we evaluated the 16q24.1 chromosomal region, which has been identified by multiple genome scans as an NSCLP region of interest. Two candidate genes were found in the region: interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2). Initially, Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP multiplex families and simplex parent-child trios were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both IRF8 and CRISPLD2. CRISPLD2 was subsequently genotyped in a data set comprised of NSCLP families from Colombia, South America. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified a significant association between CRISPLD2 and NSCLP in both our Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP cohorts. SNP rs1546124 and haplotypes between rs1546124 and either rs4783099 or rs16974880 were significant in the Caucasian multiplex population (P=0.01, P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). An altered transmission of CRISPLD2 SNPs rs8061351 (P=0.02) and rs2326398 (P=0.06) was detected in the Hispanic population. No association was found between CRISPLD2 and our Colombian population or IRF8 and NSCLP. In situ hybridization showed that CRISPLD2 is expressed in the mandible, palate and nasopharynx regions during craniofacial development at E13.5-E17.5, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that genetic variation in CRISPLD2 has a role in the etiology of NSCLP. PMID:17616516

  7. Role of NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kostsin, Dzmitry G. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Academicheskaya Str. 27, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashiwayama, Yoshinori [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi [Laboratory of Plant Gene Expression, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoko University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Imanaka, Tsuneo, E-mail: imanaka@pha.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Morita, Masashi [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms.

  8. Comparative studies of a new subfamily of human Ste20-like kinases: homodimerization, subcellular localization, and selective activation of MKK3 and p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustein, Jason T; Xia, Liang; Kahlenburg, J Michelle; Robinson, Dan; Templeton, Dennis; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2003-09-18

    The Sterile-20 or Ste20 family of serine/threonine kinases is a group of signaling molecules whose physiological roles within mammalian cells are just starting to be elucidated. Here, in this report we present the characterization of three human Ste20-like kinases with greater than 90% similarity within their catalytic domains that define a novel subfamily of Ste20s. Members of this kinase family include rat thousand and one (TAO1) and chicken KFC (kinase from chicken). For the lack of a consensus nomenclature in the literature, in this report, we shall call this family hKFC (for their homology to chicken KFC) and the three members hKFC-A, hKFC-B, and hKFC-C, respectively. These kinases have many similarities including an aminoterminal kinase domain, a serine-rich region, and a coiled-coil configuration within the C-terminus. All three kinases are able to activate the p38 MAP kinase pathway through the specific activation of the upstream MKK3 kinase. We also offer evidence, both theoretical and biochemical, showing that these kinases can undergo self-association. Despite these similarities, these kinases differ in tissue distribution, apparent subcellular localization, and feature structural differences largely within the carboxyl-terminal sequence. PMID:13679851

  9. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  10. 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the oxytocinase subfamily of M1 aminopeptidases with immune-regulating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Tsoukalidou, Sofia; Mauvais, Francois-Xavier; Sfyroera, Georgia; Mastellos, Dimitrios C; van Endert, Peter; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Vourloumis, Dionisios; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2015-02-12

    Members of the oxytocinase subfamily of M1 aminopeptidases (ERAP1, ERAP2, and IRAP) play important roles in both the adaptive and innate human immune responses. Their enzymatic activity can contribute to the pathogenesis of several major human diseases ranging from viral and parasitic infections to autoimmunity and cancer. We have previously demonstrated that diaminobenzoic acid derivatives show promise as selective inhibitors for this group of aminopeptidases. In this study, we have thoroughly explored a series of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid derivatives as inhibitors of this class of enzymes, achieving submicromolar inhibitors for ERAP2 (IC50 = 237 nM) and IRAP (IC50 = 105 nM). Cell-based analysis indicated that the lead compounds can be effective in downregulating macrophage activation induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ as well as cross-presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Our results indicate that this class of inhibitors may be useful for the targeted downregulation of immune responses. PMID:25635706

  11. Role of NH2-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH2-terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH2-terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH2-terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH2-terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH2-terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH2-terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH2-terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms

  12. Deletions and candidate genes in Williams syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jurado, L.A.; Peoples, R.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemizygosity at the elastin locus (ELN) on chromosome 7q11.23 has recently been reported in several familial and sporadic cases of the developmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS). Because the deletion is greater than the span of the ELN gene, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome has been suggested as the probable molecular basis for this condition. Thus far, neither the size of the deletion(s), nor other genes within it are known. We have analyzed samples from 27 sporadic WS patients by genotyping two multiallelic ELN intragenic polymorphisms, detectable by PCR amplification, and by Southern blotting for ELN gene dosage. Twenty four patients were hemizygous at the ELN locus while 3 showed no deletion or detectable rearrangement. Genotype studies on parental DNA were informative in 12 of the deletions. All 12 were due to de novo events, 8 in the maternal and 4 in the paternal chromosome. In an attempt to identify genes involved in WS we are also using a candidate gene approach. Delayed clearance of an exogenous calcium load with normal or slightly increased calcitonin levels in serum has been documented in WS patients suggesting a defective calcitonin action or calcium sensing function. The calcitonin receptor (CTR) gene is, therefore, a good candidate since CTR has a dual role as a hormonal receptor for calcitonin and an extracellular calcium sensor. We have mapped the CTR gene to chromosome 7q21.1 by PCR-SSCA of somatic cell hybrids and FISH analysis. Using two color FISH with probes for ELN and CTR, both loci are located on 7q at a distance of {approximately}10 Mb, CTR being telomeric. Our CTR probe does not detect any genomic abnormality by FISH or Southern blot in the patients` samples analyzed. We have identified a diallelic polymorphism in the CTR cDNA and are currently testing the hypothesis of an impaired CTR expression as responsible for some of the clinical features of WS by analysing the CTR transcripts by RT-PCR.

  13. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. (paper)

  14. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  15. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 2nd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates for parkinsonian disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RaduConstantinescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in atypical parkinsonian disorders compared with PD and healthy controls. The new "omics" techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.

  17. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name: MAURINFirst Name:Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives.One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted...

  18. New optical nova candidate in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of a possible nova in M 31 on a 12x60s stacked R filter CCD image obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k, 13.5 micron sq. pixels) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA) on 2010 December 11.095 UT with magnitude of 16.6. The object is visible on all individual images. The position for the nova candidate is RA = 00h42m31.08s, Dec = +41d27'20.3"(J2000, accuracy of 0.3"), which is 149" west and 672" north of the core of M 31. We do not detect the object on a 4x60s stacked SLOTIS CCD image obtained on2010 December 5.213 UT (limiting R magnitude at the position of 19.0). There is no entry in VizieR/CDS for this object and no minor planet could be found on this position using the MPC/IAU Minor Planet Checker (see http://scully.harvard.edu/~cgi/CheckMP) . All magnitudes given are obtained from a photometric solution using R magnitudes of the Local Group Survey M 31 catalogue (Massey et al.

  19. Comet candidates among quasi-Hilda objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; García-Migani, E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present the results of a search for quasi-Hilda comets. We wanted to find objects that have recently arrived from the Centaur zone that could became active near the perihelion of their orbits. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-seven objects from the ASTORB database were selected following a dynamical criteria to constrain the unstable quasi-Hilda region. These objects were integrated backward 50 000 yr in order to identify those that have recently arrived from the outer regions of the solar system. Results: The backward integration showed that 11 objects could be Centaurs or transneptunian objects that ended their dynamical evolution as quasi-Hilda comets. The dynamical evolution of these objects from a statistical point of view was studied by computing the time-averaged distribution of a number of clones as a function of the aphelion and perihelion distances. All the candidates show a dynamical behavior that is expected for comets injected in the inner solar system from the Centaur or transneptunian regions and reaching the quasi-Hilda region.

  20. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARDFirst Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you...

  1. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  2. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, G.; Aguilar, J. C.; Dueñas, S.; Hermida, L.; Iglesias, E.; Penton, E.; Lobaina, Y.; Lopez, M.; Mussachio, A.; Falcon, V.; Alvarez, L.; Martinez, G.; Gil, L.; Valdes, I.; Izquierdo, A.; Lazo, L.; Marcos, E.; Guzman, G.; Muzio, V.; Herrera, L.

    2013-03-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October - 2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  3. MR imaging of cochlear implant candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the value of diagnostic imaging in the workup of patients for possible placement of a multichannel intracochlear hearing device. Forty-five candidates for cochlear implantation were examined with both CT and MR imaging. In 32 adult patients coronal and axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences were performed. In 10 patients, we used a T2*-weighted gradient-echo three-dimensional sequence with axial presaturation instead. Three children were examined with an ultrafast snapshot sequence for scout viewing, followed by a T2-weighted axial half-Fourier spin-echo sequence. In 36 patients we found the cochlea to be patent. Thirty-three of these patients successfully received an implant device. Three patients still await surgery. Six patients showed pathologic conditions in at least one ear at CT and MR alone. In 3 patients there was evidence of bony occulsion of the cochlear duct at CT; MR revealed a reduced signal intensity in the cochlea as well. Two patients with normal CT results showed abnormal conditions at MR imaging (reduced signal on T2-weighted images) and were not operated on

  4. Radio observations of candidate magnetic O stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schnerr, R S; van der Horst, A J; Oosterloo, T A; Miller-Jones, J C A; Henrichs, H F; Spoelstra, T A Th; Foley, A R; 10.1051/0004-6361:20066299

    2010-01-01

    Context: Some O stars are suspected to have to have (weak) magnetic fields because of the observed cyclical variability in their UV wind-lines. However, direct detections of these magnetic fields using optical spectropolarimetry have proven to be very difficult. Aims: Non-thermal radio emission in these objects would most likely be due to synchrotron radiation. As a magnetic field is required for the production of synchrotron radiation, this would be strong evidence for the presence of a magnetic field. Such non-thermal emission has already been observed from the strongly magnetic Ap/Bp stars. Methods: We have performed 6 & 21 cm observations using the WSRT and use these, in combination with archival VLA data at 3.6 cm and results from the literature, to study the radio emission of 5 selected candidate magnetic O stars. Results: Out of our five targets, we have detected three: $\\xi$ Per, which shows a non-thermal radio spectrum, and $\\alpha$ Cam and $\\lambda$ Cep, which show no evidence of a non-thermal s...

  5. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 5

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  6. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 5th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  7. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  8. Fission reactor irradiation of candidate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of eleven candidate ceramics (MgO. xAl2O3 in five forms, and Al2O3, Si3N4 and SiC in two forms each) have been sent to the EBR-II fission reactor for neutron irradiation testing. EBR-II is being used because of its high neutron flux and the absence of thermal neutrons which cause undesirable nuclear reactions with 14N. The four families of ceramics selected for inclusion have all shown acceptable performance in irradiation tests carried out by the LASL Ceramics Program or by others. The present study will in some cases yield results at temperatures not yet investigated, and in others will allow the evaluation of forms of these ceramics never before irradiated. Samples will be irradiated at 675 and 825 K to approx. 2.4 x 1022 n/cm2 (E/sub n/ > 0.1 MeV), after which changes in electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties will be determined

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Matsuda

    Full Text Available The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp. As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  10. TEACHER CANDIDATES' PERCEPTIONS ABOUT TEACHING AND ASSESSING FLUENT READING

    OpenAIRE

    ULUSOY, MUSTAFA; DEDEOĞLU, Hakan; Ertem, İhsan Seyit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher candidates' perceptions about how to teach and assess fluent reading. To this end, the data was collected from 180 candidates by using a survey consisting of 5 open-ended questions. The data was analyzed by using qualitative techniques and frequency analysis. Most of the teacher candidates believed that fluent reading should be done by considering spelling and punctuation, and the process should result in comprehension. The results also sho...

  11. Physical education candidate teachers' beliefs about vocational self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    OZSAKER, Murat; CANPOLAT, A. Meliha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...

  12. The presidential candidates on Twitter during the 2009 Romanian elections

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio MOMOC

    2012-01-01

    What changes introduced Twitter in political communication? Which are the advantages and disadvantages of Twitter usage in electoral communication for candidates and for voters? As the specialized literature barely mentions the use of Twitter in the Romanian elections, we shall answer the question regarding the way in which the 2009 presidential candidates used their own Twitter accounts. This article starts from the assumption that presidential candidates use the online communication tools i...

  13. Newly identified YSO candidates towards the LDN 1188

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Gábor; Kiss, Csaba; Smidla, József

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  14. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae): life cycle and DNA barcode with implications for the taxonomy of the Aloninae subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erika dos Santos; de Abreu, Cínthia Bruno; Orlando, Tereza Cristina; Wisniewski, Célio; dos Santos-Wisniewski, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae), a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26'05″ S and 46°10'57″ W), in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark) and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL-1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion). Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29) µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69) days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3) eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23) days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment) demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily. PMID:24878503

  15. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae: life cycle and DNA barcode with implications for the taxonomy of the Aloninae subfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26'05″ S and 46°10'57″ W, in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C, photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL-1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion. Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29 µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69 days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3 eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23 days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily.

  16. Molecular and morphological description of Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) bukaka (species nova), a haemosporidian associated with the strictly Australo-Papuan host subfamily Cracticinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, W; Adlard, R D; Clegg, S M; Clark, N J

    2016-09-01

    Linking morphological studies with molecular phylogeny is important to understanding cryptic speciation and the evolution of host-parasite relationships. Haemosporidian parasites of the Australo-Papuan bird family Artamidae are relatively unstudied. Only one parasite species from the subfamily Cracticinae has been described, and this was based solely on morphological description. This is despite many Cracticinae species being easily observed and abundant over large ranges and in close proximity to human populations. We used morphological and molecular methods to describe a new Haemoproteus species (H. bukaka sp. nov.) from an endemic Butcherbird host (Cracticus louisiadensis) in a relatively unstudied insular area of high avian endemism (Papua New Guinea's Louisiade Archipelago). Phylogenetic reconstructions using parasite cyt-b gene sequences placed the proposed Haemoproteus bukaka sp. nov. close to other host-specialist Haemoproteus species that infect meliphagid honeyeater hosts in the region, e.g. H. ptilotis. Distinct morphological characters of this haemosporidian include macrogametocytes with characteristic large vacuoles opposing a subterminal nucleus on the host cell envelope. Among 27 sampled individuals, prevalence of H. bukaka sp.nov. was high (74 % infection rate) but strongly variable across four islands in the archipelago (ranging from 0 to 100 % prevalence). Parasitaemia levels were low across all infected individuals (0.1-0.6 %). We suspect host density may play a role in maintaining high prevalence given the close proximity and similar physical environments across islands. The findings are discussed in the context of the host genus Cracticus and theory relating to parasite-host evolution and its conservation implications in Papua New Guinea. PMID:27169863

  17. The X-ray Crystallographic Structure and Activity Analysis of a Pseudomonas-Specific Subfamily of the HAD Enzyme Superfamily Evidences a Novel Biochemical Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peisach,E.; Wang, L.; Burroughs, A.; Aravind, L.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.; Allen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily is a large family of proteins dominated by phosphotransferases. Thirty-three sequence families within the HAD superfamily (HADSF) have been identified to assist in function assignment. One such family includes the enzyme phosphoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase). Phosphonatase possesses the conserved Rossmanniod core domain and a C1-type cap domain. Other members of this family do not possess a cap domain and because the cap domain of phosphonatase plays an important role in active site desolvation and catalysis, the function of the capless family members must be unique. A representative of the capless subfamily, PSPTO{_}2114, from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, was targeted for catalytic activity and structure analyses. The X-ray structure of PSPTO{_}2114 reveals a capless homodimer that conserves some but not all of the intersubunit contacts contributed by the core domains of the phosphonatase homodimer. The region of the PSPTO{_}2114 that corresponds to the catalytic scaffold of phosphonatase (and other HAD phosphotransfereases) positions amino acid residues that are ill suited for Mg+2 cofactor binding and mediation of phosphoryl group transfer between donor and acceptor substrates. The absence of phosphotransferase activity in PSPTO{_}2114 was confirmed by kinetic assays. To explore PSPTO{_}2114 function, the conservation of sequence motifs extending outside of the HADSF catalytic scaffold was examined. The stringently conserved residues among PSPTO{_}2114 homologs were mapped onto the PSPTO{_}2114 three-dimensional structure to identify a surface region unique to the family members that do not possess a cap domain. The hypothesis that this region is used in protein-protein recognition is explored to define, for the first time, HADSF proteins which have acquired a function other than that of a catalyst. Proteins 2008.

  18. Association with the Plasma Membrane Is Sufficient for Potentiating Catalytic Activity of Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins of the R7 Subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Brian S; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2016-03-25

    Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) promote deactivation of heterotrimeric G proteins thus controlling the magnitude and kinetics of responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the nervous system, RGS7 and RGS9-2 play essential role in vision, reward processing, and movement control. Both RGS7 and RGS9-2 belong to the R7 subfamily of RGS proteins that form macromolecular complexes with R7-binding protein (R7BP). R7BP targets RGS proteins to the plasma membrane and augments their GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP) activity, ultimately accelerating deactivation of G protein signaling. However, it remains unclear if R7BP serves exclusively as a membrane anchoring subunit or further modulates RGS proteins to increase their GAP activity. To directly answer this question, we utilized a rapidly reversible chemically induced protein dimerization system that enabled us to control RGS localization independent from R7BP in living cells. To monitor kinetics of Gα deactivation, we coupled this strategy with measuring changes in the GAP activity by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay in a cellular system containing μ-opioid receptor. This approach was used to correlate changes in RGS localization and activity in the presence or absence of R7BP. Strikingly, we observed that RGS activity is augmented by membrane recruitment, in an orientation independent manner with no additional contributions provided by R7BP. These findings argue that the association of R7 RGS proteins with the membrane environment provides a major direct contribution to modulation of their GAP activity. PMID:26811338

  19. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. ► The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. ► The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. ► Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni2+-chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [3H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The Km for carnitine was 36 μM. [3H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH2 reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  20. The human N-formylpeptide receptor. Characterization of two cDNA isolates and evidence for a new subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two variants of the human N-formylpeptide chemoattractant receptor have been isolated from a CDM8 expression library prepared from mRNA of human myeloid HL-60 cells differentiated to the granulocyte phenotype with Bt2cAMP. Both recombinant receptors, fMLP-R26 and fMLP-R98, are 350 amino acids long (Mr 38 420); they differ from each other by two residue changes at positions 101 and 346 and by significant differences in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Both clones were able to transfer to COS-7 cells the capacity to specificaly bind a new and highly efficient hydrophilic derivative of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-Lys, referred to as fMLPK-Pep12. Photolabeling experiments revealed that the glycosylated form of the fMLP receptor in COS cells has a molecular weight (Mr 50 000-70 000) similar to that observed for the native receptor in differentiated HL-60 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed a major transcript of 1.6-1.7 kb and two minor hybridization signals of 2.3 and 3.1 kb, suggesting a related family of receptors. The complex hybridization pattern obtained with restricted genomic DNA was consistent with either two genes encoding fMLP receptor isoforms or a single gene with at least one intron in the coding sequence. Sequence comparison established that the fMLP receptor belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The structural similarities observed with RDC1, a receptor isolated from a dog thyroid cDNA library, which shares weak homologies with other members of the family, suggests that the fMLP receptor is representative of a new subfamily

  1. A REVISION OF THE PLIOCENE NATICIDS OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ITALY. II. THE SUBFAMILY NATICINAE: ADDITIONS TO COCHLIS, TANEA AND TECTONATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PEDRIALI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the second in a series devoted to the revision of the Pliocene naticids of Northern and Central Italy. It concludes the section covering the calcareous operculum-bearing Naticinae and expands to 18 the total number of species and subspecies of this subfamily recovered so far from the Pliocene deposits of Italy. Of the six taxa considered in this study, two (epigloafuniculata and fredianii fully match the characters of the genus Cochlis Röding, 1798, one (koeneni is assigned to the genus Tanea Marwick, 1931, the rest (astensis, prietoi and tectula belong to the genus Tectonatica Sacco, 1890. All the six taxa considered in this paper are described and commented in the systematic account. One, Cochlis fredianii, is proposed as new. In the chapter treating the generic assignment of the studied taxa, the range of Tanea, hitherto used to allocate several Indo-Pacific species, is extended to the Mediterranean Basin as well, and the relations between Tectonatica and Cryptonatica Dall, 1892 are discussed. This study further demonstrates that the morphological characters of the teleoconch are of low significance in species recognition. In fact, should the characters be ranked, the operculum comes first and is the primary element, sufficient to distinguish each species. The protoconch and the color pattern are the second and third relevant attributes that can be used diagnostically for several taxa, but not always. The other shell features appear to be useful tools in separating species only occasionally. Some species lack distinctive shell characters and do require operculate specimens in order to be confidently 

  2. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [{sup 3}H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K{sub m} for carnitine was 36 {mu}M. [{sup 3}H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH{sub 2} reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  3. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  4. Corrosion resistance of candidate transportation container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is currently remediating several sites that have been contaminated over the years with hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. Regulatory guidelines require strict compliance demonstrating public safety during remediation and the transport of these hazardous, mixed waste and radioactive materials. The compatibility of the metallic transportation containers with the contents they are designed to transport is an ultimate concern that must be satisfied to ensure public safety. The transportation issue is inherently complicated due to the complex, varied, and unknown composition of the hazardous, mixed and radioactive waste that is being, considered for transport by the DOE facilities. Never before have the interactions between the waste being transported and the materials that comprise the transportation packages been more important. Therefore, evaluation of material performance when subjected to a simulated waste will ensure that all regulatory issues and requirements for transportation of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes are satisfied. The tasks encompassed by this study include defining criteria for candidate material selection, defining a test matrix that will provide pertinent information on the material compatibility with the waste stimulant, and evaluation of material performance when subjected to a stimulant waste. Our goal is to provide package design engineers with a choice of materials which exhibit enhanced performance upon exposure to hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste that is similar in composition to the waste stimulant used in this study. Due to the fact that there are many other possible waste compositions, additional work needs to be done to broaden our materials compatibility/waste stream data base

  5. Characterization for Fusion Candidate Vanadium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Muroga; T. Nagasaka; J. M. Chen; Z. Y. Xu; Q. Y. Huang; y. C. Wu

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent achievements in the characterization of candidate vanadium alloys obtained for fusion in the framework of the Japan-China Core University Program.National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has a program of fabricating high-purity V-4Cr4Ti alloys. The resulting products (NIFS-HEAT-1,2), were characterized by various research groups in the world including Chinese partners. South Western Institute of Physics (SWIP) fabricated a new V-4Cr-4Ti alloy (SWIP-Heat), and carried out a comparative evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heat. The tensile test of hydrogen-doped alloys showed that the NIFS-HEAT maintained the ductility to relatively high hydrogen levels.The comparison of the data with those of previous studies suggested that the reduced oxygen level in the NIFS-HEATs should be responsible for the increased resistance to hydrogen embrittlement.Based on the chemical analysis data of NIFS-HEATs and SWIP-Heats, neutron-induced activation was analyzed in Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP-CAS) as a function of cooling time after the use in the fusion first wall. The results showed that the low level of Co dominates the activity up to 50 years followed by a domination of Nb or Nb and Al in the respective alloys. It was suggested that reduction of Co and Nb, both of which are thought to have been introduced via cross-contamination into the alloys from the molds used should be crucial for reducing further the activation.

  6. A genome-wide association study on androstenone levels in pigs reveals a cluster of candidate genes on chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenen Martien AM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, male piglets are castrated shortly after birth because a proportion of un-castrated male pigs produce meat with an unpleasant flavour and odour. Main compounds of boar taint are androstenone and skatole. The aim of this high-density genome-wide association study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with androstenone levels in a commercial sire line of pigs. The identification of major genetic effects causing boar taint would accelerate the reduction of boar taint through breeding to finally eliminate the need for castration. Results The Illumina Porcine 60K+SNP Beadchip was genotyped on 987 pigs divergent for androstenone concentration from a commercial Duroc-based sire line. The association analysis with 47,897 SNPs revealed that androstenone levels in fat tissue were significantly affected by 37 SNPs on pig chromosomes SSC1 and SSC6. Among them, the 5 most significant SNPs explained together 13.7% of the genetic variance in androstenone. On SSC6, a larger region of 10 Mb was shown to be associated with androstenone covering several candidate genes potentially involved in the synthesis and metabolism of androgens. Besides known candidate genes, such as cytochrome P450 A19 (CYP2A19, sulfotransferases SULT2A1, and SULT2B1, also new members of the cytochrome P450 CYP2 gene subfamilies and of the hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases (HSD17B14 were found. In addition, the gene encoding the ß-chain of the luteinizing hormone (LHB which induces steroid synthesis in the Leydig cells of the testis at onset of puberty maps to this area on SSC6. Interestingly, the gene encoding the α-chain of LH is also located in one of the highly significant areas on SSC1. Conclusions This study reveals several areas of the genome at high resolution responsible for variation of androstenone levels in intact boars. Major genetic factors on SSC1 and SSC6 showing moderate to large effects on androstenone

  7. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  8. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  9. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or national security as a result of the preliminary risk assessment, the candidate or the Provider... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14... CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  10. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  11. Opinions of Counselor Candidates Regarding Counseling Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Mine; Yaka, Baris; Koç, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of the quality of counseling skills training and counselor education through the medium of understanding the opinions of counselor candidates regarding counseling skills training. The research group consisted of 67 counselor candidates who voluntarily participated in the study. The research…

  12. Facebook Connection Styles among Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogdu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Facebook connection styles of physical education (PE) teacher candidates. The participants were composed of 626 (age = 21.21 ± 2.024) physical education teacher candidates from the departments of Physical Education and Sports. They teach in five different universities. It was done in 2014-2015 academic…

  13. Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Tice, Kathleen; Collins, Denise; Brown, Amber; Smith, Cleta; Fox, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates…

  14. Chemical Literacy Levels of Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Turkish science and mathematics teacher candidates' levels of attainment in chemical literacy. These candidates had all studied the new Turkish chemistry curriculum in high school. The sample of the study consisted of 112 students, who were first-year students in the Department of Secondary Science…

  15. Teacher Candidates' Views of Digital Games as Learning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research study was to explore teacher candidate views toward digital learning games using an immersive strategy. Specifically, we were interested in finding out what game use in classroom settings taught candidates about the role of teacher as facilitator of instruction. The procedures first focused teacher candidate…

  16. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  17. Elections, Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    The quality of political candidates often depends on the current state of the world, for example because their personal characteristics are more valuable in some situations than in others. We explore the implications of state-dependent candidate quality in a model of electoral competition where v...

  18. 11 CFR 9033.1 - Candidate and committee agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to 11 CFR part 9039. The candidate and authorized committee(s) shall facilitate the audit by... authorized committee(s) will comply with the conditions set forth in 11 CFR 9033.1(b). The candidate may... committee(s) will comply with the documentation requirements set forth in 11 CFR 9033.11. (3) The...

  19. PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF VISUAL LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali GÖÇER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to expose perceptions of teacher candidates about the concept of visual literacy through metaphors. The participants for this study included 131 teacher candidates from Erciyes Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi. In order to collect data, teacher candidates were asked to complete the prompt “Visual literacy is like ... because ...”. The study was designed as a phenomenological study within the qualitative approach. The data was analyzed with using the content analysis technique. According to the data, teacher candidates produced 73 valid metaphors about the concept of visual literacy. Analyzing the metaphors which were investigated in terms of qualifications, different conceptual categories were identified. According to the result of this study, teacher candidates have positive perceptions towards the visual literacy.

  20. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  1. A new species of Glaphyropoma: the first subterranean copionodontine catfish and the first occurrence of opercular odontodes in the subfamily (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elina Bichuette

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the rare copionodontine genus Glaphyropoma is described from subterranean waters in the Diamantina Plateau, Bahia State, central northeastern Brazil. This is the first troglomorphic species in the subfamily Copionodontinae. It is distinguished from all other copionodontines by the presence of opercular odontodes, and further distinguished from its only congener, G. rodriguesi, by the reduction of dark integumentary pigmentation. The new species shares the single synapomorphy previously proposed for Glaphyropoma, the marked narrowing of the first hypobranchial and indirect character evidence also supports its inclusion in the genus. The presence of opercular odontodes in the new species, in combination with a reviewed hypothesis of sister group relationship between Copionodontinae and Trichogeninae, indicate that the absence of opercular odontodes in previously-known copionodontines is secondary, rather than primitive.Uma nova espécie do raro gênero de Copionodontinae Glaphyropoma é descrita de águas subterrâneas da Chapada Diamantina, estado da Bahia, região central do Nordeste Brasileiro. Esta é a primeira espécie troglomórfica na subfamília Copionodontinae. Distingue-se de todos os outros Copionodontinae pela presença de odontódeos operculares, e de seu único congênere, G. rodriguesi, também pela redução de pigmentação tegumentar. A nova espécie apresenta a única sinapomorfia previamente proposta para Glaphyropoma, um estreitamento acentuado do primeiro hipobranquial e evidência indireta de outros caracteres também suportam sua inclusão no gênero. A presença de odontódeos operculares na nova espécie, em combinação com uma hipótese revisada de grupo-irmão entre Copionodontinae e Trichogeninae, indica que a ausência de odontódeos operculares nos Copionodontinae previamente conhecidos é secundária e não primitiva.

  2. PEACE: Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction -- A software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K J; Jenet, F A; Martinez, J; Dartez, L P; Mata, A; Lunsford, G; Cohen, S; Biwer, C M; Rohr, M; Flanigan, J; Walker, A; Banaszak, S; Allen, B; Barr, E D; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Desvignes, G; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P; Hessels, J W T; Karuppusamy, R; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Lyne, A; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, S; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Spitler, L; Stairs, I; Tan, M; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2013-01-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labor intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called PEACE (Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command enter programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68% of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17% of sorted candidates, 95% ...

  3. A Catalog of Kepler Habitable Zone Exoplanet Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R; Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Quintana, Elisa V; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Ciardi, David R; Haghighipour, Nader; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Franck; Torres, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Kepler mission has discovered thousands of new planetary candidates, many of which have been confirmed through follow-up observations. A primary goal of the mission is to determine the occurrance rate of terrestrial-size planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their host stars. Here we provide a list of HZ exoplanet candidates from the Kepler Data Release 24 Q1-Q17 data vetting process. This work was undertaken as part of the Kepler Habitable Zone Working Group. We use a variety of criteria regarding HZ boundaries and planetary sizes to produce complete lists of HZ candidates, including a catalog of 104 candidates within the optimistic HZ and 20 candidates with radii less than two Earth radii within the conservative HZ. We cross-match our HZ candidates with the Data Release 25 stellar properties and confirmed planet properties to provide robust stellar parameters and candidate dispositions. We also include false positive probabilities recently calculated by Morton et al. (2016) for each of the cand...

  4. Downregulation of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1 is associated with drug resistance and high histologic grade in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ovarian cancer (OC drug resistance, believed to result in treatment failure and death in more than 90% of patients with metastatic OC, is due to a myriad of contributing factors. However, no matter what mechanisms, dysregulation of critical genes essentially play important roles. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1 contributes to various physiological functions, and is involved in the regulation of cancer development. However, the overall studies of TRPC1 with cancer are limited, the study with drug resistance or OC is rare, and the research on TRPC1 with drug resistance in OC has never been reported. In this study, we aimed to explain the associations of TRPC1 with drug resistance in OC.Methods: The expression of TRPC1 was determined by the microarrays retrieved from Oncomine (https://www.oncomine.org/resource/login.html and GEO Profiles (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geoprofiles/, and further confirmed by RT-qPCR. The clinical data of 341 OC patients with TRPC1 mRNA expression data in TCGA cohort was retrieved from cBioPortal (http://cbioportal.org. Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses including protein/gene interaction, protein-small molecule/chemical interaction, biological process annotation, microRNA-mRNA interaction and pathway enrichment analysis of microRNAs were performed to clarify the drug resistant-related functions of TRPC1. The data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software. P-values of <0.05 were considered to indicate statistically significant differences.Results: The mRNA expressions of TRPC1 were downregulated by 3.955-fold, 3.681-fold and 3.260-fold in ovarian cancers according to the Welsh Ovarian covering 28 cases of ovarian serous surface papillary carcinoma and 4 cases of ovaries, the Bonome Ovarian covering 185 cases of ovarian carcinomas and 10 cases of ovarian surface epitheliums, and the Yoshihara Ovarian covering 38 cases of ovarian serous adenocarcinomas and 10 cases of

  5. Academic Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Etem YEŞİLYURT

    2013-01-01

    This study aims determining academic self-efficacy perception of teacher candidates. It is survey model. Population of the study consists of teacher candidates in 2010-2011 academic years at Ahmet Keleşoğlu Education Faculty of Education Formation of Selçuk University. A simple random sample was selected as sampling method and the study was conducted on 312 teacher candidates. The data of this study was obtained by “academic selfefficacy scale” which was developed by Jerusalem and Schwazer (1...

  6. Detecting candidate cosmic bubble collisions with optimal filters

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D; Johnson, M C; Peiris, H V

    2012-01-01

    We review an optimal-filter-based algorithm for detecting candidate sources of unknown and differing size embedded in a stochastic background, and its application to detecting candidate cosmic bubble collision signatures in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7-year observations. The algorithm provides an enhancement in sensitivity over previous methods by a factor of approximately two. Moreover, it is optimal in the sense that no other filter-based approach can provide a superior enhancement of these signatures. Applying this algorithm to WMAP 7-year observations, eight new candidate bubble collision signatures are detected for follow-up analysis.

  7. Planet Hunters VI: The First Kepler Seven Planet Candidate System and 13 Other Planet Candidates from the Kepler Archival Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Joseph R; Fischer, Debra A; Jek, Kian J; Moriarty, John C; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Schwamb, Megan E; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert; Omohundro, Mark; Winarski, Troy; Goodman, Samuel J; Jebson, Tony; Lacourse, Daryll

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of 14 new transiting planet candidates in the Kepler field from the Planet Hunters citizen science program. None of these candidates overlap with Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), and five of the candidates were missed by the Kepler Transit Planet Search (TPS) algorithm. The new candidates have periods ranging from 124-904 days, eight residing in their host star's habitable zone (HZ) and two (now) in multiple planet systems. We report the discovery of one more addition to the six planet candidate system around KOI-351, marking the first seven planet candidate system from Kepler. Additionally, KOI-351 bears some resemblance to our own solar system, with the inner five planets ranging from Earth to mini-Neptune radii and the outer planets being gas giants; however, this system is very compact, with all seven planet candidates orbiting $\\lesssim 1$ AU from their host star. We perform a numerical integration of the orbits and show that the system remains stable for over 100 million years....

  8. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila A Souza

    Full Text Available The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  9. Construction of Basic Evaluation Criteria for Candidate HLW Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final objectives of the research are to study basically site selection criteria and methods for high level radioactive wastes disposal. In order to accomplish the final objectives, this study proposes basic concept of site evaluation and selection for HLW disposal and develops a geologic database system for management of geologic data which will be used for site selection. This study performed the following contents such as i) development of a technical guide for geologic evaluation system for candidate sites selection; ii) construction of geological evaluation factors and selection methods for candidate sites; iii) development of geologic information system for evaluation and selection of candidate sites. The results are expected to be applied for basic research results for setting up further research foundation for site selection, development of systematic site evaluation process considered with geologic conditions of candidate sites, and utilization of the research result for public acceptance

  10. Value-Added Measures of Teacher Candidates' Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Maryellen; Carpenter, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher preparation program can positively impact professional dispositions. Pre and post essays from a sample of sixty candidates were qualitatively analyzed to determine the value-added growth of their professional dispositions.

  11. Architecture and Dynamics of Kepler's Candidate Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lissauer, Jack J; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Douglas A; Dunham, Edward W; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gautier, Thomas N; Holman, Matthew J; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Morehead, Robert; Rowe, Jason; Quintana, Elisa V; Sasselov, Dimitar; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    Borucki et al. 2011 (ApJ, submitted) report on characteristics of over 1200 candidate transiting planets orbiting nearly 1000 Kepler spacecraft target stars detected in the first four months of spacecraft data. Included among these targets are 115 targets with two transiting planet candidates, 45 targets with three, 8 with four, and one each with five and six sets of transit signatures. We characterize herein the dynamical properties of these candidate multi-planet systems. We find that virtually all systems are stable, as tested by numerical integration assuming a mass-radius relationship. The distribution of observed period ratios is also clustered just outside resonances, particularly the 2:1 resonance. Neither of these characteristics would emerge if the systems were significantly contaminated with false positives, and these combined with other considerations strongly suggest that the majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Using the observed multiplicity frequencies (e.g., t...

  12. *612211 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR CANDIDATE 5; TUSC5 [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 612211 FIELD TI 612211 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR CANDIDATE 5; TUSC5 ;;LOST1 FIELD TX CLONING Usi ... significantly inhibited by cold exposure in Zucker lean ... rats. In primary cultured rat brown preadipocytes, ...

  13. Review of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    development of antibodies and shedding of detectable amounts of MAP. At present, available diagnostic assays are limited by the lack of MAP specific antigens included in these assays resulting in poor specificity. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of diagnostic MAP antigen...... candidates described to date with special emphasis on antigen candidates tested for CMI responses. Relevant information on 115 different MAP antigens was systematically extracted from literature and summarized in 6 tables of CMI antigens, secreted antigens, cell wall and membrane antigens, lipoprotein...... antigens, heat shock antigens and hypothetical antigens. Strategies for evaluation of novel antigen candidates are discussed critically. Relatively few of the described antigens were evaluated for their use in CMI based diagnostic assays and so far, no obvious candidate has been identified for this...

  14. Unifying Candidate Gene and GWAS Approaches in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Sven; Liang, Liming; Depner, Martin; Klopp, Norman; Ruether, Andreas; Kumar, Ashish; Schedel, Michaela; Vogelberg, Christian; Mutius, Erika von; Berg, Andrea von; Bufe, Albrecht; Rietschel, Ernst; Heinzmann, Andrea; Laub, Otto; Simma, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    The first genome wide association study (GWAS) for childhood asthma identified a novel major susceptibility locus on chromosome 17q21 harboring the ORMDL3 gene, but the role of previous asthma candidate genes was not specifically analyzed in this GWAS. We systematically identified 89 SNPs in 14 candidate genes previously associated with asthma in >3 independent study populations. We re-genotyped 39 SNPs in these genes not covered by GWAS performed in 703 asthmatics and 658 reference children....

  15. Pedigree verification with multiple candidate parents using Pedverif software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caracappa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species like sheep and beef cattle are commonly raised in large herds and often on pasture with multiple sires joining the females for unrecorded natural insemination. This leads to offspring with multiple candidate parents and therefore uncertain parentage. Twins or triplets can be from multiple sires as well. Pedigrees from such populations are often problematic and need proper verification. The Pedverif computer program is able to verify normal pedigrees as well as pedigrees with multiple candidate parents.

  16. DVB-T Candidate Power Detector for Cognitive Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Lagunas, M.A.; Perez-Neira, Ana I.; Rojas, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic detection of primary users is one of the main functions of spectrum sensing for Cognitive Radio (CR) communications aiming to increase the use of radio spectrum. In this work the performance of the so-called Candidate power detector is reported. The main objective of this detector is the proper spectrum labelling of primary users in cognitive radio scenarios. The Candidate detector is tuned in order to detect Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (DVB-T) signals,...

  17. Radiative Neutrino Mass via Both Minimal Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah; Picek, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    We identify a minimal model achieving one-loop radiative neutrino masses due to couplings with dark matter. Interestingly the model contains both the quintuplet fermion and the septuplet scalar identified as minimal dark matter candidates by Cirelli, Fornengo and Strumia - it gives radiative neutrino mass due to both minimal dark matter candidates. The model is related to those proposed in a recent work (dubbed minimal R$\

  18. Transiting exoplanet candidates from K2 Campaigns 5 and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Benjamin J. S.; Parviainen, Hannu; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new transit search and vetting pipeline for observations from the K2 mission, and present the candidate transiting planets identified by this pipeline out of the targets in Campaigns 5 and 6. Our pipeline uses the Gaussian Process-based K2SC code to correct for the K2 pointing systematics and simultaneously model stellar variability. The systematics-corrected, variability-detrended light curves are searched for transits with the Box Least Squares method, and a period-dependent detection threshold is used to generate a preliminary candidate list. Two or three individuals vet each candidate manually to produce the final candidate list, using a set of automatically-generated transit fits and assorted diagnostic tests to inform the vetting. We detect 147 single-planet system candidates and 5 multi-planet systems, independently recovering the previously-published hot Jupiters EPIC 212110888b, WASP-55b (EPIC 212300977b) and Qatar-2b (EPIC 212756297b). We also report the outcome of reconnaissance spectroscopy carried out for all candidates with Kepler magnitude Kp ≤ 13, identifying 12 targets as likely false positives. We compare our results to those of other K2 transit search pipelines, noting that ours performs particularly well for variable and/or active stars, but that the results are very similar overall. All the light curves and code used in the transit search and vetting process are publicly available, as are the follow-up spectra.

  19. A putative autonomous 20.5 kb-CACTA transposon insertion in an F3'H allele identifies a new CACTA transposon subfamily in Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodkin Lila

    2008-12-01

    in the gray trichome allele t*. Conclusion The molecular characterization of a 20.5 kb insertion in the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H gene of a soybean gray pubescence allele (t* identified the structure of a CACTA transposon designated Tgmt*. Besides the terminal inverted repeats and subterminal repeated motifs,Tgmt* encoded a large gene with two putative functions that are required for excision and transposition of a CACTA element, a transposase and the DNA binding protein known to associate to the subterminal repeated motifs. The degree of dissimilarity between Tgmt* transposase and subterminal repeated motifs with those of previously characterized defective CACTA elements (Tgm1-7 were evidence of the existence of two subfamilies of CACTA transposons in soybean, an observation not previously reported in other plants. In addition, our analyses of a genetically active and potentially autonomous element sheds light on the complete structure of a soybean element that is useful for annotation of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome sequence and may prove useful for transposon tagging or transposon display experiments in different genetic lines.

  20. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey III: Adaptive Optics Imaging of 1629 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Carl; Morton, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Baker, Anna; Roberts, Sarah; Ciardi, David R

    2016-01-01

    The Robo-AO \\textit{Kepler} Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every \\textit{Kepler} planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We present in this paper the results of our search for stars nearby 1629 \\textit{Kepler} planet candidate hosts. With survey sensitivity to objects as close as $\\sim$0.15" and magnitude differences $\\Delta$m$\\le$6, we find 223 stars in the vicinity of 206 target KOIs; 209 of these nearby stars have not previously been imaged in high resolution. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for \\textit{Kepler} planet candidates of 12.6\\%$\\pm$0.9\\% out to a separation of 4.0". Particularly interesting KOI systems are discussed, including 23 stars with detected companions which host rocky, habitable zone candidates, and five new candidate planet-hosting quadruple star systems. We explore the broad correlations between planetary systems...

  1. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates VI. A false positive rate of 35% for Kepler close-in giant candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Santerne, A; Moutou, C; Bouchy, F; Hébrard, G; Almenara, J -M; Bonomo, A S; Deleuil, M; Santos, N C

    2012-01-01

    The false positive probability (FPP) of Kepler transiting candidates is a key value for statistical studies of candidate properties. An investigation of the stellar population in the Kepler field by Morton & Johnson (2011) has provided an estimation for the FPP of less than 5% for most of the candidates. We report here the results of our radial velocity observations on a sample of 46 Kepler candidates with transit depth greater than 0.4%, orbital period less than 25 days and host star brighter than Kepler magnitude 14.7. We used the SOPHIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.93-m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence to establish the nature of the transiting candidates. In this sample, we found 5 undiluted eclipsing binaries, 2 brown dwarfs, 6 diluted eclipsing binaries and 9 new transiting planets that complete the 11 already published. The remaining 13 candidates were not followed up or remain unsolved due to photon noise limitation or lack of observations. From these results we compute the FPP for ...

  2. Identification of male-biased microRNA-107 as a direct regulator for nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 based on sexually dimorphic microRNA expression profiling from chicken embryonic gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Nan; Wang, Xin; Hou, Yue; Feng, Yanping; Gong, Yanzhang

    2016-07-01

    Several studies indicate that sexual dimorphic microRNAs (miRNAs) in chicken gonads are likely to have important roles in sexual development, but a more global understanding of the roles of miRNAs in sexual differentiation is still needed. To this end, we performed miRNA expression profiling in chicken gonads at embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5). Among the sex-biased miRNAs validated by qRT-PCR, twelve male-biased and six female-biased miRNAs were consistent with the sequencing results. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that some sex-biased miRNAs were potentially involved in gonadal development. Further functional analysis found that over-expression of miR-107 directly inhibited nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 (NR5a1), and its downstream cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1). However, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was not directly or indirectly regulated by miR-107. Overall results indicate that miR-107 may specifically mediate avian ovary-development by post-transcriptional regulation of NR5a1 and CYP19A1 in estrogen signaling pathways. PMID:27036932

  3. Unifying candidate gene and GWAS Approaches in Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Michel

    Full Text Available The first genome wide association study (GWAS for childhood asthma identified a novel major susceptibility locus on chromosome 17q21 harboring the ORMDL3 gene, but the role of previous asthma candidate genes was not specifically analyzed in this GWAS. We systematically identified 89 SNPs in 14 candidate genes previously associated with asthma in >3 independent study populations. We re-genotyped 39 SNPs in these genes not covered by GWAS performed in 703 asthmatics and 658 reference children. Genotyping data were compared to imputation data derived from Illumina HumanHap300 chip genotyping. Results were combined to analyze 566 SNPs covering all 14 candidate gene loci. Genotyped polymorphisms in ADAM33, GSTP1 and VDR showed effects with p-values <0.0035 (corrected for multiple testing. Combining genotyping and imputation, polymorphisms in DPP10, EDN1, IL12B, IL13, IL4, IL4R and TNF showed associations at a significance level between p = 0.05 and p = 0.0035. These data indicate that (a GWAS coverage is insufficient for many asthma candidate genes, (b imputation based on these data is reliable but incomplete, and (c SNPs in three previously identified asthma candidate genes replicate in our GWAS population with significance after correction for multiple testing in 14 genes.

  4. Transiting exoplanet candidates from K2 Campaigns 5 and 6

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Benjamin J S; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new transit search and vetting pipeline for observations from the K2 mission, and present the candidate transiting planets identified by this pipeline out of the targets in Campaigns 5 and 6. Our pipeline uses the Gaussian Process-based K2SC code to correct for the K2 pointing systematics and simultaneously model stellar variability. The systematics-corrected, variability-detrended light curves are searched for transits with the Box Least Squares method, and a period-dependent detection threshold is used to generate a preliminary candidate list. Two or three individuals vet each candidate manually to produce the final candidate list, using a set of automatically-generated transit fits and assorted diagnostic tests to inform the vetting. We detect 147 single-planet system candidates and 5 multi-planet systems, independently recovering the previously-published hot~Jupiters EPIC 212110888b, WASP-55b (EPIC 212300977b) and Qatar-2b (EPIC 212756297b). We also report the outcome of reconnaissance spec...

  5. Integrative analysis to select cancer candidate biomarkers to targeted validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Henry; Domingues, Romênia R.; Granato, Daniela C.; Yokoo, Sami; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Winck, Flavia V.; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Filgueiras, Paulo R.; Cruz, Karen S. P.; Barbuto, José Alexandre; Poppi, Ronei J.; Minghim, Rosane; Telles, Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Fox, Jay W.; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted proteomics has flourished as the method of choice for prospecting for and validating potential candidate biomarkers in many diseases. However, challenges still remain due to the lack of standardized routines that can prioritize a limited number of proteins to be further validated in human samples. To help researchers identify candidate biomarkers that best characterize their samples under study, a well-designed integrative analysis pipeline, comprising MS-based discovery, feature selection methods, clustering techniques, bioinformatic analyses and targeted approaches was performed using discovery-based proteomic data from the secretomes of three classes of human cell lines (carcinoma, melanoma and non-cancerous). Three feature selection algorithms, namely, Beta-binomial, Nearest Shrunken Centroids (NSC), and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Features Elimination (SVM-RFE), indicated a panel of 137 candidate biomarkers for carcinoma and 271 for melanoma, which were differentially abundant between the tumor classes. We further tested the strength of the pipeline in selecting candidate biomarkers by immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, label-free targeted MS and functional experiments. In conclusion, the proposed integrative analysis was able to pre-qualify and prioritize candidate biomarkers from discovery-based proteomics to targeted MS. PMID:26540631

  6. Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle (and others) (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins and Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle (and others) results

  7. Preoperative cardiovascular investigations in liver transplant candidate: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Lalit; Srivastava, Piyush; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Jha, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) undergoing liver transplantation. Identifying candidates at the highest risk of postoperative cardiovascular complications is the cornerstone for optimizing the outcome. Ischaemic heart disease contributes to major portion of cardiovascular complications and therefore warrants evaluation in the preoperative period. Patients of ESLD usually demonstrate increased cardiac output, compromised ventricular response to stress, low systemic vascular resistance and occasionally bradycardia. Despite various recommendations for preoperative evaluation of cardiovascular disease in liver transplant candidates, a considerable controversy on screening methodology persists. This review critically focuses on the rapidly expanding body of evidence for diagnosis and risk stratification of cardiovascular disorder in liver transplant candidates. PMID:26962249

  8. Gravitational lenses and lens candidates identified from the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Neal

    2008-01-01

    A complete manual search has been carried out of the list of 285423 objects, nearly all of them galaxies, identified in the COSMOS field that are brighter than I=25. Two certain and one highly probable new gravitational lenses are found, in addition to the lenses and candidate lens systems previously found by Faure et al. (2008). A further list of 112 candidate lens systems is presented. Few of these are likely to be true gravitational lens systems, most being star-forming rings or pairs of companion galaxies. It is possible to examine of order 10^6 objects by eye in a reasonable time, although reliable detection of lenses by such methods is likely to be possible only with high-resolution data. The loss of completeness involved in a rapid search is estimated as up to a factor of 2, depending on the morphology of the lens candidate.

  9. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  10. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  11. Facial discrimination of political candidates and voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Duduciuc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After a review of psychosociological research concerning the sources of prejudices and discriminations, this article brings into discussion the cognitive approach of perceiving the other as being „otherwise” than the members of the in-group. We will discuss the situations, structural and personal factors as being some determining ones for discriminant behavior. Within the lines of cognitive paradigm, we ask how the individual does discriminate, by perceptive processes, between candidates which are considered attractive, which go together with the expectations of the electorate concerning the physical aspects and candidates who are „less desirable”.

  12. Former Head of CNOOC Named as Candidate for Governor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party has appointed Wei Liucheng, Former President of CNOOC and Former Chairman and CEO of CNOOC Limited, as Deputy Secretary of Hainan Provincial Committee and named him as the candidate for Governor of Hainan Province. At a conference of Hainan Provincial Committee of the Party held on October 8, at which the organization department of the Communist Party of China announced nomination of Wei as the deputy Party secretary of Hainan, which is the second highest position in the provincial government. Wei was also chosen as a candidate for the governor of the island province.

  13. Ethical issues in the psychosocial assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Rash, Joshua A; Mothersill, Kerry J

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial evaluation is recommended prior to bariatric surgery. Practice guidelines have been published on assessment methods for bariatric surgery candidates, but they have not emphasized ethical issues with this population. This review outlines ethical and professional considerations for behavioral healthcare providers who conduct pre-surgical assessments of bariatric surgery candidates by merging ethical principles for mental health professionals with current practices in pre-surgical assessments. Issues discussed include the following: (a) establishing and maintaining competence, (b) obtaining informed consent, (c) respecting confidentiality, (d) avoiding bias and discrimination, (e) avoiding and addressing dual roles, (f) selecting and using psychological tests, and (g) acknowledging limitations of psychosocial assessments. PMID:25411197

  14. Kepler Mission Discovers Trove of Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Kepler discovery mission is collecting more than just pennies from heaven. Results from the first 4 months of science operations of the Kepler space telescope, announced on 2 February, include the discovery of 1235 candidate planets orbiting 997 stars in a small portion of the Milky Way galaxy examined by the telescope. Follow-up observations likely could confirm about 80% of the candidates as actual planets rather than false positives, according to researchers. This new trove of possible exoplanets could greatly expand the number of known planets outside of our solar system.

  15. Practical Large Scale Syntheses of New Drug Candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Yin Li

    2001-01-01

    @@ This presentation will be focus on Practical large scale syntheses of lead compounds and drug candidates from three major therapeutic areas from DuPont Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratory: 1). DMP777-a selective, non-toxic, orally active human elastase inhibitor; 2). DMP754-a potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist; 3). R-Wafarin-the pure enantiomeric form of wafarin. The key technology used for preparation these drug candidates is asymmetric hydrogenation under very mild reaction conditions, which produced very high quality final products at large scale (>99% de, >99 A% and >99 wt%). Some practical and GMP aspects of process development will be also discussed.

  16. Practical Large Scale Syntheses of New Drug Candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Yin; Li

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will be focus on Practical large scale syntheses of lead compounds and drug candidates from three major therapeutic areas from DuPont Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratory: 1). DMP777-a selective, non-toxic, orally active human elastase inhibitor; 2). DMP754-a potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist; 3). R-Wafarin-the pure enantiomeric form of wafarin. The key technology used for preparation these drug candidates is asymmetric hydrogenation under very mild reaction conditions, which produced very high quality final products at large scale (>99% de, >99 A% and >99 wt%). Some practical and GMP aspects of process development will be also discussed.……

  17. Dark matter candidates and methods for detecting them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of experiments employing Ge and Si ionization detectors have excluded large regions in the plane of masses and scattering cross-sections for weakly-interacting dark matter (DM) candidates. It is judged that, before a realistic detection experiment for supersymmetric DM candidates can be conducted, significant development efforts will have to be completed for suitable cryogenic or ionization detectors. Pilot experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of axion searches with microwave cavities, but these are at least two orders of magnitude too low in sensitivity.

  18. Single Transit Candidates from K2: Detection and Period Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, H P; Brown, D J A; McCormac, J; Doyle, A P; Louden, T M; Kirk, J; Spake, J J; Lam, K W F; Walker, S R; Faedi, F; Pollacco, D L

    2015-01-01

    Photometric surveys such as Kepler have the precision to identify exoplanet and eclipsing binary candidates from only a single transit. K2, with its 75d campaign duration, is ideally suited to detect significant numbers of single-eclipsing objects. Here we develop a Bayesian transit-fitting tool ("Namaste: An Mcmc Analysis of Single Transit Exoplanets") to extract orbital information from single transit events. We achieve favourable results testing this technique on known Kepler planets, and apply the technique to 7 candidates identified from a targeted search of K2 campaigns 1, 2 and 3. We find EPIC203311200 to host an excellent exoplanet candidate with a period, assuming zero eccentricity, of $540 ^{+410}_{-230}$ days and a radius of $0.51 \\pm 0.05 R_{Jup}$. We also find six further transit candidates for which more follow-up is required to determine a planetary origin. Such a technique could be used in the future with TESS, PLATO and ground-based photometric surveys such as NGTS, potentially allowing the d...

  19. Selection of Nearby Microlensing Candidates for Observation by SIM

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, A

    1999-01-01

    I investigate the prospects for using the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) to measure the masses of nearby stars from their astrometric deflection of more distant sources, as originally suggested by Paczynski and by Miralda-Escude. I derive an analytic expression for the total observing time T_tot required to measure the masses of a fixed number of stars to a given precision. I find that T_tot ~ r_max^{-2}, where r_max is the maximum radius to which candidates are searched, or T_tot ~ \\mu_min^2, where \\mu_min is the minimum proper motion to which candidates are searched. I show that T_tot can be reduced by a factor 4 if source availability is extended from V_s=17 to V_s=19. Increasing r_max and V_s and decreasing \\mu_min all require a significantly more agressive approach to finding candidates. A search for candidates can begin by making use of the Luyton proper motion catalog together with the USNO-A2.0 all-sky astrometric catalog. However, a thorough search would require the all-sky USNO-B proper-motion c...

  20. Primary School Teacher Candidates' Geometric Habits of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Nilu¨fer Y.; Tanisli, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Geometric habits of mind are productive ways of thinking that support learning and using geometric concepts. Identifying primary school teacher candidates' geometric habits of mind is important as they affect the development of their future students' geometric thinking. Therefore, this study attempts to determine primary school…

  1. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  2. Teacher Candidates' Collaboration and Identity in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    In an online context, without facial, verbal or gestural cues, establishing identities through naming social positions appeared essential to effective written communication for graduate pre-service teacher candidates enrolled in a course on literacy education for elementary students. As they engaged in small group asynchronous discussions about…

  3. Selecting Quasar Candidates by a SVM Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Nanbo; Zhao, Yongheng; Wu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate a classification system constituted by several Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, which can be applied to select quasar candidates from large sky survey projects, such as SDSS, UKIDSS, GALEX. How to construct this SVM classification system is presented in detail. When the SVM classification system works on the test set to predict quasar candidates, it acquires the efficiency of 93.21% and the completeness of 97.49%. In order to further prove the reliability and feasibility of this system, two chunks are randomly chosen to compare its performance with that of the XDQSO method used for SDSS-III's BOSS. The experimental results show that the high faction of overlap exists between the quasar candidates selected by this system and those extracted by the XDQSO technique in the dereddened i-band magnitude range between 17.75 and 22.45, especially in the interval of dereddened i-band magnitude < 20.0. In the two test areas, 57.38% and 87.15% of the quasar candidates predicted by ...

  4. Education of Doctor of Pharmacy Candidates as Mental Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Peggy A.; Rosenbluth, Sidney A.

    1980-01-01

    The University of Tennessee offers an educational program to prepare Doctor of Pharmacy candidates for clinical roles in mental health care. The program consists of two core curricular elements: a didactic module and a clinical clerkship that devotes equal time to inpatient and outpatient care. Clinical guidelines and pharmacist goals are…

  5. Recent production of candidate reference materials at IRMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.N.; Pauwels, J.; Le Guern, L.; Schimmel, H.; Trapmann, S. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Joint Research Centre

    2001-06-01

    In the execution of its mission to promote a common European measurement system in support of EU policies, IRMM's Reference Materials Unit is currently involved in preparation of proficiency-testing samples and candidate reference materials. Recent work related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cows, genetically modified organisms, and a variety of environmental materials is described. (orig.)

  6. A Systematic Search for Exoplanet Candidates in K2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Tarryn; Karnes, Katherine L.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    We present a catalog of 41 promising exoplanet candidates in 33 stellar systems from the K2 Campaign 3 data. The K2 Mission was developed upon the mechanical failure of the second of four reaction wheels, as the Kepler Spacecraft could not continue the original Kepler Mission. The Kepler Mission was a 4-year mission designed to determine the prevalence of exoplanets in our galaxy, and the configuration and diversity of those planetary systems discovered. The K2 Mission has a similar goal, though the spacecraft now points at fields along the ecliptic in ~75 day campaigns (Howell et al. 2014). Although the light curves in K2 data are noisier and have significant motion-induced systematics, it has been shown that there is success in finding exoplanets and exoplanet candidates (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2015; Montet et al. 2015). Utilizing the Transiting Planet Search and Data Validation from the Kepler Processing Pipeline, we systematically search K2 Campaign 3 for potential exoplanet candidates. Setting a 7.1s maximum folded statistic threshold minimum for a minimum of three transit events, we define our initial candidate list. Our list is further narrowed by the results from Data Validation, as it allows us to statistically identify false positives, such as eclipsing binaries or uncorrected roll-drift, in our sample. We further draw parallels between our results and other transit-searching pipeline results published for Campaign 3.

  7. Single transit candidates from K2: detection and period estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, H. P.; Armstrong, D. J.; Brown, D. J. A.; McCormac, J.; Doyle, A. P.; Louden, T. M.; Kirk, J.; Spake, J. J.; Lam, K. W. F.; Walker, S. R.; Faedi, F.; Pollacco, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    Photometric surveys such as Kepler have the precision to identify exoplanet and eclipsing binary candidates from only a single transit. K2, with its 75 d campaign duration, is ideally suited to detect significant numbers of single-eclipsing objects. Here we develop a Bayesian transit-fitting tool (`Namaste: An Mcmc Analysis of Single Transit Exoplanets') to extract orbital information from single transit events. We achieve favourable results testing this technique on known Kepler planets, and apply the technique to seven candidates identified from a targeted search of K2 campaigns 1, 2 and 3. We find EPIC203311200 to host an excellent exoplanet candidate with a period, assuming zero eccentricity, of 540 ^{+410}_{-230} d and a radius of 0.51 ± 0.05RJup. We also find six further transit candidates for which more follow-up is required to determine a planetary origin. Such a technique could be used in the future with TESS, PLATO and ground-based photometric surveys such as NGTS, potentially allowing the detection of planets in reach of confirmation by Gaia.

  8. Supporting Clinical Practice Candidates in Learning Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.; Sudeck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to monitor pre-service teacher candidates' progression and implementation of the learning community philosophy along with classroom management strategies. The study took place during their final semester of clinical practice. Data were collected from self-reports, surveys, university supervisor…

  9. Candidate genes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current evidence and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou W

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhou,1,2 Yaping Wang1,2 1Department of Medical Genetics, 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a group of common and lethal forms of idiopathic interstitial pulmonary disease. IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function with a median survival of 2–3 years after diagnosis. Although the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, genetic predisposition could play a causal role in IPF. A set of genes have been identified as candidate genes of IPF in the past 20 years. However, the recent technological advances that allow for the analysis of millions of polymorphisms in different subjects have deepened the understanding of the genetic complexity of IPF susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies and whole-genome sequencing continue to reveal the genetic loci associated with IPF risk. In this review, we describe candidate genes on the basis of their functions and aim to gain a better understanding of the genetic basis of IPF. The discovered candidate genes may help to clarify pivotal aspects in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapies of IPF. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, candidate genes, susceptibility 

  10. Developing the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaba, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for teacher candidates and to compare scale scores. The sample of this survey model study consists of 310 students studying in a faculty of education. The "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" developed by the author was used for data collection.…

  11. Early Childhood Teacher Candidates Evaluate Computer Software for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of computer software for young children necessitates that early childhood teachers have the knowledge and skills needed to evaluate and select developmentally appropriate software. This article describes the manner in which one university prepares early childhood teacher candidates to analyze software for the young children in…

  12. Supervising PETE Candidates Using the Situational Supervision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Linda S.; Johnson, Lynn V.

    2012-01-01

    Physical education teacher candidates (PETCs) often, as part of their curricular requirements, engage in early field experiences that prepare them for student teaching. Matching the PETC's developmental level with the mentor's supervision style enhances this experience. The situational supervision model, based on the situational leadership model,…

  13. Candidates for Young Super Star Clusters in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mubdi; Matzner, C. D.; Moon, D.

    2011-01-01

    Massive Star Clusters (M > 104 M⊙) have been known to exist throughout the local Universe, but few such objects have been found within our own Galaxy. These clusters the majority of the galactic OB star formation, and thus dramatically alter their surroundings through winds, ionizing flux and radiation pressure, and supernovae, eventually destroying their natal clouds and inflating superbubbles which will erupt from the Galactic plane. We search for the young stellar clusters within the star forming complexes identified by Rahman & Murray (2010) using the WMAP free-free and Spitzer GLIMPSE 8 micron observations. Located far across the Galactic plane, these clusters are highly extinguished and crowded by field stars. Using the 2MASS catalogue, we have developed a method of identifying overdensities of sources with colours consistent with the extinguished upper main sequence coincident with the star forming complexes. The difficulty in this method comes from the large number of overlapping foreground sources in comparison to the expected number of cluster sources in any given candidate cluster. We identify a candidate for the most massive young cluster in the Galaxy (M 105 M⊙), which we have dubbed the Dragonfish Cluster. The candidate cluster is at a distance of 9.7 kpc and has a total ionizing luminosity of 7×1051 photons s-1. We identify nearly 400 OB star candidates associated with the cluster, to be confirmed with near-infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Preparing Teacher Candidates for Family-School Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruïne, Erica J.; Willemse, T. Martijn; D'Haem, Jeanne; Griswold, Peter; Vloeberghs, Lijne; van Eynde, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that, while parent involvement promotes student achievement, how teacher candidates are prepared to establish family-school partnerships (FSP) is not well documented and the roles of teacher educators are often neglected. Explorative studies including curriculum analysis and focus groups of primary and secondary teacher…

  15. Operational support and analysis a guide for ITIL exam candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Sansbury, John

    2014-01-01

    This user-friendly book aims to assist candidates pass the ITIL® OSA Intermediate examination. It references material from the core ITIL texts and gives practical guidance. This new edition includes the latest ITIL guidance as well as additional insights from the author's own experience of developing effective solutions. An ITIL® licensed product.

  16. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A;

    2002-01-01

    protein (Bcrp; Abcg2) and the bile salt export pump (Bsep; Abcb11) was assessed using several assays. Unexpectedly, none of the candidate proteins mediated significant sitosterol transport. This has implications for the pathology of sitosterolemia. In addition, the data suggest that otherwise broad...

  17. Generating Genome-Scale Candidate Gene Lists for Pharmacogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niclas Tue; Brunak, Søren; Altman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    A critical task in pharmacogenomics is identifying genes that may be important modulators of drug response. High-throughput experimental methods are often plagued by false positives and do not take advantage of existing knowledge. Candidate gene lists can usefully summarize existing knowledge, bu...

  18. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  19. IT Service Management A guide for ITIL Foundation Exam candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Ernest; Lawes, Aidan; Sansbury, John

    2012-01-01

    ITIL® is a framework for IT service management and provides best management practice to meet ISO/IEC 20k. This guide introduces ITIL to Foundation Exam candidates and offers a practical understanding of IT service management. The new edition is fully updated and contains several additional processes. An ITIL® licensed product.

  20. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN BRC 27 AND BRC 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M.; Laher, R.; Legassie, M. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johnson, C. H.; Carlson, S.; Clark, M.; Killingstad, N.; Koop, S. [Breck School, 123 Ottawa Avenue N., Golden Valley, MN 55422 (United States); Gibbs, J. C.; Aryal, S.; Canakapalli, T. S. [Glencoe High School, 2700 NW Glencoe Rd., Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Linahan, M.; Ezyk, N.; Fagan, J. [Carmel Catholic High School, One Carmel Parkway, Mundelein, IL 60060 (United States); Sartore, D.; Badura, K. S. [Pine Ridge High School, 926 Howland Blvd., Deltona, FL 32738 (United States); Armstrong, J. D. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McGehee, P. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), M/S 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, D. L., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We used archival Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data to search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in the immediate vicinity of two bright-rimmed clouds, BRC 27 (part of CMa R1) and BRC 34 (part of the IC 1396 complex). These regions both appear to be actively forming young stars, perhaps triggered by the proximate OB stars. In BRC 27, we find clear infrared excesses around 22 of the 26 YSOs or YSO candidates identified in the literature, and identify 16 new YSO candidates that appear to have IR excesses. In BRC 34, the one literature-identified YSO has an IR excess, and we suggest 13 new YSO candidates in this region, including a new Class I object. Considering the entire ensemble, both BRCs are likely of comparable ages, within the uncertainties of small number statistics and without spectroscopy to confirm or refute the YSO candidates. Similarly, no clear conclusions can yet be drawn about any possible age gradients that may be present across the BRCs.

  1. Documenting Teacher Candidates' Professional Growth through Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Suh, Jennifer; Parsons, Seth A.; Parker, Audra K.; Ramirez, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, colleges of education are responding to demands for increased accountability. The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's implementation of a performance evaluation tool during final internship that measures teacher candidates' development across four domains: Planning and Preparation,…

  2. Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Peter; Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2010-01-01

    paper, we present the novel MODCODE algorithm incorporating the ROD measure to measure and control candidate distinctiveness. MODCODE is tested against GDE3 on three real world centrifugal pump design problems supplied by Grundfos. Our algorithm outperforms GDE3 on all problems with respect to all...

  3. 11 CFR 110.8 - Presidential candidate expenditure limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section shall be increased in accordance with 11 CFR 110.17. (3) Voting age population is defined at 11 CFR 110.18. (b) The expenditure limitations shall not be considered violated if, after the date of the... expenditure limitation under 11 CFR 9035.1. (d)(1) If an individual is a candidate for more than one...

  4. A PPR protein in the PLS subfamily stabilizes the 5'-end of processed rpl16 mRNAs in maize chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammani, Kamel; Takenaka, Mizuki; Miranda, Rafael; Barkan, Alice

    2016-05-19

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are a large family of helical-repeat proteins that bind RNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Precise RNA targets and functions have been assigned to only a small fraction of the >400 members of the PPR family in plants. We used the amino acid code governing the specificity of RNA binding by PPR repeats to infer candidate-binding sites for the maize protein PPR103 and its ortholog Arabidopsis EMB175. Genetic and biochemical data confirmed a predicted binding site in the chloroplast rpl16 5'UTR to be a site of PPR103 action. This site maps to the 5' end of transcripts that fail to accumulate in ppr103 mutants. A small RNA corresponding to the predicted PPR103 binding site accumulates in a PPR103-dependent fashion, as expected of PPR103's in vivo footprint. Recombinant PPR103 bound specifically to this sequence in vitro These observations imply that PPR103 stabilizes rpl16 mRNA by impeding 5'→3' RNA degradation. Previously described PPR proteins with this type of function consist of canonical PPR motifs. By contrast, PPR103 is a PLS-type protein, an architecture typically associated with proteins that specify sites of RNA editing. However, PPR103 is not required to specify editing sites in chloroplasts. PMID:27095196

  5. A PPR protein in the PLS subfamily stabilizes the 5′-end of processed rpl16 mRNAs in maize chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammani, Kamel; Takenaka, Mizuki; Miranda, Rafael; Barkan, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are a large family of helical-repeat proteins that bind RNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Precise RNA targets and functions have been assigned to only a small fraction of the >400 members of the PPR family in plants. We used the amino acid code governing the specificity of RNA binding by PPR repeats to infer candidate-binding sites for the maize protein PPR103 and its ortholog Arabidopsis EMB175. Genetic and biochemical data confirmed a predicted binding site in the chloroplast rpl16 5′UTR to be a site of PPR103 action. This site maps to the 5′ end of transcripts that fail to accumulate in ppr103 mutants. A small RNA corresponding to the predicted PPR103 binding site accumulates in a PPR103-dependent fashion, as expected of PPR103's in vivo footprint. Recombinant PPR103 bound specifically to this sequence in vitro. These observations imply that PPR103 stabilizes rpl16 mRNA by impeding 5′→3′ RNA degradation. Previously described PPR proteins with this type of function consist of canonical PPR motifs. By contrast, PPR103 is a PLS-type protein, an architecture typically associated with proteins that specify sites of RNA editing. However, PPR103 is not required to specify editing sites in chloroplasts. PMID:27095196

  6. The Important Candidate Genes in Goats - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China SUPAKORN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 271 candidate genes have been detected in goats. However, comprehensive investigations have been carried out on the polymorphism of some genes, involved in the control of economic traits. Candidate genes have an effect on the physiological pathway, metabolism and expression of phenotypes. For growth traits, growth hormone (GH, growth hormone receptor (GHR, insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I, leptin (LEP, caprine pituitary specific transcription factor-1 (POU1F1, caprine myostatin (MSTN and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP genes are necessary for bone formation, birth weight, weaning weight, body condition and muscle growth. For reproduction, forkhead box L 2 (FOXL2, melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A, sex determination region of Y chromosome (SRY and amelogenin (AMEL genes influence sex determination and proliferation. The major candidate genes for milk yield and milk composition traits are the casein gene and their family. Keratin associated protein (KAP and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R genes are candidate genes for wool traits. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene is considered important for the immune system and disease resistance traits. The functions of these genes on economically important traits are different. Some genes have synergistic or antagonistic effects in nature for expression of phenotypic traits. On the other hand, some genes could control more than one trait. Also, the producers should be concerned with these effects because selection of a single trait by using only a gene could affect other traits. Therefore, the identification of candidate genes and their mutations which cause variations of gene expression and phenotype of economic traits will help breeders to search some genetic markers for these economic traits. It may be used as an aid in the selection of parent stock at an early age in the future.

  7. Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikakos, J.; Boumis, P.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Goudis, C. D.

    2012-08-01

    During an [O III] survey of planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate supernova remants (SNRs) and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. We obtained images of the area of interest by acquiring observations in the emission lines of Hα + [N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4° × 1.0°, where both filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting that there is more than one SNR in the area. Deep long-slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux-calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting that they are related, while the infrared emission found in the area at 12 μm and 22 μm marginally correlates with the optical. The presence of the [O III] emission line in one of the candidate SNRs implies that the shock velocities in the interstellar "clouds" are between 120 km s-1 and 200 km s-1, while its absence in the other candidate SNRs indicates that the shock velocities there are slower. For all candidate remnants, the [S II] λλ 6716/6731 ratio indicates that the electron densities are below 240 cm-3, while the Hα emission is measured to be between 0.6 and 41 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. The existence of eight pulsars within 1.5° of the center of the candidate SNRs also implies that there are many SNRs in the area as well as that the detected optical emission could be part of a number of supernovae explosions.

  8. Comparing What Teacher Candidates Know about Each Other: China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Byker, Erik Jon; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare teacher candidates' knowledge and perceptions about China and the United States. Using a survey research design, 91 Chinese teacher candidates and 96 teacher candidates from the United Sates participated. The survey findings indicated that, while both groups of teacher candidates had a basic level of…

  9. The CHAOS-3 Geomagnetic Field Model and Candidates for the 11th Generation IGRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, Mioara; Sabaka, Terence J.;

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the 11th generation IGRF defined by IAGA, we propose a candidate model for the DGRF 2005, a candidate model for IGRF 2010 and a candidate model for the mean secular variation between 2010 and 2015. These candidate models, the derivation of which is described in the following, are bas...

  10. A Research on the Burnout and the Teaching Profession Attitudes of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Aysegül; Beytekin, Osman Ferda; Arslan, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine burnout and teaching profession attitudes of teacher candidates. Research was conducted with 287 teacher candidates. By the findings; burnout and teaching profession attitudes of teacher candidates don't differ according to their gender. Burnout of teacher candidates differs according to their graduation status…

  11. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey II: Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-01-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high-angular-resolution visible-light laser-adaptive-optics imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to $\\Delta m \\approx 6$ that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within $\\sim$4" of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby-star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% $\\pm$ 1.1% a...

  12. Automatic extraction of candidate nomenclature terms using the doublet method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New terminology continuously enters the biomedical literature. How can curators identify new terms that can be added to existing nomenclatures? The most direct method, and one that has served well, involves reading the current literature. The scholarly curator adds new terms as they are encountered. Present-day scholars are severely challenged by the enormous volume of biomedical literature. Curators of medical nomenclatures need computational assistance if they hope to keep their terminologies current. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of rapidly extracting new, candidate terms from huge volumes of biomedical text. The resulting lists of terms can be quickly reviewed by curators and added to nomenclatures, if appropriate. The candidate term extractor uses a variation of the previously described doublet coding method. The algorithm, which operates on virtually any nomenclature, derives from the observation that most terms within a knowledge domain are composed entirely of word combinations found in other terms from the same knowledge domain. Terms can be expressed as sequences of overlapping word doublets that have more specific meaning than the individual words that compose the term. The algorithm parses through text, finding contiguous sequences of word doublets that are known to occur somewhere in the reference nomenclature. When a sequence of matching word doublets is encountered, it is compared with whole terms already included in the nomenclature. If the doublet sequence is not already in the nomenclature, it is extracted as a candidate new term. Candidate new terms can be reviewed by a curator to determine if they should be added to the nomenclature. An implementation of the algorithm is demonstrated, using a corpus of published abstracts obtained through the National Library of Medicine's PubMed query service and using "The developmental lineage classification and taxonomy of neoplasms" as a reference

  13. A systems biology approach identifies a R2R3 MYB gene subfamily with distinct and overlapping functions in regulation of aliphatic glucosinolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Elken Sønderby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates are natural metabolites in the order Brassicales that defend plants against both herbivores and pathogens and can attract specialized insects. Knowledge about the genes controlling glucosinolate regulation is limited. Here, we identify three R2R3 MYB transcription factors regulating aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by combining several systems biology tools. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MYB28 was identified as a candidate regulator of aliphatic glucosinolates based on its co-localization within a genomic region controlling variation both in aliphatic glucosinolate content (metabolite QTL and in transcript level for genes involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates (expression QTL, as well as its co-expression with genes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. A phylogenetic analysis with the R2R3 motif of MYB28 showed that it and two homologues, MYB29 and MYB76, were members of an Arabidopsis-specific clade that included three characterized regulators of indole glucosinolates. Over-expression of the individual MYB genes showed that they all had the capacity to increase the production of aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and seeds and induce gene expression of aliphatic biosynthetic genes within leaves. Analysis of leaves and seeds of single knockout mutants showed that mutants of MYB29 and MYB76 have reductions in only short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates whereas a mutant in MYB28 has reductions in both short- and long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates. Furthermore, analysis of a double knockout in MYB28 and MYB29 identified an emergent property of the system since the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates in these plants could not be predicted by the chemotype of the single knockouts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It seems that these cruciferous-specific MYB regulatory genes have evolved both overlapping and specific regulatory capacities. This provides a unique system within which to

  14. Frictional Behavior of Fe-based Cladding Candidates for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the recent nuclear disaster at Fukushima Daiichi reactors, there is a growing consensus on the development of new fuel systems (i.e., accident-tolerant fuel, ATF) that have high safety margins under design-basis accident (DBA) and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA). A common objective of various developing candidates is to archive the outstanding corrosion-resistance under severe accidents such as DBA and DBDA conditions for decreasing hydrogen production and increasing coping time to respond to severe accidents. ATF could be defined as new fuel/cladding system with enhanced accident tolerant to loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period under severe accidents while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. This means that, in normal operating conditions, new fuel systems should be applicable to current operating PWRs for suppressing various degradation mechanisms of current fuel assembly without excessive design changes. When considering that one of the major degradation mechanisms of PWR fuel assemblies is a grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), it is necessary to examine the tribological behavior of various ATF candidates at initial development stage. In this study, friction and reciprocating wear behavior of two kinds of Fe-based ATF candidates were examined with a reciprocating wear tests at room temperature (RT) air and water. The objective is to examine the compatibilities of these Fe-based alloys against current Zr-based alloy properties, which is used as major structural materials of PWR fuel assemblies. The reciprocating wear behaviors of Fe-based accident-tolerant fuel cladding candidates against current Zr-based alloy has been studied using a reciprocating sliding wear tester in room temperature air and water. Frictional behavior and wear depth were used for evaluating the applicability and compatibilities of Fe-based candidates without significant design changes of PWR fuel assemblies

  15. Frictional Behavior of Fe-based Cladding Candidates for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Thak Sang [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States)

    2014-10-15

    After the recent nuclear disaster at Fukushima Daiichi reactors, there is a growing consensus on the development of new fuel systems (i.e., accident-tolerant fuel, ATF) that have high safety margins under design-basis accident (DBA) and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA). A common objective of various developing candidates is to archive the outstanding corrosion-resistance under severe accidents such as DBA and DBDA conditions for decreasing hydrogen production and increasing coping time to respond to severe accidents. ATF could be defined as new fuel/cladding system with enhanced accident tolerant to loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period under severe accidents while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. This means that, in normal operating conditions, new fuel systems should be applicable to current operating PWRs for suppressing various degradation mechanisms of current fuel assembly without excessive design changes. When considering that one of the major degradation mechanisms of PWR fuel assemblies is a grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), it is necessary to examine the tribological behavior of various ATF candidates at initial development stage. In this study, friction and reciprocating wear behavior of two kinds of Fe-based ATF candidates were examined with a reciprocating wear tests at room temperature (RT) air and water. The objective is to examine the compatibilities of these Fe-based alloys against current Zr-based alloy properties, which is used as major structural materials of PWR fuel assemblies. The reciprocating wear behaviors of Fe-based accident-tolerant fuel cladding candidates against current Zr-based alloy has been studied using a reciprocating sliding wear tester in room temperature air and water. Frictional behavior and wear depth were used for evaluating the applicability and compatibilities of Fe-based candidates without significant design changes of PWR fuel assemblies

  16. Candidates and prospects of detection for particle dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mystery of what makes up the non-baryonic mass in the universe has deepened. Cosmological measurements tell us with high significance that baryons only make up 4 to 5 percent of critical density, whereas CMB and other measurements point to a total relative matter density of around 30 percent. Although the simplest possibilities like massive neutrinos are ruled out as the main component of dark matter, there are several other, belonging to extensions of the Standard Model which are becoming more and more plausible. Supersymmetric particles are among these favoured candidates, but there are also others based on extra dimensions and other current theoretical ideas. The hunt for dark matter will intensify in the coming years with a large set of accelerator, direct detection and indirect detection experiments each having a fair chance of making the first detection. The talk will cover some of the different particle dark matter candidates and their detection properties. (author)

  17. On the Low False Positive Probabilities of Kepler Planet Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, Timothy D

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework to conservatively estimate the probability that any particular planet-like transit signal observed by the Kepler mission is in fact a planet, prior to any ground-based follow-up efforts. We use Monte Carlo methods based on stellar population synthesis and Galactic structure models, and we provide empirical analytic fits to our results that may be applied to the as-yet-unconfirmed Kepler candidates. We find that the false positive probability for candidates that pass preliminary Kepler vetting procedures is generally 20% to < 2%, assuming a continuous power law for the planet mass function with index alpha = -1.5. Since Kepler will detect many more planetary signals than can be positively confirmed with ground-based follow-up efforts in the near term, these calculations will be crucial to using the ensemble of Kepler data to determine population characteristic s of planetary systems.

  18. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degree}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Mullally, F; Thompson, Susan E; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D; Haas, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long period planets in the \\kepler\\ planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler's sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events, and use a Bayesian Information Criterion to evaluate the likelihood that each event is real. We describe our technique and test its performance on simulated data. Results from this technique are incorporated in the \\kepler\\ Q1-17 DR24 planet candidate catalog of \\citet{Coughlin15}.

  20. PTPS Candidate Exoplanet Host Star Radii Determination with CHARA Array

    CERN Document Server

    Zielinski, Pawel; Baines, Ellyn; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Wolszczan, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    We propose to measure the radii of the Penn State - Torun Planet Search (PTPS) exoplanet host star candidates using the CHARA Array. Stellar radii estimated from spectroscopic analysis are usually inaccurate due to indirect nature of the method and strong evolutionary model dependency. Also the so-called degeneracy of stellar evolutionary tracks due to convergence of many tracks in the giant branch decreases the precision of such estimates. However, the radius of a star is a critical parameter for the calculation of stellar luminosity and mass, which are often not well known especially for giants. With well determined effective temperature (from spectroscopy) and radius the luminosity may be calculated precisely. In turn also stellar mass may be estimated much more precisely. Therefore, direct radii measurements increase precision in the determination of planetary candidates masses and the surface temperatures of the planets.

  1. Current understanding of increased insulin sensitivity after exercise - emerging candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Exercise counteracts insulin resistance and improves glucose homeostasis in many ways. Apart from increasing muscle glucose uptake quickly, exercise also clearly increases muscle insulin sensitivity in the post exercise period. This review will focus on the mechanisms responsible for this increased...... signaling component in the insulin signaling pathway such as aPKC, Rac1, TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 have been described. These are all affected by both insulin and exercise which means that they are likely converging points in promoting GLUT4 translocation and therefore possible candidates for regulating insulin...... sensitivity after exercise. Whereas TBC1D1 does not appear to regulate insulin sensitivity after exercise, correlative evidence in contrast suggests TBC1D4 to be a relevant candidate. Little is known about aPKC and Rac1 in relation to insulin sensitivity after exercise. Besides mechanisms involved in...

  2. Tests of candidate materials for particle bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium metal hot frits and zirconium carbide-coated fuel particles appear suitable for use in flowing hydrogen to at least 2000 K, based on previous tests. Recent tests on alternate candidate cooled particle and frit materials are described. Silicon carbide-coated particles began to react with rhenium frit material at 1600 K, forming a molten silicide at 2000 K. Silicon carbide was extensively attacked by hydrogen at 2066 K for 30 minutes, losing 3.25% of its weight. Vitrous carbon was also rapidly attacked by hydrogen at 2123 K, losing 10% of its weight in two minutes. Long term material tests on candidate materials for closed cycle helium cooled particle bed fuel elements are also described. Surface imperfections were found on the surface of pyrocarbon-coated fuel particles after ninety days exposure to flowing (∼500 ppM) impure helium at 1143 K. The imperfections were superficial and did not affect particle strength

  3. A novel live-attenuated vaccine candidate for mayaro Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Weise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes a dengue-like illness in many regions of South America, and which has the potential to urbanize. Because no specific treatment or vaccine is available for MAYV infection, we capitalized on an IRES-based approach to develop a live-attenuated MAYV vaccine candidate. Testing in infant, immunocompetent as well as interferon receptor-deficient mice demonstrated a high degree of attenuation, strong induction of neutralizing antibodies, and efficacy against lethal challenge. This vaccine strain was also unable to infect mosquito cells, a major safety feature for a live vaccine derived from a mosquito-borne virus. Further preclinical development of this vaccine candidate is warranted to protect against this important emerging disease.

  4. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, F.; Coughlin, Jeffery L.; Thompson, Susan E.; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D.; Haas, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long-period planets in the Kepler planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler’s sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events and use a Bayesian information criterion to evaluate the likelihood that each event is real. We describe our technique and test its performance on simulated data. Results from this technique are incorporated in the Kepler Q1–Q17 DR24 planet candidate catalog of Coughlin et al.

  5. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project's high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250 degree C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab

  6. Ground state occupation probabilities of neutrinoless double beta decay candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Jenni; Barea, Jose

    2015-10-01

    A better understanding of nuclear structure can offer important constraints on the calculation of 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements. A simple way to consider differences between initial and final states of neutrinoless double beta decay candidates is to look at the ground state occupation probabilities of initial and final nuclei. As is well known, microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) has found to be very useful in the description of detailed aspects of nuclear structure. In this talk I will present results for ground state occupation probabilities obtained using IBM-2 for several interesting candidates of 0 νββ -decay. Comparison with recent experimental results is also made. This work was supported Academy of Finland (Project 266437) and Chilean Ministry of Education (Fondecyt Grant No. 1150564),

  7. Leadership scheme to develop the careers of talented candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynas, Karen

    2012-02-01

    The Top Leaders programme supports career development by identifying talented staff and equipping them with a range of management skills and approaches. The programme uses a diagnostic test to help candidates assess their strengths, leadership styles and development needs, and offers them 360 degrees feedback. This enables them to identify areas they need to develop to be effective and supportive leaders. Two case studies illustrate the programme in action. PMID:22439500

  8. Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes: A candidate system approach

    OpenAIRE

    Derringer, Jaime; Robert F Krueger; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott; Grucza, Richard A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lin, Peng; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John I.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John R.; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2010-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a heritable personality trait that has been reliably linked to behavior disorders. The dopamine system has been hypothesized to contribute to individual differences in sensation seeking, and both experimental and observational studies in humans and non-human animals provide evidence for this relationship. We present here a candidate-system approach to genetic association analysis of sensation seeking, in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of dopami...

  9. Road pricing as a citizen-candidate game

    OpenAIRE

    Marcucci, Edoardo; Marini, Marco A.; Ticchi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    We construct a political economy model to analyze the political acceptability of road pricing policies. We use a citizen-candidate framework with a population composed by three groups differing for their income level. We show that road pricing policies are never applied when there is no redistribution of the resources in favour of other modes of transport or when the congestion of these types of transport is relatively high. The results suggest that the efficiency of the redistrib...

  10. Road pricing as a citizen-candidate game

    OpenAIRE

    Marcucci, Edoardo; Marini, Marco

    2005-01-01

    We construct a political economy model to analyze the political acceptability of road pricing policies. We use a citizen-candidate framework with a population composed by three groups differing for their income level. We show that road pricing policies are never applied when there is no redistribution of the resources in favour of other modes of transport or when the congestion of these types of transport is relatively high. The results suggest that the efficiency of the redistribution of res...

  11. Characteristics of Oral Abnormalities in Liver Transplant Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Guggenheimer, J.; Close, J. M.; Eghtesad, B; Shay, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several oral mucosal abnormalities have been reported to occur more frequently in patients with liver disease. It has, however, not been determined if these conditions are related to the disease or are manifestations of extraneous factors not associated with the liver pathology. Objective: To identify and quantify oral abnormalities in candidates for liver transplantation, and to determine whether these conditions were correlated with the type of liver disease or were the result o...

  12. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.

    2015-06-01

    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Slitrks as emerging candidate genes involved in neuropsychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Proenca, Catia C.; Gao, Kate P.; Shmelkov, Sergey V.; Rafii, Shahin; Lee, Francis S

    2011-01-01

    Slitrks are a family of structurally-related transmembrane proteins belonging to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Six family members exist (Slitrk1–Slitrk6), and all are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Slitrks have been implicated in mediating basic neuronal processes ranging from neurite outgrowth and dendritic elaboration to neuronal survival. Recent studies in humans and genetic mouse models have led to the identification of Slitrks as candidate genes that m...

  14. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Mullally, F.; Coughlin, Jeffery L.; Thompson, Susan E.; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D.; Haas, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long period planets in the \\kepler\\ planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler's sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events, and use a Bayesian Inf...

  15. Three new optical nova candidates in M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Henze, M.; Burwitz, V.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Williams, G.; Milne, P.

    2011-06-01

    We report the discovery of three nova candidates in M 31 on 7x60s stacked R filter CCD images obtained with the robotic 60cm telescope with an E2V CCD (2kx2k, 13.5 micron sq. pixels) of the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (Super-LOTIS, located at Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA) on 2011 June 7.418 UT. The objects are visible on all individual images.

  16. SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT KEPLER MISSION EXOPLANET CANDIDATE HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellar properties are measured for a large set of Kepler mission exoplanet candidate host stars. Most of these stars are fainter than 14th magnitude, in contrast to other spectroscopic follow-up studies. This sample includes many high-priority Earth-sized candidate planets. A set of model spectra are fitted to R ∼ 3000 optical spectra of 268 stars to improve estimates of Teff, log (g), and [Fe/H] for the dwarfs in the range 4750 ≤ Teff ≤ 7200 K. These stellar properties are used to find new stellar radii and, in turn, new radius estimates for the candidate planets. The result of improved stellar characteristics is a more accurate representation of this Kepler exoplanet sample and identification of promising candidates for more detailed study. This stellar sample, particularly among stars with Teff ∼> 5200 K, includes a greater number of relatively evolved stars with larger radii than assumed by the mission on the basis of multi-color broadband photometry. About 26% of the modeled stars require radii to be revised upward by a factor of 1.35 or greater, and modeling of 87% of the stars suggest some increase in radius. The sample presented here also exhibits a change in the incidence of planets larger than 3-4 R⊕ as a function of metallicity. Once [Fe/H] increases to ≥ – 0.05, large planets suddenly appear in the sample while smaller planets are found orbiting stars with a wider range of metallicity. The modeled stellar spectra, as well as an additional 84 stars of mostly lower effective temperatures, are made available to the community.

  17. Novel approaches to identify protective malaria vaccine candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Wan Ni; Goh, Yun Shan; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines against malaria have been the focus of substantial research activities for decades. Several categories of candidate vaccines are currently being developed for protection against malaria, based on antigens corresponding to the pre-erythrocytic, blood stage, or sexual stages of the parasite. Long lasting sterile protection from Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge has been observed in human following vaccination with whole parasite formulations, clearly demonst...

  18. Genetics of intracerebral hemorrhage: Insights from candidate gene approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Baoqiong Liu; Le Zhang; Qidong Yang

    2012-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a heterogeneous disease with genetic factors playing an important role. Association studies on a wide range of candidate pathways suggest a weak but significant effect for several alleles with ICH risk. Among the most widely investigated genes are those involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme), coagulation pathway (e.g., Factor XIII, Factor VII, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, Factor V Leiden, and ...

  19. Identification of a candidate stem cell in human gallbladder

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan Manohar; Yaming Li; Helene Fohrer; Lynda Guzik; Donna Beer Stolz; Uma R. Chandran; LaFramboise, William A.; Eric Lagasse

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no reports of identification of stem cells in human gallbladder. The differences between human gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) cells have also not been explored. The goals of this study were to evaluate if human fetal gallbladder contains a candidate stem cell population and if fetal gallbladder cells are distinct from fetal IHBD cells. We found that EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ cells represent the cell population most enriched for clonal self-renewal from primary gallbl...

  20. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red.

  1. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red.

  2. Association of candidate genes with antisocial drug dependence in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Robin P.; Zeiger, Joanna S.; Crowley, Thomas; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Hewitt, John K.; Christian J Hopfer; Lessem, Jeffrey; McQueen, Matthew B.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Smolen, Andrew; Stallings, Michael C.; Young, Susan E.; Krauter, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) is using several research designs and strategies in its study of the genetic basis for antisocial drug dependence in adolescents. This study reports Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) association results from a Targeted Gene Assay (SNP chip) of 231 Caucasian male probands in treatment with antisocial drug dependence and a matched set of community controls. The SNP chip was designed to assay 1500 SNPs distributed across 50 candidate g...

  3. Fruit and Oil Characteristics of Olive Candidate Cultivars from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin OZDEMIR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study in Turkey that evaluated olive fruit and oil characteristics of 23 cultivar candidates selected among 393 olive genotypes, on the bases of agronomical characteristics; the candidate cultivars were obtained by cross breeding between standard cultivars (‘Gemlik’, ‘Edinciksu’, ‘Uslu’, ‘Tavşan Yüreği’, ‘Karamürselsu’ and foreign cultivars (‘Lucques’, ‘Belle d’Espagne’ and ‘Manzanilla’. Fruit traits such as fruit weight, flesh to seed ratio, fruit and seed size, as well as oil characteristics such as moisture, oil content, specific absorption at ultraviolet light, free acid content, peroxide value, chlorophyll and fatty acid composition were determined. Fruits and oils of intensely cultivated ‘Gemlik’ and ‘Ayvalık’ olive cultivars were also analyzed to compare them with the new candidate cultivars. According to the oil content, ‘GE067’ (23.30%, ‘GE181’ (23.97%, ‘GE366’ (22.52%, ‘GE417’ (22.16%, ‘GT009’ (24.14%, ‘GT014’ (21.02%, ‘GU247’ (22.48%, ‘GU320’ (27.15% and ‘GU434’ (21.89% gave better results, thus having good potential for registration as new cultivars for oil production. ‘GE366’ and ‘GU434’ were determined as the best cultivar candidates for producing dual purpose olives (table olives and oil. ‘GE363’ had the best fatty acid composition, which is an important feature in terms of oxidative stability and disease prevention.

  4. Investigating mathematics teacher candidates opinions about using information & communication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin Arsan; Tamer Kutluca; İlknur Özpınar

    2011-01-01

    As it has changed all fields in our lives, technological advancements have also improved education in such a large extent that integrating technology into education is inevitable. For this reason, teachers and teacher candidates are supposed to get acquainted with technology related information and skills. This study was conducted to determine the pre-service mathematics teachers’ opinions about information and communication technologies. A questionnaire was applied to 104 mathematics teacher...

  5. Optimal selection policies for a sequence of candidate drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, C.; Gittins, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have to face huge risks and enormous costs of production before they can produce a drug. Efficient allocation of resources is essential to help in maximizing profits. Yu and Gittins (2007) described a model and associated software for determining efficient allocations for a preclinical research project. This is the starting point for this paper. We provide explicit optimal policies for the selection of successive candidate drugs for two restricted...

  6. Identification of 11 potential malaria vaccine candidates using Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we suggested eleven protein targets to be used as possible vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum causative agent of almost two to three million deaths per year. A comprehensive analysis of protein target have been selected from the small experimental fragment of antigen in the P. falciparum genome, all of them common to the four stages of the parasite life cycle (i.e., sporozoites, merozoites, trophozoites and gametocytes). The potential vaccine candidates should be analyzed i...

  7. Scalar Dark Matter Candidates in Two Inert Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fortes, E C F S; Montaño, J; Pleitez, V

    2014-01-01

    We study a two scalar inert doublet model (IDMS$_3$) which is stabilized by a $S_3$ symmetry. We consider two scenarios: i) two of the scalars in each charged sector are mass degenerated due to a residual $Z_2$ symmetry, ii) there is no mass degeneracy because of the introduction of soft terms that break the $Z_2$ symmetry. We show that both scenarios provide good dark matter candidates for some range of parameters.

  8. Women Candidates and Arab Media: Challenging Conservatism in Bahraini Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Otaibi, May Al

    2011-01-01

    Women have yet to enter to Bahrain’s parliament despite being permitted to run for some years. With its king promoting social and economic change, the media has portrayed positive images of Arab women as professionals against a backdrop of religious conservatism. The communications strategy adopted by some women candidates to attain election to parliament and the response of the local media are analysed utilizing content analysis. Despite some variation of coverage, the media in this Persian ...

  9. Searches for millisecond pulsar candidates among the unidentified Fermi objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, C Y; Hu, C P; Lin, L C C; Li, K L; Kong, A K H; Tam, P H T; Takata, J; Cheng, K S; Jin, Ruolan; Yen, T -C; Kim, Chunglee

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the results of searching millisecond pulsar (MSP) candidates from the Fermi LAT second source catalog (2FGL). Seven unassociated $\\gamma-$ray sources in this catalog are identified as promising MSP candidates based on their $\\gamma$-ray properties. Through the X-ray analysis, we have detected possible X-ray counterparts, localized to an arcsecond accuracy. We have systematically estimated their X-ray fluxes and compared with the corresponding $\\gamma$-ray fluxes. The X-ray to $\\gamma$-ray flux ratios for 2FGL J1653.6-0159 and 2FGL J1946.4-5402 are comparable with the typical value for pulsars. For 2FGL J1625.2-0020, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 and 2FGL J1946.4-5402, their candidate X-ray counterparts are bright enough for performing a detailed spectral and temporal analysis to discriminate their thermal/non thermal nature and search for the periodic signal. We have also searched for possible optical/IR counterparts at the X-ray positions. For the optical/IR source coincident with the brightest X-ray obje...

  10. THE EVALUATION OF THE MOTIVATIONS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal ÇELİKTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to define the reading profiles of teacher candidates in terms of text/reading types and reading purposes. The study is designed as a screening type, qualitative research. 65 teacher candidates from Mehmet Akif Ersoy University are selected with random sampling to take place in the study. The data is collected by the interview method, which is a qualitative research method. An interview form named “Motivation to Read Profile”, that is adapted by researchers, is used as the tool for data collection. Data is analyzed by content analyzing. At the end of the study it’s determined that, 80% of the teacher candidates have high motivations to read; and they usually read to acquire information, get the help of their teachers ad friends to choose books, use internet a lot for finding reading materials, and they don’t usually carry books with themselves, yet they read at home and library. Also, the results show that the readings at home are usually news/newspapers on the internet, and the readings at library are more generally for research and homework; because of this, readings at library are more focused on books and magazines.

  11. Examining My Assessment Literacy Instruction Practices with Teacher Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this self-study, the author examines her teacher education practices in preparing teacher candidates to assess the literacy of English learners (ELs. According to Lee (2007, disciplinary literary is essential to supporting students in becoming active in democratic pursuits. Conceptualizing literacy in this broader way for teacher candidates and then promoting the exclusive use of tools like fluency exercises and comprehension inventories for their classroom practice seems like a mixed message. The author identified three concepts from the course materials that she determined were important for teacher candidates to consider in assessing literacy development in ELs. These were (a notions of ELs preexisting literacy in their native languages, in particularly in content area subject matter for curriculum-making, (b fundamental understandings about second language acquisition, and (c knowledge of measurement practices as an avenue for advocacy. These three ideas framed the literature reviewed for this study and positioned the author to use narrative accounts of her teaching as data which yielded findings.

  12. Identification of candidate genes for dyslexia susceptibility on chromosome 18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Scerri

    Full Text Available Six independent studies have identified linkage to chromosome 18 for developmental dyslexia or general reading ability. Until now, no candidate genes have been identified to explain this linkage. Here, we set out to identify the gene(s conferring susceptibility by a two stage strategy of linkage and association analysis.Linkage analysis: 264 UK families and 155 US families each containing at least one child diagnosed with dyslexia were genotyped with a dense set of microsatellite markers on chromosome 18. Association analysis: Using a discovery sample of 187 UK families, nearly 3000 SNPs were genotyped across the chromosome 18 dyslexia susceptibility candidate region. Following association analysis, the top ranking SNPs were then genotyped in the remaining samples. The linkage analysis revealed a broad signal that spans approximately 40 Mb from 18p11.2 to 18q12.2. Following the association analysis and subsequent replication attempts, we observed consistent association with the same SNPs in three genes; melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, dymeclin (DYM and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like (NEDD4L.Along with already published biological evidence, MC5R, DYM and NEDD4L make attractive candidates for dyslexia susceptibility genes. However, further replication and functional studies are still required.

  13. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, I; Ribas, Á; Bouy, H; Prusti, T; Pilbratt, G L; André, Ph

    2015-01-01

    New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful to identify transitional disk candidates. The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 $\\mu$m of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using the criteria defined in Ribas et al. (2013) we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 $\\mu$m fluxes are systematically higher than thos...

  14. Universal behaviors as candidate traditions in wild spider monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Santorelli

    Full Text Available Candidate traditions were documented across three communities of wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi using an a priori approach to identify behavioral variants and a statistical approach to examine differences in their proportional use. This methodology differs from previous studies of animal traditions, which used retrospective data and relied on the 'exclusion method' to identify candidate traditions. Our a priori approach increased the likelihood that behavior variants with equivalent functions were considered and our statistical approach enabled the proportional use of 'universal' behaviors, i.e., used across all communities, to be examined for the first time in any animal species as candidate traditions. Among universal behaviors we found 14 'community preferred' variants. After considering the extent to which community preferred variants were due to ecological and, to a lesser degree, genetic differences, we concluded that at least six were likely maintained through social learning. Our findings have two main implications: (i tradition repertoires could be larger than assumed from previous studies using the exclusion method; (ii the relative use of universal behavior variants can reinforce community membership.

  15. First microlensing candidate towards M31 from Nainital Microlensing Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Y C; Narasimha, D; Sagar, R

    2004-01-01

    We report our first microlensing candidate NMS-E1 towards M31 from the data accumulated during four years long Nainital Microlensing Survey. Cousin R and I band observations of ~13'x13' field in the direction of M31 were carried out since 1998 and data is analysed using pixel technique proposed by the AGAPE collaboration. The NMS-E1 lies in the disk of M31 at \\alpha = 0:43:33.3 and \\delta = +41:06:44, about 15.5 arcmin away in the South-East direction from the center of M31. The degenerate Paczy\\'{n}ski fit gives a half intensity duration of ~ 59 days. The photometric analysis of candidate shows that it reached up to R ~ 20.1 mag at the time of maximum brightness and colour of the source star estimated to be (R-I)_0 ~ 1.1 mag. It is seen that the microlensing candidate is blended by red variable stars consequently light curves do not strictly follow the characteristic Paczy\\'{n}ski shape and achromatic nature however its long period monitoring and similar behaviour in R and I bands lend support of its microle...

  16. Blazar candidates beyond redshift 4 observed by Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Foschini, L; Nardini, M; Tavecchio, F; Gehrels, N

    2014-01-01

    We have selected SDSS J222032.50+002537.5 and SDSS J142048.01+120545.9 as best blazar candidates out of a complete sample of extremely radio-loud quasars at z>4, with highly massive black holes. We observed them and a third serendipitous candidate with similar features (PMN J2134-0419) in the X-rays with the Swift/XRT telescope, to confirm their blazar nature. We observed strong and hard X-ray fluxes in all three cases. This allowed us to classify our candidates as real blazars, being characterized by large Lorentz factors (~13) and very small viewing angles (~3deg). All three sources have black hole masses exceeding 10^9Msun and their classification provides intriguing constraints on supermassive black hole formation and evolution models. We confirm our earlier suggestion that there are different formation epochs of extremely massive black holes hosted in jetted (z~4) and non-jetted systems (z~2.5).

  17. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  18. TIME SERIES FORECASTING WITH MULTIPLE CANDIDATE MODELS: SELECTING OR COMBINING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lean; WANG Shouyang; K. K. Lai; Y.Nakamori

    2005-01-01

    Various mathematical models have been commonly used in time series analysis and forecasting. In these processes, academic researchers and business practitioners often come up against two important problems. One is whether to select an appropriate modeling approach for prediction purposes or to combine these different individual approaches into a single forecast for the different/dissimilar modeling approaches. Another is whether to select the best candidate model for forecasting or to mix the various candidate models with different parameters into a new forecast for the same/similar modeling approaches. In this study, we propose a set of computational procedures to solve the above two issues via two judgmental criteria. Meanwhile, in view of the problems presented in the literature, a novel modeling technique is also proposed to overcome the drawbacks of existing combined forecasting methods. To verify the efficiency and reliability of the proposed procedure and modeling technique, the simulations and real data examples are conducted in this study.The results obtained reveal that the proposed procedure and modeling technique can be used as a feasible solution for time series forecasting with multiple candidate models.

  19. The Coolest Isolated Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of TWA

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Cruz, Kelle; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne

    2014-01-01

    We present two new late-type brown dwarf candidate members of the TW Hydrae association (TWA) : 2MASS J12074836-3900043 and 2MASS J12474428-3816464, which were found as part of the BANYAN all-sky survey (BASS) for brown dwarf members to nearby young associations. We obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for both objects (NIR spectral types are respectively L1 and M9), as well as optical spectroscopy for J1207-3900 (optical spectral type is L0{\\gamma}), and show that both display clear signs of low-gravity, and thus youth. We use the BANYAN II Bayesian inference tool to show that both objects are candidate members to TWA with a very low probability of being field contaminants, although the kinematics of J1247-3816 seem slightly at odds with that of other TWA members. J1207-3900 is currently the latest-type and the only isolated L-type candidate member of TWA. Measuring the distance and radial velocity of both objects is still required to claim them as bona fide members. Such late-type objects are predicted...

  20. Revision of the Oriental subfamily Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1896, with a re-arrangement of the family Heteropterygidae and the descriptions of five new species of Haaniella Kirby, 1904. (Phasmatodea: Areolatae: Heteropterygidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Brock, Paul D; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The areolate Oriental family Heteropterygidae Kirby, 1893 is critically reviewed and the results of the present study contradict the arrangement suggested by Zompro (2004), but in most aspects agree with a molecular study presented by Whiting et al (2003) and a phylogenetic study presented by Bradler (2009). The family is critically discussed and new hypotheses are presented for the phylogeny and intra-familiar relationships, placing the subfamily Dataminae Rehn & Rehn, 1939 as the basalmost clade of Heteropterygidae. The subfamilies Obriminae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 and Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1893 together represent the sister-group of Dataminae. Arguments and a tree are presented to support this hypothesis. New diagnoses and lists of genera are provided for all three subfamilies contained in Heteropterygidae, along with keys to distinguish between them.        The subfamily Obriminae is critically reviewed and the distinction between the three tribes Obrimini Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, Eubulidini Zompro, 2004 and Miroceramiini Zompro, 2004 introduced by Zompro (2004) is shown to be poorly supported. While Obrimini sensu Zompro, 2004 is generally accepted (but now also contains genera that were placed in Eubulidini or Miroceramiini by Zompro (2004)), the tribes Eubulidini and Miroceramiini are not supported. A new arrangement is introduced, which is based on morphological characters neglected or overlooked by Zompro (2004) but were partly discussed by Bradler (2009). The genus Mearnsiana Rehn & Rehn, 1939 is removed from Miroceramiini and transferred to Obrimini. The genera Eubulides Stål, 1877, Heterocopus Redtenbacher, 1906, Theramenes Stål, 1875 and Stenobrimus Redtenbacher, 1906 are removed from Eubulidini and also transferred to Obrimini. Consequently, Eubulidini is synonymised with Obrimini (n. syn.). Miroceramiini is a monotypical tribe and only includes the Wallacean genus Miroceramia Günther, 1934. The new tribe Tisamenini n. trib. is

  1. Candidate pathway-based genetic association study of Platinum and Platinum-Taxane Related Toxicity in a Cohort of Primary Lung Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cassandra; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Velazquez, Ana I.; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Staff, Nathan P.; Windebank, Anthony J.; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common toxicity secondary to chemotherapy. Genetic factors may be important in predisposing patients to this adverse effect. Patients and Methods We studied 950 primary lung cancer patients, who received platinum or platinum-combination drug chemotherapy and who had DNA available for study. We analyzed epidemiological risk factors in 279 CIPN patients and 456 non-CIPN patients and genetic risk factors in 141 CIPN patients and 259 non-CIPN patients. The risk factors studied included demographic, diagnostic, and treatment data, as well as 174 tag SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) across 43 candidate genes in the glutathione, cell cycle, DNA repair, cell signaling, and apoptosis pathways. Results Patients who had diabetes mellitus were more likely to have CIPN (p=0.0002). Other epidemiologic risk factors associated with CIPN included number of cycles (p=0.0004) and type of concurrent chemotherapy (p<0.001) . SNPs most associated with CIPN were in glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7) gene (p values 0.0015 and 0.0028, unadjusted and adjusted) and in ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 4 (ABCC4) gene (p values 0.037 and 0.006, unadjusted and adjusted). We also found other suggestive associations in methyl-o-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoforms. Conclusions Epidemiological and genetic risk factors associated with CIPN in this cohort, included the type of chemotherapy drug, intensity of chemotherapy treatment, and genes known to be associated with chemotherapy resistance. These findings suggest that differentiating between cytotoxic and neurotoxic mechanisms of chemotherapy drugs is challenging but represents an important step toward individualized therapy and improving quality of life for patients. PMID:25586538

  2. Molecular Evolution and Expression Analysis of Subfamily ABCB Transporter Genes in Rice%水稻ABCB转运蛋白基因的分子进化和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杏; 邱杰; 徐扬; 徐辰武

    2012-01-01

    系统鉴定了水稻和拟南芥中27个和29个ABC家族B亚族(ABCB)基因,发现其外显子数目、编码蛋白质的长度和分子量在两种植物中均存在较大变异,而等电点分布的变化较小.系统发育分析把该亚族蛋白分为4个亚组,说明其功能可能已经发生了分化;在水稻和拟南芥中各鉴定了6对和9对旁系同源基因,说明单、双子叶植物分离之后,该亚族在水稻和拟南芥中均以物种特异的方式进行了扩张.片段复制和串联重复是水稻ABC家族扩张的主要机制.多序列比对显示,核苷酸结合域(NBD)的Walker A、Walker B和ABC域基序均高度保守,而Q环和H环的保守性略差;跨膜结构域(TMD)在不同蛋白之间和同一蛋白内没有明显的保守性.表达模式分析表明,水稻ABCB基因的表达具有明显的组织特异性,不同基因的表达特征已经发生分化.非生物胁迫下的表达分析显示多数水稻ABCB基因受到至少一种非生物胁迫因素的调控.旁系同源基因Ka/Ks分析表明,净化选择在水稻ABCB基因复制后功能的保留中发挥了重要作用.%With the accomplishment of genome sequencing projects, over 130 ABCs were identified separately from the model plants of monocots and dicots, rice and Arabidopsis, but the functions of most of the members remain elusive. Therefore, 27 and 29 subfamily B of ABC genes (ABCB) in rice and Arabidopsis were systematically characterized, respectively. The exon number, length and molecular weight of proteins encoded by these genes varied greatly between the two plants. Albeit the isoelectric point was less diverse. Proteins of this subfamily were divided into 4 subgroups accordingpar to phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that divergence probably occurred among them; 6 and 9 pairs of paralogous genes were identified from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively, indicating that species-specific expansion contributed to the evolution of this subfamily in rice and

  3. NHI economic analysis of candidate nuclear hydrogen processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is investigating candidate technologies for large scale hydrogen production using high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) in concert with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) programme. The candidate processes include high temperature thermochemical and high temperature electrolytic processes which are being investigated in a sequence of experimental and analytic studies to establish the most promising and cost effective means of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. Although these advanced processes are in an early development stage, it is important that the projected economic potential of these processes be evaluated to assist in the prioritisation of research activities, and ultimately in the selection of the most promising processes for demonstration and deployment. The projected cost of hydrogen produced is the most comprehensive metric in comparing candidate processes. Since these advanced processes are in the early stages of development and much of the technology is still unproven, the estimated production costs are also significantly uncertain. The programme approach has been to estimate the cost of hydrogen production from each process periodically, based on the best available data at that time, with the intent of increasing fidelity and reducing uncertainty as the research programme and system definition studies progress. These updated cost estimates establish comparative costs at that stage of development but are also used as inputs to the evaluation of research priorities, and identify the key cost and risk (uncertainty) drivers for each process. The economic methodology used to assess the candidate processes are based on the H2A ground rules and modelling tool (discounted cash flow) developed by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The figure of merit output from the calculation is the necessary selling price for hydrogen in dollars per kilogram that satisfies the cost

  4. Transiting planet candidates with ASTEP 400 at Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mékarnia, D.; Guillot, T.; Rivet, J.-P.; Schmider, F.-X.; Abe, L.; Gonçalves, I.; Agabi, A.; Crouzet, N.; Fruth, T.; Barbieri, M.; Bayliss, D. D. R.; Zhou, G.; Aristidi, E.; Szulagyi, J.; Daban, J.-B.; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y.; Gouvret, C.; Erikson, A.; Rauer, H.; Bouchy, F.; Gerakis, J.; Bouchez, G.

    2016-08-01

    ASTEP 400, the main instrument of the ASTEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting ExoPlanets) programme, is a 40-cm telescope, designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica, achieving a photometric accuracy of a fraction of milli-magnitude on hourly timescales for planet-hosting southern bright (R˜12 mag) stars. We review the performances of this instrument, describe its operating conditions, and present results from the analysis of observations obtained during its first three years (2010-2012) of operation, before its repatriation in 2014. During this time, we observed a total of 22 stellar fields (1° × 1° FoV). Each field, in which we measured stars up to magnitude R=18 mag, was observed continuously during ˜7 to ˜30 days. More than 200 000 frames were recorded and 310 000 stars processed, using an implementation of the optimal image subtraction (OIS) photometry algorithm. We found 43 planetary transit candidates. Twenty of these candidates were observed using spectroscopic follow-ups including four targets classified as good planet candidates. Our results demonstrate that accurate near-continuous photometric observations are achievable from the Concordia station at Dome C in Antarctica, even if we were not able to reach the nominal photometric precision of the instrument. We conducted a correlation analysis between the RMS noise and a large number of external parameters and found that source of the ˜1 mmag correlated noise is not obvious and does not depend on a single parameter. However, our analysis provided some hints and guidance to increase the photometric accuracy of the instrument. These improvements should equip any future telescope operating in Antarctica.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of a kagome spin liquid candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianheng; Bonnoit, Craig; Chisnell, Robin; Helton, Joel; Takano, Yasu; Lee, Young

    2013-03-01

    Herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2-one of the most promising quantum spin liquid candidates-presents a promising system for studies of frustrated magnetism on an S =1/2 kagomé lattice. Following our recent success in crystal growth, specific heat has been measured at dilution fridge temperatures up to 18 T on a single crystal sample which gives further information on the low temperature phase. Additional analysis of the thermodynamic measurements on single crystal samples lends further hints on the intrinsic spin liquid physics.

  6. Tetravalent DNA vaccine product as a vaccine candidate against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kevin R; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Raviprakash, Kanakatte

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arbovirus worldwide and is the virus that causes dengue fever and the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. There are four serotypes of dengue with each possessing the ability to cause disease. Developing a preventive vaccine is the most efficient and effective way to prevent these diseases, and because immunity to one serotype does not protect against the other serotypes, a vaccine must provide tetravalent protection. We used DNA immunization as a platform to develop a tetravalent vaccine. In this chapter, we describe the laboratory, regulatory, and clinical methodology for evaluating a candidate tetravalent vaccine in a Phase 1 clinical trial. PMID:24715294

  7. ASSESSING THE FUTURE MIGRATION POTENTIAL OF THE EU CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Assoc. Prof. Ph.D Vesna Bucevska

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of the EU accession, the EU candidate countries and EU are facing a number of challenges raised by the potential migration from these countries to EU. In this paper we try to answer the question if the fear of large migration pressure from these countries to EU is justified by estimating the migration potential of Croatia, Macedonia and Turkey to Germany, as the most dominant EU receiving country of immigrants in the period 1997-2007. The results from the extended gravity model r...

  8. Candidates of M7-Class Earthquake Beneath Greater Tokyo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y.

    2003-12-01

    In greater Tokyo area, the occurrence of M7-class earthquake is thought to be imminent by the following reasons. (1) In these 20 years, maximum size of shallow microearthquakes beneath Tokyo is steadily increasing. (2) In recent 80 years after Kanto earthquake, maximum size of the earthquakes in Kanto region is gradually increasing. (3) In these 400 years, it was observed twice that two M7-class earthquakes precede the M8 interplate earthquakes in the latter half of the interseismic period. Taking into consideration these background, the Central Disaster Management Council, Japan issued _gGuideline for Countermeasures to the Earthquakes Beneath Southern Kanto Region _h on August 1994, and proposed 19 fault models along the upper boundary of Philippine Sea plate as the candidates of the forthcoming M7-class earthquake. At present, we have no data of abnormal seismic activity or crustal movement to select preferable one among these 19 fault models. Here, we will try to constrain the candidates which may have relatively higher possibility of the occurrence by a elimination method. It seems to be possible to exclude some of the fault models by the following ways. (1) Adopting characteristic earthquake concept, we can exclude 5 models which overlap to the focal region of 1923 Kanto earthquake. (2) A belt like zone of serpentine are found from tomography results at 30-40km depth along the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto Plain and no microearthquake activities are generated along this zone (Kamiya and Kobayashi, GRL, 2000). We can eliminate 4 models which lie in this zone. (3) Beneath the eastern Boso Peninsula, it was found that slow slips of M6.5-class are repeated every 5-6 years. We can exclude 2 models in the area (4) Since plate collision is undertaken beneath eastern Yamanashi Prefecture, we can exclude 1 model in this area. Finally, it remains 7 fault models as the possible candidates of M7-class earthquake beneath Tokyo area. They are 3 models just beneath

  9. The Intrinsic Magnetic Fields of the Galactic Black Hole Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Stanley L.

    1998-01-01

    Recent work has linked the quiescent luminosities and hard/soft spectral state switches of neutron stars (NSs) to their spinning magnetic fields. It is shown here that the quiescent luminosities and spectral switches of galactic black hole candidates (BHCs) could be produced in the same way for spin rates below 100 Hz and magnetic fields above 10^10 G. It is also shown that the ultrasoft peaks and large flickering amplitudes of the BHCs would be expected from the surfaces of massive NSs. None...

  10. Environmental Systems Research Candidates FY-01 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Lynn; Piet, Steven James

    2001-03-01

    The Environmental Systems Research Candidates (ESRC) Program ran from April 2000 through September 2001 as part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ESRA provides key science and technology to meet the cleanup mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), and performs research and development that will help solve current legacy problems and enhance the INEEL’s scientific and technical capability for solving longer-term challenges. This report documents the accomplishments of the ESRC Program. The ESRC Program consisted of 25 tasks subdivided within four research areas.

  11. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    package with different solders of different melting temperatures. High Pb containing alloys where the lead levels can be above 85% by weight, is one of the solders currently being used in this technology. Responding to market pressure i.e. need for green electronic products there is now an increasing...... pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...

  12. Call for bids: last step for the Finnish nuclear candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-three years after the start-up of its last nuclear power plants, Finland would order a new reactor in December 2003 to supply the power needs of the three main paper companies of Finland which control the PVO power group. Three candidates are in the competition: Framatome ANP (France-Germany), Atomstroyexport (Minatom, Russia) and General Electric (US). Helsinki has also approved in May 2001 the construction of a waste disposal site for low- and medium-level radioactive wastes in a granitic cavity at a 800 m depth. Short paper. (J.S.)

  13. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  14. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  15. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red. The inset on the right-hand side shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The inset on top shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 muons originate from the same primary vertex.

  16. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector and the LAr calorimeter where its detailed structure is highlighted. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  17. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red, the clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen.

  18. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as sufficient homogeneity, was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue

  19. Experience with CANDID: Comparison algorithm for navigating digital image databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.; Cannon, M.

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents results from the authors experience with CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases), which was designed to facilitate image retrieval by content using a query-by-example methodology. A global signature describing the texture, shape, or color content is first computed for every image stored in a database, and a normalized similarity measure between probability density functions of feature vectors is used to match signatures. This method can be used to retrieve images from a database that are similar to a user-provided example image. Results for three test applications are included.

  20. OPERA: A first tau-neutrino appearance candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino experiment dedicated to the study of muon-neutrino to tau-neutrino oscillation. Using the high-energy CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam (CNGS), it is the first experiment directly searching for tau-neutrino appearance from oscillation of muon-neutrinos. Since 2008 runs with CNGS neutrinos have been successfully accomplished. After a brief introduction on the OPERA hybrid detector and the main parameters of the experiment, recent results are presented. A first candidate for a tau-neutrino charged-current event is described in detail. The background and the corresponding significance of the event is evaluated.